this is about diff eqs from MIT opencourseware - lec 1

© All Rights Reserved

3 views

this is about diff eqs from MIT opencourseware - lec 1

© All Rights Reserved

- Rational Functions Project
- EC1sh_A
- HW1
- AJC Promotional Examinations 2009
- Seeing Graphs
- 2008_ACJC_Paper_1.pdf
- 2008 Acjc Prelims Ma h2 p1 Qp
- Sample Objective Paragraphs (1)
- UG Guide (Math).pdf
- 10 2006 IEB Math P1.pdf
- Core 1 Revision Pack
- algebra 2b 8 3
- 2008_DHS_Paper_1.pdf
- Elmwood B
- Crap
- unit 4b graphing rational and radical equations
- April_Math_RampUp.docx
- ilm1-2011iwk-078
- i Jc 2011 Prelim
- algebra 1 syllabus2017-2018

You are on page 1of 5

of the long-term behavior of the integral curves; among others, the terms

fence, funnel and separatrix were introduced.

Fences and funnels are used to nd out for certain where trajectories

go at scales you cant see: small scales (where the picture is too small to

decide on crossings) and the largest scales (off the screen) that are relevant

to long-term behavior. Let us start by dening what a fence is.

1. Fences

A lower fence for the equation y = f ( x, y) is a curve that blocks an

integral curve from crossing from above. To nd such a fence look for a

curve so that all the direction eld elements along the curve point up from

it. The gure below shows two curves with the direction eld sketched

along them. The lower curve is a lower fence. Since any integral curve

crossing the fence must cross tangent to the slope eld it cannot cross it

from above.

Likewise an upper fence is a curve that blocks integral curves from

crossing from below.

Start between

stay between

Fig. 1. Solutions will be squeezed between the upper and lower fences.

Technically a lower fence is a curve y = L( x ) such that L ( x ) < f ( x, L( x )).

(This may look difcult, but it just says the slope of the curve is always less

than the slope of the direction eld at each point.)

Remark 1. Fences neednt be dened for all x; for instance, they could

be dened only on an interval. The best sort of fences for understanding

long-term behavior are dened for all x c, for a fairly small constant c.

Remark 2. Since integral curves cant cross an integral curve itself is both

an upper and a lower fence.

Two of the most useful are using pieces of isoclines and using straight line

segments.

OCW 18.03SC

Example. In the isoclines applet video we found fences for the equation

y = y2 x.

Here is a screenshot showing the isoclines m = 0 and m = 1 and some

integral curves. (The isoclines are the yellow, sideways pointing parabolas.)

Notice that the bottom half of the isocline m = 0 is a lower fence and for

x large enough the bottom half of the isocline m = 1 is an upper fence.

only for x is large enough. If you look carefully youll see one of the integral

curves crossing it from above near x = 1.

2

OCW 18.03SC

2. Funnels

An important use of fences is to construct funnels. A funnel for the

equation y = f ( x, y) consists of a pair of fences; one lower fence L( x ) and

one upper fence U ( x ), with the properties:

1. For x large the lower fence is below the upper fence, i.e. L( x ) < U ( x ).

2. The two fences come together asymptotically, i.e. U ( x ) L( x ) is small

for large x.

In gure 2 above the bottom parts of the two isoclines m = 0 and m =

1 act as a funnel once x is large enough. (It is clear from the picture that

x > 2 will work.) Thus the integral curves that end up between

them are

trapped there. The bottom half ofthe isocline m = 0 is y = x and the

bottom half of m = 1 is y = x 1. Thus, for the solutions between

them we have the highly accurate estimates

x < y( x ) < x 1,

which is valid for large x.

satsify the funnel condition U ( x ) L( x ) 0 as x .

Caution. Not all pairs of close upper / lower fences form a funnel. For

example, if gure 2 the upper and lower branches of the isocline m = 0 are

upper and lower fences. So solutions that lie between them, stay between

them. It is not a funnel, because the two curves dont come asymptotically

together as x gets large.

Here is another example. Consider the differential equation

= x 2y. (This is one of the ones available on the isoclines applet.) One

upper fence is the nullcline, with equation y = x/2; one lower fence is the

m = 2 isocline, with equation y = x/2 1. These two fences do not form a

funnel: they are parallel, at constant distance one apart.

y

OCW 18.03SC

3. Separatrices

Denition. A separatrix is an integral curve such that integral curves

above it behave entirely differently from integral curves below it as x in

creases to innity.

Example. In the isoclines applet video, we saw that there was one special

solution, which as time increases just gets closer and closer

to the upper

y

=

x.

All

solutions

it take off for + at some point. This integral curve is called a sepatratrix.

On the screenshot in gure 2 the sepatratrix is marked with red dots.

The name separatrix comes from the fact that it separates solutions with

radically different behavior.

Can you nd some separatrices for the other differential equations on

the applet?

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

- Rational Functions ProjectUploaded bypennybacker
- EC1sh_AUploaded byshah143
- HW1Uploaded bysjfkjiegndfg
- AJC Promotional Examinations 2009Uploaded byDarren Teo
- Seeing GraphsUploaded bywiktur
- 2008_ACJC_Paper_1.pdfUploaded bykarpeo
- 2008 Acjc Prelims Ma h2 p1 QpUploaded bysimon-leonard-koh-3460
- Sample Objective Paragraphs (1)Uploaded byRafael Basa
- UG Guide (Math).pdfUploaded byShubhamParashar
- 10 2006 IEB Math P1.pdfUploaded bywkm645
- Core 1 Revision PackUploaded bySunny Afg
- algebra 2b 8 3Uploaded byapi-214653087
- 2008_DHS_Paper_1.pdfUploaded bykarpeo
- Elmwood BUploaded byKonstantinos Konstantinou
- CrapUploaded byvincentliu11
- unit 4b graphing rational and radical equationsUploaded byapi-287816312
- April_Math_RampUp.docxUploaded byAbhinav Pandey
- ilm1-2011iwk-078Uploaded byAlina-Mirela Conduraru
- i Jc 2011 PrelimUploaded byMelissa
- algebra 1 syllabus2017-2018Uploaded byapi-235426772
- Maths SyllabusUploaded byThribhuvan H L
- SmithMinton Calculus ET 4e C01 S05Uploaded byDwayne Johnson
- ch9Uploaded bydavid.contatos4308
- wUploaded byapi-253679034
- Glencoe Algebra-I-Solutions-Manual.pdfUploaded byginotrucheli
- math novelsUploaded byapi-428119706
- Chapter 14Uploaded byPrecious Ferre
- Asymptotic notation.pptxUploaded bysivakumar sathasivam
- m 116 Lecture NotesUploaded byMaycoEstimar
- Ages Problems GatUploaded byFAROOQ SHAH

- Ti e Protegol 32-55,-45 l Jul 08Uploaded byA Mahmood
- scrubber typesUploaded byAishwaria Khan
- Delivering the Goods: Public Works Technologies, Management, and FinancingUploaded byChris Nash
- Mitchell Collisionshop Catalog 2082Uploaded byLeslie Rebecca Serrano Jiménez
- Hero..Uploaded byAnkitSingh
- Treatise of Plane Geometry Through Geometric AlgebraUploaded byxhonneux
- Ptsp May 2016Uploaded byAkramahmedMohammad
- Wind and Building DesignUploaded bysushmak
- !!!Ching Kang LiuUploaded bySai Boddul
- Disorder of Sexual DevelopmentUploaded byInatrin
- A 4096-Point Radix-4 Memory-Based FFT Using DSP SlicesUploaded byMuhammad Majid Altaf
- Chapter 3_dsp1_co thuc_full, dsp1, co thuc, xu li tin hieu, bkdn, dspUploaded byXP2009
- Composite WallUploaded byDhananjay Kadam
- Lecture-Introduction to EC2Uploaded bydenyfate
- FEDERAL MOGUL GOETZE INDIA LIMITED___.pptxUploaded bychaitra r
- Substation Model 765 kV Public Comments 11th Jan-09 (1)Uploaded byManoj Singh
- Fact SheetUploaded bydefriza
- Declaration of FaithUploaded byjoel vergara
- Delphiinjectortestplans 12WEBUploaded bykampee
- Ramdas, Samartha - Manache Shlok, EnglishUploaded byadrowell
- Geography of CrystalsUploaded byascd_msvu
- RattrapUploaded byAdarsh Kandambeth
- Human FactorUploaded bysarveshkdahiya
- IC Engine BackgroundUploaded bySpandan Gangopadhyay
- Abnormal PsychologyUploaded byGear Arellano II
- ATOM CH17 Study GuideUploaded byMaryrose Bauza
- A Level Notes on Transition MetalsUploaded bykmoiz427
- 7. Excuse Me, Is This Kosher?Uploaded byBill Creasy
- Countries and Their CulturesUploaded byalejandro jean
- WaterUploaded byMarvin Alfaro

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.