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UNIT I
LINEAR PROGRAMMING
PART A
1.

Define Operations Research.

2.

Write any two applications of Operations Research.

3.

Define general linear programming problems.

4.

Write the standard form of a linear programming problem

5.

Write down the Mathematical formulation of linear programming problem

6.

Define an unbounded solution in graphical method.

7.

Write down the steps to solve a problem by a graphical method.

8.

Define solution.

9.

Define basic feasible solution.

10.

Define feasible solution

11.

Define optimum solution

12.

Define slack and surplus variable

13.

What is the use of an artificial variable?

14.

Write the Canonical form of linear programming problem.

15.

Write the Characteristic of the standard form.

16.

Define Basic solution.

17.

Define Degenerate Basic solution.

18.

Write the Characteristic of the canonical form.

19.

How to convert minimization problem into maximization problem in simplex


method?

20.

Write the duality for the following LPP


Maximize z 5 x1 3 x2
Subject to the constraints
3 x1 5 x2 15
5 x1 2 x2 10
x1 , x2 0

1.

PART B
Solve the following linear programming problem by graphical method
Maximize z 3 x1 2 x2
Subject to
2 x1 x2 1
x1 2
x1 x2 3
& x1 , x2 0

2.

Solve the following linear programming problem by graphical method


Maximize z 45 x1 80 x2
Subject to
5 x1 20 x2 400
10 x1 15 x2 450
& x1 , x2 0

3.

Solve the following linear programming problem by graphical method


Minimize z 3 x1 5 x2
Subject to
3x1 4 x2 12
x1 4
2 x1 x2 2
x2 2
2 x1 3 x2 12
& x1 , x2 0

4.

Solve the following linear programming problem.


Maximize Z 6 x1 4 x2
Subject to
2 x1 3 x2 30
3 x1 2 x2 24
x1 x2 3
& x1 , x2 0.

5.

Solve the following linear programming problem by graphical method


Maximize z 2 x1 4 x2
subject to
x1 +2x 2 5
x 1+ x 2 4
& x1 ,x 2 0

6.

Explain the advantages and limitations of linear programming problem

.
7.

Use simplex method to solve the following linear programming problem


Maximize z 4 x1 10 x2
subject to
2 x1 x2 50
2 x1 5 x2 100
2 x1 3 x2 90

& x1 , x2 0
8.

Find the non-negative values of & x1 , x2 & x3 which


Maximize Z 3 x1 2 x2 5 x3
Subject to
x1 4 x2 420
3 x1 2 x3 460
x1 2 x2 x3 430
& x1 , x2 , x3 0

9.

Use Big-M method to solve the following linear programming problem


Minimize z 4 x1 3 x2
Subject to
2 x1 x2 10
3x1 2 x2 6
x1 x2 6
& x1 , x2 0

10.

Use Big-M method to solve the following linear programming problem


Maximize z 2 x1 x2 x3
Subject to
4 x1 6 x2 3 x3 8
3 x1 6 x2 4 x3 1
2 x1 3 x2 5 x3 4
& x1 , x2 , x3 0

1.

UNIT II
TRANSPORTATION MODEL
PART A
Define the transportation problem.

2.

Write the general transportation problem.

3.

What do you mean by balanced transportation problem?

4.

Define loop in transportation problem.

5.

Write any two applications of transportation problem.

6.

What are the methods for finding the initial basic feasible solutions of
transportation problems?

7.

Explain North West Corner rule.

8.

Write short note on Least Corner Method.

9.

Explain Vogels approximation method.

10.

Define Assignment problem.

11.

Write the Mathematical formulation of an assignment problem.

12.

Distinguish the transportation problem and assignment problem.

13.

What is the use of MODI method?

14.

Write the necessary and sufficient conditions for the transportation problem to
have a feasible solution.

15.

How do you convert an unbalanced transportation problem into a balanced one?

16.

How many basic variables will be there for a balanced transportation problem
with 3 rows and 3 columns?

17.

Define travelling salesman problem.

18.

Define an unbalanced assignment problem.

19.

Define optimum solution in transportation problem.

20.

Find the initial basic feasible solution for the following transportation problem by
using north west corner method
Destination
Origin
5

1.

Demand
6

11

10

Supply

12

4
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PART B
Determine basic feasible solution to the following transportation problem using
(i) North West corner rule
(ii) Least cost method

(iii) Vogels Approximation method.


Destination
Origin
Demand
5
6
2.

Find the initial

Supply

11

10

12

solution for the following transportation problem


Rule

(ii)

Least Cost Method

(iii)

Vogels Approximation Method


Supply
1
2
6
7

Demand
3. Find the optimum
transportation

Origin

11

solution for the following


problem

Destination
D2
D3
D4
13

17

10

300
16

12

II

the
the

III

10

Supply
250
14

O2
18

14

Demand

200

10
400

24

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4. Solve the following transportation problem.


Destination
1
2
3
Origin
I
21
16
25

5.
Determine
schedule
for
costs

Corner

10

21

10

North-West

12

O3

feasible

O1

250

basic

11
275

D1

225

using (i)

17
32

18
27

10

4
13

14

23

18

41

Available
11
13

Requirement
15

19

optimum assignment
following assignment
Jobs

2 3

A 8
B 0
persons C 3

D 4
E 9

4 2 6 1
9 5 5 4

8 9 2 6

3 1 0 3
5 8 9 5

6.
Assign four tucks 1, 2, 3, and 4 to vacant spaces A, B, C, D, E and F so that the
distance travelled is minimized. The matrix below shows the distance.

7.

The assignment cost of assigning any one operator to any one machine is given in
the following table.
Operators
I
II
III
IV
Machine

10

13

15

18

10

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Find the optimal assignment using Hungarian method.


8.

The Processing times in hours for the jobs when allocated to the different
machines are indicated below. Assign the machines for the jobs so that the total
processing time is minimum.
Machines

Jobs

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

J1

22

58

11

19

J2

43

78

72

50

63

J3

41

28

91

37

45

J4

74

42

27

49

39

J5

36

11

57

22

25

9.

Solve the following travelling salesman problem.


To
A

46

16

40

From B

41

50

40

82

32

60

40

40

36

10.

Solve the following travelling salesman problem so as to minimize the cost per
cycle.
To

From

UNIT III
NETWORK MODEL
PART A
1. What is a project?
2. Explain the three time estimates used in PERT.
3. State any two basic difference between PERT and CPM.
4. Define a sequencing problem.
5. What is meant by no passing rule in a sequencing problem?
6. What are the three main phases of a project?
7. What are the rules for constructing a project network?
8. What is a dummy activity?
9. Define critical path.

10. What is dangling in a network?


11. Explain the process of numbering the events of a network.
12. Define earliest start time and latest finish time of an activity.
13. Draw the network:
Activity:

1-2

1-3

2-4

2-5

3-4

4-5

Duration:

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14. Define latest start time.


15. What are the three types of an activity float?
16. Define total float of an activity?
17. Define free float of an activity?
18. Define optimistic time estimate in PERT
19. What is meant by total elapsed time in a sequencing problem?
20. What is meant by Idle time in a sequencing problem?
PART B
1. There are five jobs, each of which is to be processed through two machines M 1,
M2 in the order M1M2. Processing hours are as follows.
Job

M1

M2

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Determine the optimum sequence for the 5 jobs and minimum total elapsed time.
Find also the idle time of machine M1 and M2
2.

Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time required to complete the
following tasks on the machines in the order 1-2-3. Find also the minimum total
elapsed time (hours) and the idle times on the machines
Task

Time on

3.

Machine 1

Machine 2

Machine 3

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12

Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time required to complete the

following tasks on the machines M1 and M2 in the order M1, M2. Also, find the minimum
total elapsed time
Task A

M1

M2

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4. Calculate the earliest start, earliest finish, latest start and latest finish of each activity
of the project given below and determine the critical path of the project
Activity

1-2

1-3

2-4

2-5

3-4

4-5

Duration

10

(in days)
5. Calculate the earliest start, earliest finish, latest start and latest finish of each
activity of the project given below and determine the critical path of the project
Activity

1-2

Duration

1-3

1-5

2-3

2-4

3-4

3-5

3-6

4-6

5-6

12

10

10

3-6

4-6

5-6

10

(in weeks)

6.Calculate the total float, free float and independent float for the project whose
activities are given below:
Activity

1-2

1-3

Duration

1-5
12

2-3

2-4

3-4

3-5

10

(in weeks)

7.A project consists of the following activities and time estimates:

a)

Least

Greatest

Activity

time

time

1-2
1-3
1-4
2-5
2-6
3-6
4-7
5-7
6-7

(days)
3
2
6
2
5
3
3
1
2

(days)
15
14
30
8
17
15
27
7
8

Draw the network

Most likely
time (days)
6
5
12
5
11
6
9
4
5

10

b)
8.

What is the probability that the project will be completed in 27 days?

A project schedule has the following characteristics.


Activity

Time

Activity

Time

1-2

5-6

1-3

5-7

2-4

6-8

3-4

7-8

3-5

8-10

4-9

9-10

i)

Construct PERT Network

ii)

Compute TE, TL For each event.

iii)

Find the critical path.

9.

Explain CPM and PERT.

10.

Construct the network for the project whose activities and the three time estimates
of these activities (in weeks) are given below. Compute,
a) Expected duration of each activity
b) Expected variance of each activity
c) Expected variance of the project length.
Activity

tm

tp

1-2

2-3

2-4

3-5

4-5

4-6

5-7

6-7

7-8

7-9

8-10

9-10

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UNIT IV
INVENTORY MODEL
PART A
1. What are the different forms of inventory?
2. Define economic order quantity.
3. Explain Lead time
4. Define reorder level
5. Write short note on holding cost
6. Explain about shortage cost
7. Define raw material inventory
8. Define finished goods inventory
9. What is work-in process inventory?
10. What are the reasons for maintaining inventory?
11. Explain the term set-up cost
12. What are the variables in an inventory problem?
13. What are the costs involved in inventory?
14. Write the formula for EOQ under purchasing model without shortage.
15. Write any two limitations of EOQ formula.
16. What is controlled variable in inventory model?
17. What is uncontrolled variable in inventory model?
18. Write the formula for optimum average cost under purchasing model without
shortage.
19. Write the formula for optimum time interval under manufacturing model without
shortage
20. Explain multi-item deterministic model
PART B
1.

The annual demand for an item is 3200 units. The unit cost is Rs.6 and inventory
carrying charges 25% per annum. If the cost of one procurement is Rs150
Determine

2.

(i)

Economic order quantity

(ii) Time between two consecutive orders

(iii)

Number of orders per year

(iv) The optimal total cost

For an item, the production is instantaneous. The storage cost of one item is Rs 1
per month and the set up cost is Rs.25 per run. If the demand is 200 units per
month, find the optimum quantity to be produced per set-up and hence determine
the total cost of storage and set-up per month

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3.

A manufacturer has to supply his customer with 600 units of his products per year.
Shortage is not allowed and storage cost amounts to 60paise per unit per year. The
set up cost is Rs.80.00 find
i) The economic order quantity
ii) The minimum average yearly cost
iii) The optimum number of orders per year
iv) The optimum period of supply per optimum order

4.

A commodity is to be supplied at a constant of 200 units per day. Supplies for any
amount can be had at any required time, but each ordering costs Rs.50.00 Cost of
holding the commodity in inventory is Rs.2.00 per unit per day while the delay in the
supply of the items induces a penalty of Rs.10.00 per unit per delay of one day.
Formulate the average cost function of this situation and find the optimal policy (q,t)
where t is the reorder cycle period and q is the inventory level after re order .What
should be the best policy if the penalty cost becomes infinite

5.

The demand for an item in a company is 18,000 units per year, and the company

can

produce the item at a rate of 3,000 per month. The cost of one set up is Rs.500.00 and
the holding cost of 1 unit per month is 15paise.The shortage cost of one unit is Rs.20.00
per month. Determine the optimum manufacturing quantity and the number of shortages.
Also, determine the manufacturing time and the time between set-ups
6.

The probability distribution of the demand for a certain item is as follows:


Monthly Sales:
Probability

0
0.01

1
0.06

0.25

0.35

0.20

0.03

0.10

The cost of carrying inventory is Rs.30 per unit per month and the cost of unit
short is Rs.70 per month. Determine the optimum stock level which will minimize
the total expected cost
7.

What is an inventory model? Enumerate the various types of inventory models.


Describe them briefly

8.

A company uses annually 50,000 units of an item each costing Rs.1.20 .Each
order costs Rs.45 and inventory carrying costs are 15% of the annual average
inventory value.(i) Find EOQ (ii) If the company operates 250 days a year and the

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procurement time is 10 days and safety stock is 500 units, find reorder level,
maximum , minimum and average inventory
9.

A company has a demand of 12,000 units/year foe an item and it can produce
2000 such items per month. The cost of one setup is Rs.400 per year and the
holding cost/unit/month is Rs.0.15. Find the optimum lot size, max inventory,
manufacturing time, total time

10.

A contractor has to supply 10,000 bearings per month to an automobile


manufacturer. He finds that when he starts a production run he can produce
25,000 bearings per month. The cost of holding a bearing in stock for one year is
Rs.2 and the set up cost of a production run is Rs.180.How frequently should the
production run be made?

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UNIT V
DECISION MODEL
PART-A
1.

Define zero sum game

2.

Explain pure strategies

3.

Define two person zero sum games

4.

What are the main characteristics of game theory?

5.

Define saddle point

6.

Solve the game whose pay off matrix is given


Player A
B1
Player A

B2

B3

1 3 1
0 4 3

1 5 1

7.

Define mixed strategy

8.

Solve the following game whose pay off matrix is given below
9 3
6 5

2 4

5 6

1
4
3
2

8
6
3
2

0
7
8

9.

Explain dominance property

10.

What is meant by replacement problems?

11.

What are various types of replacement policies?

12.

Explain group replacement policies

13.

Explain individual replacement policies

14.

Explain (2 n)game

15.

Write any two properties of game

16.

Define the value of the game

17.

Define optimum strategy

18.

Define strictly determinable game

19.

Define fair game

20.

Write a short note about the concept of dominance in game theory

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PART B
1.

The cost of a machine is Rs 6100 and its scrap value is Rs.100.The maintenance
costs found from experience are as follows:
Year
Maintenance
cost(Rs)

100

250

400

600

900

1200

1600

2000

When should the machine be replaced?


2.

A machine owner finds from his past records that the cost per year of maintaining
a machine whose purchase price is Rs.6000 is as given below:
Year
Maintenance
cost(Rs)
Resale value
(Rs)

1000

1200

1400

1800

2300

2800

3000

1500

750

375

200

200

Determine at what year is replacement due?


3.

Let the value of the money be 10% per year and suppose that machine A is
replaced after every 3 years whereas machine B is replaced after every six years.
The yearly costs of both machines are given as under:
Age

Machine A

1000

200

400

1000

200

400

Machine B

1700

100

200

300

400

500

Determine which machine should be purchased?


4.

The following failure rates have been observed for certain items.
End of month

Probability of failure :

1
0.10

0.30

0.55

0.85

1.00

The cost of replacing an individual item is Rs. 1.25. The decision is made to
replace all items simultaneously at fixed intervals and also replace individual
items as they fail. If the cost of group replacement is 50 paise, what is the best
interval for group replacement? At what group replacement per item would a
policy of strictly individual replacement become preferable to the adopted policy.

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5.

Assume that the present value of one rupee to be spent in a years time is Rs.0.9
and C=Rs.3000, capital cost of equipment and the running costs are given in the
table below. When should the machine be replaced?

Year

Unit cost

(Rs)

6.

500 600 800

1000

1300

1600

2000

The cost of pattern of 2 machines A and B, when money value is not considered
is given below:
Year
1
2
3

Machine A
900
600
700

Machine B
1400
100
700

Find the cost pattern for each machine when money is worth 10% per year, and
hence find which machine is less costly.
7.

A machine shop has a press which is to be replaced after it wears out. A new press
is to be installed now. Further an optimum replacement is to be found for next 7
years after which the press is no longer required. The following data is given:

Year

Installation cost at

Salvage Value at

Operating cost

beginning of year

end of Year

during the year

(Rs.)

(Rs.)

(Rs.)

1
200
100
60
2
210
50
80
3
220
30
100
4
240
20
120
5
260
15
150
6
290
10
180
7
320
0
230
Find the optimum replacement plan and the corresponding minimum cost.

8.

Solve the following 3 X 3 game


B

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3 1 3

A 3 3 1

4 3 3
9.

Solve the following game using dominance property

I
II

II

III

1
6
6

7
2
1

2
7
6

III

10.(i). Solve the following game by the method of matrices

A1
A2

B1

B2

B3

1
-1
-1

-1
-1
2

-1
3
-1

A3
(ii). For the game with pay off matrix
Player B

1 2 2

6 4 6

Player A

Determine the best strategies for players A and B and also the value of the game. Is
this game (a) fair (b) strictly determinable?

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