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Vector Identities:

Triple Products:

♠ ( ) ( ) ( ) A B C B C A C A B • × = • × = • ×
♠ ( ) ( ) ( ) A B C B C A C A B × × = • = •
Product rules:
♠ ( ) ( ) ( ) fg f g g f ∇ = ∇ + ∇
♠ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) A B A B B A A B B A ∇ • = × ∇× + × ∇× + •∇ + •∇
♠ ( ) ( ) ( ) fA f A A f ∇• = ∇• + • ∇
♠ ( ) A B ∇• × = ( ) B A ∇× ( ) A B − ∇×
♠ ( ) ( ) ( ) fA f A A f ∇× = ∇× − × ∇
♠ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) A B B A A B A B B A ∇× × = •∇ − •∇ + ∇• − ∇•
Second derivatives:
♠ ( ) 0 A ∇• ∇× =
♠ ( ) ( )
2
A A A ∇× ∇× = ∇ ∇• −∇
♠ ( )
2
f f ∇• ∇ = ∇
♠ ( ) 0 f ∇× ∇ =

Fundamental theorems:

As is known, the volume is always enclosed by a closed surface and the surface is
always is enclosed by closed path. The path is a vector, is a directed curve, direction
normally being indicated with an arrow over the curve. The surface is also by
definition a vector and, by definition, is always surrounded by a closed path. The
direction of the surface at a point over it can be found by drawing a closed path,
direction being same as that of the path surrounding the total surface, surrounding
that point. The direction pointed by the right hand thumb when wrapped by the
fingers around the point gives the direction of the surface at that point. The
integration of a vector over the closed surface can be related to the integration of the
same vector throughout the volume enclosed by the surface through the divergence
theorem. Similarly the integration of a vector along a closed path can be related to
the integration of the same vector over the surface enclosed by the path through Curl
theorem.

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Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR
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In word form it can be stated as 'the integral of the tangential component of
gradient of a scalar function along a path from ' a ' to' b ' is the difference of the
function values at ' a ' and ' b ' i.e. ( ) f a and ( ) f b . '
( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
f dl f b f a ∇ • = −

Divergence theorem or Gauss theorem
This theorem connects surface integral with volume integral. In word form it can
be stated as 'the integral of the normal component of a vector over a closed
surface is equal to the integral of the divergence of the same vector through any
volume enclosed by that surface.' Analytically
( ) A d A da τ ∇• = •
∫ ∫

Curl theorem or Stokes theorem

This theorem connects line integral with surface integral. In word form it can be
stated as 'the integral of the tangential component of a vector around a closed
path is equal to the integral of the normal component of the curl of the same
vector through any surface enclosed by the path.' Mathematically
( ) A da A dl ∇× • = •
∫ ∫

Significance:
• These are useful in converting the Maxwell's equations from point form
to integral form and vice versa.
• They relate a surface integral to its corresponding volume integral and
also a line integral to its corresponding surface integral.
Operator Del i j k
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂

• It is a three dimensional, partial differential vector operator defined in
Cartesian system only. But it can be mapped into other co-ordinate
systems. Its units are( )
1
mt

.
• This operator can be applied over a scalar function to find its gradient,
over a vector function to find either its divergence or curl
• When applied to a position vector '
r
ra ' joining origin with ( ) , , x y z
or ( )
1 1 1
, , x y z with ( ) , , x y z , then

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Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR
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3
r
r a ∇ =
2
1
r
a
r r
| |
∇ = −
|
\ .

( ) ( ) 2 , 2
n n
r
r a n r n ∇• = + ≠ −
( )
3
4 , 2 r n π δ = = −
( )
0
n
r
r a ∇× =
Operator Laplacian
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂

• It is a three dimensional, second order, partial differential scalar
operator defined in Cartesian system only. But it can be mapped into
other co-ordinate systems. Its units are( )
2
mt

.
• This operator can be applied over a scalar function as well as over a
vector function
Operator d'Alembertian
2
2 2
0 0 2
t
µ ε

∇ −

and Helmholtz operator
( )
2
k ∇•∇ + :
Both these operators are three dimensional partial differential operators. The first is
normally applied upon scalar functions.

Divergence. Curl And Gradient In Different Co-Ordinate Systems:

Let
1 2 3
ˆ ˆ ˆ dl h duu h dv v h dww = + +

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1 2 3
1 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
V V V
V u v w
h u h v h w
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

♠ ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 3 1 1 2
1 2 3
1
u v w
D h h D h h D h h D
h h h u v w
¦ ¹ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇• = + +
´ `

∂ ∂ ∂

¹ )

1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
ˆ ˆ ˆ
1
u v w
hu h v h w
D
h h h u v w
h D h D h D
∂ ∂ ∂
∇× =
∂ ∂ ∂

2 2 3 3 1 1 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
1 h h h h h h V V V
V
h h h u h u v h v w h w
¦ ¹ | | | | | | ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ¦ ¦
∇ = + +
´ ` | | |

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

\ . \ . \ . ¦ ¦ ¹ )

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE THEORY

Electromagnetic field theory or electromagnetic wave theory is the study of electrical
and magnetic properties of the regions i.e. parts of the space.

The region surrounding the stationary charge distribution is called electric field or to
be precise electrostatic field. The study of the electrostatic field is electrostatics.

The region surrounding the conductor carrying direct current (dc) distribution is
called magnetic field or to be precise steady magnetic field. The study of the steady
magnetic field is magnetostatics.

The electrostatic fields and steady magnetic fields together are called static fields or
dc fields. In static fields the field intensity can be function of position and independent of
time.

The region surrounding the conductor carrying time varying or alternating current
(ac) distribution is called time varying electromagnetic field. In these fields there exists both
electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity which are related to each other. This
relation i.e. the relation between electric field and magnetic field in time-varying fields is
given by Faraday’s law and Maxwell’s relation.
All the three types of fields are related because of the relation that exists in between
their respective sources. Stationary charge gives electrostatic field and charge moving with
constant velocity is the source of steady magnetic field whereas the charge moving with
acceleration/deceleration gives rise to time-varying electromagnetic fields.

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5
All the fields whether dc or ac are reservoirs of the energy. And it is also possible
to add or subtract energy to the fields. One difference between electric and magnetic fields
is: magnetic fields can do no work whereas electric fields can do.

Time varying fields exhibit one important property which is not possessed by static
fields. There exists travelling wave and consequently energy flow called radiation in time
varying electromagnetic fields. As the antennas which are critical components of wire-less
communication systems, functions based on radiation. So the study of the properties of the
time varying fields has become an important requirement for communication engineers.

The intensity of the electric field is a vector quantity indicated by E with units
volts/meter. The magnetic field intensity is also a vector quantity indicated by H with units.
Electric field intensity is function of the medium properties where as the magnetic field
intensity is independent of the medium of the field.
For static fields intensities are always inversely proportional to the square of the
distance from the source. And functions of position only where as time varying fields are
functions of position and time also
A quantity D E ε = called electric displacement density can also be defined for
electric fields with units coul/m
2
. A quantity similar to this can be defined for magnetic
fields also. It is called magnetic flux density denoted by B with units of tesla or webers/m
2
.
It is related to the magnetic field intensity through B H µ = .
The electric displacement density is independent of the medium whereas the
magnetic flux density is dependent upon the medium properties. For static fields these are
functions of position only where as for time varying fields they are functions of time also.
Potential functions are also defined both for static and dynamic fields. For electric
field it is called electric scalar potential indicated by V with units of volts. With magnetic
fields the magnetic vector potential is defined indicated by A with units ----. For the static
sources the potentials are inversely proportional to the distance from the source. Potentials
can be related to their static sources as well their fields.
For dynamic fields the potential functions are called retarded potentials because of
the retardation or delay is incorporated into the expressions. They can be related to the
source or the fields. In this case the two potentials can be related to each other also through
Coulombs gauze or Lorentz gauge

Electro statistics

Coulomb’s Law:- The force on a point charge Q due another point charge q is
proportional
to the product of the charges,
to the inverse of the distance between them and
it is along the line joining these two charges,
attractive for dissimilar and repulsive for similar charges,

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Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR
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depends upon the medium in which charges are located

Mathematically,
2
1
4
r
Qq
F a
r πε
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
3
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
4
x x i y y j z z k
Qq
x x y y z z
πε
− + − + −

=

− + − + −

( )
1 2
3
2
1 2
4
r r
Qq
r r
πε

=

where
0 r
ε ε ε =
By superposition, the force on Q due to n charges
1 2 3
, , ,....
n
q q q q is
2
1
1
4
k
n
k
r
k
Qq
F a
r πε
=

The force on the unit charge i.e. 1 Q = is the electric field intensity

2
1
1
4
k
n
k
r
k
q F
E a
Q r πε
= =

For the continuous charge distributions
2
1
4
r
dl
E a
r
λ
πε
=

for the line charge distribution
2
1
4
r
ds
E a
r
σ
πε
=

for surface charge distribution
2
1
4
r
d
E a
r
ρ τ
πε
=

for volume charge distribution

Field Intensities
For a point charge E ε
2
1
4
r
Q
E a
r πε
=
For infinite line charge
1 2
4
r
E a
r
λ
πε
=

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Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR
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For infinite sheet charge
0
2
n
E a
σ
ε
=
Electric Flux Density: D

It is a quantity proportional to the no. of flux lines crossing unit area equal to E ε i.e.
D E ε = .

Gauss Law:

The net flux through any closed surface is equal to the net charge enclosed by that
surface.
.
enc
Dda Q =

Integral form
D ρ ∇• = Differential form
Gauss law is useful to compute the field intensity when the charge distribution is highly
symmetrical i.e. plane symmetry, cylindrical symmetry or spherical symmetry.
Depending upon the symmetry exhibited by the charge distributions, the Gaussian
surfaces (surfaces over which integration is performed) can be a pill box, coaxial
cylinder or a concentric sphere.
The application of the Gauss law to find the field intensity of charge distribution requires
the prior knowledge of the field.
The integration of the Gauss law becomes simpler only if the field is either normal or
tangential to the Gaussian surface and when ever it is normal its value must remain
constant.

Scalar Potential: V

The scalar potential V of a point P in an electric field E is defined as the external
work done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity to the point P
.
P
V E dl

= −

Potential of a point ‘a’ with respect ‘b’ is .
a
ab
b
V E dl = −

For a point charge
1
4
Q
V
r πε
=

For the continuous charge distributions

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Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR
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For line charge distribution
1
4
dl
V
r
λ
πε
=

For surface charge distribution
1
4
da
V
r
σ
πε
=

For volume charge distribution
1
4
d
V
r
ρ τ
πε
=

Field intensity E in terms of the potential V

. dV E dl = − but . dV V dl = ∇ giving E V = −∇
Considering divergence both sides and using Gauss Law
2 v
V
ρ
ε
∇ = − which is Poisson’s
Law.
If the volume charge density 0
v
ρ = then
2
0 V ∇ = which is Laplace Equation.

Divergence And Curl Of The Electrostatic Field:

( ) ( )
2
1
' '
4
r
a
E r r d
r
ρ τ
πε
=

%
where ' r r r = − %

( )
2
1
. . ' '
4
r
a
E r d
r
ρ τ
πε
∇ = ∇

%
: But ( )
3
2
. 4
r
a
r
r
πδ ∇ = %
%

Thus ( ) ( ) ( )
3
1 1
. 4 ' ' '
4
E r r r d r πδ ρ τ ρ
πε ε
∇ = − =

.
v
D ρ ∇ =
CONDUCTORS
Basics properties: 0 E = inside a conductor, E can be only perpendicular to the surface just
outside the conductor,
0
ˆ E n
σ
ε
= , 0 ρ = inside a conductor, the charge can reside only over
the surface, V is constant through out the conductor,

Polarization of materials
When a piece of dielectric material is placed in an electric field
The field will induce in each atom a tiny dipole moment pointing in the same direction
as the field, if the material is made up of non-polar molecules.
Each permanent dipole will experience a torque, tending to line it up along the field
direction, of the material is made up of polar molecules.

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In either case, the result is a lot of little dipoles pointing along the direction of the field and
the dielectric is said to be Polarized. A convenient measure of this effect is polarization P=
Dipole moment per unit volume.
Field of a polarized object:
A single dipole P gives potential
2
0
1
4
r
a P
V
r πε

= .
A differential volume dτ with dipole moment p Pdτ = gives rise to a potential
2
0
1
4
r
a P
dV d
r
τ
πε

=

.
The total potential due to the entire object is
2
0
1
4
r
vol
P a
V d
r
τ
πε

=

0
1 1
4
vol
P d
r
τ
πε
| |
= • ∇
|
\ .

0 0
1 1
4 4
sur vol
P da P
d
r r
τ
πε πε
• ∇•
= −
∫ ∫

0 0
1 1
4 4
b b
sur vol
da
d
r r
σ ρ
τ
πε πε
= −
∫ ∫

where ˆ .
b
P n σ = and .
b
P ρ = −∇
It means the potential and hence also the field of a polarized object is the same as
that produced by a volume charge density
b
P ρ = −∇• plus a surface charge density
ˆ
b
P n σ = •
Gauss law in the presence of dielectrics:
With in the dielectric, the total charge density can be written as
b f
ρ ρ ρ = + where
b
ρ = a
result of polarization, bound charge density and
f
ρ = which is not a result of polarization,
free charge.
0 b f f
E P ε ρ ρ ρ ρ ∇• = = + = −∇• + where the E is total
field ( )
0 0 f
E P D E P ε ρ ε →∇• + = → ≡ +
In terms of the D, the electric displacement, Gauss law reads
f
D ρ ∇• =
enc
D da Q → • =

Linear dielectrics:
in linear dielectrics, the polarization is proportional to the field
0 e
P E ε χ = . The
proportionality constant
e
χ is called electric susceptibility. So in linear media, we have
( )
0 0 0 0
1
e e
D E P E E E ε ε ε χ ε χ = + = + = + . Now ( )
0
where 1
e
D E ε ε ε χ = = + is called the

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10
permittivity of the material.
0
1
e r
k
ε
χ ε
ε
= + = = . where k is called the dielectric constant of
the material. For lossy dielectric ( )
0
' '' ' 1 tan
r r
j j j
σ
ε ε ε ε ε θ
ωε
= − = − = − & where
tanδ =loss tangent =
0
''
'
r
ε σ
ε ωε ε
=

Biot-savart law: the magnetic field intensity dH at an arbitrary point P due to a steady line
current element Idl is proportional to the current element Idl , inversely proportional to
2
r ,
r being the distance between the current element and the field point P and it is directed
perpendicular to both the current element and the distance
vector
2 2
1
4 4
r r
Idl a dl a I
dH H
r r π π
× ×
= → =

For surface currents
2
4
r
da a K
H
r π
×
=

and
for volume currents
2
1
4
r
J a
H d
r
τ
π
×
=

Lorentz force law: the force on a moving charge Q with velocity v in a magnetic field B
plus electric field E is ( )
ele mag
F F F QE Q v B = + = + ×
( )
mag
F I dl B = ×

for line currents
( )
mag
F K da B = ×

for surface currents
( )
mag
F J B dτ = ×

for volume currents.
Magnetic forces can do no work.

Ampere’s law for steady currents: The magnetomotive force around a closed path is equal
to the net steady current through any surface enclosed by the
path. integral form
enc
H dl I • = →

and differential form
enc
H I ∇× = →
Ampere’s law is useful in finding the field intensity when the current distribution exhibits
symmetry like infinite straight line, infinite plane, infinite solenoid and toroid.

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Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR
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Magnetization of materials

When a magnetic field is applied to a material, a net alignment of the magnetic dipoles
inside the material occurs resulting in
Magnetization of the material parallel to B ( ) paramagnets or
Magnetization opposite to ( ) diamagnets B or
Retention of substantial magnetization indefinitely after the external field has
been removed( ) ferromagnets
A quantity used to describe the state of magnetic polarization of a material is Magnetization
M = magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.
Field of a magnetized object:
The vector potential of a single dipole m is
0
2
4
r
m a
A
r
µ
π
×
= .
In the case of a magnetized object, the vector potential is
0
2
4
r
vol
M a
A d
r
µ
τ
π
×
=

0 0
4 4
sur vol
M da M
d
r r
µ µ
τ
π π
× ∇×
= +
∫ ∫

0 0
4 4
b b
sur vol
K da J
d
r r
µ µ
τ
π π
= +
∫ ∫
where ˆ
b
K M n = × and
b
J M = ∇×

This relation says that the potential and hence also the field of a magnetized object is the
same as would be produced by a volume current density
b
J M ≡ ∇× through out the
material plus a surface current ˆ
b
K M n = × on the boundary.
Amperes law in magnetized materials
The total current of the material can be expressed as
b f
J J J = + where
b
J is bound current,
a result of magnetization and
f
J is free current, not a result of magnetization.
Amperes law is ( ) ( )
0
1
f b f
B J J J J M
µ
∇× = = + = + ∇×
0
f
B
M J
µ
| |
→∇× − =
|
\ .
: let
0
B
M H
µ
− =
f
H J →∇× =
fencl
H dl I → • =

Linear media:
For most substances the magnetization is proportional to the field
0 m
M H µ χ = , the
proportionality constant
m
χ is called the magnetic susceptibility.

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12
( ) ( ) 1
o o m
B H M H µ µ χ = + = + so
B H µ = where ( ) 1
o m
µ µ χ = + which is called the permeability of the material.
Hence

Magnetism

The origin of magnetism lies in the orbital and spin motions of electrons and how the
electrons interact with one another. The magnetic behaviour of the materials can be
classified into the following five major groups;
• Diamagnetism
• Paramagnetism
• Ferromagnetism
• Ferrimagnetism
• Antiferromagnetism

The first two groups of materials exhibit no collective magnetic interactions and are not
magnetically ordered where as the materials of the last three groups exhibit long range
magnetic order below a certain critical temperature.
Ferromagnetic and Ferrimagnetic materials are strongly magnetic where as the other
three are weakly magnetic.

• Diamagnetism The substances are composed of atoms which have no net magnetic
moments because all the orbital shells are filled with no unpaired electrons. It is usually
weak with temperature independent negative susceptibility. Examples for the materials
that exhibit diamagnetism are quartz, calcite and water.
• Paramagnetism in this class of materials, some of the atoms or ions in the materials have
a net magnetic moment due to unpaired electrons in partially filled orbitals. One of the
most important atoms with unpaired electrons is iron. However the individual magnetic
moments do not interact magnetically and the magnetization is zero when the field is
removed. They have temperature dependant positive susceptibility.
• Ferromagnetism the atomic moments in these materials exhibit very strong interactions
produced by very large electronic exchange forces and result in parallel alignment of
atomic moments. Two distinct characteristics of ferromagnetic materials are spontaneous
magnetization and the existence of magnetic ordering temperature. The elements Fe, Ni
and Co and many of their alloys are typical ferromagnetic materials. It is due to the
magnetic dipoles associated with the spins of unpaired electrons, each dipole likes to
point in the same direction as its neighbour, the alignment occurs in relatively small
patches called domains and they themselves are randomly oriented. For ferromagnetic
materials the susceptance is positive and is approximately 20 to 200 times that of
paramagnetic materials.

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13
• Ferrimagnetism a ferrimagnetic material is one in which the magnetic moment of the
atoms on different sub-lattices are opposed and unequal. This happens when the sub-
lattices consists of different materials or ions. Ferrimagnetic materials have high
resistivity and external field induced anisotropic properties. Ferrimagnetism properties
are similar to Ferromagnetism in that spontaneous magnetization, Curie temperature,
hysterisis and remanence. But they have different magnetic ordering. Ferrimagnetism is
exhibited by ferrites and magnetic garnets. The oldest known magnetic substance
magnetite is a ferrimagnet. Widely used ferrimagnetic materials are YIG and ferrites
composed of iron oxides and other elements such as aluminium, nickel, cobalt,
manganese and zinc.
• Antiferromagnetism an ferromagnetic material is one in which the magnetic moment
of the atoms on different sub-lattices are opposed and equal resulting in a net moment of
zero.

Electrodynamics

experiments.
• Exp I: He pulled a loop of wire through a magnetic field resulting flow of current
through the loop.
• Exp II: He moved a magnet moving its field holding the loop still resulting in
current through the loop.
• Exp III: With both the loop and the magnet at rest, he changed the strength of
the field by varying the current in the coil resulting the flow of current in the
loop.
In case of first experiment, which is an example of motional emf, it is the Lorentz force law
at work; the emf is magnetic. To explain the generation of emf in the last two experiments,
Faraday assumed that 'a changing magnetic field induces an electric field' and this particular
electric field caused the emf. So in the last two cases the emf is electric.

A time varying magnetic field produces an emf which may establish a current in a
suitable closed circuit. If the circuit is an N turn coil then emf
d
N
dt
φ
= − . A non-zero value
of
d
dt
φ
may result due to a time changing flux linking a stationary closed path, relative
motion between a steady flux and a closed path or a combination of the above two.
Lenz’s law: The induced emf due to the time varying magnetic field is in such a direction as
to produce a current whose flux, if added to the original flux would reduce the magnitude of
the emf.

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Motional emf: it is due to the motion of a conductor is a magnetic field. The force on charge
Q located in the conductor ( ) ( )
m
F
F Q v B v B E
Q
= × → = × =
Maxwell's correction:

In the case of steady magnetic fields H J ∇× = which is ampere's law. The relation that
holds for time varying magnetic fields must converge to this expression in case of no time
variations. With this aspect in consideration, let us suppose, for time varying fields
H J X ∇× = + where X is unknown to be determined.
Now consider divergence both sides of this relation.
H J X ∇•∇× = ∇• +∇•
The left hand side of this equation is always is zero. And the first term of the right hand side
is, according to equation of continuity, J
t
ρ ∂
∇• = −

. But the Gauss law says D ρ ∇• = .
With this relation the equation continuity becomes
D
J
t

∇• = −∇•

resulting in
0
D
X
t

= −∇• +∇•

which gives
D
X
t

=

Hence
D
H J
t

∇× = +

in case of time varying fields.
Note the relations used in the above derivation, equation continuity and Gauss law
both are valid for time varying fields. Therefore the resultant expression must also be valid
for time varying fields.
According to this Maxwell's correction of Ampere's law 'a changing electric field
induces a magnetic field'. Maxwell called the term D t ∂ ∂ as displacement current.
Poynting Theorem
• It states that the net power flowing out of a given volume v is equal to the time rate
of decrease in the energy stored with in v minus the power dissipated plus the power
output of the source. According to this theorem the vector product P E H = × at any
point is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area at that point.

( )
2 2 2
0 0
1
( ) ( . )
2
S V V V
d
E H da E H dv E J dv E
dt
ε µ σ × • = − + + −
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

• It can also be stated as the work done on the charges by the electromagnetic force is
equal to the decrease in the energy stored in the field less the energy that flowed out
through the surface. In fact it is the work energy theorem of the electrodynamics.

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15

( )
2 0
0 0
1
( ).
2
V V S
d dW
E Jdv E H dv E H da
dt dt
ε µ • = − + − × =
∫ ∫ ∫

Importance:
• This theorem gives the energy relations of the fields in any volume. It also gives the
net flow of the power out of given volume thorough its surface.
• The pointing vector is the power density on the surface of a volume. The direction of
the pointing vector is the direction of the flow of the power.
Complex Poynting Theorem

Total complex power fed into a volume is equal to the algebraic sum of
• Active power dissipated as heat, plus
• Reactive power proportional to the difference between time-average magnetic and
electric energies stored in the volume, plus
• Complex power transmitted across the surface enclosed by the volume.

( ) ( )
2
0
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
m e
v v v s
E J dv E dv j w w dv P ds σ ω

− • = + − + •
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

Maxwell’s Equations

Maxwell’s assumption a changing displacement density was equivalent to an electric
current density and as such would produce a magnetic field has had far-reaching effects.
Faraday’s law indicates that a changing magnetic field produces electric field.
These two together lead to ‘wave equations’ predicting the existence of
electromagnetic ‘wave propagation’ even thirty years before Hertz’s experimental
verification.
The following four electromagnetic equations are known as Maxwell’s equations
because of the contribution to their development and established them as a self-consistent
set.
When equations are transformed from time varying form into phasor form two
changes take place: one is apparent t ∂ ∂ gets replaced by jω , another is hidden fields and
sources become independent of time. In the phasor form of equations the fields and sources
are functions of just position only.

Equations in Integral Form
Word form of equations:

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• The magneto motive force around a closed path is equal to the conduction current
plus the time-derivative of electric displacement through any surface.

• The electromotive force around a closed path is equal to the time derivative of the
magnetic flux through any surface bounded by the path.

• The net electric displacement through the surface enclosing a volume is equal to the
total charge with in the volume.

• The net magnetic flux emerging through any closed surface is equal to zero.

Mathematical form involving time varying quantities:

D
H dl J ds
t
∂ | |
• = + •
|

\ .
∫ ∫

B
E dl ds
t

• = − •

∫ ∫

v
D ds ρ • =

0 B ds • =

Mathematical form involving phasor quantities:

( ) H dl J j E ds ωε • = + •
∫ ∫
E dl j H ds ωµ • = − •
∫ ∫

v
D ds ρ • =

0 B ds • =

Equations in Differential Form

Word form of equations:

• The curl of the magnetic field at a point in a time varying field is the sum of the
conduction and displacement current densities at that point.

• The curl of the electric field at a point in a time varying field is equal to the negative
time-rate of change of the magnetic flux density at that point.

• The divergence of the electric displacement density at a point in a time varying field
is equal to the volume charge density at that point.

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• The divergence of the magnetic flux density at a point in a time varying field is zero.
.

Mathematical form involving time varying quantities:

D
H J
t

∇× = +

B
E
t

∇× = −

v
D ρ ∇• = 0 B ∇• =

Mathematical form involving phasor quantities:

H J j E ωε ∇× = + E j H ωµ ∇× = −

v
D ρ ∇• = 0 B ∇• =
Significance:
o Electromagnetic phenomenon of any type i.e. any frequency ranging dc to
infinity, any amount of intensity can be explained interpreted and understood
using the Maxwell’s equations.
o The time varying fields at a point, both electric and magnetic, obey Maxwell’s
equations the fact of which is used to compute the fields many times. In the
absence of the relations connecting the time varying fields with their sources, this
observation is of very significant and useful.
o Maxwell’s equations lead to the development of wave equations. The field
intensities of the time varying fields obey wave equations proving the existence
of the wave or energy flow in the time varying fields.
Boundary Conditions
• The tangential component of E is continuous at the surface. It means E is same just
outside the surface as it is just inside.
• The tangential component of H is continuous across a surface except at the surface of
a perfect conductor. The tangential component of H is discontinuous by an amount
equal to the surface current per unit width at the surface of the perfect conductor.
• The normal component of B is continuous at the surface of any discontinuity.
• The normal component of D is continuous except in the presence of surface charge
density. The normal component of D is discontinuous by an amount equal to the
surface charge density in the presence of surface charge density.

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Wave equations
In perfect dielectric

Applying curl on both sides of the Faradays law
E H µ ∇×∇× = − ∇×
&

But in free space, according to Amperes law with Maxwell’s correction
H E ε ∇× =
&

So
E E µε ∇×∇× = −
&&

The vector identity is
2
E E E ∇×∇× = ∇∇• −∇
So
2
E E E µε ∇∇• −∇ = −
&&

According to gauss law, as the medium is free space without any charge,
1
0 E D
ε
∇• = ∇• =
Hence
2
E E µε ∇ =
&&

Similarly it can be derived using the Maxwell’s equation
2
H H µε ∇ =
&&

In phasor form these two equations become
2 2
E E ω µε ∇ = −
2 2
H H ω µε ∇ = −
These two equations are called vector Helmholtz equations.

In conducting media

Applying curl on both sides of the Faradays law
E H µ ∇×∇× = − ∇×
&

But in free space, according to Amperes law with Maxwell’s correction
H J E E E ε σ ε ∇× = + = +
& &
as J E σ = is Ohms law.
So
E E E µσ µε ∇×∇× = − −
& &&

The vector identity is
2
E E E ∇×∇× = ∇∇• −∇
So
2
E E E E µσ µε ∇∇• −∇ = − −
& &&

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According to gauss law, as the medium is free space without any charge,
1
0 E D
ε
∇• = ∇• =
Hence
2
E E E µσ µε ∇ = +
& &&

This is the wave equation in E and similarly the wave equation for H
2
H H H µσ µε ∇ = +
& &&

can be derived using the Maxwell’s equation
In phasor form, these two equations become
( )
( )
2 2
2
E j E
j j E E
ωµσ ω µε
ωµ σ ωε γ
∇ = −
= + =

( )
( )
2 2
2
H j H
j j H H
ωµσ ω µε
ωµ σ ωε γ
∇ = −
= + =

Propagation constant γ
The constant γ is known as propagation constant of the medium and in general a complex
quantity having both the real and imaginary β parts. The real part is called attenuation
constantσ and the imaginary part is called phase shift constant β .
j γ α β = +
( ) j j γ ωµ σ ωε = +
2
2 2
1 1
2
µε σ
α ω
ω ε
| |
= + − |
|
\ .

2
2 2
1 1
2
µε σ
β ω
ω ε
| |
= + + |
|
\ .

For good dielectrics

2
2 2
1 1
2
µε σ
α ω
ω ε
| |
= + − |
|
\ .

2
2 2
1 1
2 2
µε σ
ω
ω ε
| |
≅ + −
|
\ .
2
σ µ
ε
=

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2
2 2
1 1
2
µε σ
β ω
ω ε
| |
= + + |
|
\ .

2
2 2
1 1
2 2
µε σ
ω
ω ε
| |
≅ + +
|
\ .

2
2 2
1
8
σ
ω µε
ω ε
| |
= +
|
\ .

For good conductors

( ) j j γ ωµ σ ωε = +
1
j
j
ωε
ωµσ
σ
| |
= +
|
\ .

0
45 jωµσ ωµσ ≅ = ∠
Therefore
2
ωµσ
α β = =
Vector Helmholtz equations

2
1
0
r
r
E k E ε
µ
| |
∇× ∇× − =
|
\ .

2
1
0
r
r
H k H µ
ε
| |
∇× ∇× − =
|
\ .

Scalar Helmholtz equations

2
1
0
z r z
r
E k E ε
µ
| |
∇• ∇ + =
|
\ .
. Similarly for other components of the E .
2
1
0
z r z
r
H k H µ
ε
| |
∇• ∇ + =
|
\ .
. Similarly for other components of the H .

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Wave:
• A physical phenomenon that occurs at one place at a given time is reproduced at
other places at later times, the time delay being proportional to the space separation
from the first location then the group of phenomenon constitutes wave.
Plane wave:
• It is a wave whose equi-phase surfaces are planes.

Uniform plane wave:
• it is a wave whose magnitude and phase, both are constant over a set of planes.
• In uniform plane wave E and H are independent of two dimensions and dependant
only on one dimension and time.
• These are transverse in nature i.e. E and H are perpendicular to the direction of
propagation of the wave.
• They i.e. E and H are perpendicular to each other. In fact E, H and direction of
propagation of the wave form RH vector system.
• The direction of propagation is given by H E × . In fact E, H and direction of
propagation of the wave form RH vector system.

ε
µ
=
y
x
H
E
,
ε
µ
− =
x
y
H
E
also
ε
µ
=
H
E

Classification of electromagnetic waves: where ever time varying fields exists, there
the wave exists and the converse is also true. The electromagnetic waves can be classified
into four categories.

• Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave:

In this wave, also known as Principal wave, the electric vector E and magnetic
vector H both are entirely normal to the direction of the propagation of the wave.
In addition, the electric vector E , magnetic vector H and the direction of propagation
all the three vectors form a right handed vector system.
The energy travels as TEM wave in free space and over parallel wire transmission
line. The coaxial lines can also hold this type of wave.
The phase velocity and group velocity is same for TEM wave. Neither one depends
upon the frequency. So the TEM wave is non-dispersive wave.
• Transverse electric (TE) wave:
In this wave, the electric vector is entirely normal to the direction of propagation and
hence no component in the direction of propagation. The magnetic vector has both the
normal and parallel components.
• Transverse magnetic (TM) wave:
In this wave, the magnetic vector is entirely normal to the direction of propagation
and hence no component in the direction of propagation. The electric vector has both the
normal and parallel components.

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• Hybrid or mixed wave:
It is a linear combination of TE and TM waves. In this wave, both the electric and
magnetic vectors posses both the components, normal and parallel to the direction of
propagation of the wave.
Non-TEM waves i.e. TE, TM and TE+TM waves exist in hallow pipe waveguides.
The phase velocity differs from group velocity in case of non-TEM waves. And both depend
upon the frequency. So the non-TEM waves are always dispersive in nature.

The coaxial line, in addition to the TEM wave, can carry higher order forms of TM and
TE waves with components of electric or magnetic field in the direction of the line axis.
However for the usual coaxial lines the dimensions are small enough that the lines are
operating at frequencies far below cutoff for these modes.

Reflection And Refraction

Perfect conductor:

Normal incidence: The amplitude of the reflected electric field strength is equal to that of
the incident electric field strength, but its phase is reversed on reflection i.e.
r i
E E = −
The electric field intensity in the standing wave pattern is ( ) , 2 sin sin
T i
E x t E x t β ω =
%

♠ The magnetic field strength gets reflected without phase reversal i.e.
r i
H H =
The magnetic field strength in the standing wave pattern is ( ) , 2 cos cos
T i
H x t H x t β ω =
%

♠ In the reflected wave, the
T
E
%
and
T
H
%
are 90
0
apart in time-phase. Also there exists a
surface current of ( ) / sec 0
s T
J amp H x = = .
Oblique incidence: The plane of incidence is the plane containing the incident ray and the
normal to the surface.
♠ Perpendicular polarization: 2 sin
y
j y
T i z
E jE z e
β
β

=

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where cos
z
β β θ = and sin
y
β β θ = .

♠ Parallel polarization:
2 cos
y
j y
T i z
H H z e
β
β

=
2 cos sin
y
j y
y i z
E j H z e
β
η θ β

=
2 sin cos
y
j y
z i z
E H z e
β
η θ β

=

In both the types of polarizations, there
exists standing wave distribution along the
z −axis i.e. cos
z
z β or sin
z
z β and
travelling wave along the y −direction i.e.
y
j y
e
β −

Perfect dielectric:
♠ Normal incidence:
1 i i
E H η = ,
1 r r
E H η = − and
2 t t
E H η =
Tangential components are continuous
i r t
E E E + = and
i r t
H H H + =
1 2
1 2
r
i
E
E
ε ε
ε ε

=
+
;
1
1 2
2
t
i
E
E
ε
ε ε
=
+

♠ Oblique incidence: energy conservation requires

♠ Perpendicular polarization:
2
2
1 1
1
2
2
1 1
1
cos sin
cos sin
r
i
E
E
ε
θ θ
ε
ε
θ θ
ε
| |
− −
|
\ .
=
| |
+ −
|
\ .
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
cos cos
cos cos
ε θ ε θ
ε θ ε θ

=
+
( )
( )
2 1
2 1
sin
sin
θ θ
θ θ

=
+

♠ Parallel polarization:
2
2 2
1 1
1 1
2
2 2
1 1
1 1
cos sin
cos sin
r
i
E
E
ε ε
θ θ
ε ε
ε ε
θ θ
ε ε
| | | |
− −
| |
\ . \ .
=
| | | |
+ −
| |
\ . \ .
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
cos cos
cos cos
ε θ ε θ
ε θ ε θ

=
+
( )
( )
1 2
1 2
tan
sin
θ θ
θ θ

=
+

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♠ Brewster angle: it is the angle of incidence at which there is no reflected wave when the
incident wave is parallel or vertical polarized. It is
1 2
1
1
tan
ε
θ
ε

= .
♠ Total internal reflection: it takes place if the medium 1 is denser than medium2 and
1
θ
is large enough to satisfy
1 2
1
1
sin
ε
θ
ε

>

♠ Fields across media: If
1
θ and
2
θ are the angles made by the fields with normals in the
two different media then
1 1
2 2
tan
tan
θ ε
θ ε
= and
1 1
2 2
tan
tan
θ µ
θ µ
=
Skin depth or depth of penetration: when the medium is conductive, the wave gets
attenuated as it progresses into the medium. Skin depth or depth of penetrationδ is defined
as the depth in which the wave gets attenuated to 1 e or approximately 37 percent of its
original value.
As the amplitude of the wave decreases exponentially with depth 1 αδ =

2
2 2
1 1 2
1 1
2
δ
α ωµσ
µε σ
ω
ω ε
= = ≈
| |
+ − |
|
\ .
for a good conductor.

Surface impedance: At high frequencies, when wave falls over the conductor the current
flows which is confined almost entirely to a very thin sheet at the surface of the conductor.
Surface impedance is defined as the ratio of tangential electric field strength
at the surface of the conductor to the surface current density that flows as a result of the
incident wave.
tan
s
s
E
Z
J
=
If the conductor is flat plate with its surface at 0 y = plane, then the current
distribution in the y −direction will be
0
y
J J e
γ −
= where
0
J is the current density at
the surface which is related to the tangential electric field through
0 tan
J E σ = .

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Assuming the thickness of the conductor plate to be larger than the depth of
penetration so that no reflection from the back surface of the conductor, the surface
current density becomes
0
0
0 0
y
s
J
J J dy J e dy
γ
γ
∞ ∞

= = =
∫ ∫

Therefore, the surface impedance
tan 0
0
s
s
E J
Z
J J
γ γ
σ σ
= = =
For conducting medium ( ) j j j γ ωµ σ ωε ωµσ = + ≈
Hence
0
45
s
j
Z
γ ωµ ωµ
σ σ σ
= = = ∠ .
The surface impedance is complex quantity and its real part is called surface resistance
s
R
whereas its imaginary part is called surface reactance
s
X . For a thick good conductor their
magnitudes are same.
2
s
R
ωµ
σ
≈ ,
2
s
X
ωµ
σ

Observations:
• The surface impedance is equal to the intrinsic impedance η for the conducting
medium.
• It is also equal to the characteristic impedance of the thick plane conductor.
• This is also input impedance of the thick plane conductor when viewed as a
transmission line conducting energy into the interior of the metal.

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• The surface resistance, with units of ohms, is same as the high frequency skin
effect resistance per unit length of a flat conductor of unit width.
• The surface resistance
s
R is related to the depth of penetration or skin depth δ in
a conductor through
1
s
R
σδ
=
• The surface resistance of a flat conductor at any frequency is equal to the dc
resistance of a thickness δ of the same conductor. This means that the conductor
having a thickness very much greater thanδ and having exponential current
distribution throughout its depth has the same resistance as would a
thicknessδ of the conductor with the current distributed uniformly throughout
this thickness.
• The power loss per unit area of the plane conductor is
2
seff s
J R
Polarization of waves
o Polarization of a radiated wave is defined as “that property of an electromagnetic
wave describing the time-varying direction and relative magnitude of the electric
field vector. Specifically the figure traced as a function of time by the extremity of
the vector at a fixed location in space and the sense in which it is traced as observed
along the direction of propagation”. Basically polarization refers to the time-varying
behaviour/orientation of the E vector in an uniform plane wave at some fixed point.
o Linear polarization: if the direction of the resultant E vector in the uniform plane
wave remains same with respect time then the wave is said to be linearly polarized.
o Elliptical polarization: if the tip of the E vector of a travelling plane wave traces an
ellipse, then the wave is said to be elliptically polarized.
o Circular polarization: if the tip of the E vector of a travelling plane wave traces a
circle, then the wave is said to be circularly polarized.
o Consider a plane wave travelling in z − direction. If the x and y components of
the E vector are in phase, then the wave is linearly polarized. If the x − and y −
components are not in phase and/or unequal in magnitude then the wave is
elliptically polarized. Circular polarization results when x − and y − components
have 90
0
phase difference and equal in magnitude.
o Sense of polarization: when the wave is receding, if the resultant E vector rotates
clockwise the wave is said to be clockwise or right circular/elliptical polarized wave.
Anti-clock wise or left circular/elliptical polarized wave results when the E vector
rotates in anti-clock wise direction.
o For a z-travelling wave
o ( )
a y x
E ja a E + =
0
LCP or CCW
o ( )
a y x
E ja a E − =
0
RCP or CW

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o
y x
b jB a A E + =
0
LEP or CCW
o
y x
b jB a A E − =
0
REP or CW
o Reversal of the sense of rotation can be obtained by giving 180
0
phase shift to
either x or y component of the E field.
o Polarization is specified by
 Shape (axial ratio)
 Orientation
 Sense of polarization of the polarization ellipse.
o Other representations are
 Polarization ratio
 Stokes parameter
 Poincare sphere
o Axial ratio =
ellipse the of axis major semi
ellipse the of axis or semi
a
b min
=
o Polarization ratio P =
δ j
x
y
e P
E
E
=
Basically there are two types for representing polarization states;
• Wave polarization representation: ( ) , AR τ ± it uses Axial ratio AR which
is ve + for LH, and ve − for RH polarizations, tilt angle τ which is the
angle the major axis makes with the x − axis.
• Electrical quantities representation:
( )
,
yo xo
E E φ it uses the ratio
yo xo
E E , the angle between them φ .

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 If ( )
1
cot AR ε

= ± and
( )
1
tan
yo xo
E E γ

= , then the state can be represented
either by the pair ( ) , ε τ or ( ) , γ φ .
• AR varies from 1 for circle to ∞ for line, ε varies from 4 π − to 4 π and
τ varies from 0 to π .
• φ varies from 2 π − to 2 π and γ from 0 to π .

 Poincare sphere provides a compact graphical representation of all the two types
and it also corresponds the above two representations. it is useful to find how
close two polarization states are or how much interaction takes place between
two states of polarization. Its salient features are
• Equator 0, AR ε = = ∞ represents linear polarization. Longitude point
0 τ = represents horizontal and
0
90 τ = vertical polarization.
• North pole represents Left circular and South pole Right circular
polarization
• Northern hemi-sphere represents left handed and Southern hemi-sphere
represents right handed polarization.
• Point is denoted by ( ) 2 , 2 ε τ . The xy plane or horizontal plane represents
0 ε = and xz vertical plane represents 0 τ = .
 Matched states: when two states of polarization fall on the same point over the
Poincare sphere then they are said to be Matched states of polarization. And they
can interact maximum.
 Orthogonal states: when the two states of polarization fall on radially opposite
points on the Poincare sphere, then they are said to be orthogonal states. And no
interaction is possible between them.
Antennas And Polarization

Polarization of the antenna is defined in its transmitting mode. The polarization of an
antenna in a given direction is defined as “ the polarization of the wave transmitted by the
antenna “.
Polarization pattern of an antenna represents it’s polarization characteristics and it is
defined as “ the spatial distribution of the polarization of a field vector radiated by the
antenna taken over its radiation sphere. At each point over the sphere the polarization is
usually resolved into a pair of orthogonal components along θ and φ directions. These
components are called co-polarization and cross polarization.
Polarization mismatch occurs due to the mismatch between the polarization of the receiving
antenna and the polarization of the receiving wave. .Due to this mismatch the receiving
antenna cannot extract maximum amount of power from the incoming wave.
If the incoming wave is linearly polarized, the receiving antenna can be
 Linearly polarized with its polarization aligned to the polarization of the
incoming wave or

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29
 Circularly polarized or
 Elliptically polarized with its major axis aligned to the polarization the
incoming wave.
If the incoming wave is circularly polarized, the receiving antenna can be
 Linearly polarized.
 Circularly polarized with the sense of rotation same as that of the
incoming wave.
 Elliptically polarized with the sense of rotation same as that of the
incoming wave.
If the incoming wave is elliptically polarized, the receiving antenna can be
 Linearly polarized with its polarization aligned to the major axis.
 Circularly polarized with the sense of rotation same as that of the
incoming wave.
 Elliptically polarized with the sense of rotation same as that of the
incoming wave, respective axes of the both pointing in the same
direction.
The above observations are based on the fact that the power transfer efficiency between two
states represented by M and ' M on the Poincare sphere is given by
2
'
cos
2
pol
MOM
η
∠ ¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )

Transmission-Line Theory

Transmission lines:
• These are metallic conductor systems involving two or more conductors
separated by an insulator used to transfer low frequency electrical energy in TEM
form from one point to another.
Types
Balanced or differential Tr system:
• Both the conductors in this line carry signal currents of equal magnitude wrt the
electrical ground but in opposite directions.
• Any pair of wires can be operated in balanced mode provided that neither wire
is at ground potential.
• A balanced wire pair has the advantage of noise interference getting cancelled at
the load due to high CMRR of 40 to 70db.

Un-balanced or single ended Tr system:
• One conductor is at ground potential where as the other one is at signal potential.
• Because one wire being at ground potential, the probability of noise being
induced is more.

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30
• The standard two conductor coaxial cable is an unbalanced line as the second
conductor or shield is generally connected to ground.

Parallel conductor tr. Lines:
• Suitable for low frequency applications
• At high frequencies they become useless as radiation and dielectric losses increase
• Susceptible for noise pick up.
• Ex. Open wire TL, Twin lead(ribbon) cable, Twisted pair cable etc.

Coaxial or concentric tr. lines;
• Extensively used for high frequency applications as they give low radiation and
dielectric losses.
• Also they give shield against external interference.
• Ex. Solid flexible (low losses), rigid air filled(relatively expensive)
• must be used in unbalanced mode and expensive.

Baluns:
• These are circuit devices used to connect a balanced TL to an unbalanced load like
antenna or unbalanced TL such as a coaxial cable. Ex. Transformer balun, bazooka
balun

Non-resonant line:
• A line terminated in its characteristic impedance is called non-resonant or flat
or smooth line. The voltage and current over such a line are constant
throughout its length if it is loss-less and decreases exponentially if the line is
lossy.
Resonant line:
• It is loss-less line terminated over a short or open circuit.
Reflection factor k:
• It is defined as the ratio of the current actually flowing in the load to that
which might flow under image matched conditions.
This ratio indicates the change in current of the load due to reflection at the
mismatched junction.
2 1
2 1
2
Z Z
Z Z
k
+
= where
1
Z and
2
Z impedances at the junction seen looking
towards both the sides.

Reflection loss:

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31
• It is defined as the number of nepers or decibels by which the current in the
load under image matched conditions would exceed the current actually
nepers
Z Z
Z Z
R
L
2 1
2 1
2
ln
+
= db
Z Z
Z Z
2 1
2 1
2
log 20
+
=
Stub:
• A stub is a piece of transmission line whose input impedance is pure
reactance. Normally short circuited stubs are used as open circuited stubs

Infinite line:

• It one whose length is infinite. It is characterized by the absence of reflected
wave and the current over the line depends only on its characteristic
impedance not on the termination.
Velocity factor:
• The velocity factor of a dielectric substance or a cable is the velocity
reduction ratio. It is given by
r
f
v
ε
1
= where
r
ε is dielectric constant of the
medium.

Half wave transmission line:
• Its input impedance is equal to the terminating impedance, this
property is independent of characteristic impedance
0
Z but frequency
dependant.
• The short circuited 2 λ line can act as a band stop filter, can be used to
measure velocity factor and dielectric constant of medium.
• Half wave line is also used to measure the impedance that is not
accessible physically.

Quarter wave 4 λ transmission lines:
• Short circuited 4 λ line is equivalent to parallel LC circuit.
• Open circuited 4 λ line is equivalent to series LC circuit.
• Short circuited line with length 4 λ > is equivalent to capacitor C .
• Open circuited line with length 4 λ > is equivalent to an inductor L .
• Short circuited line with length 4 λ < is equivalent to an inductor L .
• Open circuited line with length 4 λ < is equivalent to capacitor C .

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32
Applications of 4 λ line:
• Quarter wave transformer:
9 it is a loss-less uniform line of length 4 λ
9 Its input impedance is inversely proportional to its terminating impedance.
9 Provided the characteristic impedance is resistive, its input impedance is
inductive if the termination is capacitive and vice versa
9 It acts as impedance transformer or inverter as it can step up or step down the
impedance. It is used for load matching purposes.
9 It disadvantage is sensitivity to frequency change.

• Opened out parallel wire 4 λ transmission line is used as wire radiator called ‘half wave
dipole’.
• Opened out parallel wire transmission line of length less than 4 λ is used as wire
parasitic radiator called ‘director’ in Yagi-Uda array. So the director carries capacitive
currents. In other words, an opened out line excited at a frequency less than resonant is
capacitive.
• Opened out parallel wire transmission line of length more than 4 λ is used as wire
parasitic radiator called ‘reflector’ in Yagi-Uda array. So the reflectors carry inductive
currents. In other words, an opened out line excited at a frequency more than resonant is
inductive..

Equivalent Circuit Representation

Since each conductor has a certain length and diameter it must have resistance and
conductance.

Since there are
wires close to each other,
there must be capacitance
between them. Dielectric
materials, which cannot be
perfect in its insulation,
separate the wires: the
leakage through it can be represented by a short conductance.

All the quantities R,L,G
and C are proportional to the

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33
length of the line and unless measured and quoted per out length they are meaningless.
These are distributed through out the length of line. Under no circumstances can they be
assumed to be limped at any one point.

Losses in TR Lines:

Losses in TR lines occur in types a) Radiation b) Conductor heating c) Dielectric
heating.

Radiation losses arise because a TR line may act as an antenna if the separation of the
conductors is an appreciable fraction of wavelength.

Conductor heating or I
2
R loss is proportional to current and there for inversely
proportional to characteristic impedance. It also increases with frequency because of the
skin effect.

Dialectic heating is proportional to the Voltage across the dielectric and inversely
proportional to the characteristic impedance. It increases with frequency.

The transmission line is characterized by primary constants and secondary constants.

Secondary constants : Characteristic Impedance
0
Z and propagation constant γ are called
the secondary constants of the transmission line.

Characteristic Impedance
0
Z :- The characteristic impedance of a transmission line,
0
Z is the impedance measured at the input of the line when its length is infinite : It can
also be defined as the input impedance of a transmission line when it is terminated on its
characteristic impedance.
S
S
I
V
Z =
0
when the length of line is infinite or when the line is terminated over Z
o
. it is
related to the primary constants of the line through
) (
) (
0
C j G
L j R
Z
ω
ω
+
+
=

• Propagation Constant γ : It is defined as the natural
logarithm of the ratio of the input to the output current.
R
S
e
I
I
log = γ , where
S
I and
R
I

are at a unit distance apart on the line of infinite length. It is a

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34
complex quantity and is represented by β α γ j + = where α is known as the
Attenuation constant and β is known as the phase shift constant. It is related
to the primary constants through ZY = γ
• loss- less line or RF line G R = = 0

• Consider a small section dx or a transmission line. The series impedance of
this section will be dx L j R ) ( ω + and the shunt admittance will be
( )dx C j G ω +

Then
( )dx L j R I V dV V ω + = + − ) ( , ( )dx C j G V I dI I ω + = + − ) (
⇒ − and I L j R
dx
dV
) ( ω + = I C j G
dx
dI
) ( ω + = −

dx
dI
Z
dx
V d
− =
2
2
and =
2
2
dx
I d
dx
dV
Y − L j R Z ω + = Q , C j G Y ω + =

⇒ V ZY
dx
V d
=
2
2
and ZYI
dx
I d
=
2
2

2
2
2
d V
V
dx
γ = and
2
2
2
d I
I
dx
γ =

where γ = Propagation Constant= ZY = ( ) ( ) C j G L j R ω ω + + )

The general solution to the above equations can be expressed in either of the two forms:
In terms of exponential functions.

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35
x x
e b e a V
γ γ −
+ = :
x x
e d e c I
γ γ −
+ =

In terms of hyperbolic functions.
x B x A V γ γ sinh cosh + = ; x D x C I γ γ sinh cosh + =

Out of the four constants D and C B A , , only two are independent. The last two equations
can be written as

x B x A V γ γ sinh cosh + = ; ) sinh cosh (
1
0
x A x B
Z
I γ γ + − =
• In terms of sending end voltage and currents
x Z I x V V
S S
γ γ sinh cosh
0
− =
x
Z
V
x I I
s
s
γ γ sinh cosh
0
− =
• In terms of receiving end voltage and currents
) ( sinh ) ( cosh
0
x l Z I x l V V
R R
− + − = γ γ ; ) ( sinh ) ( cosh
0
x l
Z
V
x l I I
R
R
− + − = γ γ
• In terms of sending end impedance
s
Z and
0
Z

( ) ( ) [ ]
z
s
z
s
s
e Z Z e Z Z
I
V
γ γ
0 0
2
− + + =

( ) ( ) [ ]
z
s
z
s
s
e Z Z e Z Z
Z
I
I
γ γ
0 0
0
2
− − + =

• In terms of receiving end impedance
l
Z and
0
Z

( ) ( ) [ ]
d
l
d
l
l
e Z Z e Z Z
I
V
γ γ −
− + + =
0 0
2

( ) ( ) [ ]
d
l
d
l
l
e Z Z e Z Z
Z
I
I
γ γ −
− − + =
0 0
0
2

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36
Waves on Lines
The reflected wave is generated at the load as a result of reflection of the incident wave
by the load impedance. This reflection is of such a character as simultaneously to meet
the following conditions. If ' '' E E E = + and ' '' I I I = + then
o The voltage and current of the incident wave at the load must satisfy
0
' ' E I Z =
o The voltage and current of the incident wave at the load must satisfy
0
'' '' E I Z = −
L
E is the sum of the voltages of the incident and
reflected waves at the load, that is
1 2 L
E E E = +
L
I is the sum of the currents of the incident and reflected
waves at the load, that is
1 2 L
I I I = +
o The vector ratio of
L L L
E I Z = must equal the load impedance
L
Z

• Pure travelling wave is one whose SWR is unity indicating no reflections from the
o In this wave V and I are in-phase.
o It occurs when the line is terminated with its matched impedance.
o The ratio of V to I is constant
0
Z , Characteristic impedance of the line.
o In pure travelling wave the phase varies continuously along the length of the
line but not the amplitude.
• Pure standing wave is one whose SWR is infinity indicating the total reflection of the
o In this wave V and I are 90
0
out of phase.
o It occurs when the line is terminated with oc or sc or pure reactance.
o The ratio of V to I is function of the position along the length of the line.
o At all points between a pair of successive voltage nulls i.e. in one half cycle,
the voltage is in phase. All the points in the next half cycle exhibit 180
0
phase
difference with the points of previous half cycle. Similar is the case with the
current wave form.
• Impure standing wave is a combination of pure travelling wave and pure standing
wave.
o In this case V and I are not 90
0
out of phase and in general it varies along the
length of the line.
o It occurs when the termination is different from oc, sc, or pure reactance or
matched termination.

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37
Reflection coefficient
The vector ratio '' ' E E of the voltage of the reflected wave to the voltage of the
incident wave at a distance ‘ l ’ from the load is defined as Reflection coefficient at the point
‘ l ’ and denoted usually byΓ . It has both magnitude and phase so is a complex quantity.
If the reflection coefficient is considered at the load then it is called reflection
coefficient of the load and equals to
( )
( )
0
2
1 0
1
1
L
L
Z Z
E
E Z Z

Γ = =
+

In case of zero loss line, the reflection coefficient has everywhere has the same
magnitude and equals the reflection coefficient of the load. In case of lossy line the reflected
wave becomes smaller and the incident wave larger with increasing distance from the load
causing Γ to decrease correspondingly.

The relation between the load voltage and current and the voltages of the incident
and reflected waves at the load can be deduced as
0
1
1 2
L L L
E I Z E
E
+ | |
= =
|

\ .

0
2 1
1 2
L L L
E I Z E
E E
− Γ | |
= Γ = =
|
+ Γ
\ .

Standing Waves

• The distance between two successive nodes or anti-nodes of voltage (or current) is
always 2
g
λ . And it is 4
g
λ between voltage node to current anti-node or voltage
anti-node to current node.
• When the termination is open circuit, the current gets reflected with 180
0
phase shift
where as the voltage gets reflected without any phase shift. It results in current node
and voltage anti-node over the open circuit termination.
• When the termination is short circuit, the voltage gets reflected with 180
0
phase shift
where as the current gets reflected without any phase shift. It results in voltage node
and current anti-node over the short circuit termination
• When the termination load is either open circuit or short circuit or pure reactance the
total incident wave gets reflected, as the load cannot dissipate any power. In such
case the amplitude of the reflected wave is same as that of the incident wave
resulting in perfect cancellation at the nodes. Consequently SWR becomes zero.
• When the termination is pure
resistance, then voltage node
and current anti-node occurs
over the termination for
0
R R
L
< . For the case
0
R R
L
>

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38
voltage anti-node and current node occurs over the termination.
• The ratio of voltage to current at a point over the line is the impedance of the line at
that point. The impedance at two points A and B are equal if they are separated by a
distance equal to integer multiples of 2
g
λ . The impedances have inverse
proportionality if the distance is odd multiples of 4
g
λ
• The line impedance is capacitive in a distance of 4
g
λ right side of voltage node and
it is inductive in a distance of 4
g
λ to its left side.

Standing-wave Ratio

The ratio of the maximum amplitude to minimum amplitude possessed by the
voltage or current distribution is defined as standing-wave ratio and denoted by’ ρ ’.

The character of the voltage or current distribution on a transmission line can be
conveniently described by SWR.

Standing-wave ratio is a measure of amplitude ratio of reflected to incident waves.
Thus a SWR of unity denotes the absence of a reflected wave, while a very high SWR
indicates that the reflected wave is as large as the incident wave.

Theoretically, for the case of zero attenuation, the SWR will be infinite when the
load is either open- or short-circuited or is a lossless reactance.

The SWR is one means of expressing the magnitude of the reflection coefficient
‘ Γ’: the exact relation between the two is

1
1
ρ
+ Γ
=
− Γ
or
1
1
ρ
ρ

Γ =
+

Significance of SWR:

The importance of the standing wave ratio arises from the fact that it can be very
easily measured experimentally.

The SWR indicates directly the extent to which reflected waves exist on a system.
In addition, Standing wave measurements provide an important means of measuring
impedance.

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39
Line Impedance
• In terms of sending end impedance
s
Z and
0
Z

z Z Z
z Z Z
Z Z
s
s
γ
γ
tanh
tanh
0
0
0

=

• In terms of receiving end impedance
l
Z and
0
Z
d Z Z
d Z Z
Z Z
l
l
γ
γ
tanh
tanh
0
0
0
+
+
=

Input Impedance

l Z Z
l Z Z
Z Z
l
l
in
γ
γ
tanh
tanh
0
0
0
+
+
=

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40

• Maximum power can be transferred over the line
• Maximum efficiency in power transfer can be achieved.
• Load power is independent of l β
• With Lesser Peak voltage over the line, power can be transferred.
• Eliminates modulation distortion
• Prevents the frequency shift in the source
• Minimize errors in measurement systems

Single-stub matching

Stub position
0
1
tan
2 Z
Z
l
L −
=
π
λ

Stub length
0
0 0 1 '
tan
2 Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
l
L
L
OS

=

π
λ

Line Distortion:

• The deviation of the waveform at the output of the line from that at its input
is called line distortion.
• It is due to the fact that all frequencies in the waveform do not have same
attenuation and same delay during the propagation.
• The characteristic impedance being function of the frequency, attenuation
being function of the frequency and velocity of propagation on the line being
function of frequency are causes of distortion.
• Types of distortion: frequency distortion and delay distortion.
• Frequency distortion is due to various frequency components of the signal
undergoing different amounts of attenuation when the attenuation
constantα is function of frequency. To
eliminate this distortion the attenuation constant α must be made independent
of frequency.
• Phase or delay distortion is due to different frequency components of the
signal undergoing different amounts of phase delays while reaching the
destination thus spoiling the original phase relation between them. To

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41
eliminate this phase shift constant β must be made proportional to angular
frequencyω .
• Frequency distortion can be reduced by cascading the lines with networks
known as ‘equalizers’. Equalizer is network whose attenuation versus
frequency characteristic is just opposite to that of the line. Delay distortion
can also be reduced with equalizers, but it must be designed in such a way
that the β for the total circuit is proportional to ω . For audio transmission
frequency distortion is serious problem whereas for video transmission both
are serious.
• Distortion-less line: it is a line which transmits the input signal without any
distortion. This occurs when the primary constants the line are related
through the relation
C
G
L
R
= . With this interrelation among the primary
constants of the line the attenuation constant LC
L
R
= α becomes
independent of the frequency, the phase shift constant LC ω β = is
proportional to angular frequency ω making the velocity of propagation
independent of the frequency thus eliminating both types of distortion.
C
G
L
R
>> . To make the line distortion-less
L
R
is
decreased by increasing the inductance L . This is affected by either by
changing the line configuration or by using high inductance coils. The
method of reducing the distortion by increasing the inductance of the line is
• Continuous loading: the tape of steel or some other magnetic materials such
as ‘perm alloy’ or ’mumetal’ is wound around the conductor to be loaded. It
increases the permeability of the surrounding medium and thereby increasing
the inductance. It is costly and used in sub-marine cables
only.
• Lumped loading: in this method inductance coils are introduced at definite
and uniform intervals along the length of the line to increase its inductance.
• For telephone cable R Z = and C j Y ω = .
CR
v
CR ω ω
β α
2
;
2
= = = as α
and v are functions of frequency distortions of both types take place.

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42
Smith Chart

• Smith chart developed by P.Smith in 1939, is the best known and widely used
graphical aid in solving transmission line problems.
• The real utility of the smith chart lies in the fact that it can be used to convert the
reflection coefficients to normalized impedances or admittances.

• It is a polar plot of complex reflection coefficient with the normalized impedance or

0
1
1
l l
l
l
Z
z
Z
+ Γ
= =
−Γ
1
1
r i
r i
j
r jx
j
+ Γ + Γ
→ + =
−Γ − Γ

( )
2 2
2
2
1
1
r i
r i
r
−Γ −Γ
→ =
−Γ + Γ
and
( )
2
2
2
1
i
r i
x
Γ
→ =
−Γ + Γ
. These can
be rearranged as
2
2
1
1 1
r i
r
r r
| | | |
Γ − + Γ =
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
it represents
a family of constant resistance circles with radius
( ) 1 1 r + and centre at ( ) 1 r r + along the real axis.
( )
2 2
2 1 1
1
r i
x x
| | | |
Γ − + Γ − =
| |
\ . \ .
it represents a family of
constant reactance circles with radius 1 x and centre at
1
1,
r i
x
Γ = Γ = .

• It consists of two sets of circles or arcs of circles:
o The constant resistance ‘r’ circles whose centres lie on the straight line of the
chart. They represent the normalized resistance along the transmission line.
o The constant reactance ‘x’ loci, arcs of the circles lie on both sides of the
horizontal line. They represent various values of the normalized reactance of
the transmission line.
o The circles and arcs are orthogonal
o Upper half of the chart represents inductive reactance/susceptance where as
the lower half represents the capacitive reactance/susceptance.
o Smith chart describes the line of half-wavelength only
o It can be used only with normalized impedances or admittances.
o The movement towards the generator corresponds to clockwise motion on the
chart and towards the load corresponds anti-clockwise motion.
• The constant resistance ‘r’ and constant reactance ‘x’ loci form two families of
circles and all of them pass through the point 0 , 1 = Γ = Γ
i r

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43
• The constant SWR circle is drawn on the chart with SWR as radius and ‘1’ of the
horizontal line as centre.
o The impedances of represented by various points over the SWR circle denote
the impedances of the line in a distance of 2
g
λ .
o Distance along the line is represented by angular distance around the chart,
total circumference or 360
0
corresponding to the line length of 2
g
λ
o The point at which the constant SWR circle intersects the horizontal straight
line corresponds the SWR the load

• The upper half of the diagram represents inductive or positive reactance and lower
half represents capacitive or negative reactance.

• There exists
min
V on the line at a point of
min
1 z ρ = and
max
V exists where
ρ =
max
z on the line.
• The horizontal radius to the right of the chart centre corresponds to
max min max
, , and V I z ρ and left of the chart centre corresponds to
min max min
, , and 1 V I z ρ
• Circles of constant SWR ρ are concentric with the centre of the chart. These circles
intersect the zero reactance or susceptance axis at points ρ
0
z and ρ /
0
z
• Radial lines represent loci of the constant line angle z β . In the chart wavelength
scales corresponding to the line angle are included around the outside edge of the
chart.
• For a lossy line not terminated in its characteristic impedance the path of travel on
the chart from the load to the generator is a decreasing logarithmic spiral.
Single Stub Matching

• Plot the normalized impedance and draw the constant SWR circle on Smith chart.
• Move a distance of 4 λ along the constant SWR circle to locate load admittance.
Let it be
1
P
• On the SWR circle nearest to the load admittance point locate a point, which
represents admittance jb ± 1 . This is the point of intersection of constant SWR circle
and 1 = r circle. Let it be
2
P
1
P and
2
P using the scale provided at the
circumference of the chart. This gives the distance in wavelengths where the
stub has to be placed from the load.

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44
o Starting from the point ( ∞ ∞ j , ) find the distance of the point at which the
susceptance is jb ± . This gives the length of the short-circuited stub in
wavelengths to be connected for matching.
Double-Stub Matching

• Single stub matching is impractical when the stub is not being able to be placed
physically in the ideal location. Particularly it is very difficult to place the stub at the
exact required location in the case of coaxial lines.

• Plot the normalized
impedance and draw the
constant SWR circle on
Smith chart. Move a
distance of 4 λ along the
constant SWR circle to
Let it be
1
P
• From the point
1
P move a
distance equal to that of
the first stub from the
SWR circle towards the
generator and locate its
1 d
y
• Matching is not possible if
1 d
y is within 2 = g circle for stub spacing is 8 λ or 8 3λ
and 1 = g circle for stub spacing of 4 λ

• Draw the spacing circle, which is the constant conductance unity circle, rotated
counter clockwise by
λ
λ
d ×
4
360
degrees,
λ
d is the distance between the stubs in
wavelengths.
• Move from
1 d
y along constant − g circle to intersect spacing circle at two points
representing
11
y and
'
11
y . And then find the lengths of the SC stubs which can
neutralize the reactive parts of
11
y and
'
11
y
• If the load admittance is inside the forbidden region, move out of it clockwise along
constant SWR circle. The distance thus travelled gives the position of the stub from

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45
Multiple choice questions

1. The Smith chart is [D ]
a) A Polar plot b) represents complex reflection coefficient
c) Inscribed in a unity circle d) all

2. The complete circles in the smith chart represent [C ]
a) Normalized resistance
b) Normalized conductance
c) Both d) none

3. The arcs in the smith chart represent [C ]
a) Normalized reactance
b) Normalized susceptance
c) Both d) none

4. The circles and arcs over the smith chart are [A ]
a) Orthogonal b) opposite to each other
c) At 45
0
d) None
5. The upper half of the smith chart represents [C ]
a) Inductive reactance b) inductive susceptance
c) Both d) None

6. The lower half of the smith chart represents [C ]
a) Capacitive reactance b) capacitive susceptance
c) Both d) None
7. The radius of the constant SWR circle is [C ]
a) Voltage SWR b) current SWR
c) Both d) None
8. The centre of the constant SWR circle is [C ]
a) ‘1’of horizontal line b) centre of the chart
c) Both d) None

9. The smith chart represents the line for a length of [ ]
a) 2
g
λ b) 2 λ
c) λ d) None

10. In the left half of the chart, the resistance [ ]
and reactance values are

a) Less than 1 b) more than 1

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46
c) Both d) None

11. In the right half of the chart, the resistance and [ ]
reactance values are
a) Less than 1 b) more than 1
c) Both d) None

12. The left most point of the chart represents [ ]
a) ( ) 0, 0 b) ( ) , ∞ ∞
c) Either one d) None

13. The right most point of the chart represents [ ]
a) ( ) 0, 0 b) ( ) , ∞ ∞
c) Either one d) None
14. The top most point of the chart represents [ ]
a) ( ) 1,1 b) ( ) 1, 1 − −
c) Either one d) None
15. The bottom most point of the chart represents [ ]
a) ( ) 1,1 b) ( ) 1, 1 − −
c) Either one d) None
16. Smith chart is always used with [B ]
a) Normalized impedances
c) Both d) None

17. Smith chart is useful to analyse [ ]
a) Loss-less lines b) lossy-lines
c) Both d) None

18. The horizontal line left of the centre represents [ ]
a)
max min
, V I b)
min max
, V I
c) Both d) None

19. The horizontal line right of the centre represents [ ]
a)
max min
, V I b)
min max
, V I
c) Both d) None
20. Towards load over the line corresponds [ ]

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a) Clock-wise rotation over the smith chart
b) Anti-clockwise rotation over the smith chart
c) Both d) none
21. Towards source over the line corresponds [ ]
a) Clock-wise rotation over the smith chart
b) Anti-clockwise rotation over the smith chart
c) Both d) none

22. The point over constant SWR circle diametrically [ ]
opposite to load impedance point represents
c) either one d) None

23. The point over constant SWR circle diametrically [ ]
c) Either one d) None
24. Travel of length 2
g
λ over the line corresponds [ ]
rotation over the chart
a)
0
180 b)
0
360
c)
0
90 c) None

25. If the load is pure reactance, then the load point [ ]
over the smith chart stays
a) At the periphery b) over the horizontal line
c) In the lower half d) in the upper half

26. If the load is pure resistance, then the load point [ ]
over the smith chart stays
a) At the periphery b) over the horizontal line
c) In the lower half d) in the upper half
27. The centre of the arcs of the smith chart is [C ]
a) ( ) 1 , 0 r r + b) ( ) 1,1 x
c) ( ) ( )
1 ,1 r r + d) ( ) 1, 1 r r +

28. The centre of the circles of the smith chart is [C ]
a) ( ) 1 , 0 r r + b) ( ) 1,1 x
c) ( ) ( )
1 ,1 r r + d) ( ) 1, 1 r r +
29. The load impedance is pure resistance equal to [ ]
characteristic impedance of line, then the

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48
load point over the smith chart will be
a) At the centre b) at the periphery
c) in the upper half d) in the lower half

30. In wave meter the pointer is [B ]
a) Oscillatory b) Rotary
c) Stationary d) None

31. In the bench the source is always followed by [B ]
a) Attenuator b) Isolator
c) Wave meter d) Detector

32. In the bench the source is modulated by a frequency [A ]
a) 1 KHz b) 10 KHz
c) 100 KHz d) None

33. Tunable probe exists over / in [B ]
a) VSWR meter b) Slotted section
c) Attenuator d) None

34. The method used to measure high VSWR is [B ]
a) Slotted line method b) Double minimum method
c) Both d) None

35. Low VSWR method can be used to measure VSWR up to [A ]
a) ten b) five
c) three d) None

36. In low VSWR method, in VSWR meter the pattern maximum [A ]
is set to

a) One b) zero db
c) Both d) None
37. In high VSWR method, in VSWR meter the pattern minimum [C ]
is set to
a) One b) zero db
c) Three db d) None

38. While measuring guide wave length, the termination of the bench [A ]
must be
a) Short b) Matched termination
c) Open d) None

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49

39. While measuring guide wave length, always minimum points are [C ]
considered because
a) Minima are sharp b) minima are easily locatable
c) Both d) None
40. Guide wave length does not depend upon [A ]
a) Termination b) frequency
c) Mode of the wave d) none
41. While measuring attenuation, the termination of the bench must be [B ]
a) Short b) Matched termination
c) Open d) None

42. Short is required at a distance from diode in wave guide detector [B ]
a)
4
λ
b)
4
g
λ

c)
2
λ
d) None

43. Gyrator gives a phase shift to a wave travelling from output [B ]
to input
a) 180
o
b) 0
o

c) 90
o
d) None

44. Calibration standards are [C ]
a) Rotary type phase shifter b) Rotary type attenuator
c) Both d) None

45. When the depth of penetration is > λ /4, the susceptance
of the probe is [ ]
a) Inductive b) Capacitive
c) Nil d) None
46. The range of VSWR in db indicated VSWR meter is [B ]
a) 0-2db b) 0-10db
c) 0-5db d) 0-100db

38. For low power measurement the technique used is [A ]
a) Bolometer technique b) Calorimeter technique c)
Reflect meter technique d) Calorimetric wave meter technique

39. The temperature coefficient of the Thermisters is [ ]
a) Positive b) negative
c) Zero d) None

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40. The ‘Q’ of Cavity with single opening can be measured [ ]
a) Transmission method b) Double minimum method
c) Both d) None
41. Barretters have [ ]
a. Positive temp efficient of resistance
b. Negative temp coefficient of resistance
c. Both d) None
42. The magic T can be used for the measurement of [B ]
a) Frequency b) Impedance
c) Q factor d) None

43. Impedance of the line to the left of voltage minimum is [ ]
a) Inductive b) capacitive
c) High resistance d) low resistance

44. Impedance of the line to the right of voltage minimum is [ ]
a) Inductive b) capacitive
c) High resistance d) low resistance

45. Impedance of the line at the voltage minimum is [ ]
a) Inductive b) capacitive
c) High resistance d) low resistance

46. Impedance of the line at the voltage maximum is [ ]
a) Inductive b) capacitive
c) High resistance d) low resistance

47. Thermo couple is a junction of [B ]
a) Two similar metals b) Two dissimilar metals
c) Identical but different lengths d) None

48. The relation between VSWR (S) & reflection coefficient (P) is [ ]
a) S =
P
P
+

1
1
b) S =
P
P

+
1
1

c) S =
P
P
+ 1
d) None

49. If
r
P is reflected power,
i
P is the incident power, [B ]
the reflection coefficient ‘P’ is
a)
r i
P P b)
r i
P P

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51
c)
i r
P P d)
i r
P P

50. Q – factor is measured using [ ]
a) Reflect meter method b) Transmission method
c) Power ratio method d) None

51. The bolometer that is having a negative temperature coefficient [ ]
of resistivity that is called
a) Barrater b) Varistor
c) Thermisters d) Calorimeter

52. In laboratory experiments the output from Reflex [ ]
Klystrons are modulated by square waves because
a) It is easy generative a square wave b) It prevents frequency modulation
c) Detector circuit is easy to design d) The termination is less complicated

53. In microwave power measurement using bolometer the principle of working is the
variation of
a) Inductance with absorption of power b) Resistance with absorption of
power
c) Capacitance with absorption of power d) All

54. We use two 20db directional couplers along with two [ ]
detectors in which technique of impedance measurement
a) Slotted line b) Reflecto-meter
c) Heterodyne technique d) None

55. We use two matched detector in which
technique of q factor measurement [ ]
a) Slotted line b) Reflectometers
c) Heterodyne technique d) None

56. .The technique used to measure the dielectric constant is [ ]
a) Slotted line b) Waveguide method
c) Reflect meter method d) Wave meter method

57. for impedance measurement the following oscillator is used [ ]
a) Reflex klystron tube oscillator b) Gunn oscillator

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c) a and b d) a or b

Logarithmic units
9 Two voltages, or currents, differ by one neper when one of them is ‘ e ’ times
as large as the other.
1 1
2 2
nepers ln ln
V I
N
V I
= = .
The ratio of input to output power can be expressed as
2 1
2
N
P
e
P
=
9 The bel is defined as the logarithm of a power ratio,

1
2
number of bels=log
P
P

As it is more convenient to handle with a smaller unit, decibel abbreviated ‘db’
which is one tenth of a bel has been defined.

1
2
db=10log
P
P

In terms of voltages and currents
1 1
2 2
20log 20log
V I
db
V I
= =
9 Nepers and dbs are related through
2 10
10
N db
e = giving 1neper 8.686db =

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MICROWAVE ENGINEERING

Microwaves:

• The term microwaves refer to ac signals of small or tiny wavelengths. Even though the
limits of the microwave frequency range are not defined, the frequencies which fall in

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54
between 0.3 GHz to 300GHz with corresponding wavelength between 1m to 1mm
respectively are considered as microwave region..

HF 3-30 MHz 100-10 mts
VHF 30-300MHz 10-1 mts
UHF 0.3-1GHz 100-30 cm.
L-BAND 1-2 GHz 30-15 cm.
S-BAND 2-4 GHz 15-7.5 cm.
C-BAND 4-8GHz 7.5-3.75 cm.
X-BAND 8-12GHz 3.75-2.5 cm.
K
u
-BAND 12-18GHz 2.5-1.67 cm.
K-BAND 18-26GHz 1.67-1.0 cm.
K
a
-BAND 26-40GHz 10-7.5 mm.
MILLIMETER WAVES 40-300GHz 7.5-1 mm.
SUB-MILLIMETER
WAVES
>300GHz < 0.1 cm.

Salient Features

• Possibility of larger bandwidths: More band width (information-carrying capacity) is
possible
• Possibility of smaller sized systems: Miniaturized communication systems possible
because high gains are possible with a given physical size of antenna at microwave
frequencies.
• Frequency reusability: Satellite and terrestrial communication links with high capacities
are possible with frequency reuse at minimally distant locations because wave signals
travel by line of sight.
• Achievability of larger antenna gains: More radar cross section and more antenna gain at
microwave frequencies make these frequencies preferred for radar systems.
• Various molecular, atomic and nuclear resonance occur at microwave frequencies giving
rise to applications in the areas of remote sensing, medical diagnostics and treatment and
heating methods.

Major Applications

• Radar: these are the systems used for detecting and locating air, ground or sea going
targets and also for air-traffic control systems, missile tracking radars, automobile

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55
collision-avoidance systems, whether prediction, motion detectors, and a wide variety of
remote sensing systems.
• Communication systems: a large fraction of the wire less communication systems is micro
wave communication systems that include long haul trunk telephone, data, and television
transmissions. Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television, cellular video(CV) systems and
global positioning satellite systems(GPS) also use the microwave technology.
• Microwave Heating: Microwave oven is one application which is used not only for
heating food but also in industrial and medical applications. The source used is in general
a Magnetron tube operating at 12.5GHz with power out of either 500 or 1500W. When
compared to conventional cooking, microwave cooking generally gives faster and more
uniform heating of food more cooking efficiency.
• Energy Transfer: It is still in a stage of conception or infancy. Electrical power
transmission lines are very efficient and convenient to transfer energy but there are cases
where it is inconvenient or impossible to use such power lines. In such cases it is
conceivable that electrical power can be transmitted with out wire by a well focussed
microwave beam. One example is power transmission from solar satellite power station to
earth. Another concept is transmission of electrical power from earth to a vehicle such a
small helicopter or airplane.
• Electronic Warfare: Crippling the military radar and communication systems by deliberate
means such as interference, jamming and other counter measures, is known as electronic
warfare which can be divided into three major heads:
o Electronic support measures (ESM): these are the methods to detect the presence of
a search or tracking radar, or the presence of a jamming signal using a receiver
placed on aircraft, ships or ground vehicles.
o Electronic countermeasures (ECM): these are the methods used to either confuse or
deceive a radar or communication system.
o Electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM): the aim of ECM is to make the radar
or communication system ineffective. The purpose of the ECCM is to make the
crippling too costly to achieve.
Hallow-Pipe Wave-Guides

• George C. Southworth and W.L Barrow invented wave-guides independently in 1930s. Earlier
in 1893 Heaviside considered the possibility of the propagation of the wave inside closed
hallow tube and Lord Raleigh later proved mathematically the possibility of propagation in
wave-guide.

• Hallow-pipe wave-guides are single-conductor systems; usually made with highly conducting
metal walls, which can support TE or TM waves. Wave guides have dimensions that are
convenient in the frequency range of 3 to 100 GHz only.

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56
• If the cross-section is uniform then it is called cylindrical wave-guide, in case of rectangular
cross-section then the guide is called rectangular wave guide and if the cross-section is
circular, the guide is called circular waveguide.
• Wave guides have the advantages of
o Higher power handling capability and low loss
o Mechanical simplicity, simpler to manufacture
o Flash-over less likely
o Higher max. Operating frequency (325 GHz.)
But they are bulky and expensive.
• Coaxial lines have
o very large band width and are convenient for test applications
o But low max. operating frequency(18GHz.) and also it is difficult to fabricate
complex microwave components with coaxial lines
• The wave travels through the dielectric filling the wave guide after getting reflected from the
walls instead of conduction along them. So it is the hallow region through which the wave
actually travels and the purpose of the walls is to confine the wave.
• Even though the behaviour of the wave
is same, the CWGs have geometry,
mode designation and applications
different from that of RWGs.
• CWGs are easy to join, easy to
manufacture but their cross sectional
area is bigger than RWGs for a given
frequency and also rotation of the
plane of polarization occurs in them.
• A serious disadvantage with CWG is
that there is only a very narrow range between the cut-off wavelength of the dominant mode
and the cut-off wavelength of the next higher mode. Thus the frequency range over which
pure mode operation is assured is relatively limited.
• RWGs have the plane of the polarization of the wave uniquely defined with E across the
narrow dimension but CWG is the most common form of a dual polarization transmission
line.
• Guide wave length is an important parameter of waveguides which can be defined as the axial
length corresponding to one cycle of variation of the field configuration in the axial
direction. It also represents the distance that a wave travels down the guide when undergoing
a phase shift of 2π radians.
Wave-guides compared with transmission lines:

• Wave guides are single conductor systems where as transmission lines are multi-conductor
systems.

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57
• Energy travels in the form of TE or TM or hybrid mode wave in wave guides whereas in
transmission lines it travels always in TEM wave.
• The frequency of the wave must be larger than certain value known as cut off frequency in
order to be propagated through the wave guide whereas the wave of any frequency can be
transmitted along the transmission line.
• Modal propagation is an important and special feature of the energy transfer through the
waveguides where as the field distribution in transmission lines is non-modal in nature.

Analysis

In this section we find the field-distribution in the hallow pipe waveguides of both
the rectangular as well as circular geometries. As the rectangular waveguide involves
rectangular symmetry, Cartesian co-ordination is used in their analysis where as cylindrical
coordinate system is used for circular waveguides as they involve cylindrical symmetry.
The procedure to be followed is same in the both the cases. Using Maxwell’s curl
equations the transverse components are expressed in terms of longitudinal components in
order to reduce the volume of the problem to one third: now the no. of unknowns is two.
These two unknowns are then found by solving their respective wave equations.

Fields in Rectangular waveguides:

Let us suppose the wave-guide with inner dimensions a and b , b a ≥ is lying along
z −axis carrying a travelling wave in the positive z direction. The walls of the waveguide
are made with perfect conductor i.e. conductivity σ of the walls is ∞ and that hallow region
is a perfect dielectric i.e. its conductivityσ is zero.
Let us also suppose the time variations of the field quantities are exponential i.e.
j t
e
ω
. If
the time variations are exponential then the fields
must vary in the same manner i.e. exponentially
along the direction of the propagation of the wave,
according to transmission line theory. So the fields
must vary with z as
z
e
γ
where γ is known as the
propagation constant which in general is a complex
quantity j α β + .
The propagation constant γ is an important
parameter describing the behaviour of the medium
with respect to the wave. The real part α is known
as the attenuation constant representing the attenuation offered to the wave by the medium.
Te imaginary part β is known as the phase shift constant representing the phase change in
the wave motion. If the medium offers no attenuation to the wave motion, then attenuation

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58
constant 0 α = making the propagation constant γ a pure imaginary quantity i.e. γ jβ = .
If the medium does not allow the wave into it behaving like a pure attenuator then 0 β =
making the propagation constant γ a pure real quantity i.e. γ α = . In general, when the
wave is travelling through the medium, some amount of attenuation is offered by the
medium; for such case the propagation constant is complex j γ α β = + .
In the present case, where the walls of the waveguide are made with perfect conductor
and hallow region is a perfect dielectric, the power of the can not be absorbed by any one of
them. Because perfect conductor walls are equivalent to a short circuit load and perfect
dielectric region is equivalent to a open circuit load of circuit theory. The net result is
unattenuated transmission of the wave with the propagation constant a pure imaginary
quantity i.e. γ jβ = .
If E and H are electric and magnetic fields at an arbitrary point P in the hallow region,
they must be related through the Maxwell’s curl equations.
t
D
H

= × ∇ ;
t
B
E

− = × ∇ .
Here the fields are function of , , and x y z t . Apart from this the fields and also their
individual components separately obey wave equations.
In the analysis we aim to find the fields E and H which are vectors and so in
general each one must have three components.. We find all the six components
x
E ,
y
E ,
z
E ,
x
H ,
y
H and
z
H of the fields first by expressing the transverse components
x
E ,
y
E ,
x
H and
y
H in terms of the longitudinal ones,
z
E and
z
H and then finding the
longitudinal components by solving their wave equations.

The longitudinal components of the fields can be expressed in terms of the transverse
components.

=
x
H
2
z
H
h x
γ ∂

y
E
h
j
z

+
2
ωε
: =
y
H
2
z
H
h y
γ ∂

∂ x
E
h
j
z

2
ωε

=
x
E
2
z
E
h x
γ ∂

y
H
h
j
z

2
ωµ
: =
y
E
2
z
E
h y
γ ∂

∂ x
H
h
j
z

+
2
ωµ

where
2 2 2
h γ ω µε = + is called the characteristic equation. The constant h is also
denoted frequently as
c
k and called cut-off wave number. In the above relations all the field
quantities are functions of x and y only.

Critical Observations that can be made are: With 0 =
z
E , 0 =
z
H simultaneously all the
field components become zero indicating TEM cannot exist inside the wave-guide.
With 0 ≠
z
E , 0 =
z
H all the components are not zero indicating the possibility of TM wave
in the waveguide. With 0 =
z
E , 0 ≠
z
H there exist non-zero field components indicating

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59
possibility of TE wave. With 0 ≠
z
E , 0 ≠
z
H the wave can exist in the guide, as there are
non-zero field components. This wave called hybrid or mixed wave.

We find
z
E and
z
H by solving the wave equations which are partial differential
equations and hence their particular solution requires boundary conditions.

The boundary conditions to be used in the present context while solving the wave
equation are derived from the fact that the tangential component of the electric field at the
surface of the perfect conductor is zero. At 0 = y and b y = lies inner surfaces of the
x
E
z
E = 0 . At 0 = x and a x= lies the inner surfaces of the narrow walls
=
y
E
z
E = 0

Transverse Magnetic(TM) wave. 0 =
z
H

Wave equation for
z
E is
2
2
2
t
E
E
z
z

= ∇ µε .
With exponential time-variations as well as z -variations i.e.
( ) ( ) , , , ,
z j t
z z
E x y z t E x y e e
γ ω −
=
the wave equation becomes
2 2
2 2
2 2
z z
z z
E E
E E
x y
γ ω µε
∂ ∂
+ + = −
∂ ∂
.
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
z z
z
E E
E
x y
γ ω µε
∂ ∂
+ + + =
∂ ∂

2 2
2
2 2
0
z z
z
E E
h E
x y
∂ ∂
+ + =
∂ ∂

This equation, known as Helmholtz equation, is a second order, two dimensional partial
differential equation in which
z
E is function of the x and y only i.e. it doesn’t involve z or
t .

This equation can be solved using method of variable separation. According to this
method, let
z
E XY = where X is function of variable x alone and Y is a function of variable
y alone. With this assumption the above wave equation can be decomposed into two second
order ordinary differential equations for which solutions are readily available.
2 2
2
2 2
1 1
0
d X d Y
h
X dx Y dy
+ + =

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60
Let us suppose
2
2
2
1 d X
A
X dx
= − where A is an arbitrary constant. They the above equation becomes
2
2 2
2
1
0
d Y
A h
Y dy
− + + =
( )
2
2 2 2
2
1 d Y
h A B
Y dy
= − − = − where B is another arbitrary constant. Here
2 2 2
h A B = + .
The general solutions to the above equations are
1 2
cos sin X c Ax c Ax = + and
3 4
cos sin Y c By c By = + making
( )( )
1 2 3 4
cos sin cos sin
z
E XY c Ax c Ax c By c By = = + + where
1 2 3 4
, , and c c c c are arbitrary
constants whose values can be fixed with the boundary conditions.
Now applying the boundary conditions 0 at 0, 0
z
E x y = = = give
1 3
0, 0 c c = = whereas the
conditions 0 at ,
z
E x a y b = = = give and
m n
A B
a b
π π
= = . Now if the product
2 4
, another arbitraryconstant c c C = , then
sin sin
j z
z
m n
E C x y e
a b
β
π π

| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
and
2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
b
n
a
m
h
π π

With these values of
z
H and
z
E other components can be computed using the
relations connecting transverse components to longitudinal ones. After including the
exponential time variations and z −variations, the complete set of the field components in
the wave guide are
0 =
z
H ; sin sin
j z j t
z
m n
E C x y e e
a b
β ω
π π

| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

2
cos sin
j z j t
x
j m n
E B C x y e e
h a b
β ω
β π π

| |
− | | | |
=
|
| |
\ . \ .
\ .

2
sin cos
j z j t
y
j m n
E A C x y e e
h a b
β ω
β π π

| |
− | | | |
=
|
| |
\ . \ .
\ .

2
sin cos
j z j t
x
j m n
H A C x y e e
h a b
β ω
ωε π π

| | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

2
cos sin
j z j t
y
j m n
H B C x y e e
h a b
β ω
ωε π π

− | | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Transverse Electric(TE) type wave:. 0 =
z
E

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61
Wave equation for
z
H is
2
2
2
t
H
H
z
z

= ∇ µε .
When the time and z -variations are exponential i.e. ( ) ( ) , , , ,
z j t
z z
H x y z t H x y e e
γ ω −
=
the wave equation becomes
2 2
2 2
2 2
z z
z z
H H
H H
x y
γ ω µε
∂ ∂
+ + = −
∂ ∂
.
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
z z
z
H H
H
x y
γ ω µε
∂ ∂
+ + + =
∂ ∂

2 2
2
2 2
0
z z
z
H H
h H
x y
∂ ∂
+ + =
∂ ∂

In this equation
z
H is function of the x and y only. Solving this equation using method
of variables separation, the general solution will be
( )( )
1 2 3 4
cos sin cos sin
z
H XY c Ax c Ax c By c By = = + +
where
1 2 3 4
, , and c c c c are arbitrary constants whose values can be fixed with the boundary
conditions. As the boundary conditions are not available on
z
H and available on
x
E and
y
E ,
find these transverse components of the electric field using the available expressions for
z
H
and
z
E . Then apply the boundary conditions to fix the values of the arbitrary constants.

0 at 0 and 0 at 0
y x
E x E y = = = = give
2 4
0, 0 c c = = whereas the conditions
0 at and 0 at
y x
E x a E y b = = = = give and
m n
A B
a b
π π
= = . Now if the product
'
1 3
, another arbitraryconstant c c C = , then

2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
b
n
a
m
h
π π
and
'
cos cos
j z
z
m n
H C x y e
a b
β
π π

| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

As the boundary conditions are not available on
z
H , with the general solution for
z
H
obtain
x
E ,
y
E using the relations connecting transverse components to lateral components
and then fix the values for the constants with the available boundary conditions. With these
values of
z
H and
z
E other components can be computed using the relations connecting
transverse components to longitudinal ones.

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62
0 =
z
E ; ' cos cos
j z j t
z
m n
H C x y e e
a b
β ω
π π

| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

2
' cos sin
j z j t
x
j m n
E A C x y e e
h a b
β ω
ωµ π π

| | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

2
' sin cos
j z j t
y
j m n
E B C x y e e
h a b
β ω
ωµ π π

− | | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

2
' sin cos
j z j t
x
j m n
H B C x y e e
h a b
β ω
β π π

| |
| | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

2
' cos sin
j z j t
y
j m n
H A C x y e e
h a b
β ω
β π π

| |
| | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

Filter characteristics of the rectangular waveguides:

The hallow pipe waveguides behave like high-pass filters. They admit and allow the wave to
propagate through them only if the frequency of the wave is more than certain value known
as the cut off frequency whose value depends upon the dimensions of the guide and the
mode of the wave.
Cut-off frequency
c
f : It is the frequency above which the frequency of the wave should
be in order to get entry into the wave guide for propagating through it. It depends upon the
dimensions of the guide and as well on the mode of the wave.
Cut-off wavelength
c
λ : The wavelength corresponding to cut-off frequency is called cut-
off wavelength. It can be defined as the wavelength below which the wavelength of the
wave should be in order to get entry into the waveguide for propagating through it. Its value
is related to the dimensions of the guide and mode numbers of the wave through
2 2
2
c
m n
a b
λ
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
.

Proof:

We know the propagation constant γ can be related to the frequency ω of the wave
through
2 2 2
h γ ω µε = − or
2 2
h γ ω µε = −
Depending upon the relation between
2
h and
2
ω µε the propagation constant γ can be pure
real or imaginary.
When
2 2
h ω µε > the propagation constant is pure real quantity indicating that the
wave guide is acting as a pure attenuator without wave motion refusing entry to the wave.

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63
When
2 2
h ω µε < the propagation constant is pure imaginary quantity indicating that the
wave guide is acting as a pure transmission line without any attenuation to the wave. This
must be the case to which the waveguide under consideration belongs because the wave is
already in and loss less condition is assumed.

The change over in the behaviour of the waveguide from pure attenuator to pure
transmission line takes place as the frequency is increased from low to high when
2 2
h ω µε = . The frequency of the wave which satisfies this relation is called cut off
frequency
c
ω . Hence
2 2
c
h ω µε = . But
2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
b
n
a
m
h
π π

Solving for
c
f we get
2 2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
b
n
a
m
f
c
µε

The corresponding wavelength, cut off wave length can be found from
2 2
1
2
c
c c
v m n
a b f f
λ
µε
| | | |
= = = +
| |
\ . \ .

Cut-off frequency
c
f and Cut-off wavelength
c
λ are same for both the types of the wave i.e.
TE or TM in rectangular wave guides.

Modal propagation characteristics of rectangular waveguides:

The electromagnetic energy propagation along a wave guide in the form of some
definite field patterns known as ‘modes’ is an important and special feature of the energy
propagation through the wave guides. The mode subscripts in RWG are denoted with m
and n in that order as
mn
TE or
mn
TM .
• Subscripts m and n indicate the number of half period variations of the fields along
x and y directions respectively. For TM wave m and n can assume any integer value
from 1, 2, 3 etc. For TE wave m and n can assume any integer value from 1, 2, 3 etc.
but either m or n only one at a time can assume zero value.
• Dominant mode of a wave-guide is one, which has the lowest cut-off frequency. It is
10
TE for RWG. The significance of the dominant mode is smaller wave-guide is
sufficient to transmit a given frequency dominant modes. Another advantage is as the
frequency can be transmitted in dominant mode in a guide that is too small to hold

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64
higher order modes the energy loss through the generation of spurious modes is
prevented.
• For this mode the cut-off wavelength is twice the inner distance between side
walls::
0
2a λ = .
• The field components when the wave is in dominant mode are

2
2
0 ; ' cos
0 ; ' sin
' sin ; 0
j z j t
z z
j z j t
x x
j z j t
y y
E H C x e e
a
j
E H B C x e e
h a
j
E B C x e e H
h a
β ω
β ω
β ω
π
β π
ωµ π

| |
= =
|
\ .
| |
| |
= =
| |
\ .
\ .
− | | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

• We can observe the electric field is entirely in y − direction whereas the magnetic field
is devoid of a component in y − direction.
• Regarding the field distribution in y − direction, the electric field is maximum at the
middle of the guide becoming nil at the ends.
• The magnetic field has both x and z components; so it can only be in the xz −plane
• Any plane containing E vector and parallel to the narrow walls of the waveguide is
called E − plane where as the plane containing H vector and parallel to the broader
walls is called H −plane.

• Higher order modes i.e. modes with large m and n values can be used to transmit several
signals simultaneously through one wave-guide. These modes, as they require the wave
guides of larger dimensions, are also capable of transmitting higher frequencies. But
they are difficult to excite and also require wave-guides of larger dimensions to transmit
a given frequency.
• Degenerate modes are different modes of wave-guides having the same cut-off
frequency. Ex.
mn
TE and
mn
TM .
• Evanescent modes are modes which are beyond cut off i.e. wavelength more than cut-off
value and so cannot propagate. They represent localized field distribution i.e. induction
fields, that introduce reactive effects but do not carry energy away from the point of
origin as does the dominant mode.
• Suppression of unwanted modes: It is preferred to operate waveguides so that only single
pure mode is present because coupling systems and terminations can be designed on the
basis of a definitely known type of field pattern. Waveguide carrying more than one
mode is called ‘overmoded’

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65
o In most of the cases, the dominant mode is preferred because the guide then has
the smallest possible dimensions and the undesired modes can be very simply
eliminated.
• By proportioning the guide so that it is large enough to transmit the dominant
mode while too small to permit propagation of any other mode, the higher modes
do not travel down the guide, but rather are confined to the region where they are
generated.
• In rectangular guides, when the guide is so proportioned that 2 a b = there is a
two to one frequency range over which only the dominant mode propagates. In
contrast if the guide were square, the
01
TE mode would have the same cut off
wavelength as the
10
TE mode, and there would be no frequency range over which
only a single mode would propagate. Because of the considerations of this type,
rectangular guides are practically always proportioned so that 2 a b = , as this
ratio gives the best mode separation of all possible proportions.
• If the ratio 2 a b < then the range frequencies over which single mode
propagation is possible gets reduced. If the ratio 2 a b > then the power handling
capability of the waveguide decreases. So the optimum ratio is 2 a b =
o Dimensions versus frequency: Single mode propagation exists in rectangular wave guide
proportioned so that 2 a b = from a frequency of 2 c a to c a . If lower frequencies are
to be transmitted then 2 c a should be low thus requiring the waveguide of larger
dimensions. To be used for transmitting higher frequencies, c a should be large thus
requiring waveguide of smaller dimensions.

Bandwidth of rectangular waveguides:
The bandwidth of a rectangular waveguide is for all practical purposes, less than a
2:1 frequency range because the mode
20
TE begins to propagate at a frequency equal to twice
the cut off frequency of the
10
TE mode.
The cut off frequency of the dominant mode can be lowered and consequently the
bandwidth increased by loading the waveguide with a conducting ridge on the top and/or
bottom walls.
characteristics making the guide suitable for impedance matching purposes.
The presence of the ridge however reduces the power handling capacity of the
waveguide.

Excitation of the rectangular waveguides:

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66
The mode of propagation of the wave is determined by the type and location of the
excitation. Although either probes or loops may be used as excitation sources, the probes
are normally preferred for their simplicity.
The guide is closed at one end by a conducting wall and an appropriate exciting
probe is inserted through the end or side of the guide. The end of the guide serves as a
reflector and if the distance between the probe and the wall is properly adjusted, the
reflected waves arrive at the probe in phase with the emitted wave, and the two propagate
down the guide as one wave.
The probes should coincide with the positions of maximum electric field intensity in
the modes they are intended to excite, with attention being given to the proper phasing of the
potentials supplied to the probes in accordance with the phasing of the fields to be excited. If
the loops are used for excitation, the plane of the loop will be made normal to the magnetic
field and the loop will be located at a point of maximum magnetic field intensity.

The sources excite not only the desired modes but also higher order unwanted
modes. But the choosing the guide dimensions appropriately, it is possible to have only the

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67
desired wave above cutoff frequency, the other waves then being attenuated and not
propagated.
Fields in Circular Waveguides

Let us suppose the circular wave-guide of inner radius ‘ a ’ is lying along z −axis
carrying travelling wave in positive z direction. The walls of the waveguide are made with
perfect conductor i.e. conductivity σ of the walls is ∞ and that hallow region is a perfect
dielectric i.e. its conductivityσ is zero.

Let us also suppose the time variations of the field quantities are exponential i.e.
j t
e
ω
. If
the time variations of the field quantities are exponential then the fields must vary in the
same manner i.e. exponentially along the direction of the propagation of the wave, according
to transmission line theory. So let us assume the fields vary with z as
z
e
γ
. Here γ is the
propagation constant along the direction of propagation i.e. z − direction, which is in
general a complex quantity α β + .

o α is the attenuation constant along z − direction representing the attenuation to
the wave.
o β is known as the phase shift constant
along z − direction representing the phase shift in
the wave motion.
o Pure real γ indicates no wave motion, only
attenuation.
o Pure imaginaryγ indicates wave motion
with out attenuation.
o Complex quantityγ indicates wave motion
with attenuation.
According to Maxwell where ever time varying
fields exist there electromagnetic field exists and the
converse is also true. As the wave exists inside the waveguide there fields must exist. If
E and H are fields at an arbitrary point P in the hallow region, they must be related through
the Maxwell’s curl equations. As we consider this problem in cylindrical coordinate system,
the fields are functions of , , and . z t ρ φ
The longitudinal components of the fields can be expressed in terms of the transverse
components.

=
ρ
H
ρ
γ

z
H
h
2

φ ρ
ωε

+
z
E
h
j
2
: =
φ
H
φ ρ
γ

z
H
h
2
ρ
ωε

z
E
h
j
2

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68
=
ρ
E
ρ
γ

z
E
h
2

φ ρ
ωµ

z
H
h
j
2
: =
φ
E
φ ρ
γ

z
E
h
2
ρ
ωµ

+
z
H
h
j
2

where µε ω γ
2 2 2
+ = h . The constant h is also denoted frequently as
c
k and called cut-off
wave number.

o The boundary conditions to be used while solving the wave equation are derived based
on the fact that the tangential component of the electric field at the surface of the perfect
conductor is zero. At a = ρ the inner surface of the CWG exists so the tangential
component of the electric field must be zero i.e. =
φ
E
z
E = 0 at a = ρ .

Transverse Magnetic wave 0 =
z
H
Wave equation for
z
E is
2
2
2
t
E
E
z
z

= ∇ µε .
When time variations and z -variations are exponential i.e.
( ) ( )
t j z
z z
e e E t z E
ω γ
φ ρ φ ρ

= , , , , then the wave equation becomes
z
z
z
z z
E
E
E
E E
µε ω
ρ ρ
γ
φ ρ ρ
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
− =

+ +

+

.
In this equation
z
E is function of the ρ and φ only.
This equation can be solved using method of variable separation. According to this method,
let
z
E PQ = where P is function of variable ρ alone and Q is a function of variable φ
alone. With this substitution the above wave equation can be decomposed into two second
order differential equations for which solutions are readily available.
2
2
2
1 d Q
n
Q dx
= −
2 2
2
2 2
0
P P n
h P
ρ ρ ρ ρ
| | ∂ ∂
+ + − =
|
∂ ∂
\ .
where n is an arbitrary integer constant.
The first one is standard second order differential equation for which solution is available.
cos sin
n n
Q A n B n φ φ = +
The second equation is known as the Bessel equation. Its solutions which can represent the
physical fields are known as Bessel functions ( )
n
J h ρ . These are called Bessel functions of
first kind and n order. Now
( ) cos sin ( )
z n n n
E PQ A n B n J h φ φ ρ = = + .

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69
This is general solution and to fix the arbitrary constants we use the boundary conditions.
Applying 0 at
z
E a ρ = = gives
( )
nm
nm
h
a
ha
h = = where ( )
nm
ha are the roots of the equation ( ) 0
n
J ha = in the
increasing order of their magnitude. Hence
( ) ( ) cos sin
j z
z n n n nm
E A n B n J h e
β
φ φ ρ

= +
It is also possible to orient the reference to φ axis so that 0
n
B = . Therefore
( ) cos
j z
z n n nm
E A n J h e
β
φ ρ

=
With these values of
z
H and
z
E other components can be computed using the relations
connecting transverse components to longitudinal ones. And attaching the time-variations
they become

( ) ( ) cos
j z j t
z n n nm
E A J h n e e
β ω
ρ φ

=
( ) ( )
2
sin ;
j z j t
n n nm
nm
j
H nA J h n e e E H
h
β ω
ρ φ ρ
ωε β
ρ φ
ρ ωε

= − =−
( ) ( )
'
cos ;
j z j t
n n nm
nm
j
H A J h n e e E H
h
β ω
φ ρ φ
ωε β
ρ φ
ωε

=− =

Transverse Electric(TE) wave 0 =
z
E

Wave equation for
z
E is

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70
2
2
2
t
H
H
z
z

= ∇ µε .
When both the time and z -variations are exponential i.e. ( ) ( )
t j z
z z
e e H t z H
ω γ
φ ρ φ ρ

= , , , ,
the wave equation becomes
z
z
z
z z
H
H
H
H H
µε ω
ρ ρ
γ
φ ρ ρ
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
− =

+ +

+

.
( )
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
z z z
z z
H H H
H h H ω µε γ
ρ ρ φ ρ ρ
∂ ∂ ∂
+ + = − + = −
∂ ∂ ∂

Note in this equation
z
H is function of the ρ and φ only.
o Solving this equation using method of variable separation and with the initial conditions
mentioned above gives
( )
'
'
nm
nm
h
a
ha
h = = and; =
z
H
'
n
A ( )
'
nm n
h J ρ cos ( ) φ n
z j
e
β −

o As the boundary conditions are not available on
z
H , with the general solution for
z
H
obtain
x
E ,
y
E using the relations connecting transverse components to lateral components
and then fix the values for the constants with the available boundary conditions
o With these values of
z
H and
z
E other components can be computed using the relations
connecting transverse components to longitudinal ones.

( ) ( )
' '
cos
j z
z n n nm
H A J h n e
β
ρ φ

=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
' '
'
' '
' 2
cos ;
sin ;
j z
n n nm
nm
j z
n n nm
nm
j
H A J h n e E H
h
j n
H A J h n e E H
h
β
ρ ρ φ
β
φ φ ρ
β ωµ
ρ φ
β
β ωµ
ρ φ
ρ β

′ = =
= = −

Filter characteristics of the circular waveguide:

Cut-off frequency
c
f and Cut-off wavelength
c
λ : The frequency of the wave should be more
than a certain value, known as cut-off frequency, in order to get admitted into the waveguide
to propagate further. Its value depends upon the dimensions of the guide as well on the mode
of the wave.
µε π 2
nm
c
h
f = for TM and

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71
µε π 2
'
nm
c
h
f = for TE wave.
The wave length corresponding to the cut off frequency is cut off wavelength and it can be
formally defined as the wavelength below which the wavelength of the wave should be in
order to get admitted into the guide to propagate further. Its value depends upon the
dimensions of the guide as well as on the mode of the wave. It is
( )
nm
c
ha
a π
λ
2
= for TM and
( )
,
2
nm
c
ha
a π
λ = for TE wave.
Proof:

We know the propagation constant γ can be related to the frequency ω of the wave
through
2 2 2
h γ ω µε = − or
2 2
h γ ω µε = −
Depending upon the relation between
2
h and
2
ω µε the propagation constant γ can be pure
real or imaginary.
When
2 2
h ω µε > the propagation constant is pure real quantity indicating that the
wave guide is acting as a pure attenuator without wave motion refusing entry to the wave.

When
2 2
h ω µε < the propagation constant is pure imaginary quantity indicating that the
wave guide is acting as a pure transmission line without any attenuation to the wave. This
must be the case to which the waveguide under consideration belongs because the wave is
already in and loss less condition is assumed.

The change over in the behaviour of the waveguide from pure attenuator to pure
transmission line takes place as the frequency is increased from low to high when
2 2
h ω µε = . The frequency of the wave which satisfies this relation is called cut off
frequency
c
ω . Hence
2 2
c
h ω µε = . But
2 2
nm
h h = in case of TM wave and it is

2
nm
h′ = in case of TE wave.
Solving for
c
f we get
µε π 2
nm
c
h
f = for TM and
'
2
nm
h
π µε
= for TE wave.

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72
The corresponding wavelength, cut off wave length can be found from
( )
nm
c
ha
a π
λ
2
= for TM wave and

( )
,
2
nm
a
ha
π
= for TE wave.
In case of the circular wave guides, both the cut-off frequency and cut-off
wavelength depends upon the type of the wave i.e. their values are different for TE and TM
waves in circular wave guides.

Modal propagation characteristics in the circular waveguides:

o The mode subscripts in CWG are denoted with n and min that order as
nm
TE or
nm
TM .
o ‘ n ’ indicates the order of the Bessel function and m indicates the roots of the equation
( ) 0 = x J
n
or ( ) 0
'
= x J
n
in the order of the magnitude.
o The subscript ‘ n ’ can assume any integer value 0, 1, 2, 3 etc. but for the subscript ‘ m ’
zero value is forbidden and so it can assume any integer value 1, 2, 3 etc. Note
10
TE and
00
TM are not possible.
o Dominant mode of a wave-guide is one, which has the lowest cut-off frequency. It is
11
TE for CWG.
o Degenerate modes are different modes of wave-guides having the same cut-off
frequency. Ex.
m
TE
0
and
m
TM
1
.

Dispersive characteristics of the waveguides:

The media in which the velocity of the wave depends upon its frequency are called
dispersive media. Otherwise they are called non-dispersive media. The velocities of the
wave, both phase as well as the group velocity, in the wave guide vary with the frequency
and hence hallow pipe wave guide is a dispersive medium. Also the TE/TM waves carried
by these media are dispersive waves.
Dispersion of the signal spoils the original phase relation between different frequency
components as it travels down the guide leading to signal distortion.

o Guide wavelength
g
λ : It is the distance between two consecutive equi-phase planes in
the wave-guide.
It is related to cut-off wavelength through the relation ( )
2
1
g c
λ λ λ λ = −

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73
o Phase/wave velocity
p
v : It is the velocity at which the phase of the wave changes along
the length of the guide.. It is more than or equal to the velocity of wave in free space. It is by
definition equal to
( ) ( )
2
1
p c
v v ω β λ λ = = −
o Group velocity
g
v : It is the velocity with which a narrow band signal travels in the guide.
It is always less than velocity of wave in free space.
( )
( )
1
2
1
g c
v d d v β ω λ λ

= = −

Proof:

We know for the hallow pipe waveguide, either rectangular or circular, the propagation
constant is

2 2
h γ ω µε = −
In the present case, it is given that the waveguide is lossless and the wave is inside, so the
propagation constant γ must be pure imaginary i.e.
2 2
h j γ ω µε β = − =
And hence the phase shift constant becomes
2 2
h β ω µε = −
But we have
2 2
c
h ω µε = . So the phase shift constant becomes
2 2
c
β ω µε ω µε = −
( )
2
1
c
ω µε ω ω = − ( )
2
1
c
f f ω µε = − ( )
2
1
c
ω µε λ λ = −
To be precise, γ is the propagation constant along the z −direction i.e. along the length of
the waveguide. So β must be the phase shift constant along the length of the waveguide. By
definition phase shift constant is phase shift per unit length and in this case the length has to
be considered along the z −direction. Hence
2
g
π
β
λ
=
where
g
λ is the wavelength along the z −direction called guide wavelength. Now

2
g
π
λ
β
=

( )
2
2
1
c
π
ω µε λ λ
=
− ( )
2
2
2 1
c
f
f
π λ
π λ λ
=
− ( )
2
1
c
λ
λ λ
=

.
Here we used the relation 1 v f λ µε = = for the velocity of the wave.
The phase velocity of the wave, from its basic definition, is

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74
p
v
ω
β
=
Substituting
( )
2
1
c
β ω µε λ λ = −
we get
( )
2
1
p c
v v λ λ = −
Similarly from its basic definition, the group velocity of the wave can be related to free
space wavelength and guide wavelength by
( )
( )
1
2
1
g c
v d d v β ω λ λ

= = −
As the frequency of the wave is increased from the cut-off value to infinity, guide
wavelength and phase velocity vary from infinity to their free space value where as the
group velocity varies from zero to its free space value.
The phase velocity and group velocity are same for TEM wave. None of these two
depends upon the frequency and so TEM wave is non dispersive.

Impedances of the waveguides:

Oliver Heavyside first coined the term impedance in nineteenth century to describe the
complex ratio V I in AC circuits. Schelkunoff extended this concept to electromagnetic
fields in a systematic way and noted that impedance should be considered as a characteristic
of the type of field as well as the medium.
o Wave impedance
z
Z of a wave-guide is defined as the ratio of transverse electric field
strength to transverse magnetic field strength.
In case of rectangular waveguides
2 2
2 2
x y
trans
z
trans
x y
E E
E
Z
H
H H
+
= =
+

( )
2
1 for TE mode wave
c
η λ λ = −
( )
2
1 for TM mode wave
c
η λ λ = −
In case of circular waveguides
2 2
2 2
trans
z
trans
E E
E
Z
H
H H
ρ φ
ρ φ
+
= =
+

( )
2
1 for TE mode wave
c
η λ λ = −
( )
2
1 for TM mode wave
c
η λ λ = −

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75
Proof:

Let us first consider the rectangular waveguides.
For TE mode
=
x
E
y
H
h
j
z

2
ωµ
: =
y
E
x
H
h
j
z

+
2
ωµ

=
x
H
2
z
H
h x
γ ∂

: =
y
H
2
z
H
h y
γ ∂

Substituting these expressions with j γ β = in the basic defining relation we get
2
2
g
z
f
Z
π µλ
ωµ
β π
= =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 1
c c c
f v λµ µ µ
λ λ λ λ µε λ λ
= = =
− − −

( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
c c
µ
λ λ η λ λ
ε
= − = −

For TM mode
=
x
E
2
z
E
h x
γ ∂

: =
y
E
2
z
E
h y
γ ∂

=
x
H
y
E
h
j
z

+
2
ωε
: =
y
H
x
E
h
j
z

2
ωε

Substituting these expressions with j γ β = in the basic defining relation we get
2
2
z
g
Z
f
β π
ωε π ελ
= =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 1
c c c
f v
λ λ λ λ µε λ λ
λε ε ε
− − −
= = =
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
c c
µ
λ λ η λ λ
ε
= − = −

The relations for circular waveguide can be derived by following the procedure similar to
that for rectangular waveguides.

In general the wave impedance is a characteristic of the particular type of wave TEM,
TE, and TM which may depend upon the type of line or guide, the material and the
operating frequency.

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76
The wave impedance of the waveguide medium can be likened conceptually to the
intrinsic impedance of the free space medium.

o Characteristic impedance
0
Z : The concept of the Characteristic impedance has been
borrowed into wave guides from the transmission line theory. It has been defined in several
different ways for a finite length line in transmission line theory in terms of the voltages and
currents over the line and power through the line in the following forms.
Voltage-current formula ( )
I
V
I V Z = ,
0
,
Power-current formula ( )

=
II
P
I P Z
2
,
0
,
Power-voltage formula ( )
P
VV
V P Z
2
,
0

=
where V and I are voltage and current and P is the power flowing over the line
when extended to infinity, all represent peak phasors.
o All the above formulae give same value for low frequency line carrying TEM
wave, but different values for different modes of wave-guide, which carry TE and TM
waves.
o In case of rectangular waveguides, for dominant wave
Voltage-current formula gives ( )
TE
Z
a
b
I V Z
2
,
0
π
= ,
Power-current formula ( ) ( ) I V Z I P Z .
4
,
0 0
π
= ,
Power-voltage formula ( ) ( ) I V Z V P Z ,
4
,
0 0
π
=
o In case of circular waveguides, for dominant wave
Voltage-current formula gives ( )
0
, 520
g
Z V I
λ
λ
= ,
Power-current formula ( )
0
, 354
g
Z P I
λ
λ
= ,
Power-voltage formula ( )
0
, 764
g
Z P V
λ
λ
=

o Since voltages and impedances are not uniquely defined for TE and TM waves
their characteristic impedance cannot be unique and for such waves it can be defined in
several ways.
To match a wave-guide to an uniquely defined impedance, the usual approach is to use the
definition that gives best agreement between theory and experimental data.

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77
Attenuation of the waveguides:

o Attenuation of the wave-guides can be divided into two categories. Reflective
attenuation and dissipative attenuation.
.
o Reflective attenuation When the frequency of the wave is less than the cut-off frequency
(
c
f f < ) it cannot enter into the wave-guide. This behaviour of the wave-guide is described
mathematically by ascribing large amount of attenuation to the wave-guide known as the
‘Reflective attenuation’
o When a waveguide is excited at a wavelength greater than cut-off, the electric and
magnetic fields decay exponentially with distance at a very much more rapid rate than is
accounted for by the dissipative losses.
o More over the rate of attenuation depends only on the ratio
c
λ λ of the free space
wavelength to the cut-off wavelength; unlike the wave shorter than the cut-off wavelength,
the attenuation is independent of the material of the guide walls.
o The exact law of attenuation per unit length in db is ( )
2 54.6
1
c
c
α λ λ
λ
= −
When the actual wavelength is much greater than cut-off then
54.6
c
α
λ

These relations apply to all modes of propagation in all types of waveguides.
An important observation from these relations is when
c
λ λ large, the attenuation is
substantially independent of frequency.
o Waveguides operated at wavelengths greater than cut-off are called waveguide
attenuators and are often used as attenuators in signal generators.

o Dissipative attenuation. The energy of wave when it is travelling through the wave-guide
(
c
f f > ) gets absorbed by the walls due to their finite conductivity and also by the hallow
region due to its non-zero conductivity resulting in ‘Dissipative attenuation.’

• The attenuation due to the dielectric loss

d
α m Np
k
/
2
tan
2
β
δ
= .
Proof:
Consider a perfect dielectric, then its permittivity
0 r
ε ε ε = .

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78
For an imperfect dielectric material the permittivity
( )
0 0 0
0
tan
r r r
j j
σ
ε ε ε ε ε ε ε ε δ
ωε
| |
= = − = −
|
\ .
&
Here tanδ is known as loss tangent of the dielectric and it is equal to
tan
o r
σ
δ
ωε ε
=

If the wave guide hollow region is filled with perfect dielectric material, then
2 2 2 2
0 0 r
j h h γ β ω µε ω µ ε ε = = − = − assuming 1
r
µ =

If the wave guide hollow region is filled with imperfect dielectric material, then
2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
0
tan
r r r
h j h j
σ
γ ω µ ε ε ω µ ε ε ω µ ε ε δ
ωε
| |
= − − = − +
|
\ .
assuming 1
r
µ = .
2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
Let and tan
r r
a h x j ω µ ε ε ω µ ε ε δ = − =
2
2 2
1
But for
2
x
a x a x a
a
| |
+ ≈ +
|
\ .
.
Using this relation
2 2
2 2 0 0 0 0
0 0
2 2
0 0
tan tan
2
2
r r
r
r
h j j
h
ω µ ε ε δ ω µ ε ε δ
γ ω µ ε ε β
β
ω µ ε ε
= − + = +

.
From this
2
0 0
tan
2
r
d
ω µ ε ε δ
α
β
= Np/meter for TE or TM wave.
In case of TEM wave this quantity becomes
0 0
tan
2
d r
δ
α ω µ ε ε = Np/meter.
It can be observed that the dielectric loss becomes zero when the conductivity or loss
tangent of the dielectric is zero. The above relations for attenuation constant due to the
dielectric loss can be used for both the rectangular as well as circular wave guides.

• The attenuation due to conductor loss
. /
2
/
m Np
guide wave the down flow power
length unit dissipated power
c
− ×
= α

Proof:
Let us suppose the voltage and current phasors along the line of infinite length are

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79
0 0
and
z j z z j z
V V e e I I e e
α β α β − − − −
= =

Then the average power transmitted is
{ } { }
2
0 0
1 1
Re Re
2 2
z
av
P VI V I e
α ∗ ∗ −
= =
The rate of decrease of transmitted power along the line will be 2
av
av
P
P
z
α

− = +

The decrease of transmitted power per unit length of line is 2
av av
P P α −∆ =
And this is the power dissipated per unit length
Power lost per unit length
2
Power transmitted
to
Power lost per unit length
2 Power transmitted
α =
×

For rectangular waveguides,
o Power flow down the wave-guide
= dy dx H Z
trans z
2
2
1

= da a H E
z
∫∫
• ×

Re
2
1
= ( ) dy dx H E H E
x y y x
∫∫
∗ ∗
− Re
2
1

o Power dissipated/unit length
= da H
R
s
2
tan
2

= [ ]
∫∫ ∫∫
=
=
× + × × dz dx H a dz dy H a
R
y
y
x
x
s
2
0
2
0
2
2

For circular waveguides,

o Power flow down the wave-guide
= φ ρ ρ d d H Z
trans z
2
2
1

= da a H E
z
∫∫
• ×

Re
2
1
= ( ) φ ρ ρ
ρ φ φ ρ
d d H E H E
∫∫
∗ ∗
− Re
2
1

o Power dissipated/unit length
= da H
R
s
2
tan
2

= [ ]
∫∫
=
× dz d H a
R
a
s
φ ρ
ρ
ρ
2
2

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80

.

Micro-strip Transmission lines:

It is one of the most popular types of planar transmission lines.
It can be easily integrated with other passive and active micro-wave devices.
It can be fabricated by photolithographic processes.
It can be viewed as a two wire line consisting of two flat strip conductors of width ‘ w’
separated by a distance ‘ 2d ’ in the absence of the dielectric.
The micro-strip line can not support a pure TEM wave. In most practical applications,
the dielectric substrate is electrically very thin i.e. d λ and so the fields are quasi-TEM.
The phase velocity
p e
v c ε =
The propagation constant
0 0 e
β ω µ ε ε =

1 1 1
2 2 1 12
r r
e
d w
ε ε
ε
+ −
= +
+

Micro strip has most of its field lines in the dielectric region and some fraction in the air
region above substrate.
It is an asymmetrical type strip transmission line.

Strip line Transmission lines:
Planar type transmission line widely used in microwave integrated circuitry.
It is a sort of ‘flattened out’ coaxial line.
It has two conductors and a homogenous dielectric. It supports TEM wave
and this is the usual mode of operation.
Strip-line can also support higher order TM and TE modes but these are
suppressed with shorting screws between the ground planes and restricting ‘ b ’ to
less than 4 λ
The analysis of the strip-line is quite complex and difficult process. A
reasonable approximation to the exact results with the application of Laplace
equation gives.

Cavity Resonators

These are tuned circuits at the highest frequencies. Their behaviour is identical to a
LC tuned circuit. Theoretically a given resonator has an infinite number of resonant modes
and each mode corresponds to a definite resonant frequency. So each cavity resonator has an

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81
infinite number of resonant frequencies. The mode having the lowest resonant frequency is
known as the dominant mode.
In practice the rectangular-cavity resonators, circular-cavity resonators and re-
entrant-cavity resonators are commonly used in many microwave applications.

Types: Regular shaped resonators like spheres, cylinder or rectangular prisms. But their
various resonant frequencies are harmonically related which is a defect. Irregular shaped
resonators known as re-entrant cavities are also useful as tuned circuits as well as they can
be easily integrated into the structure of the microwave device. It is also convenient to
couple the signal to and take the signal form the re-entrant cavity.

A re-entrant cavity is one in which the
metallic boundaries extend into the interior of
the cavity. The examples are coaxial cavity,
radial cavity, butterfly cavity etc. They are
designed to for use in klystrons and microwave
triodes. One of the commonly used re-entrant
cavities is the coaxial cavity.
Tuning: With adjustable screws or posts, by
introducing solid dielectric material or ferrites,
by moving a wall in and out slightly with screw
are some of the commonly used methods of
cavity tuning.
Coupling: Power can be coupled using slots, loops and probes. But they load the cavity and
also change its resonating frequency. Beam coupling is another method of power coupling
of the cavity which is widely used in microwave tubes.
Applications: Used as input and output circuits of amplifiers as well as in oscillators. These
are also used in filters, with mixers. Another major application of the cavity resonator is as
cavity wave meter

Analysis of the regular cavities:
Consider a piece of rectangular wave guide lying along z −axis carrying a travelling
wave in positive z direction.
When the opening at the output side is closed with a shorting plate, made with
perfect conductor, the forward travelling or positive z travelling wave hits the shorting plate
and gets reflected. Now there comes into being another wave travelling in negative
z direction. Due to the interference between the two waves travelling in opposite directions
but over the same path, the standing wave pattern comes into being.
When the opening at the inlet side is also closed with another shorting plate, the
input to the forward wave is cut off but its place is taken over by the wave resulted due to
reflection of the negative z travelling wave. The net result is the trapping of a travelling

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82
wave which keep on travelling in between the shorting plates for ever in case of loss free
conditions.
The frequency at which the wave hits the walls is called resonant frequency and in
general it depends upon the dimensions of the wave guide as well as the mode of the wave.
Consider the case Rectangular Cavity Resonator. Structurally it is a piece of
waveguide closed at both the ends. So we start with a piece of rectangular wave guide of
length ‘ d ’lying along z direction. When both the openings are remained opened and a wave
is travelling in positive z direction then the fields in phasor form at an arbitrary point in the
waveguide can be expressed as

ixo ix
E E =
z j
e
β −
and
ixo ix
H H =
z j
e
β −
iyo iy
E E =
z j
e
β −
and
iyo iy
H H =
z j
e
β −

izo iz
E E =
z j
e
β −
and
izo iz
H H =
z j
e
β −
When the opening at the outlet is closed, the forward travelling wave gets reflected and the
fields of the reverse or –z travelling wave

rxo rx
E E =
z j
e
β
and
rxo rx
H H =
z j
e
β

ryo ry
E E =
z j
e
β
and
ryo ry
H H =
z j
e
β

rzo rz
E E =
z j
e
β
and
rzo rz
H H =
z j
e
β

Due the combining or interference of these two waves standing wave pattern comes into
being. The fields of the standing wave pattern are
ixo sx
E E =
z j
e
β −

rxo
E +
z j
e
β
;
ixo sx
H H =
z j
e
β −

rxo
H +
z j
e
β

iyo sy
E E =
z j
e
β −

ryo
E +
z j
e
β
;
iyo sy
H H =
z j
e
β −

ryo
H +
z j
e
β

izo sz
E E =
z j
e
β −

rzo
E +
z j
e
β
;
izo sz
H H =
z j
e
β −

rzo
H +
z j
e
β

It is possible to relate the amplitudes of the reflected waves with those of the incident waves.
Magnitude wise: As the waveguide walls are made with perfect conductor and hallow region
is made up of perfect dielectric the resonator under consideration is a loss-less system. So
the magnitudes of the reflected waves remain same as that of the incident waves.
And phase wise: The tangential component of the E fields and normal components of the
H fields suffer180
o
phase shift and the normal components of the E fields and tangential
components of the H fields suffer no phase shifts on reflection at the surface of the perfect
conductor resulting in
ixo
E
rxo
E − =
izo
E
rzo
E =
iyo
E
ryo
E − =
ixo
H
rxo
H =
izo
H
rzo
H − = =
iyo
H
ryo
H
With these relations the fields in the standing wave become

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83
2 sin
sx ixo
E jE z β =− 2 cos
sx ixo
H H z β =
2 sin
sy iyo
E jE z β =− 2 cos
sy iyo
H H z β =
2 cos
sz izo
E E z β = 2 sin
sz izo
H jH z β = −

o For TM mode fields are.
0
izo
H = ; sin sin
izo
m n
E C x y
a b
π π | | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

2
cos sin
ixo
j m n
E B C x y
h a b
β π π
| |
− | | | |
=
|
| |
\ . \ .
\ .

2
sin cos
iyo
j m n
E A C x y
h a b
β π π
| |
− | | | |
=
|
| |
\ . \ .
\ .

2
sin cos
ixo
j m n
H A C x y
h a b
ωε π π | | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

2
cos sin
iyo
j m n
H B C x y
h a b
ωε π π − | | | | | |
==
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

o For TE mode fields are
0
izo
E = ; ' cos cos
izo
m n
H C x y
a b
π π | | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

2
' cos sin
ixo
j m n
E A C x y
h a b
ωµ π π | | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

2
' sin cos
iyo
j m n
E B C x y
h a b
ωµ π π − | | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

2
' sin cos
ixo
j m n
H B C x y
h a b
β π π | |
| | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

2
' cos sin
iyo
j m n
H A C x y
h a b
β π π | |
| | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

g
λ
π
β
2
= and
2
0
1
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
λ
λ
λ
λ
g

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84
When the both ends are closed, the wave gets trapped inside the waveguide and keep on
travelling from one end to another end with a certain frequency know as resonant frequency.
Certain field components like
x
E ,
y
E and
z
H get reflected with phase reversal and as a result
there exists minima or nodes occur at both the ends in their standing wave pattern. Other
field components like
x
H ,
y
H and
z
E get reflected with out any phase reversal resulting in
maxima or anti-nodes at both the ends in their standing wave pattern. From the properties of
the standing waves we know the distance between two nodes or anti-nodes and hence the
distance p between the ends must be an integral no. of half (guide) wave lengths. i.e.
d
p
p d
g
π
β
λ
= ⇒ =
2

With both the openings closed , the fields inside the resonator become
,
2 sin
res x ixo
p
E jE z
d
π | |
=−
|
\ .

,
2 cos
res x ixo
p
H H z
d
π | |
=
|
\ .

,
2 sin
res y iyo
p
E jE z
d
π | |
=−
|
\ .

,
2 cos
res y iyo
p
H H z
d
π | |
=
|
\ .

,
2 cos
res z izo
p
E E z
d
π | |
=
|
\ .

,
2 sin
res z izo
p
H jH z
d
π | |
= −
|
\ .

Resonant frequency:

We know that for a rectangular wave guide
2 2
h β ω µε = − . In the case of the resonator, this relation becomes
2 2
r
p
h
d
π
β ω µε = − = .
Solving this equation for
r
f with
2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
b
n
a
m
h
π π
leads to the expression for the
resonating frequency
2 2 2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
d
p
b
n
a
m
f
r
π π π
µε π

 The physical significance of the mode subscripts n m, and p depends upon the fact that
they represents the number of half-wave periodicity in y x, and z directions respectively.
The allowed integral values for them are

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85
For TM mode:: ,..... 3 , 2 , 1 = m
,..... 3 , 2 , 1 = n
..... , 2 , 1 , 0 = p
For TE mode:: 0,1, 2, 3,..... m=
,..... 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 = n
..... 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = p

 Dominant mode of the resonator is one having the lowest resonant frequency. It is TE
101

for d b a < > in the case of rectangular cavity resonator..

Consider the case Circular Cavity Resonator. We start with a piece of rectangular
wave guide
Fields of the forward or +z travelling wave

j z
i i o
E E e
β
ρ ρ

=
j z
i i o
H H e
β
ρ ρ

=

j z
i i o
E E e
β
φ φ

=
j z
i i o
H H e
β
φ φ

=
j z
iz izo
E E e
β −
=
j z
iz izo
H H e
β −
=
Fields of the reverse or –z travelling wave
j z
r r o
E E e
β
ρ ρ
=
j z
r r o
H H e
β
ρ ρ
=
z j
e
β

j z
r r o
E E e
β
φ φ
=
j z
r r o
H H e
β
φ φ
=

j z
rz rzo
E E e
β
=
j z
rz rzo
H H e
β
=

Fields of the standing wave
j z j z
s i o r o
E E e E e
β β
ρ ρ ρ

= +
j z j z
s i o r o
H H e H e
β β
ρ ρ ρ

= +
j z j z
s i o r o
E E e E e
β β
φ φ φ

= +
j z j z
s i o r o
H H e H e
β β
φ φ φ

= +
j z j z
sz izo rzo
E E e E e
β β −
= +
j z j z
sz izo rzo
H H e H e
β β −
= +
But the tangential component of the electric fields and normal components of the magnetic
fields suffer 180
o
phase shift and the normal components of the electric fields and tangential
components of the magnetic fields suffer no phase shifts on reflection at the surface of the
perfect conductor resulting in
i o r o
E E
ρ ρ
= −
izo rzo
E E =
i o r o
E E
φ φ
= −
i o r o
H H
ρ ρ
=
izo rzo
H H = −
i o r o
H H
φ φ
=

And hence the fields in the standing wave become

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86

j E E
o i s
2
ρ ρ
− = z β sin 2
o i s
H H
ρ ρ
= z β cos
j E E
o i s
2
φ φ
− = z β sin 2
o i s
H H
φ φ
= z β cos
2
izo sz
E E = z β cos j H H
izo sz
2 − = z β sin

 TM mode fields. 0 =
izo
H ; =
izo
E
n
A ( )
nm n
h J ρ cos ( ) φ n
z j
e
β −

=
o i
H
ρ
2
nm
h
n j
ρ
ωε

n
A ( )
nm n
h J ρ sin ( ) φ n
z j
e
β −

=
o i
H
φ
nm
h
jωε

n
A ( )
nm n
h J ρ
'
cos ( ) φ n
z j
e
β −

=
o i
E
ρ φ
ωε
β
H
=
o i
E
φ
ωε
β

o i
H
ρ

o TE mode fields. 0 =
izo
E ; =
izo
H
'
n
A ( )
'
nm n
h J ρ cos ( ) φ n
z j
e
β −

=
o i
H
ρ
'
nm
h
jβ −
'
n
A ( )
' '
nm n
h J ρ cos ( ) φ n
z j
e
β −

=
o i
H
φ 2
'
nm
h
n j
ρ
β
'
n
A ( )
'
nm n
h J ρ sin ( ) φ n
z j
e
β −

=
o i
E
ρ o i
H
φ
β
ωµ

=
o i
E
φ

β
ωµ

o i
H
ρ

g
λ
π
β
2
= and
( )
2
0
1
g
λ
λ
λ λ
=

When the both ends are closed, the distance between the ends must correspond to an integer
no. of half(guide) wave lengths.

i.e.
d
p
p d
g
π
β
λ
= ⇒ =
2

Resonant frequency:

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87
We know that for a circular wave guide
2 2
h β ω µε = − . In the case of the resonator, this relation becomes
2 2
r
p
h
d
π
β ω µε = − = .
Solving this equation for
r
f with
2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
b
n
a
m
h
π π
leads to the expression for the
resonating frequency
2 2 2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
d
p
b
n
a
m
f
r
π π π
µε π

leading to the resonating frequency of

( )
2 2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
d
q
a
ha
f
nm
r
π
µε π
for TM

( )
2
2
'
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
q
a
ha
nm
π
µε π
for TE

• For TM mode ,... 2 , 1 , 0 = n , ..... 3 , 2 , 1 = m , ,.... 2 , 1 , 0 = q
• For TE mode ,... 2 , 1 , 0 = n , ..... 3 , 2 , 1 = m , .... 3 , 2 , 1 = q
• n … indicates the periodicity in the φ direction
• m ….indicates the number of the zeros of the field in the radial direction.
• q …the number of half-waves in the axial direction
If a d < the dominant mode is
110
TM and it is
111
TE when

The ‘Q’ factor of a cavity resonator:

Q is a measure of the frequency selectivity of a resonant or anti-resonant
circuit.
maximum energy stored
2
energy dissipated per cycle
Q π =
W
P
ω = where
2 2
2 2
v v
W E d H d
ε µ
τ τ = =
∫ ∫

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88
2
2
s
t
s
R
P H da =

here E and H are peak values of the field intensities and
t
H is the peak
value of tangential magnetic field intensity.
2
2
v
s t
s
H d
Q
R H da
ωµ τ
=

( )
( ) 2
s
volume
R surface area
ωµ

Multiple choice questions
1. The dominant TE mode in rectangular wave guide is [ D ]
a) TE
01
b) TE
11

c) TE
20
d) TE
10

2. Wave guides can carry [ D ]
a) TE mode b) TM mode
c) Mixed mode d) All

3. Cut – off wave length of Circular Wave-guide in TM mode is [ B ]
a) )
2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
b
n
a
m
b)
nm
ha
a
) (
2 π

c)
( )
'
2
nm
ha

d) None

4. Cut off wave length of Rectangular wave guide is [ A ]
a)
2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
b
n
a
m
b)
2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
a
n
b
m

c) both d) None

5. Guide wave length of cylindrical wave guide is [ C ]
a)
2
0
1
λ
λ
λ
| |

|
\ .
b)
2
0
1
f
f
λ
| |

|
\ .

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89
c) both d) None

6. Wave impedance of wave-guide in TE mode can be [ A ]
a)
2
0
1
λ
η
λ
| |

|
\ .
b) η
2
0
) / ( 1 λ λ −
c) both d) None

7. Dominant modes in a cylindrical wave guide is [ C ]
a) TE
11
b) TE
10

c) Either d) None

8. Dominant modes in regular cavity resonators can be [ A ]
a) TE
111
b) TE
110

c) Either d) None
9. Non existent modes in circular wave guides are [ B ]
a) TE
10
b) TE
00
c) both d) None

10. Resonant frequency of Rectangular c resonator is [ A ]
a)
2 2 2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
d
p
b
n
a
m
µε
b)
1
2
m n p
a b d µε
| | | | | |
+ +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

c)
2 2 2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
d
p
b
n
a
m
µε π
d) None

11. Attenuation constant due to dielectric loss is in Nepers/mt [ D ]
a)
β
δ β
2
tan
2
b)
2
2
tan
β
δ
β

c)
2
2
tan
ω
δ
β
d)
2
0 0
2
r
tan
ω µ ε ε
δ
β

12. Attenuation constant due to conductor loss is [ A ]
a)
powerflow x
length unit dissipated power
2
/
b)
length unit power Dissipated
flow power x
/
2

c)
flow Power
length unit powerdissi x / 2
c) None
13. Reflective attenuation comes into being when
the frequency of the wave is [ A ]
a) < cut off frequency b) > cut off frequency

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90
c) both d) None

14. In RWG, the mode subscripts m and n indicate [ A ]
a) no of half wave patterns b) No. of full wave patterns
c) no of the zeros of the field d) None

15. In RWG, for dominant mode, the cut off- wave length is [ A ]
a) 2a b) 2b c) a d) None

16. The wave whose frequency is 1.5 GHz falls in the band [ A ]
a) L b) S c) C d) None

17. The wave whose frequency is 2.5 GHz falls in the band [ B ]
a) L b) S c) C d) None

18. The wave whose frequency is 7 GHz falls in the band [ C ]
a) L b) 5 c) C d) None

19. The wave whose frequency is 9 GHz falls in the band [ B ]
a) L b) X c) C d) None

20. Degenerate modes in circular wave-guides are [ A ]
a) TE
01
& TM
11
b) TE
22
& TM
22

c) Both d) None

21. At infinite frequency, the guide wave length is [ B ]
a) Infinite b) Free space wave length
c) cut-off wavelength d) None
22. An air filled rectangular waveguide has dimensions of 6 X 4cm. [ A ]
Its cut-off frequency for TE
10
mode is
a) 2.5GHz b) 25GHz
c) 25MHz d) 5GHz

23. The phase velocity of the guided wave at a frequency
of 3.0GHz in TE
10
for the above problem(probno:1) is [ ]
a) 0.1m/s b) 5.42×10
8
m/s
c) 5.4×10
6
m/s d) 3.78×10
8
m/s

24. In problem1 the group velocity is [ ]
a) 1.659×10
8
m/s b) 5.42×10
8
m/s
c) 0.185×10
8
m/s d) 3.78×10
8
m/s

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91
25. In problem1, the wave impedance in the waveguide at 3GHz is [ ]
a) 120π b) 681.72
c) 300 d) 600

26. In problem1, the phase constant in the waveguide is [ ]

27. The cut-off frequency of a waveguide depends on [ D ]
a). dimensions of the waveguide
b). the dielectric property of the medium in the waveguide
c). wave mode d) all

28. In hollow rectangular waveguides [ C ]
a). the phase velocity is greater than the group velocity
b). The phase velocity is greater than the velocity of light in free space
c) both d) none
29. In a waveguide, the suffix m, n of the modes TE/TM denote [ B ]
a). half wavelength of E field and full wavelength of H field
b) half wavelengths of E and H fields
c) full wavelength of E field and half wavelength of H field
d) half wavelengths of H and E fields
30. The waves in a waveguide [ B ]
a). travel along the border walls of the waveguide
b).are reflected from side walls but do not travel along them
c). travel through the dielectric without touching the walls
d). travel along the all the four walls
31. Which of the following modes is not supported by RWG [ D ] a)
TE
10
b) TE
11

c) TM
11
d) TM
10

32. For a wave of finite frequency in an air filled RWG [ D ]
a) guide-wavelength is never less than the free space wavelength

b) Wave impedance is never equal to the free space impedance

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92
c) TEM is possible d) all

33. Dominant mode in circular wave guide is [ B ]
a) TE
10
b) TE
11
c) TE
01
d) TE
12

34. In TE
20
of RWG, the no of half waves in x − direction [ A ]
a) 2 b) 1 c) 4 d) 0

35. In cylindrical waveguide
TE
Z is [ B ]
a)
β
ωµ
b)
ωµ
β

c)
ωβ
µ
d) ωµβ

36. Theoretically no. of modes that can exist in cylindrical waveguides [ D ]
a) Zero b) One
c) 2 d) Infinite
37. The primary mode in a rectangular resonant cavity [ B ]
a) TE
111
b) TE
101

c) TE
100
d) TE
001
38. Real power transmitted in a rectangular waveguide is [ D ]
a) E×H
*
b) H×E
*

c) ½ Re( H×E
*
) d) ½Re( E×H
*
)
39. A disadvantage of microstrip compared with strip-line is [ ]
a) Does not readily lend itself to printed circuit technique
c) Bulkier d) complex and expensive

40. The transmission system using two ground planes is [ ]
a) Microstrip b) Rectangular waveguide
c) Circular waveguide d) Strip line

41. A disadvantage of strip line wave guide is [ ]
a) Smaller bulk b) Greater bandwidth
c) Higher power handling capability
d) Greater compatibility with solid state devices

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93
42. A disadvantage of strip line over microstrip is its [ ]
a) Easier integration with semiconductor devices
c) Higher isolation between circuits d) Higher ‘Q’
Attenuators

Attenuation in db of a device is ten times logarithmic ratio of power flowing into the device
to the power flowing out of the device when both the input and output circuits are matched.
Attenuation in db 10log
i
o
P
P
=
Of the input circuit is not matched to the device then the
i
P is equal to the power incident
minus the power reflected. If the output circuit is not matched then the
o
P becomes equal to
the power consumed in the output circuit plus the power reflected into the circuit.

o Resistive-card attenuator: This type can provide either fixed amount or a variable
amount of attenuation..
• In the fixed version, the resistance card tapered at both ends is bonded in place. The
tapering of the card helps in maintaining low SWR at the input as well as at the output
ports over the useful wave-guide band.
• Maximum attenuation per unit guide length can be achieved by placing the card parallel
to the electric field and at the centre of the wave guide where the field is maximum for
the dominant mode.
• The amount of attenuation provided is a function of frequency, a disadvantage. It in
general increases with frequency.
• In the variable version, called Flap attenuator, the resistance card enters into the wave
guide through the slot provided in the broader wall thereby intercepting and absorbing a

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94
portion of the wave. A hinge arrangement is used to change the depth of penetration of
the resistance card, there by changing the amount of attenuation from 0db to
typically30db .
• The biggest disadvantage with Flap attenuators is their attenuation is frequency sensitive
and also the phase of the output signal is function of attenuation.

o Rotary-vane attenuator: The essential parts of this device are; two fixed and one rotary
wave-guide sections. It also includes input and output transition sections to provide low
SWR connections to rectangular wave-guides.

Structure: The two fixed circular waveguide sections are identical in all respects; each
attached to a transition and each consists of a piece circular wave guide with a lossy
dielectric plate lying horizontal in it. In middle exists a rotatable circular waveguide section
with a dielectric plate which can be placed at any angle by rotating the waveguide section.
The plates are normally thin with 1
r
ε > , 1
r
µ = and conductivityσ a finite nonzero value.
The plates attenuates the wave travelling, the amount of attenuation being dependant
upon the properties of the material from which the plate is cut, the dimensions of the slab
and also the angle between the plane of the plate and the E vector of the wave.
When the E vector of the wave is normal to it, the plate does not attenuate the wave in
any significant manner, whereas it attenuates the wave in good amount when the E vector is
parallel. In the present case, the lengths of the plates are selected in such a way that after
travelling past the plates with its E vector parallel, the wave amplitude becomes
insignificant.

Analysis: It can be shown that the wave undergoes an amount of attenuation in db
( )
4
10log 1 cos
m
A θ = when the rotatable section is rotated by an angle equal to
m
θ from
horizontal..
When the wave with its E vector vertical falls over and crosses the input fixed section in
which plate is horizontal, it does so without any attenuation.
The unattenuated wave at the input of the rotatable section can be resolved into two
components, one parallel to the rotatable plate and another normal to it. The parallel
component gets absorbed and attenuated almost completely by the plate whereas the normal
component crosses without any significant attenuation.

Now it is the only the normal to rotatable plate component that exists at the input of the
fixed output section. This component can be resolved into two one horizontal and the other
vertical. The horizontal component is parallel to the fixed section plate and hence gets
absorbed whereas the vertical one comes out unattenuated which is
2
cos
m
E θ .
If the amplitude of the input field is E , then the output field strength will be
m
E θ
2
cos .
Hence the attenuation provided by the device in db is
( )
4
10log 1 cos
m
A θ = .

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95
The attenuation is controlled by the rotation of the centre-section, minimum attenuation at
0 =
m
θ and maximum at
0
90 =
m
θ .

The attenuation provided by this device depends only on the rotation angle
m
θ and
not upon the frequency. This device is very accurate and hence being used as a calibration
standard. Its accuracy is limited only by imperfect matching and by mis-alignment of the
resistance cards.
Phase shifters
These devices find wide applications in test and measurement systems, but most
significant use is in phased array antennas where antenna beam is steered in space by

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96
electronically controlled phase shifters. The phase shifters which use ferrites in their
construction are non-reciprocal where as others in general are reciprocal.

The phase shift that can be introduced into the wave by a waveguide section of length
‘ l ’ is given by 2
g
l l β π λ = where ( )
2
2
g r
a λ λ ε λ = − . From this relation we can
observe that the phase of the wave can be controlled either by varying
r
ε or the guide width
‘ a ’ thus changing the guide wavelength
Dielectric phase-shifters: The variable type dielectric phase shifters employ the a low
loss dielectric insertion into the air filled guide at a point of max electric field to increase its
effective dielectric constant thereby causing the guide wavelength
g
λ to decrease. Thus the
insertion of the dielectric increases the phase shift in the wave passing through the fixed
length wave guide section. Tapering of the dielectric slab is resorted to reduce the
reflections. In another version, a pair of thin rods is used to move the dielectric slab from a
region of low electric field intensity to one of the high intensity to increase the effective
dielectric constant.

Squeeze type phase-shifters: It is a length of waveguide whose broader walls contain
long non-radiating slots. A clamping arrangement is used to reduce the guide width a thus
increasing the guide wavelength
g
λ resulting in a decreased phase shift in the wave through
the wave guide section. It is also called line stretcher.

Rotary phase-shifters: The essential parts of this phase shifter are three wave guide
sections, two fixed and one rotary. The fixed sections consist of quarter wave plates and the
rotary section consists of half wave plate, all the plates are of dielectric type.
Structure: The two fixed quarter wave sections identical in all respects and the rotatable
half wave section is just the double of a quarter wave section. Each of the two fixed sections,
attached to a transition, consists of a piece circular wave guide with a dielectric plate making
an angle of
0
45 with the horizontal. The dielectric plate is normally thin with 1
r
ε > , 1
r
µ =

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97
and 0 σ ≈ . When the E vector of the wave is normal to it, the plate does not effect the wave
in any way, whereas it adds an additional phase lag when the E vector is parallel. The
additional phase lag depends upon the properties of the material from which the slab is cut
and the dimensions of the slab. The length of the plate is selected in such a way that this
0
90 in case of quarter wave plate and
0
180 in case of half wave plate.
As same materials are used to make half and quarter wave plates, the length of one becomes
the double of the other.
Analysis: It can be shown that the output wave experiences an additional phase delay of
2
m
θ when the half-wave plate is rotated by an angle equal to
m
θ .
When the wave with its E vector vertical falls and crosses over the quarter wave plate
which is making an angle of
0
45 with the horizontal, the component of the wave parallel to
the plate undergoes a phase shift of
0
90 in addition to the regular phase shift of l β where as
the component normal to the plate undergoes only the regular phase shift of l β .
The above two components having phase shift of
0
90 can be resolved into two
components each making total of four, one pair parallel to the half wave plate and another
pair normal to the plate. The resultant of the pair normal to the half wave plate will have a
lagging phase angle of
m
l β θ + where as the pair parallel to the half wave plate results in a
lagging phase angle of
0
90
m
l β θ + + .
The two components one normal and the other parallel to the half wave plate while
crossing undergoes a phase change 2 l β and
0
2 180 l β + resulting in a net phase lag of
3
m
l β θ + and
0
3 270
m
l β θ + + respectively. These two components which are available at the
output of the half wave plate, can now be resolved into two components each , one along the
quarter wave plate and the other normal to it. The resultant of the two components normal to
the plate will have a phase lag equal to 3 2
m
l β θ + whereas the component parallel posses
0
3 270 2
m
l β θ + + .
These two components, one is normal and the other is parallel to the quarter wave plate,
while travelling through the output quarter wave plate undergoes phase delays l β and
0
90 l β + resulting in a net phase lag of 4 2
m
l β θ + and
0
4 360 2 4 2
m m
l l β θ β θ + + = +
respectively. These two equi-phase components whose magnitudes are 2 E , can be
combined into one equal to 4 2
m
E l β θ ∠ + .
In the absence of the plates the magnitude and phase of the out put would have been
4 E l β ∠ .The presence of the plates makes the output to have an additional phase equal to
2
m
θ when the half-wave plate is rotated by an angle equal to
m
θ .

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98
The output remains vertically polarized, which means that the phase shifter is loss less
and reflection less for any position of the rotary section.
It is used as calibration standard because of its high accuracy.

Hybrid phase-shifters: The usefulness of the rotary phase shifter is limited to power
levels of a few watts or even less. For higher power applications, the hybrid-type phase
shifter is often used. These consist of a 3db short slot coupler and a pair of moving shorts.
The shorts are coupled mechanically so that they can move as a unit. Moving the two shorts
as a unit can vary the phase of the output wave. Moving them back a distance d causes the
output wave to be delayed by an additional 2d , since the round the trip path of the wave
is 2d . Thus the phase change in a hybrid phase shifter is
( )
2 4
g
d d θ β π λ ∆ = = . Even
though the phase change is showing a linear relationship with shorts movement, in practice
the θ ∆ versus d curve exhibits some deviation from linearity due to the imperfect operation
of the 3db coupler.

Ferrite Phase shifters: They are two-port devices which can provide variable phase
shift with the change of the bias field. One of the most useful designs is the latching or
remnant non-reciprocal phase shifter employing ferrite toroid in a rectangular wave-guide.

Fixed phase-shift sections: To achieve a differential phase shift, the guide wavelength
can be altered by changing the guide width. It gives a differential phase shift of

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99
'
1 1
2
g g
l θ π
λ λ
| |
∆ = −
|
|
\ .
. Another method of introducing differential phase change is by
inserting reactive elements into wave guide. Fixed phase sections are used in microwave
bridge circuits which require a wave guide section in which the phase delay differs from that
associated with wave propagation thro a standard RWG of equal length.
Wave Guide Windows
These are used for impedance matching purpose at microwave frequencies.

• Inductive windows: The conducting diaphragms extending into the wave guide from
either one or both of the sidewalls produce the effect of adding an inductive susceptance
across the wave guide at the point at which the diaphragm is placed. These are called
inductive diaphragms.
The amount of normalized susceptance added by the window depends upon the
window insertion distance. The susceptance increases with the depth.
If the insertion is from both the side walls with two diaphragms then the resultant
window is called symmetrical one. If the insertion is from either one wall only then it is
called un-symmetrical window. The choice between symmetrical and unsymmetrical
type is governed by mechanical considerations such as ease of machining and
installation of pressurized windows.

• Capacitive windows: The conducting diaphragms extending into a rectangular wave
guide either from top or bottom or both walls produce the effect of adding capacitive
susceptance shunted across the wave guide at that point. They are therefore called
capacitive windows.
The amount of normalized susceptance due to the window depends upon the
window insertion depth, in general increasing with the depth. These are not used
extensively because of the lowering of the breakdown voltage and the consequent
reduction in the maximum power that can be transferred through the wave guide.

• Resonant windows: A conducting diaphragm with a rectangular opening inside gives the
effect of a parallel LC circuit shunted across the guide at that point. This window is
called resonant window.
It can give zero susceptance at a chosen frequency whose value
depends upon the dimensions of diaphragm opening. It acts as a band-pass filter centred
around this frequency, giving inductive susceptance on side and capacitive susceptance
on the other side.
Obtainable Q values are of the order of 10 and decrease as the size of
the aperture is increased.

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100
• Limitations: the windows suffer with two drawbacks; one is they cannot be made
readily adjustable and provide only fixed amount of susceptance and the second one is;
difficulty in maintaining the perfect contact between the diaphragm and walls of the
wave guide.
Tuning Screws And Posts

These are also used for impedance matching
purposes.

• Screws: A screw inserted into the top or bottom
of the wave guide walls, parallel to the E field
lines can give variable amount of susceptance.
A screw of length less than 4 λ produces
capacitive susceptance whose value increases with
depth of penetration.
When the depth of penetration is 4 λ the
screw is in series resonance and further insertion
causes the susceptance to be inductive.
The most direct method of impedance
matching with a matched screw is to use a single
screw adjustable both in length and position along
the wave guide. But it requires a slot in the wave
guide.
An alternative arrangement is to use
double or triple screw units spaced at 8
g
λ or
4
g
λ .

• Posts: A metal post or screw extending completely across the wave guide, parallel to E
field adds an inductive susceptance in parallel with the wave guide.
A post extending across the wave guide at right angles to the E field
produces an effective capacitive susceptance in shunt with the wave guide at the position
of the post.

Coupling Probes And Loops:

Probes and loops are used to couple coaxial line to wave guide or resonator.

• Probes: They consist of an extension of the centre conductor of the coaxial line at the
mid point of one of the broader walls of the guide where E field is maximum and
normal to the wall.

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Usually the wave guide is terminated in a short and the probe is placed
approximately 4
g
λ from the termination. To minimize the reflections at the junction,
the probe must be matched to the wave guide by proper choice of the length and position
of the probe relative to the closed end of the wave guide.
The centre conductor of the coaxial line may extend completely across the wave
guide or it may project an appreciable distance into the wave guide. In that case the
magnetic as well as electric coupling is effective.
For matching over an appreciable frequency band one or more of the following
9 The centre conductor may be flared at the point at which it enters the wave
guide.
9 Height of the terminating section of the wave guide can be increased.
9 A tapered section or some other type of impedance transformer can be used.

To excite a particular mode, the probe or probes should be placed parallel to the E
field at a position where the field has its largest value. When several probes are used, then
they must be excited with appropriate phasing relation.

• Loops: Loop coupling is principally magnetic, so the loop must be placed at or near a
point of high H field strength and turned in such a way that its plane is normal to the flux
lines.
Loops can be mounted in the end wall of a shorted wave guide or in the middle of
the top or bottom wall at a distance of integral 2
g
λ from the shorted end. The plane of the
loop should be normal to the H -field lines for maximum coupling. The amount of coupling
obtainable with the loop depends upon its size and shape and in general increases with the
area of the loop.
• Comparison: The choice between loop and probe coupling is dictated partly by
mechanical and partly by electrical considerations. The important factors are
• Likelihood of voltage breakdown in the vicinity of voltage anti-node.
• Ease in adjusting the coupling
• Constancy of coupling when mechanical changes are made.
• Avoidance of interference with electron streams.
In microwave oscillators loops rather than probes are usually used because a probe in proper
position for adequate coupling may interfere with electron movement with in the tube.
Bends

These are used to alter the direction of propagation in a wave-guide system. If the bending
of the wave-guide is in the E − plane then the resultant structure is called E − plane Bend.
H − plane Bend results when
the bending is in the H − plane.

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• The reflection due to the bend is a function of its radius: the larger the radius, the lower
the SWR.
• When the space available is limited, a double-mitred bend can be used. It gives a low
VSWR when the spacing between the joints is 4
g
λ .
Twists
• These are used to change
the plane of polarization
of the propagating wave.
changes the plane of
polarization in a
continuous manner. It
gives a SWR of less than
1.05 when the twist
length is greater than few
wavelengths.
The step twist is used
when the space available in the propagation direction is limited. It contains a rectangular
guide section that is oriented 45
0
with respect to the input and output guides.

Microwave Junctions

Microwave junctions are devices used to split or combine µwave power.
The important parts of microwave junctions are ports, arms and junction regions.
These are used to describe the structures of the junctions. Ports are openings to which the
source or load is connected. H.A.Wheeler introduced the term ‘port’ in 1950s to replace the
less descriptive and more cumbersome phrase, ‘two terminal pair’. Arms are pieces of the
transmission lines or waveguides with which the junction device is fabricated and Junction
region is the common space where all the arms of the device meet each other
A port is said to be perfectly matched to the junction if nothing out of the power
incident at the port is reflected back to the port by the junction. Two ports are said to be
perfectly isolated if nothing out of the power incident at one port appears at the other port.

Three-port junctions: E-plane tee and H-plane tee are examples for three port junctions.
As they are in the shape of English capital letter ‘T’ these are called ‘tees’.
Reciprocal three port junctions suffer with one drawback i.e. lack of isolation
between the output ports resulting in dependence of the power consumed at one port on the
termination at the other out-put port. This lack of isolation between the output ports limits the
usefulness of the three port junctions, particularly in power monitoring and divider
applications.

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plane tee H −
• As the side arm port is in the H − plane, it is called H −plane tee. It is also called,
current junction, shunt junction or parallel junction

• The two arms which are in line are called coplanar
arms whereas the other arm is called side arm or H − arm or shunt arm.
• Port 3 is perfectly matched to the junction.
• Ports1 and 2 are electrically symmetrical with respect to port3 when the collinear arm
lengths are same
• For an ideal tee i.e. loss-less reciprocal junction the S-matrix is

0 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1

• The transmission line equivalent circuit is

As power divider:
• If the amplitude of the input wave at port 3 is A, then the amplitude of the waves at
port 1 and 2 are same and equal to 2 A . They are in-phase when its collinear arm-
lengths are same
• When the power incident at port 3 is P then the powers that appear at ports 1 and 2
is 2 P each. That is why it is called 3db splitter.

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• If the power incident at ports 1 or 2 is P , then the power out of ports 1 and 2 is
4 P each and at port3 it is 2 P
As power combiner:
• When equal input signals are given at both the collinear ports then the output signal
appears at the side arm port whose power is sum of the powers of the input signals provided
the collinear arm lengths same and sources are in phase
• The output power is zero and SW formation takes place in the collinear arms preventing
the power entering into the junction when the sources are equal, out of phase and collinear
arms lengths are same.
plane tee E −

• As the side arm port is in the E − plane, it is called E − plane tee. It is also called Series
junction or voltage junction

• The two arms which are in line are called coplanar arms whereas the other arm is called
side arm or E − arm or series arm.
• Port 3is perfectly matched to the junction.

• Ports 1 and 2 are electrically anti -symmetrical with respect to port3 when its
collinear arm lengths are same.
• For an ideal tee i.e. loss-less reciprocal junction the S-matrix is

0 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1

• The transmission line equivalent circuit is

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As power divider
• If the amplitude of the input wave at port 3 is A, then the amplitude of the waves at
port1 and 2are same and equal to 2 A . They are out of phase when its collinear arms
lengths are same
• When the power incident at port 3 is P then the powers that appear at ports1 and
2 is 2 P each. That is why it is called 3db splitter.
• If the power incident at ports 1 or 2 is P , then the power out of ports 1 and 2 is
4 P each and at port3 it is 2 P

As power combiner
• When equal input signals are given at both the collinear ports then the output signal
appears at the side arm port whose power is sum of the powers of the input signals
provided the collinear arm lengths are same and sources are out of phase.
• The output power is zero and standing wave formation takes place in the collinear
arms preventing the power entering into the junction when the sources are equal, in phase
and collinear arms lengths are same.

Theorems of the tee junctions:-

o A short circuit may always be placed in one of the arms of a three port junction
in such a way that no power can be transferred through the other two arms
o If the junction is symmetric about one of its arms, a short circuit can always be
placed in that arm so that no reflection occurs in power transmission between the other
two arms.
o It is impossible for a general three port junction of arbitrary symmetry to present
matched impedances at all three arms

9 Applications:- RWG tees are used as
o Tuners by placing a short circuit in the symmetrical arm
o In the duplexer assemblies of the radar installations.

Four-port junctions: Magic tee and Directional couplers are examples for four port hybrid
junction devices..

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Magic tee:

o It is formed by attaching sidewalls to the slots cut in the narrow wall and
broad wall of a piece of wave-guide. Structurally. It is a combination of E-
plane Tee and H-plane Tee.
o It is a hybrid in which the power is divided equally between the out put
ports. The outputs can exhibit either 0
0
or 180
0
phase difference
o It is also known as anti-symmetric coupler, 3db hybrid and 3db
coupler.
o One of the main advantages
of magic tee, in fact for any
hybrid, is that the power delivered
to one port is independent of the
termination at the other output port
provided the other port is match
terminated.

Its properties are
9 All the ports are perfectly matched to junction and the & E H arm ports are
decoupled, as are the coplanar arm ports.
9 A signal into a coplanar arm splits equally between & E H arms. For each
output signal 2
out in
P P = and 2
out in
A A =
9 A signal into H arm splits equally between the coplanar arms, the outputs
being in phase, equidistant from the junction.
9 A signal into E arm splits equally between the coplanar arms, the outputs
being out of phase, equidistant from the junction.
9 For signals into both coplanar arms.
1. The signal output from the E-arm equals 1/ 2 times the
phasor difference of the input signals. (Difference arm).
2. The signal output from the H-arm equals 1/ 2 times the
phasor sum of the input signals. (Sum arm).

9 The S-matrix for an ideal Magic T is
[ ]

=
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0
2
1
S

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Its important applications are in the ‘measurement of impedance’, as ‘duplexer’, as ‘tuner’
and also as ‘mixer’.
Hybrid Ring or Rat race Circuit:

Structure: The hybrid rings consists of an annular waveguide of proper electrical length to
sustain standing waves, to which four arms are connected at proper intervals by means of
series or parallel junctions.
The arrangement shown consists of a piece of
rectangular wave guide bent in the E − plane to form a
complete loop whose median circumference is1.5
g
λ . It
has four openings from each of which a waveguide
emerges forming parallel junctions. If there are no
reflections from the terminations in any of the arms
then any one arm is coupled to two others but not to the
fourth.
Hybrid rings can also be constructed by bending
them in the H − plan also with the connection of series
junctions.

Functioning: The hybrid ring has the characteristics similar to those of hybrid tee. The wave
fed into port 1 can not appear at port3 because the difference of phase shifts for the waves
travelling in the clockwise and counter clockwise directions is 180
0
thus cancelling each
other. Similarly the waves fed into port 2 can not emerge at port4 and waves fed into port
3 can not emerge at port1.
But the perfect cancellation takes place only in ideal hybrid rings and at the
designated frequency. In actual hybrids there exists always a small amount of leakage wave
resulting in non-zero wave where it is supposed to be nil.
The S matrix for an ideal hybrid ring can appear as

[ ]
12 14
21 23
32 34
41 43
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
s s
s s
S
s s
s s

=

Hybrid ring vs hybrid tee:
The rat race and magic tee may be used interchangeably but
o The hybrid tee is less bulky but requires internal matching which
doesn’t require for hybrid ring if the thickness is properly chosen.
o Hybrid ring seems preferable at higher frequencies since its
dimensions are less critical.

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Directional couplers:

• It is a (any) reciprocal, loss-less and matched 4-port network. DC is a 4-port
network in which portions of the forward and reverse traveling waves on a line are
separately coupled to two of the ports.
• DC is also called symmetric coupler and quadrature type hybrid

(i) In an ideal DC all the four ports are perfectly matched and also ports 1,2and
3,4 are perfectly isolated
(ii) A portion of the wave travelling from the port 1 to 4 is coupled to port 3
but not to port 2. Similarly a portion of the wave travelling from the port 4
to 1 is coupled to port 2but not to port 3.
(iii) A portion of the wave travelling from the port 2 to 3 is coupled to port 4
but not to port 1. Similarly a portion of the wave travelling from the port
3to 2is coupled to port 1 but not to port 4.
(iv) The coupling between port 1 and port 3is same as that between port 2 and
4. Similarly the coupling between port 1 and 4is same as that between port
2 and 3.
(v) The outputs are always at phase quadrature i.e. exhibit a phase difference of
0
90 . For this reason DC is called quadrature type hybrid.

(vi) For an ideal DC the scattering matrix is
[ ]

=
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
2
1
p jq
jq p
p jq
jq p
S p is equal to coupling coefficient
c
k related to
coupling factor
c
K , through
1
c
c
k
K
=
Two hole directional coupler:

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109
Structure:
• A two-hole directional coupler is formed by placing one piece of RWG over another and
cutting two holes at a distance of ( )
4
1 2
g
n
λ
+ in the common broader wall. The size,
shape and location of the holes decide the amount of coupling.
• The waveguide system into which input is given is called primary or main wave guide
system whereas the waveguide system from
which the coupled output is extracted is called
secondary or auxiliary waveguide system.
• Any one of the four ports can be the input port. If
the port1 is input port, then the port2 which is
opposite to the input port becomes through port or
output port, the port3 which is just below the
input port is called decoupled port and the port4
which is below the through port is called coupled
port. With matched terminations on all the output ports,

Functioning:
a fraction of the wave energy entered into port1 passes through the holes and is radiated
into the secondary guide as the holes act as slot antennas. The forward waves in the
secondary guide are in the same phase, regardless of the hole space and are added at port4.
The backward waves in the secondary guide are out of phase resulting in cancellation at
port3.
Two hole directional coupler:
Structure:
It has two versions. One is parallel guide coupler and the second one is skewed guide
coupler. In parallel guide coupler version the two guides are parallel, one lying over the
broad wall of the other with a small hole aperture in the common broad wall whose offset s
from the side wall of the guide controls the coupling.
In the skewed guide coupler version, one guide is over the other at an angleθ which
controls the amplitude of the coupled waves.
The geometry of the skewed Bethe hole coupler is often a disadvantage in terms of
fabrication and application. Also both coupler designs operate properly only at the design
frequency.; deviation from this frequency will alter the coupling level and the directivity.

Functioning In this coupler, one waveguide is coupled to another through a single
small hole in the common broad wall between the two guides. According to small-aperture
coupling theory, an aperture can be replaced with equivalent sources consisting of electric
and magnetic dipole moments. The normal electric dipole moment and the axial magnetic
dipole moment radiate with even symmetry in the coupled guide, while the transverse

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110
magnetic dipole moment radiates with odd symmetry. Thus by adjusting the relative
strengths of these two equivalent sources, we can cancel the radiation in the direction of the
isolated port, while enhancing the radiation in the in the direction of the coupled port
In case of parallel guide coupler, the coupling is controlled by the aperture offset s
from the side wall where as the angleθ between the guides controls the coupling in case of
skewed wave guide coupler.

• Performance:- The performance of DC is described in terms of its coupling and
directivity.
o Coupling is a measure of the power being sampled from the incident wave.

Coupling in db = C=
c
i
P
P
log 10 =
c
K log 10 where
C
K is known as the
Coupling factor =
c
i
P power coupled
P power incident

o Directivity is a measure of how well the coupler distinguishes between forward
and reverse traveling waves.

Directivity in db = D=
d
d
c
K
p
p
log 10 log 10 = where is known as the
Directivity factor =
d
c
P power coupled de
P power coupled

o Isolation is also a performance index of directional coupler used.
Isolation in db 10 log
i
d
P
I
P
= . The three are related through I C D = +
o For an ideal DC the directivity is infinite. But in practice D >30db.Loose
coupling means C>20db

Uses: -Extensively used in systems that measure the amplitude and phase of travelling
waves. The major applications are
• In power monitors and
• In reflectometers
Hybrids: These are directional couplers where the coupling factor is 3db. There are two
types of hybrids: One is Magic-T hybrid or rat-race hybrid which has a 180
0
phase
difference between the outputs and second one is quadrature hybrid which has 90
0
phase
difference between the outputs

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Ferrites:
Microwave isolators, gyrators and circulators use non-reciprocal transmission
materials such as ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic materials.
A ferrites or ferrimagnetic materials are non-metallic insulators but with magnetic
properties similar those of ferrous metals. Commonly used ferrites are manganese
ferrite
2 3
MnFe O and zinc ferrite
2 3
MnFe O . Apart from these compounds one widely used
Ferromagnetic material is Yttrium-Iron-Garnet
3 2 4 3
[Y Fe (FeO ) ] or YIG in short.
The magnetic anisotropy of a ferrimagnetic material is exhibited only upon the
application of a DC magnetic bias field. This field aligns the magnetic dipoles in the ferrite
to produce a net non-zero magnetic dipole moment and causes these dipoles to precess at a
frequency which depends upon the strength of the bias field. A microwave signal circularly
polarized in the same direction as this precession interact strongly, while an oppositely
polarized field interact lesser with the dipole moments. Since, for a given direction of
rotation, the sense of polarization changes with the direction of propagation, a microwave
signal propagate through ferrite differently in different directions. This effect is utilized in
the fabrication of directional devices such as isolators, circulators and gyrators.
Another useful characteristic is that the interaction with the applied microwave
signal can be controlled by adjusting the strength of the bias magnetic field. This property is
used in the design of phase shifters, switches, tunable resonators and filters.
The ferrite is non-linear material and its permeability is an asymmetric tensor given
by ( )
ˆ ˆ 1
o m
µ µ χ = + where
0
ˆ 0
0 0 0
m
m m
j
j
χ κ
χ κ χ

=

which is tensor magnetic susceptibility.

In case of the ferrite biased in z − direction
( ) ( )
0
0 0 0 2 2
0
1 1 1
m
xx yy
ω ω
µ µ χ µ χ µ
ω ω
| |
= + = + = +
|

\ .

0
0 0 0 2 2
0
m
xy yx
j j
ω ω
κ µ χ µ χ µ
ω ω
= − = =

[ ]
0
0
ˆ 0 ___ bias
0 0
j
j z
µ κ
µ κ µ
µ

= − −

A material having a permeability tensor of this form is called 'Gyrotropic'. Here ˆ x or ˆ y
component of H gives rise to both ˆ x and ˆ y components to B with a phase shift of
0
90 in
between them.

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112
[ ]
0
0 0
ˆ 0 ___ bias
0
j x
j
µ
µ µ κ
κ µ

= −

[ ]
0
0
ˆ 0 0 ___ bias
0
j
y
j
µ κ
µ µ
κ µ

= −

The two properties of the ferrites which are important and relevant to microwave
engineer are Faraday rotation and gyromagnetic resonance.

Faraday rotation: Consider the linearly polarized plane wave propagation through the
ferrite in the direction of bias. The linearly polarized wave can be considered as sum of an
RHCP and an LHCP wave. Due to creation of a preferred direction for magnetic dipole
precession by the bias field, one sense of circular polarization causes the precession in this
preferred direction where as the other causes the precession in the opposite direction. For the
RHCP wave the ferrite material offers an effective permeability of µ κ + and it is µ κ − for
the LHCP wave. So these waves travel through the ferrite medium with different
propagation constants.
At any point in the ferrite medium, the total wave, sum of RHCP and LHCP waves,
is still linearly polarized but with the polarization rotated. This phenomenon in which a
linearly polarized wave undergoes a change in its direction of polarization is called Faraday
effect.
It can be shown a wave that travels from one end to other and back to the first in the
ferrite rod undergoes a total polarization direction change of 2φ where φ is polarization
change when travelled from one end to another. So Faraday rotation is a non-reciprocal
effect.
Gyromagnetic resonance: It occurs when the forces precession frequency is equal to
the free precession frequency making the elements of permeability tensors infinite. In the
absence of loss the loss may be unbounded.

The most important parameters of Ferrites are
o Line width which is the range of magnetic field strengths over which absorption will
take place. It is defined between the half-power points for absorption. A wide line
width indicates the wide band properties.
o Curie temperature is one at which a magnetic material loses its magnetic properties.
It is up to 600
0
C for ferrites. For YIG it is 280
0
C.
Curie temperature places a limitation on the maximum temperature at which a ferrite
may be operated and therefore the power that it can handle.

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113
o Maximum frequency of operation: for devices using resonant absorption it depends
upon the maximum field strength that can be generated. At present it is more than
220GHz.

Isolator
• It is a two-port non-reciprocal lossy device having unidirectional transmission
characteristics.
• A common application uses isolator between a high power source and a load to
prevent possible reflections from damaging the source.
• For an ideal isolator the scattering matrix is[ ]

=
0 1
1 0
S
• The ferrite isolators, which have practical importance, are field displacement
isolator, Faraday rotation isolator and resonance absorption isolator.
• Isolators can be fabricated with one
0
45 twist and one
0
45 ferrite rod. If one
gives rotation in clockwise the other must be selected to give the rotation in the
opposite direction i.e. anti-clockwise direction..
Field displacement isolator:
Field displacement isolators are based on the fact that the electric field distributions
of the forward and reverse waves in a ferrite slab-loaded wave-guide are quite different. The
electric field for a forward wave can be made to vanish at the side of the ferrite slab where
the electric field of the reverse wave can be quire large. Then if a thin resistive sheet is
placed in this position the forward wave will be unaffected while the reverse wave will be
attenuated.
Its bandwidth is around 10%, high values of isolation can be obtained with this
relatively compact device. Another advantage is relatively much smaller bias field is
required

It consists of a piece of
circular wave guide capable of
carrying wave in the dominant mode
11
TE with transitions to a standard
rectangular guide which can carry
10
TE at both the ends. The end-
transitions are twisted through
0
45
and the input transition carries a
resistive plate attenuator whose
plane is parallel to horizontal. A thin
ferrite rod is placed inside the

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114
circular waveguide supported by polyfoam and the waveguide is surrounded by a permanent
magnet which produce dc magnetic field in the ferrite rod.
The forward travelling wave while travelling through the waveguide gets its plane of
polarization rotated by
0
45 in clock wise direction by the ferrite and comes out of the
rectangular wave guide transition without any attenuation because it is already twisted by
the same angle.
When the wave is travelling in the reverse direction, the polarization of the wave gets
rotated by
0
45 and also in clock wise direction same as that of the forward travelling wave.
This when the wave emerges into the input transition, not only it gets absorbed by the
resistive vane but also it cannot propagate in the input rectangular wave guide because of its
dimensions.
The ferrite isolators based on Faraday rotation are useful only for powers up to a few
hundred watts where as those based on resonant absorption they can handle higher powers.
This type of isolator is limited in its power handling capability to about 2kW. It has
wide range of applications in the low-power field mostly in low power microwave
amplifiers and oscillators.

Resonant absorption isolator:

Resonance isolators are based on the
principle that a circularly polarized plane wave
rotating in the same direction as the precessing
magnetic dipoles of a ferrite medium will have a
strong interaction with the material, while
circularly polarized wave rotating in the opposite
direction will have weaker interaction. It results
large attenuation of the wave near the gyro
magnetic resonance of the ferrite, while the
attenuation of the wave travelling in the opposite direction is very low.

It consists of a piece of RWG capable of carrying the wave in dominant mode
10
TE
with a piece of longitudinal ferrite material placed about a quarter of the way from one side
of the waveguide and half way between its ends. A permanent magnet is placed around to
generate the required strong magnetic field.
The ferrite is place where the magnetic field is strong and circularly polarized. This
polarization is clockwise in one direction and anti-clockwise in the opposite direction. When
the wave is travelling in one direction, resonant absorption takes place while travelling in the
opposite direction it gets unaffected.

These are commonly used for high powers and they handle powers up to 30MW
peak. The maximum power handling ability of resonance isolators is limited by temperature
rise and consequently by Curie temperature. Its bandwidth is less than 2%

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115
Gyrator

• It is an important canonical non-reciprocal two-port component having 180
0

differential phase shift.
• For an ideal gyrator i.e. loss-less, matched and non-reciprocal one the scattering
matrix is
[ ]
0 1
1 0
S

=

.
• Using the gyrator as a basic
nonreciprocal building block in
combination with reciprocal dividers
and couplers can lead to useful
equivalent circuits for non reciprocal components such as isolators and circulators.
• Gyrators can be fabricated with one
0
90 twist and one
0
90 ferrite rod. Both must
rotate the E vector in the same sense i.e. either in clockwise or anti-clockwise.
Circulator

• It is an n-port, loss-less and non-reciprocal device matched at all the ports in
which power flow occurs from ports 1to 2, 2 to 3…n to 1but not in the reverse
direction.

• By transposing the port indices, the opposite circularity can be obtained. In
practice, changing the polarity of the bias field produces this result.
• A 3-circulator can be used as an isolator by
terminating one of the ports with a matched
• For an ideal three-port circulator the
scattering matrix is [ ]

=
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
S
It consists of a piece of
circular wave guide capable of
carrying wave in the dominant
mode
11
TE with transitions to
a standard rectangular guide
which can carry
10
TE at both
the ends. The end-transition
ports ‘1’ , ‘2’ and two

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116
rectangular side ports‘3’ and ‘4’ placed with their broader walls along the length of the
waveguide are twisted through
0
45 . A thin ferrite rod is placed inside the circular waveguide
supported by polyfoam and the waveguide is surrounded by a permanent magnet which
produce dc magnetic field in the ferrite rod.
The wave travelling from port ‘1’ to ‘2’ passes port ‘3’ unaffected as its electric
field is not cut significantly, gets rotated
0
45 by the ferrite rod, continues past the port ‘4’
unaffected reaching and emerging from the port ‘2’. Power fed into port ‘2’ travels past the
port‘4’ unaffected, gets rotated
0
45 by the ferrite and reaches the port ‘3’ to emerge from it.
In this case the wave cannot come out port ‘1’ because of its dimensions. Similarly, port ‘3’
is coupled only to port ‘4’ and port‘4’ only to port ‘1’.
This type of circulator is power limited and so eminently suitable for low power
applications. It is bulkier restricting its use to highest frequencies, in the millimetre range
and above.

s-Parameters

• The concept of s-parameters was first popularized around the time Kaneyuka
Kurokawa of Bell labs wrote his 1965 IEEE article ‘Power Waves and Scattering
Matrix’ even though a good work of E.M. Mathews, Jr. titled ‘The use of Scattering
Matrices in Microwave Circuits’ appeared a decade earlier that is in 1950’s and
Robert Collins text book 'Field Theory Of Guided Waves’ published in 1960 has a
brief discussion on scattering matrix. Scattered waves refer to both the reflected and
transmitted waves.

• The S-parameters relate the amplitudes and phases of the traveling waves that are
incident on, transmitted through or reflected from a network port. The s -parameters
are based on the concepts of (a) traveling waves and (b) matched terminations. These
are useful to characterize linear networks at microwave frequencies.

• Formulation: - Let a ’s andb ’s are the incident waves into and scattered waves out of
various ports of an n − port network respectively. And in general these are complex
quantities.

The scattered waves at various ports b ’s are dependant, in general, on the
incident waves a ’s at various ports. That is,
1
b depends on
1 2
, ,......
n
a a a and
so it can be expressed as
1 11 1 12 2 13 3 1 1
.... ...
r r n n
b s a s a s a s a s a = + + + + + +

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117

The scattered wave at port '2' which is
2
b also depends on
1 2
, ,......
n
a a a and
its dependence can be expressed as
2 21 1 22 2 23 3 2 2
.... ...
r r n n
b s a s a s a s a s a = + + + + + +

The scattered wave
r
b at a port ‘ r ’ depends upon the incident waves a ’s at
various ports i.e.

1 1 2 2 3 3
.... ...
r r r r rr r rn n
b s a s a s a s a s a = + + + + + +

Similarly for the scattered wave from port ' n ' that is
n
b depends on
1 2
, ,......
n
a a a through
1 1 2 2 3 3
.... ...
n n n n nr r nn n
b s a s a s a s a s a = + + + + + +

.All these relations can be put in matrix form as

1 11 12 1 1
2 21 22 2 2
1 2
.. ..
.. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. ..
n
n
n n n nn n
b s s s a
b s s s a
b s s s a

=

or [ ] [ ][ ] a s b =

• The matrix
[ ]
s relates scattered wavesb ’s with the incident waves a ’s of various
ports. Hence it is called scattering matrix of the circuit being modelled. The elements
of the matrix are called scattering parameters or s -parameters. The s-parameters of
a network are properties only of the network itself and are defined under the
condition that all ports are match terminated.
• Chain s -parameters: - Another formulation that is very much useful when the circuit
is in cascaded configuration uses Chain s − parameters. These are a set of parameters
defined relating the incident wave and scattered wave at a port to the waves at an
another port. For example the waves at port '1' can be related to the waves at port '2'
through

=

2
2
22 21
12 11
1
1
a
b
T T
T T
b
a

The parameters which relate the waves at one port to the waves at other port in the
manner shown above are called ' Chain s -parameters'. These parameters are useful
to model circuits which are in the form of cascaded sections. For cascaded
networks [T]=[T

][T
’’
]

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118

• Features:
o
all ports except port j
match terminated
i
ij
j
b
s
a
= and the s -parameters are in general complex
quantities.
o When the circuit is connected to transmission lines of unequal characteristic
impedances then
0
all portsexcept port j
match terminated
0
j
i
ij
j i
z
b
s
a z
=
o When port i is perfectly matched to the junction then 0 =
ii
s
o When ports i and j are perfectly isolated then 0 = =
ji ij
s s
o The diagonal elements of the matrix represent reflection coefficient. s -
parameter
ii
s is reflection coefficient at port i with matched termination at
all other ports.
• For some components and circuits, the scattering parameters can be calculated using
network analysis techniques. Otherwise they can be measured directly with a vector
network analyzer.

• The s-matrix is always a square one. For a n − port network, the S-matrix is a n n ×
square matrix

• For reciprocal networks i.e. networks consisting of passive linear bilateral
impedances, the S-matrix is symmetric j i for s s
ji ij
≠ = . In addition if the ports i and
j are electrically symmetrical with respect to port r then
jr ir jj ii
s s and s s = = , and
if the ports i and j are electrically anti-symmetrical with respect to port r then
jr ir jj ii
s s and s s − = =

• For loss-less passive networks i.e. with no resistive components the S matrix is
Unitary
[ ] [ ] [ ] I S S
t
=

o Zero property of unitary matrix: - The sum of products of each term of any
row multiplied by the complex conjugate of the corresponding terms of any
other row is zero. Mathematically it can be stated as
1
0
N
pj qj
j
s s p q

=
= ≠

. Similarly the sum of products of each term of
any column multiplied by the complex conjugate of the corresponding terms

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119
of any other column is zero. Mathematically it can be stated as
1
0 ;
N
ip iq
i
s s p q

=
= ≠

o Unity property of unitary matrix: - The sum of the products of each term of
any one row multiplied by its complex conjugate is unity. Mathematically it
can be stated as

2
*
1 1
1
N N
ij ij ij
j j
s s s
= =
= =
∑ ∑

Similarly the sum of the products of each term of any one column multiplied
by its complex conjugate is unity. Mathematically
2
*
1 1
1
N N
ij ij ij
i i
s s s
= =
= =
∑ ∑

• Shifting of reference plane:- The location of reference plane has a bearing over the exact
phase of the s -parameter. In general

1
2
11 12 1 11 12 1
21 22 2 21 22 2
1 2
.. .. .. .. 0 .. .. 0
.. .. .. ..
0 .. .. 0
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. ..
.. ..
0 0 .. ..
n
j l
n n
j l
n n
j l
n n nn
s s s s s s e
s s s s s s
e
s s s
e
β
β
β
±
±
±
′ ′ ′

′ ′ ′

=

′ ′ ′

1
2
1 2
0 .. .. 0
0 .. .. 0
.. .. .. .. ..
. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. ..
0 0 .. ..
n
j l
j l
j l
n n nn
e
e
s s s
e
β
β
β
±
±
±

or in short hand form
[ ] [ ]
'
n n
j l j l
S diag e S diag e
β β ± ±
=

where +/- sign is if the shift is
towards/away from the junction.

We can observe that for diagonal elements,
2
i
j l
ii ii
s s e
β −
′ = whereas for the off-diagonal
elements,
( ) i j
j l l
ij ij
s s e
β − +
′ =

• Uses:
o They provide a means by which complete characterization of a network at
microwave frequencies is possible.
o They make the requirement of open and short circuits completely
unnecessary.
o They are defined with matched loads for termination avoiding the possibility
of serious reflections back towards the source.

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120
S-matrix of an ideal E-plane Tee:

 Consider the E- plane
tee with the
corresponding port
designations as
shown.
 The E-plane tee is a
three port junction. So its s-matrix must be a 3 3 × square matrix. Let it be
[ ]
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
s s s
s s s s
s s s

=

.
 As the junction is ideal it is reciprocal. So the matrix is symmetrical i.e.
j i for s s
ji ij
≠ = . In addition port 3is perfectly matched to the junction so
33
0 s = . Incorporating these two aspects,
[ ]
11 12 13
12 22 23
13 23
0
s s s
s s s s
s s

=

.
 In E-plane tee, the port3 is electrically anti-symmetrical with respect to the
ports1 and 2 so
11 22
s s = and
23 13
s s = − resulting in
[ ]
11 12 13
12 11 13
13 13
0
s s s
s s s s
s s

= −

.
 As the junction is ideal it must be lossless and its s-matrix is unitary obeying unit
property and also zero property. Applying unit property to column one C1
2 2
13 13
1 s s + = resulting
13
1 2 s = . Now adjusting the reference plane at
either port 1 or 3 the phase of
13
s can be made zero. So
13
1 2 s = resulting
in
[ ]
11 12
12 11
1 2
1 2
1 2 1 2 0
s s
s s s

= −

.
 Now applying the zero property to R1 and R3,
11 12
1 1
0
2 2
s s − = resulting in
11 12
s s = . Now apply the unit property to row one R1
2
2 2
11 11
1
1
2
s s
| |
+ + =
|
\ .

giving
2 2
11 11
1
2
s s + = leading to
11
1
2
s = . But
12 11
1
2
s s = = . Now the reference

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121
planes at ports 1 and/or 2can be adjusted to make the phases of
11
s and
12
s are
zeros. So
11 12
1
2
s s = = .
 Incorporating all these findings into the matrix it becomes
[ ]
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 0
s

= −

.
S-matrix of an ideal H-plane Tee:

 Consider the H-plane tee
with the corresponding
port designations as
shown.
 The H-plane tee is a three
port junction. So its s-matrix must be a 3 3 × square matrix. Let it be
[ ]
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
s s s
s s s s
s s s

=

.
 As the junction is ideal it is reciprocal. So the matrix is symmetrical i.e.
j i for s s
ji ij
≠ = . In addition port 3is perfectly matched to the junction so
33
0 s = . Incorporating these two aspects,
[ ]
11 12 13
12 22 23
13 23
0
s s s
s s s s
s s

=

.
 In E-plane tee, the port3 is electrically symmetrical with respect to the ports1
and 2 so
11 22
s s = and
23 13
s s = resulting in
[ ]
11 12 13
12 11 13
13 13
0
s s s
s s s s
s s

=

.
 As the junction is ideal it must be lossless and its s-matrix is unitary obeying unit
property and also zero property. Applying unit property to column one C1
2 2
13 13
1 s s + = resulting
13
1 2 s = . Now adjusting the reference plane at
either port 1 or 3 the phase of
13
s can be made zero. So
13
1 2 s = resulting
in
[ ]
11 12
12 11
1 2
1 2
1 2 1 2 0
s s
s s s

=

.

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122
 Now applying the zero property to R1 and R3,
11 12
1 1
0
2 2
s s + = resulting in
11 12
s s = − . Now apply the unit property to row one R1
2
2 2
11 11
1
1
2
s s
| |
+ + =
|
\ .

giving
2 2
11 11
1
2
s s + = leading to
11
1
2
s = . But
12 11
1
2
s s = − = − . Now the
reference planes at ports 1 and/or 2can be adjusted to make the phases of
11
s
and
12
s are zeros. So
12 11
1
2
s s = − = −
 Incorporating all these findings into the matrix it becomes
[ ]
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 0
s

= −

.
S-matrix of an ideal Magic Tee:

 Consider the magic tee with the port
designations as shown in the diagram.
 The Magic tee is a four port junction. So
its s-matrix must be a 4 4 × square
matrix. Let it be
[ ]
11 12 13 14
21 22 23 24
31 32 33 34
41 42 43 44
s s s s
s s s s
s
s s s s
s s s s

=

.
 In Magic tee all the ports12 3and 4 are perfectly matched to the junction so
11 22 33 44
0 s s s s = = = = and ports12 and 34 are perfectly isolated i.e.
12 21 34 43
0 s s s s = = = = . Incorporating these two aspects,
[ ]
13 14
23 24
31 32
41 42
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
s s
s s
s
s s
s s

=

.
 As the junction is ideal it is reciprocal. So the matrix is symmetrical i.e.
j i for s s
ji ij
≠ = . Also in Magic tee, the E arm port3 is electrically anti-
symmetrical with respect to the ports1 and 2 so
11 22
s s = and
23 13
s s = − , the H

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123
arm port4 is electrically anti-symmetrical with respect to the ports1 and 2 so
11 22
s s = and
24 14
s s = resulting in
[ ]
13 14
13 14
13 13
14 14
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
s s
s s
s
s s
s s

=

.
 As the junction is ideal it must be lossless and its s-matrix is unitary obeying unit
property and also zero property. Applying unit property to column three C3

2 2
13 13
1 s s + = resulting
13
1 2 s = . Now adjusting the reference plane at either
port 1 or 3 the phase of
13
s can be made zero. So
13
1 2 s = resulting in
[ ]
0 0 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 0 0
1 2 1 2 0 0
s

=

. Now applying unit property to column
three C4
2 2
14 14
1 s s + = resulting
14
1 2 s = . Now adjusting the reference plane at
either port 1 or 4 the phase of
14
s can be made zero. So
14
1 2 s = resulting
in
[ ]
14
14
14 14
0 0 1 2
0 0 1 2
1 2 1 2 0 0
0 0
s
s
s
s s

=

S-matrix of an ideal Directional coupler:

 Consider the directional coupler
with the port designations as
shown in the diagram.
 The directional coupler is a four
port junction. So its s-matrix must
be a 4 4 × square matrix. Let it be

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124
[ ]
11 12 13 14
21 22 23 24
31 32 33 34
41 42 43 44
s s s s
s s s s
s
s s s s
s s s s

=

.
 In the directional coupler all the ports12 3and 4 are perfectly matched to
the junction so
11 22 33 44
0 s s s s = = = = and ports12 and 34 are perfectly
isolated i.e.
12 21 34 43
0 s s s s = = = = . Incorporating these two aspects,
[ ]
13 14
23 24
31 32
41 42
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
s s
s s
s
s s
s s

=

.
 As the coupler is ideal it is reciprocal. So the matrix is symmetrical i.e.
j i for s s
ji ij
≠ = . So
[ ]
13 14
23 24
13 23
14 24
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
s s
s s
s
s s
s s

=

.
 In ideal directional coupler the coupling between ports 13and 24 is same
making
13 24
s s = . the coupling between ports 14and 23is also must be same
making
14 23
s s = . Incorporating these changes the matrix becomes
[ ]
13 14
14 13
13 14
14 13
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
s s
s s
s
s s
s s

=

 As the junction is ideal it must be lossless and its s-matrix is unitary obeying unit
property and also zero property. Applying zero property to row one and row two
R1R2
13 14 14 13
0 s s s s
∗ ∗
+ = . Now if
14
s is real quantity equal to p then this equation
becomes
( )
13 13
0 p s s

+ = . To satisfy this equation the
13
s must be pure imaginary
and let it be jq . Incorporating these changes the matrix becomes

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125
[ ]
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
jq p
p jq
s
jq p
p jq

=

. One observation from this matrix is outputs of the coupler

Any loss-less, reciprocal three port microwave junction cannot be matched at all the
three ports.
Let us suppose the junction can be matched at all the three ports. Then , when
reciprocal, its s-matrix becomes
[ ]
12 13
12 23
13 23
0
0
0
s s
s s s
s s

=

.
As the junction is loss-less its s-matrix is unitary obeying zero property and unity
property. Applying zero property to rows one and two R1 R2
13 23
0 s s

= . So either
13
s or
23
s or both must be zero.
Now apply unity property to all the rows to have

2 2
12 13
2 2
23 12
2 2
13 23
1
1
1
s s
s s
s s
= −
= −
= −
. From these relations we can see if
13
s is zero
12
s is one,
23
s is zero
and the last relation gives
13
s as one which is contradictory to that with which we
started i.e.
13
s is zero. This contradiction also exist even when
23
s or both are zero.
So the junction cannot be matched at all the three junctions
Carlin’s theorem: Any loss-less, matched and non-reciprocal three port microwave
junction can be a perfect three port circulator.
The s-matrix of a perfectly matched three port junction is
[ ]
12 13
21 23
31 32
0
0
0
s s
s s s
s s

=

. As the junction is non-reciprocal, the matrix is not
symmetrical. But as it is loss-less, its s-matrix is unitary exhibiting unity and
zero laws. So
2 2
12 13 13 23
2 2
21 23 12 32
2 2
31 32 21 31
1; 0
1; 0
1; 0
s s s s
s s s s
s s s s

+ = =
+ = =
+ = =

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126
From the above equations it can be seen if
21
0 s ≠ then
31
32
1 s = .
If
32
0 s ≠ then
12
13
1 s = . If
13
0 s ≠ then
23
21
1 s = .
So there exists perfect transmission form port 1 to 2 as
21
1 s = , from port 2to3 as
32
1 s =
and from port 3 to 1 as
13
1 s = . And zero transmission in any other direction defining a
perfect three port circulator.
Its scattering matrix becomes
[ ]
13
21
32
0 0
0 0
0 0
s
s s
s

=

.

UNITARY PROPERTY: For a loss-less junction, the scattering matrix is an unitary
matrix i.e.
[ ] [ ] [ ]
t
S S U

= .

Let us suppose
n
V
+
,
n
I
+
represent incident wave voltage and current and
n
V

,
n
I

represent
scattered wave voltage and current respectively at port ‘n’. For a loss-less junction, the total
power leaving its N-ports must be equal to the total incident power i.e.
2 2
1 1
N N
n n
V V
− +
=
∑ ∑

which can be expressed as
t t
V V V V
∗ ∗
− − + +
=

. But
[ ]
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ] [ ]
t
t t
t
V V S V S V V S S V

∗ ∗

− − + + + +
= =

. So
[ ] [ ]
t
t t
V V V S S V
∗ ∗

+ + + +
=

. It results in
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
0
t
t
V U S S V

+ +
− =

giving
[ ] [ ] [ ]
t
S S U

= .
SYMMETRY PROPERTY: For a reciprocal junction, the scattering matrix is
symmetrical i.e.
nm mn
s s = provided the equivalent voltages have been chosen so that
power into port ‘n’ is given by
2
1
2
n
V
+
for all modes.
With the necessary normalization, the total voltage and current at port ‘n’ can be expressed
as and
n n n n n n n n
V V V I I I V V
+ − + − + −
= + = − = − ,
[ ] [ ][ ]
V Z I = . Now
[ ] [ ]
V V Z V Z V
+ − + −
+ = −

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
Z U V Z U V
− +
+ = −

so
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
1
S Z U Z U

= + −

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127
Alternatively
[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )[ ]
1 1
2 2
V V I Z U I
+
= + = +

and
[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )[ ]
1
1 1
2 2
V V I Z U I

= − = −

=
[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
1
1
V Z U Z U V

− +
= − +

after
substituting
[ ]
I from the expression for V
+

. From this
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
1
S Z U Z U

= − + and
considering transpose both sides
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
1
t t t
S Z U Z U

= + − . but in this expression the
matrices in the parentheses are symmetrical so they are equal to their transposes. Therefore
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
1
t
S Z U Z U

= + − . Comparing both the underlined equations
[ ] [ ]
t
S S = and
hence
[ ]
S is a symmetrical matrix.
Multiple choice questions

1. When arm lengths are same in a Magic T, the outputs can be [C ]
a) In phase b) out of phase
c) Either d) None

2. When arm lengths are same in a Magic T, the outputs can be [B ]
a) Coupled b) Decoupled
c) Either d) None

3. When the co-planar arm lengths are not same, then outputs in H plane T can be
[C ]
a) In phase b) Out of phase
c) With phase difference d) either

4. When the co-planar arm lengths are not same, then outputs in E plane T can be
[C ]
a) In phase b) Out of phase
c) With phase difference d) either

5. The outputs of E-plane T are [A ]
a) Coupled b) Decoupled c) Either d) None

6. The outputs of H-plane T are [A ]
a) Coupled b) Decoupled c) Either d) None

7. The outputs of directional coupler have a phase difference of [A ]
a) 90
o
b) 45
o
c) 180
o
d) None

8. Co planner arm ports in 3-port junctions can be [A ]

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128
a) Matched to junction b) mismatched
c) either d) None

9. For its S-matrix to be unitary, the circuit must be [B ]
a) Reciprocal b) loss-less
c) Both d) None

10. Chain S-parameters are similar to [C ]
a) ABCB parameters b) Transmission line parameter
c) Both d) None

11. E plane T divides the power in the ratio of [A ]
a) 1:1 b) 1:3
c) 2:3 d) None

12. In hybrids the outputs are decoupled [A ]
a) When third output port in match terminated b) Always
c) When all ports match terminated d) None

13. Symmetric coupler is [B ]
a) Magic Tee b) Directional Coupler
c) Both d) None

14. Unsymmetrical coupler is [A ]
a) Magic Tee b) Directional Coupler
c) Both d) None

15. The power division in a Tee when the input is at a coplanar arm is
[D ]
a) 2:2:1 b) 3:2:1
c) 1:1:2 d) None

16. Unitary matrix is one satisfying [A ]
a) [A]
t
[A]
*
= [I] b) [ ]
*
t
A = [ ]
1 −
A
c) Both d) None

17. E plane Tee is [C ]
a) Voltage junction b) Series Junction
c) Both d) None

18. H-Plane Tee is [B ]

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129
a) Voltage junction b) Shunt Junction
c) Both d) None

19. If the circuit is symmetric, then its scattering matrix must be [D ]
a) Reciprocal b) unitary
c) Symmetric d) None

20. Microwave Junctions are basically [C ]
a) Power dividers b) Combiners
c) Both d) None
20. A ferrite is [A ]
a) A non conductor with magnetic properties
b) An inter-metallic compound with particularly good conductivity
c) An insulator which heavily attenuates magnetic fields
d) A microwave semiconductor invented by Faraday
21. Manganese ferrite (MnFe
2
O
3
) may be used in [C ]
a) Circulator b) Isolator
c) Both d) none

22. The maximum power handled by a ferrite is limited by [A ]
a) Curie temperature b) Saturation magnetization
c) Line-Width d) Gyro-magnetic resonance

1. A microwave circulator is a [C ]
a) 4 port µw junction b) 3 port µw junction
c) Multi port Uni-directional coupler d) 3db µw coupler

2. An isolator or Uniline is a [A ]
a) two- port µw passive device b) single port µw passive device
c) Two port µw active device d) Multi port active device

3. The degree of rotation of ferrite rod depends upon [C ]
a) The length of the rod b) The length of rod and diameter of the rod
c) The length of the road and diameter of the rod and applied ‘dc’ magnetic field
d) None

4. With circular wave guides the type of attenuator used is [A ]
a) Rotary type b) Flap type
c) Either a or b d) neither a nor b

5. With rectangular wave guides the type of attenuator used is [B ]
a) Rotary type b) Flap type

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130
c) Either a or b d) neither a nor b

6. The gyrator is a two port passive device [B ]
a) From port 1 to 2 it offers 0
0
phase shift b) From port 1 to 2 it offers 180
0
phase
shift
c) From port 2 to 1 it offers 0
0
phase shift d) From port 2 to 1 it offers 180
0
phase
shift

Basics of the microwave sources

Fundamental principles of working of microwave tubes:

o During interaction between particle and field energy transfer takes place.
o When the field favours the particle motion, energy transfer takes place from
the field to particle.
o If the field opposes the particle motion, the particle loses and field gains the
energy.
o The gain of the energy by one is equal to the loss by the other.
o The amount of energy transferred is proportional to
 The charge on the particle
 Intensity of the field.
 Length or duration of the interaction.
o When the gap voltage is sinusoidal time varying and the charge is distributed
 If the particle crossing at positive peak effects maximum transfers of
energy to field, the crossing of particle at negative peak effects
maximum energy transfer to particle
 the distributed charge must be compressed into a thin sheet or bunch,
where it requires lesser amount time to cross the gap for effecting
maximum amount of energy transfer.

o When the gap voltage is sinusoidal time varying and bunch-crossing is at a
constant rate:
 For maximum unidirectional flow of energy there is only one instant,
either at positive peak or negative peak where the bunch has to cross
the gap. So the bunch crossing must be once per cycle of the gap
voltage.
 In case of bunch-crossing at a uniform rate f , maximum energy
transfer can takes place only to a component of grid gap field whose
frequency is also f .

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131
 the components in the frequency range from ( ) 4 3 f to ( ) 4 5 f take
different amounts of energy(but not maximum) from the bunches.
 Other components of the grid gap voltage like 2 f , 4 f , 8 f etc. don’t
involve in the energy transfer, where as the components 3 f , 5 f ,
6 f etc. and 2 f , 3 f , 4 f etc. they take/ give negligible
amount of energy

• Conventional tubes are less useful at frequencies above 1GHz because
o Lead inductance and inter-electrode capacitance
o Transit-angle effects
o Gain-bandwidth product limitations
• Disadvantages of solid-state µ wave devices are
o Low efficiency at frequencies below 10GHz.
o Small tuning range
o Large dependence of frequency on temperature.
o Higher noise.
o For generation of very high powers (10kw to 1Mw)
o Generation of higher millimetre wave frequencies (100GHz and higher)
• Types of tubes
o Linear type or ‘O’ type tubes: the electron beam traverses the length of the
tube and is parallel to the electric field. Ex. Klystrons, TWTs
o Crossed-field or ‘M’ type tubes: the focusing field is perpendicular to the
accelerating electric field. Ex. Magnetron
• Klystrons
o Varian brothers invented klystron amplifier in 1939.
o The major disadvantage is their narrow bandwidth, which is a result of the
high-Q cavities required for electron bunching.
o They have very low AM and FM noise levels.
• TWTs
o Kompfner invented the helix TWT in 1944.
o It has the highest bandwidth of any amplifier tube ranging from 30 to 120%.
o Its power rating can be increased to several kilowatts by using an interaction
region consisting of a set of coupled cavities.
o The efficiency is relatively small ranging from 20% to 40%
• Magnetron
o Hull invented the magnetron in 1921.
o It is the first high power microwave source. And now they are capable of
very high power outputs on the order of several kilowatts.
o Their efficiency is 80% or more.

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132
o Their disadvantage is they are very noisy and cannot maintain frequency or
phase coherency when operated in pulsed mode
o The application of magnetrons is now primarily for microwave cooking.
• Difference between the Klystron and TWT
o The interaction of electron beam and RF field in the TWT is continuous over
the entire length of the circuit, but the interaction in the klystron occurs only
at the gaps of a few resonant cavities.
o The wave in the TWT is a propagating wave where as in the klystron it is not
a travelling one.
o In the coupled cavity TWT there is coupling effect between the cavities,
whereas each cavity in the klystron operates independently.

• Assumptions in the analysis of Klystrons
o The electron beam is with uniform density in the cross section of the beam.
o Space charge effects are negligible
o The magnitude of the input signal is assumed much smaller than the dc
accelerating voltage.
TWO-CAVITY KLYSTRON AMPLIFIER

• It is a µ wave amplifier with two cavities: one is input cavity known as
buncher cavity and the other is output cavity known as catcher cavity.
• The region in between the cavities is called drift region, which is a field-free
space.

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133
• At one end exists an electron gun and at the other end electron collector, a
metal plate grounded.
WORKING
• An uniform electron beam is formed from the divergent electrons emitted by
the cathode using a focusing grid and accelerated to high velocities by an
accelerating voltage.
• All the electrons enter the grid gap with one velocity
m
eV
v
0
0
2
= . In the grid
gap they encounter the signal voltage, which we assume a single sinusoid
t V V
s
ω sin
1
= of frequency ω resulting in ‘velocity modulation’ given
by ( ) )]
2
sin(
2
1 [
1
0
1
0 1
g
i
t
V
V
v t v
θ
ω
β
− + = .
o All the electrons which cross during positive half cycle of the gap
voltage gets accelerated and that cross during the negative half cycle
get decelerated.
o Different electrons that enter the gap at different instants during the
positive/negative half cycle get different amounts of acceleration..
o As the amount of acceleration is equal to the deceleration the average
acceleration or deceleration of the electrons is nil i.e. the average
velocity of the electrons with which they leave the grid gap is same as
that with which they entered.
• While travelling through the drift region the beam undergo ‘density
modulation’. All the electrons that cross the gap during the gap voltage
changes from negative peak to positive peak come together forming ‘bunch’,
a thin dense electron cloud.
• One bunch per cycle forms and the length of the drift region is selected so
that bunch formation completes by the time it reaches the grid gap.

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134
• While crossing the grid gap, the bunch gives energy to the cavity to be taken
out using a loop.
ANALYSIS

• Let us suppose the device is along the z-axis with its first grid walls at z=0 and z=d.
If
0
v is the velocity of the electrons with which they enter the cavity gap then. It is
given by
m
eV
v
0
0
2
=
• If the gap voltage due to the input signal is t V V
s
ω sin
1
= , then the average gap
voltage during the transit of the reference electron is )
2
( sin
0 1
g
i S
t V V
θ
ω β + =
where
o
I
β is known as Beam coupling coefficient. It is the ratio of the alternating
current induced in the resonator to the alternating component of beam current
that produces it. For the present case it is
2
2
sin
g
g
I
θ
θ
β =
o
g
θ is the average gap transit angle for the electrons ωτ = and τ is average
gap transit time for the electrons =
0 1
0
t t
v
d
− ≈
• Velocity with which the electrons leave the buncher
gap ( ) )]
2
sin(
2
1 [
1
0
1
0 1
g
i
t
V
V
v t v
θ
ω
β
− + = . This is the equation of velocity modulation,
which describes the variation of velocity of electrons in the drift space. The quantity
0
1
V
V
i
β
is known as the depth of velocity modulation.

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135
• If T is the transit time of the electrons in drift space then
1 2
t t T − = =

|
|
.
|

\
|
− − =
2
sin
2
1
) (
1
0
1
0
1
g
i
t
V
V
T
t v
L
θ
ω
β

• The
transit
angle
of the
electron in drift space is T ω θ = =

|
|
.
|

\
|
− −
2
sin
2
1
1
0
1
0
g
i
t
V
V
θ
ω
β
θ
or
|
|
.
|

\
|
− − =
2
sin
1 0
g
t X
θ
ω θ θ where

o
0
0
v
L ω
θ = is the transit angle of the dc electron and
o X is Bunching parameter of the two cavity klystron =
0 0
1
0
0
1
2 2 v
L
V
V
V
V
i i
ω β
θ
β
= which
determines the degree of bunching and the waveform of the density –modulated
beam

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136
• Optimum length of the drift space
1
0 0
0
6 . 3
V
V v
L
i
β ω
=
o Let i
2
(t
2
) be the current at catcher cavity and from the principle of the charge
conservation
0 0 2 2
dt I dt i =

0
2
0
2
dt
dt
I
i =
o

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ − + + =
2
sin
2
1
0
0
1
0 0 2
g
i
t
V
V
T t t
θ
ω
β
τ giving
0 0 0 0 2
)
2
cos( dt t T dt dt
g
θ
ω ω + − =

)
2
cos( 1 )
2
cos( 1
0 2
0
0
0
0
2
0
g g
t X
I
t X
I
dt
dt
I
θ
θ ω
θ
ω − − −
=
+ −
=

o As i
2
(t
2
) is a periodic current, it can be expanded in Fourier series
( ) [ ]

=
− − + =
1
0 2 0 0 2 2
) ( cos ) ( 2
n
g n
t n nx J I I t i θ θ ω . Out of these infinite number of
components only the primary or fundamental component that is useful to amplify the
signal. The amplitude of the fundamental component I
2
= 2I
0
J
1
(x) which assumes is
maximum value when X = 1.841 =
0 0
1
2 v
L
V
V
i
ω β
leading to the optimum length of the
drift space
1
0 0
0
6 . 3
V
V v
L
i
β ω
=

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137
• Equivalent circuit
o It consists of a parallel combination of
wall resistance of the catcher cavity,

• Output power

o I
2 ind
= Amplitude of fundamental component of induced current in catcher cavity
) ( 2
1 0 0 2 0
X J I I β β = =
o P
out
=
sh sh out
R
X J I
V I
R
I
P
2
)] ( 2 [
2 2
) (
2
1 0 0
2 2 0
2
2 0
β
β β
= = =

• Electronic efficiency = η =
0 0
2 2 0
2 V I
V I
P
P
in
out
β
=

If the coupling is perfect β
0
= I
1
, max I
2
is 2I
0
(0.58), and V
2
= V
0
, then the max
electronic efficiency η = 58%, in practice it is 15 to 30%.

• Voltage gain A
v

A
v

1
2
V
V
=
v
sh
sh
A
R
R
X
X J
R
V
I
= =
0
1
0
2
0
1
2 0
) (
θ β
β

0
0
0
I
V
R = dc beam resistance.

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138
• Mutual conductance
m
G

m
G ≅
voltage Input
current output induced
V
i
ind
=
1
2
=
1
1 0 0
) ( 2
V
X J I β

∴But V
1
= X
V
V
i
β
1
2
from X =
0
0
1
2
θ
β
V
V
i
so
m
G =
m
G
R X
X J
=
0
1
0
2
0
1
.
) (
θ β
A
v
and G
m
are related thro A
v
= G
m
R
sh

• PERFORMANCE
• Efficiency about 40% (58% max)
• Power output: CW power up to 500 kW
Pulsed power up to 30 MW

initially un-modulated beam of electrons is shot across the gap between them is called
• If the buncher cavity gap width is more, the gap transit angle will be large and the
buncher cavity supplies energy to the beam to bunch. The power P
B
required to produce
bunching action is given as P
B
= V
1
2
G
B
where G
B
conductance equal to
|
|
.
|

\
|

2
cos
2
0
2
0
0
g
G
θ
β β .

b
G ≅
|
|
.
|

\
|

15
1
24
2 2
0
0
g g
V
I
θ θ

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139
• Positive
b
G indicates * Power is being delivered to the beam by the source of
alternating gap voltage. If the voltage source is resonator reduction in its Q
• Negative
b
G indicates * Beam is delivering power to the source of alternating
gap voltage. If the source of alternating gap voltage is resonator, it may go into
oscillations.
• The susceptive component is
b
B ≅
|
|
.
|

\
|

20
3
1
12
2
0
0
g g
V
I
θ θ

• It affects the resonance frequency of a resonator connected across the gap and
therefore cause the frequency of an oscillator to change with beam current and
voltage.

MULTICAVITY KLYSTRON:

• It gives more power gain than two-cavity Klystron. In a multi-cavity klystron each of the
intermediate cavities, placed at a distance of the bunching parameter X of 1.841 away
from the previous cavity acts as a buncher with the passing electron beam inducing a
more enhanced RF voltage than the previous cavity, which in turn sets up an increased
velocity modulation. The spacing between the consecutive cavities would therefore
distinguish [∴ From L
opt
=
1
0 0
6 . 3
V
V
w
i
β
ϑ
, L ∝
1
1
V
]

• The multi-cavity klystrons are often operated with their cavities stagger tuned to obtain
greater bandwidth.
Power gain: 40 to 50 dB
Bandwidth: several percent
Frequency: 0.5 GHz to 14 GHz
Power range: 25 kW to 40 MW

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140

• These are noisy because the bunching is never complete and so the electrons arrive at
random at catcher cavity. So it is too noisy for use in receivers.

REFLEX KLYSTRON

• Reflex Klystron is a low power, low efficiency µ -wave oscillator; used as signal source
in Microwave generators, as local oscillator in microwave receivers,
as pump oscillator in parametric amplifiers, as frequency modulated oscillators in
portable microwave links. Its power output ranges from 10 mW to 3W and frequency
from 4 to 200 GHz
• Its basic parts are one reentrant cavity, beam emitter, accelerator and repeller.
• The electron beam emitted is accelerated to high velocities by the accelerating voltage
and while passing through the grid gap the beam gets velocity modulated.
• The velocity-modulated beam enters the repeller region to face repulsive field of the
repeller region.

• All the electrons, which cross the grid gap during the period from the positive peak to
negative peak, come together forming a bunch after spending different amounts of time
in the repeller region.
• The thin dense electron cloud i.e. bunch crosses the gap giving energy to the gap. For
maximum transfer of energy the gap voltage must be large and opposing the bunch
movement.
• Repeller protection:
o The voltage to repeller is always applied before the cathode and
o A cathode resistor is often used to ensure that the repeller can never be more
positive than the cathode.

• Tuning:
o Frequency can be adjusted by adjustable screw, bellows or dielectric insert
(mechanical methods)

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141
o Frequency can also be
repeller voltage
(electronic tuning). It is
an important feature of
the reflex klystron
because it provides a
means of obtaining fine
tuning and also a means
of introducing frequency
modulation. In a typical
case, a total frequency
variation of the order of 1
percent can be obtained.
ANALYSIS

• Suppose the oscillator is lying along the z-axis with it grid walls at z=0 and z=d Let
0
t is the instant at which the reference electron enters the cavity gap at z = 0,
1
t is the
instant at which the electron leaves cavity gap at z = d and
2
t is the instant at which
the same electron returned back to the gap by retarding field at z = d and collected
by the walls of cavity
• Let
0
v is the velocity with which the electrons enter the cavity gap after getting
accelerated by potential
0
V . Then it must be equal to
m
eV
0
2
. So the velocity with
which the electron enters the cavity gap at t = t
0
and z = 0 is
m
eV
0
2
.
• The electrons while traversing the grid gap undergo a process known as ‘velocity
modulation’ with the following features. Assuming the presence of single frequency
component in the grid gap,
o The electrons that cross the gap during the positive half cycle of the gap
voltage get accelerated and those that cross during the negative half cycle
undergoes deceleration.

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142
o Different electrons that enter the gap at different instants during a half cycle
undergo different amounts of acceleration/deceleration.
o The amount of acceleration is equal to the amount of deceleration during one
cycle of the gap voltage as the beam is uniform. So the average amount of
acceleration/deceleration is zero.
o The average velocity of the electrons is same as the velocity with which they
enter the gap i.e.
0
v
o Different electrons leave the gap with different velocities Let ( )
1
t v is the
velocity with which the reference electron leaves the cavity gap at
1
t t = and
d z = . Then it is equal to ( )

|
|
.
|

\
|
− + =
2
sin
2
1
1
0
1
0 1
g
i
t
V
V
v t v
θ
ω
β
. This is known as
the equation of velocity modulation.
• The electrons crossing the gap enter into the repeller region in the face of retarding
force and spend different amounts of time before returning back to the gap..
Electrons accelerated during the gap transit enter deep into the repeller region and
hence require more time to come back to gap when compared to the electrons that
got decelerated.
o E = Retarding electron field in the repeller space =
L
V V
L
wt V V V
r r 0 1 0
) sin( +

+ +

o The force equation for an electron in the repeller region is
L
V V
e eE
dt
z d m
o r
+
− = − =
2
2
. Integrating this equation twice and applying the
conditions ( )
1
t v
dt
dz
= and d z = at
1
t t = we have
d t t t v t t
mL
V V e
z
r
+ − + −
+ −
= ) ( ) ( ) (
2
) (
1 1
2
1
0

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143
• After the round trip the electron returns to the gap at t = t
2
, so at t = t
2
, z = d giving
d t t t v t t
mL
V V e
d z
r
+ − + −
+ −
= = ) ( ) ( ) (
2
) (
1 2 1
2
1 2
0
. The transit time of the electron in the
repeller region is
1
0
1
1 2
) (
) ( 2
T
V V e
t v mL
t t
r
=
+
= − . Form this

|
|
.
|

\
|
− + =
2
sin
2
1
1
0
1 '
0
' g
i
t
V
V
T T
θ
ω
β

where
1
0
T =
) (
2
0
0
V V e
mLv
r
+
. This equation for the repeller transit time can be put in the
form of )
2
sin(
1
' '
0
' g
t X
θ
ω θ θ − + =
o where
'
0
1
0
T ω θ = , round the trip de transit angle of the center of the bunch
electron is = =
'
0
1
0
T ω θ
) (
2
0
0
V V e
mwLV
r
+
and

o
'
X is the Bunching parameter of the reflex klystron oscillator
'
0
0
1 '
2
θ
β
V
V
X
i
=

o all the electrons that cross the grid gap during the gap voltage variation from
positive peak to negative peak spend different amounts of time in the repeller
region and comeback to the gap at one instant forming into a ‘Bunch’. The
electron bunch gives maximum energy to the gap field when it faces maximum
deceleration which is possible only when the transit time of electrons in the
repeller space is
4
1
'
0
− =n T where n is a positive integer two onwards. So the
round trip transit angle referring to the center of bunch electron
1
0
θ should be

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144
( ) |
.
|

\
|
− = = − =
4
1
2
'
0 1 2
'
0
n T t t π ω ω θ
= N 2π = 2πn - π/2 where N = mode number of the reflex klystron.

o The transit time depends on the repeller and anode voltages
• Power output of the RKO: By comparing with that of the two-cavity klystron the
beam current of a reflex klystron oscillator can be written

=
− − − − =
1
'
0 2
1
0 0 2
)] ( cos[ ) ( 2
n
g
t n nx J I I i θ θ ω
The fundamental component of induced current is ) ( 2
'
1 0 2
X J I I
i
β =
The ac power delivered to the load
2
2 1
I V
P
ac
= = ) (
'
1 0 1
X J I V
i
β

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145
but ⇒

=
)
2
2 (
2
'
0
1
π
π β n
X
V
V
i
)
2
2 (
) ( 2
'
1
'
0 0
π
π −
=
n
X J X I V
P
ac

• Efficiency of the RKO:
dc
ac
P
P
= η ; with
0 0
I V P
dc
=
)
2
2 (
) ( 2
'
1
'
π
π
η

=
n
X J X

Maximum output occurs at 2 = n . ) (
'
1
'
X J X reaches a
max value of 1.25 at 4 . 2
'
= X and 5 . 0 ) (
'
1
= X J giving
η
max
= 22.7%
• Repeller voltage versus mode number:
2
0 0
2
1
v m eV = ⇒
2
0 0
2
1
v
e
m
V =
mL
V V e n
v n
V V e
mLv
r
r
ω
π
π
π
π
ω
θ
2
) ( )
2
2 (
2
2
) (
2
0
2
0
0
0 1
0
+ −
= ⇒ − =
+
=

From the above two relations
2 2 2
0
2
0
4
) ( )
2
2 (
2
1
L m
V V e n
e
m
V
r
ω
π
π + −
=

m
e
L
n
V V e
V
r
2 2
2
0
0
8
)
2
2 (
) ( ω
π
π −
=
+ m
e
L 8
) (
2 2
2 '
0
ω
θ
=
• Power output versus repeller voltage:
0 0
0
0
1
1
1
2
) ( ) (
I V
mV
e
L
V V X J X
P
r
AC
ω
+
=
• Frequency versus Repeller voltage

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146
m
e
n
L V V
V
r
)
2
2 (
8
1
) (
2 2 2
0
0
π
π
ω
− =
+
from this relation differentiating
r
V with respect toω .
e
m V
n
L
d
dV
r 0
8
)
2
2 (
π
π
ω

=

This expression gives change of frequency with respect to the repeller voltage as
0
8 2
)
2
2 (
mV
e
L
n
dV
df
r
π
π
π −
=
0
0
8 2
'
mV
e
L π
θ
=

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147
e
: It is the ratio of the induced current i
2
at t
2
in phasor form
to the voltage V
2
across the gap at t
2
.

)
2
(
'
'
1
1
0
2
0
0
2 /
1
'
1 0
'
0
1
0
) ( 2
2
) ( 2
θ
π
π
θ
θ β β

= =
j
i
j
j
i
e
e
X
X J
V
I
e V
e X J I
Y
• Equivalent circuit of the Reflex Klystron: it consists of a parallel combination of
one capacitor, one inductor both representing the energy storage elements of the cavity,
o C and L represent energy
storage Elements of the cavity
o G
c
= Copper losses of cavity
o G
b
o G
l

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148
• The necessary condition for oscillations is that the magnitude of the negative real part of
the electronic admittance should be greater than or equal to the total conductance of the
cavity circuit. i.e.
|- G
e
| ≥ G where G = G
c
+ G
b
+ G
e
and Y
e
= G
e
+ jB
e

MAGNETRON

TYPES:

1. Split-anode magnetron: it uses the static negative resistance between two anode
segments. It operated at frequencies below µ wave region.
2. Cyclotron-frequency magnetron: It operates under the influence of synchronism
between an alternating component of electric field and a periodic oscillations of the
electrons in a direction parallel to the field. It operates at frequencies in the µ wave
range, power output very low and very efficiency.
3. Travelling-wave magnetrons: they depend on the interaction of electrons with a
travelling electromagnetic field of linear velocity.

TRAVELING WAVE MAGNETRON
• Cavity Magnetron is a high power, high efficiency microwave oscillator which
depends upon the interaction of electrons with a traveling electromagnetic wave for
its operation..
• It is a diode with several connected re-entrant cavities in the anode structure. The
connected re-entrant cavities results in the existence of a rotating rf field in the
interaction region whose angular frequency is
dt

β ω
0
= where β
0
= phase
constant = (2πn)/NL
• It is a crossed – field device as it employs axial dc magnetic field and radial dc
voltage. If the values these fields are adjusted property, the electrons follow cycloid
paths in the interaction space.
• In total there exists three fields in the interaction region of magnetron.

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149

π Dc electric field in radial
direction
π Static magnetic field in
axial direction
π Rotating rf field

• Hull Cut-off field is the magnetic
field/electric field required to return the electrons to the cathode after they have just
grazed the anode in the absence of RF field.

• Mode π oscillations: Self-consistent oscillations can exist only if the phase
difference between the adjoining anode poles is nπ / 4 where n =1,2,3 etc. For best
results n = 4 is used in practice which gives a phase difference of π between two
successive poles and the resulting mode is known as π - mode.
• Strapping: Magnetrons using identical cavities in the anode block employs
strapping to prevent mode jumping. For π mode of operation it consists of two rings
of heavy gauge wire connecting alternate anode poles.
π At very high frequencies, rising–sun anode structure is used to prevent mode
jumping.

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150

• Frequency pulling: The resonant frequency of the magnetron alters with the
changes in the load admittance. Such frequency variation is known as frequency -
pulling.

• Frequency Pushing: It is the variation of the frequency of the magnetron due to the
changes in anode voltage..

• Phase–focusing effect: In cavity magnetron the electrons are bunched by an effect
known as phase – focusing effect without it, the favoured electrons (i.e. which
contribute energy to the RF field) would fall behind the phase changes of the electric

field across the gaps, since such electrons are retarded at teach interaction with the RF
field. The wheel spoke bunches rotate counter clockwise with correct velocity allowing
continuous interchange of energy. In this interchange, the RF field receives much more
than it gives.
FUNCTIONING:

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151
• The dc field strengths are to be adjusted to cut-off values i.e.
0
V should be set to
2
2
2
2 2
0
1
8
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
b
a
b B
m
e
V
oc
for a given
0
B or
0
B should be set to
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
2 / 1
0
1
8
b
a
b
e
m
V
B
oc

for a given
0
V .
• Under the influence of the dc fields and the rotating rf field the emitted
electrons from the cathode revolve around the cathode with a cyclotron angular
frequency
m
eB
C
0
= ω
• When the cyclotron frequency of the electrons is equal to the angular frequency
of the field i.e.
c
ω =
dt

β
0
where β
0
= phase constant = (2πn)/NL the
interactions between the field and electron occurs and the energy is transferred .
ANALYSIS:
Equations of Electron motion:

• The Lorenz force acting on an electron because of the presence of both the electric
field E and the magnetic flux B is given by
F = - e ( B v E × + ) = m
dt
dv

• In Cylindrical-coordinate system the general expression for the acceleration is a =
dt
dv
=
z p
v
dt
z d
v
dt
d
dt
d
v
dt
d
dt
d
2
2 2
2
2
2
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|

φ
φ ρ
ρ
φ
ρ
ρ

π When the electron is in the interaction space 0 =
z
v and only B
z
≠ 0 ,
ρ
E ≠
0 , with this information we can write the equations of motion for electrons
in φ direction as

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152

dt
d
ρ
1
dt
d
B
m
e
dt
d
z
ρ φ ρ
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
2

dt
d
) (
2
1
2
2
ρ ω
φ ρ
dt
d
dt
d
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
where
z c
B
m
e
= ω is known as the cyclotron angular
frequency of the electrons

t cons
dt
d
c
tan
2
1
2
2
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
ρ ω
φ ρ
; the integration constant can be found from the fact at
a = ρ , 0 =
dt

. Now the constant =
c
ω
2
1
so
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2
2
1
2
1
ρ
ω
φ a
dt
d
c
(1)
Since the magnetic field does no work on the electrons, the kinetic energy of the electron
is
2 2 2 2 2
2
2
1
φ
ρ v v V
m
e
v eV mv
p
+ = = ⇒ =

2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
dt
d
dt
d
V
m
e φ
ρ
ρ
(2)
When the electrons just graze the anode,
0
, V V b = = ρ and
OC
B B and
dt
d
= =0
ρ

And (2) becomes ) 1 (
2
1
2
2
b
a
dt
d
c
− = ω
φ
(3)

0
2
2
2
V
m
e
dt
d
b = |
.
|

\
| φ
(4)
Substituting (3) and (4)
0
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
V
m
e
b
a
b
c
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
− ω

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153
Hull cut-off magnetic field equation

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
2 / 1
0
1
8
b
a
b
e
m
V
B
oc

If B
0
> B
oc
for a given V
0
the electron will not reach the anode.
Hull Cut-off voltage equation:
2
2
2
2 2
0
1
8
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
b
a
b B
m
e
V
oc

If V
0
< V
oc
for a given B
0
the electrons will not reach the anode.
• Cyclotron Angular frequency
C
ω : Since the magnetic field is normal to the
motion of electrons, the travel in a cycloid path, the
out-ward centrifugal force is equal to the pulling force

m
eB
r
v
evB
R
mv
C
= = ⇒ = ω
2

• Uses: It is a high power microwave source used in
π Linear particle accelerators.
• Performance chart: It is a chart containing the contours of constant power output,
constant efficiency, constant flux density and occasionally constant frequency.
Plotted on coordinates of direct anode voltage Vs direct anode current at a specified

• Load admittance diagrams: it is a chart containing contours of constant power or
efficiency and of constant frequency plotted in coordinates of load resistance and
load reactance. When polar coordinates are used these diagrams are called “Rieke
Diagrams”

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154
• Potential in the interaction region::
0
( ) ln ln
b
V V
a a
ρ
ρ
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
;
• Velocity of the electron in the interaction region::
2 / 1
) ( 2 ) (

= p V
m
e
v ρ

• Powers - 10 kW to 5 Mw
• Efficiency - 50 % (40 to 70%)

TRAVELLING WAVE TUBE (TWT)

• TWT is a linear beam tube in which the interaction between the beam and the RF field is
continuous over a length.
• Complete bunching results due to continuous interaction between axial RF field and
beam ultimately giving high gain
• TWT uses non-resonant microwave circuit and is capable of enormous bandwidths.
• Slow-wave structures are special circuits used in microwave tubes to reduce the wave
velocity in a certain direction so that the electron beam and signal wave can interact;
Ex: Helix, Folded back line, Zigzag line, inter-digital line, corrugated wave-guide and
coupled cavities are slow-wave structures widely used.

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155

• HELIX: When the signal is travelling along the coil with velocity C, the phase velocity
of the wave in the axial direction is

d
PC
d P
CP
v
p
π
π

+
=
2 2
) (
= = ψ sin C
β
ω

• The axial electric field E (x, y, z) is periodic along axial direction i.e z- direction with
periodicity equal to patch. This field can be expressed as linear combination of several
spatial harmonics using Fourier theorem.

∞ − =

=
n
jpn
z
e y x z y x E ) , ( ) , , ( ;
L
n
n
π
β β
2
0
+ = [ ] P L =

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156
=
n
β phase constant of the
ih
n mode

The phase velocity of various spatial components of the wave is

L
n
v
n
pn
π
β
ω
β
ω
2
0
+
= =

• PRINCIPLE OF WORKING:
o There exists a spatially periodic travelling wave co-axial to the helix when the
signal is travelling along the length of its conductor.
o The electron beam is accelerated to a velocity, which is slightly more than the
phase velocity of the axial wave.
o The axial wave accelerates the electrons during one half cycle and decelerates
during the second half cycle but at any point of time there exists more electrons
in the decelerating half cycle
resulting in net transfer of energy
from the electrons to the wave.
o The strengthened wave offers more
deceleration to the incoming
electrons, increasing electron
concentration in its region thereby
increasing energy transfer to the
beam manifold.
o It results in the exponential growth
of the signal along the length of the
helix.

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157

• Brillouin Diagram: It is ω - β diagram for a helical slow-wave structure with several
spatial harmonics. The second
quadrant of the ω -β diagram
indicates the negative phase
velocity that corresponds to the
negative n .The shaded areas are
the forbidden regions for
propagation. It is because if the axial phase velocity of any spatial harmonic exceeds the
velocity of light, the structure radiates energy.

• Attenuator: Oscillations are possible in this high gain device, especially if poor load
matching causes significant reflections along the slow wave structures very close
coupling of slow-wave circuits further aggravates the problem. Attenuator is used to
prevent oscillations in TWT and it has the subsidiary effect of reducing the gain. The
attenuator may be a lossy metallic coating such as Aquadag or KANTHAL on the
surface of the glass tube.
Both forward and reverse waves are attenuated, but the forward wave is able to
continue and grow past the attenuator because bunching is unaffected.

• Electronic Equation: It determines the convection current induced by the axial electric
field.
0
1
2
1
2
0
0
2 ) ( ) ( 2 R
E
j
j
E
j V
I j
i
e
e
e
e
γ β
β
γ β
β

=

= , where γ is the propagation constant of the axial
waves
e e
jβ α γ + = ,
0
v
e
ω
β = , γ γ =
0
with 0 = i

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158
• Circuit Equation: It determines how the spatial ac electron beam current affects the
axial electric field of the slow-wave helix.

2
0
2
0 0
2
1
γ γ
γ γ

− =
Z
E where
0
Z = characteristic impedance of helix

• TWT gain parameter
3 / 1
0
0 0
4
|
|
.
|

\
|

V
Z I
C

• Power gain A
P
= - 9.5 + 47.3 NC db
• Propagation constants: The four propagation constants represent four different modes
of wave propagation in the O-type helical TWT.
o )
2
1 (
2
3
1
C
j C
e e
+ + − = β β γ : It represents forward traveling wave. The beam
velocity is slightly more than the phase velocity of this wave. Energy transfer
takes place from the beam to the wave so its amplitude increases as it progresses.
o )
2
1 (
2
3
2
C
j C
e e
+ + = β β γ : It represents forward traveling wave. The beam
velocity is slightly more than the phase velocity of this wave Energy transfer
takes place from the wave to beam so its amplitude decreases as it progresses.
o ) 1 (
3
C j
e
− = β γ It represents wave traveling in the forward direction. The beam
velocity is less than the phase velocity of this wave. There exists no transfer of
power between the beam and wave.
o )
4
1 (
3
4
C
j
e
− − = β γ It represents a wave traveling in the reverse direction with
no transfer of energy. The beam velocity is less than the phase velocity of the
wave

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159
GUNN DIODE
• Gunn oscillators and amplifiers are most important microwave devices that
have been extensively used as local oscillators and power amplifier covering
the frequency range 1 to 100 GHz in which Gunn diode is a critical part.
• Gunn diode is an n-type slab of GaAs, InP, InAs, InSb and CdTd.
• Gunn diode exhibits dynamic negative resistances when it is biased to a
potential gradient more than a certain value known as threshold field E
th
due
to Gunn effect or Transferred Electron Effect (TEE).
• In any n-type semi-conductor the drift velocity, the following relations
govern current, field and drift velocity.
µ µ µ µ q n
dE
dJ
E q n J and
dE
dv
E v
d
d
= → = = → =
 When the field is less than the E
th
, increase in the field E causes the
d
v to increase resulting in the positive mobility µ . Hence an increase
in the E causes J to increase resulting in positive resistance.
 When the field is in between E
th
and E
v
increase in the field E causes
the
d
v to decrease due to the onset of TEE resulting the negative
mobility µ . Hence an increase in the field E causes J to decrease
resulting in the manifestation of differential negative resistance.
 When the field is more than E
v
increase in field E causes
d
v to
increase resulting in the positive mobility µ due to the disappearance
of the TEE. Hence an increase in the E causes J to increase resulting
in positive resistance.

• The threshold field values are GaAs-3.3kv/cm, InP-10.53kv/cm, InAs-
1.63kv/cm, InSb-0.63kv/cm CdTd-13.03kv/cm
• TEE is ‘a field induced transfer of conduction band electrons from a high
mobility lower energy satellite valley to low mobility higher energy satellite
valley’
o It is bulk material property i.e. it takes place at each
and every point in the body of the Gunn.
o Due to this effect the mobility of the electrons in the
diode become negative.
• In the InP diode
o There exists three satellite valleys in its conduction
band where as in others it two.
o The peak to valley current ratio is larger because the
electron transfer proceeds faster with increasing field.
o Thermal excitation of the electrons has less effect

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160
current ratio because the larger energy separations
between lower and its nearest valley.
• In the InAs and InSb diodes TEE can be observed only under hydrostatic
pressures that reduce the energy difference between the satellite valleys.
Their energy difference is more than that of the forbidden gap under normal
pressures.
• The electrons drift through the diode with velocities depending upon the field
intensity and its
maximum
when the
diode is
biased to
threshold
value.
• Peak
velocities in
various diodes are
GaAs-2.2,
InP-2.5, InAs-3.6, InSb-5.0 and CdTd-1.5 times 10
7
cm/sec.
• Noise is due to ‘AM noise’ normally small, due to amplitude variations plus
‘FM noise’ which is due to frequency deviations.
• The upper frequency of the TEDs is limited to 150GHz mainly due to the
‘finite response time’.
• The output power falls as
2
1
f

• Gunn oscillators and amplifiers are being widely used as local oscillators and
power amplifiers covering 1 to 100GHz range

GUNN DOMAINS
The transfer to lower mobility valley starts with the electrons located in a small region
where the field intensity is more due to lower carrier concentration. These regions are called
high field domains. The domains travel to anode shifting all the electrons in their path to
lower mobility valley. The velocity of the domains is slightly more than the drift velocity of
the electrons.

• Domains start to form whenever the electric field in a region of the sample increases
above the threshold value and with the stream through the device.
• If additional voltage is applied to the diode with a domain then the domain will
increase in size and absorb more voltage than was added and the current will
decrease.

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161
• The domain disappears after reaching the anode or in the mid-way if the field drops
to a value less than sustain field value E
s
.
• Decreasing the field slightly lower than the threshold value can prevent the
formation of new domain.
• The domain modulates the current through the device as the domain passes the
regions of different doping and cross-sectional areas.
• The domain length is inversely proportional to the doping concentration.

TWO-VALLEY MODEL THEORY:

• It has been proposed by Kroemer to explain the manifestation of negative
resistance in certain type of bulk semiconductor materials.
• In the conduction band of n-type GaAs a high mobility lower valley is separated
from a low mobility upper valley by an energy difference of 0.36ev.
• Under equilibrium conditions the electron densities in both the valleys remain
same.
• When the applied field is lower than the field corresponding to the energies of
the electrons in the lower valley then the no transfer of electrons takes place from
one to other valley. The mobility of the carriers is positive.
• When the applied field is higher than the field corresponding to the energies of
the electrons in the lower valley and lower than the field corresponding to the
energies of the electrons in the upper valley, then transfer of electrons takes place
from high mobility lower to low mobility upper valley. The mobility of the
carriers becomes negative.
• When the applied field is higher than the field corresponding to the energies of
the electrons in the higher valley, then no transfer of electrons takes place
because by that time all the electrons of the lower valley must have been
transferred to the upper valley. The mobility of the carriers is positive.

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162

• The nobilities of the electrons in the two valleys must satisfying the relation

P
l
u l
l u l
u l
E
n
n
f where P
dE
dn
n
E
f
= = >

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

µ
µ µ
µ µ
, 1

RWH THEORY

Ridley, Watkins and Hilsum proposed this theory to explain the phenomenon of Negative
Differential Resistance (NDR) in bulk materials. Its salient features are
• Bulk NDR devices are classified into two groups. One voltage controlled NDRs and
second current controlled NDRs.

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163
• The characteristic relation between Electric field E and the current density J of
voltage controlled NDRs is ‘N’ shaped and that of the current controlled NDRs is ‘S’
shaped.
• The electric field is multi-valued in the case of voltage controlled NDRs and it is
electric current that is multi-valued in case of current controlled NDRs.
• The differential resistivity increases with field in case of voltage controlled NDRs
and decreases in case of current controlled NDRs.
• A semi-conductor exhibiting bulk NDR is inherently unstable because a momentary
space charge, which might have been created due to random fluctuation in the carrier
density, grows exponentially with time because the relaxation time is negative.
• Because of NDR, the initially homogeneous semi-conductor becomes heterogeneous
to achieve stability. It results in ‘high field domains’ in voltage controlled NDRs and
‘high current filaments’ in current controlled NDRs.
• The high field domain starts forming at a region where the field intensity is higher
extending further perpendicular to the direction of current flow separating two low
field regions. The width of the domain is
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
1 2
1
E E
E E
L d
A

• The high current filament starts forming at a region where the field intensity is
higher extending further along the direction of the current flow separating two low
current regions. Its cross-sectional area is
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
1 2
1
J J
J J
A a
A

According to RWH theory for the semiconductor to exhibit negative resistance,
• The separation energy between the lower valley and the upper valley must be
several times larger than the thermal energy of the electrons at room
temperatures i.e.
• The separation energy between the valleys must be smaller than forbidden energy
gap between the conduction band and valence band.
• Electrons in the lower valley must have high mobility, small effective mass and
low density of state whereas those in the upper valley must have low mobility,
large effective mass and high density of state.
As Si and Ge don’t meet these criteria, they can not exhibit dynamic negative resistance.
GUNN MODES
• Major factors that determine the modes of operation are
9 Concentration and uniformity of the doping
9 Length of the active region
9 Operating bias voltage
9 Cathode contact property

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164
9 Type of the circuit used.
• An important boundary separating the various modes of operation is
2 12
0
10

= cm L n
• The TEDs with L n
0
products smaller than
2 12
10

cm exhibit a stable field
distribution.

Gunn oscillation mode:

>

−2 12
7
10
sec / 10
cm nL
cm fL

• This mode is operated with the field more than the threshold value i.e. E > E
th

• The high field domain drifts along the specimen until it reaches anode or low
field value drops to below the sustaining field value ie E < E
s

• The frequency of oscillation is given by
eff
dom
L
v
f = where
dom
v is the velocity
of the domain and
eff
L is the effective length the domain travels before a
new domain gets nucleated.

9 Transit time domain mode: [ ] sec / 10
7
cm fL≈
• The high field domains are stable in the sense that they propagate with a
particular velocity but don’t change in any way with time.
• When the high field domain reaches the anode the current in the external
circuit increases.
• The frequency of the current oscillations depends on among other things,
the velocity of the domain across the sample. If the velocity increases the
frequency increases and vice versa. It also depends upon the bias voltage.
• The shape of the domains in GaAs and InP TEDs is triangular.
• In this mode the oscillation period is transit time. The efficiency is below
10%.

9 Delayed domain mode: sec] / 10 sec / 10 [
7 6
cm fL cm < <

• In this mode the domain is collected by the anode when E < E
th
and the
new domain formation gets delayed until the rise of the field to above
threshold.
• The oscillation period is greater than the transit time.
• The oscillations occur at the frequency of the resonant circuit.

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165
• The efficiency of this mode is about 20%
9 Quenched domain mode: sec] / 10 sec / 10 [
7 6
cm fL cm < <
• While the domain is traveling, the bias field drops to a value less than E
S

during negative half cycle quenching the domain. A new cannot form
until the field again rises above the E
th
.
• Oscillations occur at the frequency of the resonant circuit rather than the
transit time frequency.

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166
• The operating frequencies are higher than the transit time frequency.
• Formation of multiple high field layers takes place.
• The upper frequency limit for this mode is determined by the speed of
quenching.
• In this mode the efficiency can be 13%.

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167
LSA mode:

> <
>
3 0 4
7
10 2 10 2
sec / 10 2
x
f
n
x
cm X fL

o This is the simplest mode of operation.
o As the frequency is high the domains do not get sufficient time to form.
o Most of the domains find them selves in the negative conduction state
during a large fraction of voltage cycle.
o A large portion of the device exhibits a uniform field resulting in efficient
power generation at the circuit controlled frequency.
o This mode is suitable to generate short pulses of high peak power
o Its maximum operating frequency is much lower than the that of the TT
devices.
Stable amplification mode:

=

−2 12 11
7
10 10
sec / 10
cm to nL
cm fL

o In this mode the devices exhibits stable amplification at the transit time
frequency.
o Negative conductance is utilized to prevent the formation of the domains.
o There exists three regions of amplification depending on the fL product
range from
8 7
10 5 . 0 10 x to
Bias ciruit oscillation mode:
• This mode occurs when there is either GUNN or LSA oscillation and fL
is small.
• When the diode is biased to the threshold GUNN oscillation begin
leading to sudden decrease in the average current of the circuit driving it
to oscillations.
• The frequency of the oscillations may be in the range from 1KHz to 100
MHz.
IMPATT

• The IMPATT diode is now one of the most powerful solid-state sources for the
generation of microwaves. It can generate higher CW power outputs in millimeter-
wave frequencies i.e. above 30 GHz of all solid-state devices. These are compact,
inexpensive, moderately efficient and with improved device fabrication technology
these diodes also have become reliable under high temperature operation
• IMPATT stands for ‘IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit Time’.
• IMPATT diodes employ ‘impact ionization’ and ‘transit time’ properties of semi-
conductor structures to get negative resistance at microwave frequencies.

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168
• Impact ionization or avalanche multiplication: ’it is a process related to semi-
conductors in which the generation and multiplication of hole-electron pair takes
place due to knocking off the valence electrons into conduction band by the highly
energetic carriers when the electric field is increased above certain value’.
The rate of pair production is a sensitive non-linear function of field.
• The negative resistance occurs from the delay, which cause the current to lag behind
the voltage by half cycle time, have two components:
 One is Avalanche time delay caused by ‘finite buildup time of the
avalanche current.’
 Other is transit time delay by the finite time for the carriers to cross
the drift region.
• These diodes are made from GaAs, Ge, Si.
• Extremely high voltage gradient 400kv/cm back biasing the diode is required for its
operation.
• In all the structures there exists two regions
o Avalanche region: in this region avalanche multiplication takes, doping
concentration and field intensity are high.
o Drift region: in this region avalanche multiplication does not take place,
doping concentration and field levels are low.
o Depletion region is AR plus DR.

• Maximum negative resistance is occurs when the transit angle θ = π at which the
operating frequency becomes
L
v
f
d
2
= where v
d
is drift velocity of the carriers and L
length of the drift region.
• IMPATT is the name of a diode family. It’s basic members are
+ + + +
− − − − − − p i p n dual its or n i n p
o Single drift diode
+ +
− − p n p
o Double drift diode or RIMPATT diode
+ +
− − − n n p p
o Pin diode
+ +
− − n i p

• The noise measure in GaAs is low when compared to Si and for Ge it is in between
GaAs and Si. The main reason for the low noise behavior of GaAs is that for a given
field the electron and hole ionization rates are essentially same, where as in Si these
are quite different.
• The highest powers, frequency and efficiency are obtained from double drift diodes
that are also known as RIMPATTs. The power-frequency
2
product is highest for
these diodes. The improved performance results mainly from the fact that holes and
electrons produced by the avalanche are allowed to give energy to RF signal while

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169
traversing the drift region. In the case of single drift diodes only one type of carriers
is so utilized.
• Comparison:
o When compared to GUNN diode these diodes have more efficiency around
30%, more powerful around 15w CW and their frequency can reach up to
200GHz where as in the case of GUNN it is only 100GHz.
o But when compared to GUNN diodes these are more noisy.
o Below 40GHz GaAs IMPATTs have higher powers and efficiency than do
Si IMPATTs.
o Between 40-60 GHz GaAs IMPATTs show higher power and efficiency
whereas Si IMPATTs give high reliability and yield.
o Above 60GHz Si IMPATTs outperform the GaAs IMPATTs.
o Around 10GHz efficiency is close to 40%.
• Power output:

 At lower frequencies the power output is thermal-limited and varies
as f
–1
;
 At higher frequencies (>50 MHz) the power is electronic limited and
varies as f
–2

• Difficulties:
 The noise is high mainly because of the statistical nature of the
generation rates of electron-hole pairs in the avalanche region.
 Highly sensitive to operational conditions.
 Large electronic-reactance, which can cause detuning or even
burnout of the device unless proper care is taken.
• Applications:
 In electronic counter measures.

TRAPATT

• TRAPATT stands for ‘TRApped Plasma Avalanche Triggered Transit’
• TRAPATT diode is a high power, high efficiency device.
• For a TRAPATT diode, the design and performance are more complicated because
of strong device-circuit interaction that dictates most of the device performance.
• Silicon
+ + + +
− − − − p p n or n n p structures are used to get high powers. The
doping of the depletion region is generally such that the diodes are well punched
through at break down i.e. depletion region extends from
+ +
− − n n to n p junction.

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170
• OPERATION:
o It is mounted at a distance of λ
g
/4 from a short in a wave-guide or coaxial
line so that a high RF field exists across the diode
o Initially the diode charges up like a linear capacitor, driving the magnitude of
the field above the breakdown voltage.
o High field avalanche zone or shock front passes through the diode and fills
the depletion layer with a highly conductive dense plasma of electrons and
holes whose space charge depresses the voltage to low values.
o The plasma generated takes time to get removed from the depletion region
followed by the residual charge from the ends of the depletion layer, raising
the voltage across the diode.
o The diode once again charges up like a fixed capacitor until current moves to
zero. The same voltage is maintained across the diode until the current rises
again.
o As the voltage across the diode is low during the drift of the pulse, drift
velocity becomes less leading to more transit time, dissipation becomes less
giving rise to higher efficiencies, operating frequencies lower and active
regions become thinner.
o This diode requires a circuit that can support harmonics of fundamental
frequency of high voltage amplitudes. The rich harmonic content is necessary
to get the required phase delay in the current at such low frequencies.

• Difficulties:
o It has higher noise figure when compared to IMPATT diodes.
o Its operation is quite complicated and requires good control over the device
and circuit.
o The upper operating frequencies are practically limited to below millimeter-
wave range i.e. 10GHz.
o It is highly sensitive even to small changes in circuit or operating conditions
or temperature.
• Performance:
o The output power of a series connection of five diodes under pulse condition
reaches 1.2kw with a efficiency of 25%.
o The upper frequency limit is close to 10GHz and highest obtained efficiency
is 75%
o Its high pulse power output is much larger than most other microwave semi-
conductor devices.

Multiple choice questions

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171
1. As frequency increases the inter electrode capacitance [A ]
a) increases b) decreases
c) Remains constant d) zero

2. The degenerative feed back in vacuum tubes is caused by [ ]
a) Inductance of cathode lead b) C
pg

c) C
gk
d) C
PK

3. energy of the electron moving opposite to the flux
lines in field the K.E of an electron [A ]
a) Increases b) decreases
c) do not change d) zero

4. The factor that determines the location of the catcher cavity is [ ]
a) position where bunching forms
b) position where fundamental frequency component is maximum
c) Where Velocity of electrons is minimum
d) Where Velocity of electrons is maximum

5. The basic principle of operation of klystrons is [ ]
a) Resonance b) Degenerative feed back
c) Velocity modulation d) Taking high velocity electrons.

6. A two cavity klystron without a feedback path works as [ ]
a) Coupler b) Wave guide
c) oscillator d) Amplifier

7. The electrons of the bunch in a reflex klystron must remain in the repeller field for the
minimum number of cycles [ ]
a) 3 ¾ b) 1 ¾
c) ¾ d) 4

8. If the electrons in a Reflex Klystron remain in the repeller field for 1 ¾ cycles, the
mode of operation is [ ]
a) 3 b) 1
c) 2 d) 4

9. Due to debunching, the power output of the Reflex Klystron [ ]
a) Decreases b) increases
c) No charge i d) none of the above

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172
10. ______ limits the tuning range around the center frequency of a Reflex Klystron in a
particular mode of operation [ ]
a) bunching b) half power points of the mode
c) Velocity of electrons d) input Voltage

:

11. The Velocity to which the electrons are accelerated [A ]
in Klystrons is
a)
m
eV
0
2
b)
m
eV
2
0

c)
e
mV
2
0
d)
e
mV
0
2

12. Velocity modulation takes place in [A ]
a) Cavity grid gap b) Drift space
c) Repeller region d) Cathode region

13. Density modulation takes place in [B ]
a) Grid gap b) Drift space
c) Cathode region d) Depletion region

14. Max efficiency of Reflex Klystron is [A ]
a) 22.7% b) 27.2%
c) 72.2% d) 77.2%

15. Max efficiency of two cavity Klystron is [ ]
a) 58% b) 85%
c) 55% d) 88%

16. Magnetron is [A ]
a) High power oscillator b) Low efficiency oscillator
c) Low Power oscillator d) High efficiency Amplifier

17. The paths of electrons in Magnetron are [A ]
a) Cycloid b) Circular
c) Elliptical d) Parabolic

18. Reflex Klystron gives max power in [A ]
a) 1 ¾ mode b) ¾ mode
c) 2 ¾ mode d) 3 ¾ mode

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173

19. Stagger tuning is done to improve [A ]
a) Band width b) Efficiency
c) Gain d) Power output

20. The multi cavity klystron, the cavities are spaced [C ]
a) Equally b) Increasing distance
c) Decreasing distance d) In any way
21. Beam coupling coefficient ρ is [B ]
a)
( )
sin 2
g
g
θ
θ
b)
( )
sin 2
2
g
g
θ
θ

c)
2 /
g
g
Sin
θ
θ
d)
g
g
Sin
θ
θ

22. Equation of Velocity modulation is [A ]
a) ) (
1
t v =

|
|
.
|

\
|
− +
2 2
1
1
0
1
0
g
i
t Sin
V
V
v
θ
ω
β

) (
1
t v = V
0

|
|
.
|

\
|
− +
2 2
1
1
0
1
g
i
t Sin
V
V
θ
ω
β

) (
1
t v = V
1

|
.
|

\
|
− +
2 2
1
0
1
0
0
θ
ω
β
t Sin
V
V
i

) (
1
t v =

|
.
|

\
|
− +
2 2
1
0
1
0
1
θ
ω
β
t Sin
V
V
i

23. Bunching Parameter of two cavity Klystron is [ ]
a)
0 0
1
2 v
L
V
V
i
ω β
b)
0
0
2
V
L
iVi
v ω
β

c)
L
v
V
V i
ω
β
0
1
2
d)
0 0
1
2
2 V V
V i ω β

24. Optimum length of drift space is L
opt
[ ]
a)
1
0 0
6 . 3
V
V v
i
β ω
b)
1
0 0
6 . 3 V
V v
i
β
ω

c)
0 0
1
6 . 3
v V
V i β
ω
d)
0
0 0
6 . 3
V i
v V
β ω

25. Bunching limits in multi-cavity Klystrons are from [ ]
a) Positive Peak to Negative Peak b) Negative

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174
c) Positive peak to positive peak d) Negative Peak to negative peak

26. Reflex Klystron can give output [A ]
a) 10 mw b) 1 Mw
c) 10 Mw d) 100 Mw

27. Magnetron has ________ electrodes [A ]
a) Two b) Three
c) Four d) One

28. Magnetron is [D ]
a) Crossed Field Device b) Oscillator
c) Electron beam rotates d) All

29. Change of frequency with change in load is [ ]
a) Frequency Pulling b) Frequency Pushing
c) Mode jumping d) Skipping

30. The magnetic field at which electron from cathode, grazes over the anode and falls
back into the cathode in a Magnetron is [ ]

a) Threshold field b) Hull cut-off
c) RWH cut-off d) None

31. The total phase of the n-cavity Magnetron, to generate sustained oscillations should be
equal to [ ]
a) n π b)
2
π n

c) 2πn d) none

32. Change of frequency with Anode Voltage is [ ]
a) Frequency Pulling b) Frequency Pushing
c) Mode jumping d) Skipping

33. The magnet surrounding the body of a TWT serves ______ purpose [A ]
a) Focus electrons into a tight beam b) for higher Velocities
c) For denser bunching d) for larger amplification

34. The following is wide – band width MW amplifier [D ]
a) 2- cavity Klystron b) Reflex Klystron
c) Multi cavity Klystron d) TWT

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175

35. Back wave oscillations with in TWT can be reduced by [A ]
a) attenuators b) buncher cavity

36. The electronic admittance diagram of reflex klystron, in shape is [C ]
a) straight line b) circular
c) spiral d) parabolic
37. ( ) XJ X is maximum when X is equal to [ ]
a) 0.582 b) 2.408
c) 1.25 d) 0.52

38. The transit angle
1
0
θ in the repeller region of reflex klystron is [ ]
a) 2π n b) 2π n - π
c) 2π n – n d) 2π n - π / 2

39. The noisiest diode out of the following is [ ]

a) TRAPATT b) IMPATT
c) GUNN d) LSA

40. Diode which give no harmonics is [ ]
a) TRAPATT b) GUNN
c) IMPATT d) BARITT

41. structure of the Read diode is [ ]
a) P
+
- n – P
+
b) n
+
- P – P
+

c) n
+
- P – I – P
+
d) P
+
- I – n
+

42. Diodes which does not work at high frequencies (> 40 GHz) is [ ]
a) GUNN b) IMPATT
c) TRAPATT d) All the above

43. Gunn devices function based on [A ]
a) Transfer electron effect b) Avalanche Transit effect
c) Trapped plasma d) Impact ionization

44. High power pulsed outputs can be obtained in [ ]

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176
a) GUNN b) TRAPATT
c) IMPATT d) all the above

45. The growing RF wave travels in direction to that of electron beam [ ]
a) same b) opposite
c) alternating a&b d) none of the above
46. the back wave oscillator can be tuned by changing the [ ]
a) length of slow wave structure
b) changing the load at the output
c) changing the accelerating anode potential
d) taking reflectors
47. Gunn diodes are [D ]
a) Junction devices b) Avalanche devices
c) Both d) None

48. Gun effect is [C ]
a) Transferred electron effect b) Bulk material effect
c) Both d) None

49. Gunn Effect can be observed in [D ]
a) Ge b) Si c) both d) None

50. Gunn diodes exhibit [C ]
a) Positive resistance b) Negative resistance
c) Both d) None

51. Gunn domains start near [A ]
a) Cathode region b) Anode region
c) Middle of the diode d) None

52. Domains travel at a Velocity equal to [B ]
a) Drift Velocity of electron b) More than drift Velocity of electron
c) Less than drift Velocity of electron d) None

53. For Gunn oscillation modes fL is nearly [ ]
a) 10
7
cm.- sec. b) 10
6
cm./ sec.
c) 10
6
cm- sec d) 10
7
cm / sec.

54. For transit time domain mode nL is [ ]

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177
a) > 10
12
cm
-2
b) < 10
12
cm
-2
c) 10
6
cm / sec. d) 10
7
cm / sec.

55. In delayed domain mode the domain, [ ]
a) Reaches the anode b) Disappears on its way to anode
c) Both d) None

56. The quenched domain mode the domain [ ]
a) Reaches the anode b) Disappears on its way to anode
c) Both d) None

57. The mode which provides amplifications at transit time frequency is [ ]
a) LSA mode b) Transit time domain mode
c) Both d) None

58. Gun effect occurs only when doped with [A ]
a) n-type b) p-type
c) No doping d) All

59. For an ideal cavity ‘Q’ value is [B ]
a) Zero b) Infinity c) One d) None

60. The limits to the frequency of LSA mode are set by [ ]
a) 10
4
<
f
n
< 10
5
b) 10
4
>
f
n
< 10
5

c) 10
6
<
f
n
< 10
7
d) None

61. Which of the following does not exhibit Gunn effect [D ]
a) Ga As b) Ia P c) In As d) Ge As

62. Avalanche multiplication for amplification is used by [ ]

a) TED’s b) ATT’s
c) Paramps d) TWT’s

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63. The process of formation of electron cloud in a Magnetron is called as
a) Polarization effect b) Avalanche effect
c) Phase dissemination effect d) Phase focusing effect [D ]

64. MASER utilizes the principles of [A ]
a) Stimulated emission b) spontaneous emission
c) Simultaneous emission d) all the above
BASICS OF MICRO-WAVE LABORATORY

Microwave bench in the lab is a rectangular wave-guide run over which various
components like source, attenuator, frequency meter, tunable probe etc. are mounted.
It provides an unexcelled tool for learning basic concepts of standing waves and
mismatched transmission lines at microwave frequencies. Its length is proportional to
wavelength, as a result at low frequencies it becomes unwieldy long and at high
frequencies it becomes too small to work comfortably with it.

The mode of the wave that exists in the bench of the lab is TE
10
i.e. dominant
mode. So the cut-off wavelength is 2
C
a λ = where ‘ a ’ is the inner distance between
the sidewalls of the wave-guide. The equipment is designed to work in the X-band,
which ranges in frequency from 8.2 to 12.4 GHz, wavelength from 2.5 cm to 3.75
cm. The guide wavelength ranges from 2.98cm to 6.47cm, the guide dimensions are
2.286 X 1.016 cm with cut-frequency 6.557 GHz and cut-off wave length is 4.56 cm.

If the source is Reflex Klystron, it is required to be operated in
4
3
max possible power output. To achieve this condition set the beam voltage to around
300 V and increase repeller voltage until max deflection is observed in the VSWR
meter. If the source is Gunn, it must be operated in the middle of its negative
resistance region by varying its bias voltage until max deflection is observed in
VSWR meter.

The micrometer head provided at the source end of the bench is to change to the
frequency of the microwave source. The power output and frequency of the source
are dependent upon the output impedance and power reflected. The isolation must be
sufficient to prevent reflected wave entering back into the source.

While measuring guide wavelength, the termination should be short, which can
give sharp and hence easily locatable minima leading to accurate measurements.
Even though the distance between two consecutive maxima is 2
g
λ only minima
should be used to measure
g
λ as they are more accurately locatable than the maxima.

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179

VSWR meter consists of an ac amplifier tuned to 1 KHz approximately. For
VSWR meter to be of any use its input and hence the output of the microwave source
must be a modulated signal to this frequency. If the source is RK the modulation is
done internally, in case of Gunn oscillator it is performed externally with PiN diode.

VSWR meter is designed to measure VSWR. Its scale is calibrated to read
VSWR directly. It can also be used as a reference to measure power levels. Most of
the measurements require a power level in the bench at which it can give a deflection
in VSWR meter when its gain is 30 db. For the double min method to be used, the
VSWR on the line must be more than 3 db. Other wise 3db points do not exist over
the standing wave pattern.

Slide-screw tuner is a wave guide equivalent of transmission line stub with two
degrees of freedom. It is designed to provide the necessary mismatch to establish
high VSWR over the line. If the depth of insertion 4 d λ < it provides capacitive
susceptance and for 4 d λ > it is inductive susceptance.

In the wave-guide detector or tunable probe, for better response the short must be
maintained at a distance of 4
g
λ from the diode and also in the tunable probe. The
diodes of the wave-guide detector and movable probe give voltage or current
proportional to the power incident over the surface of the diode. This fact can be
used to measure microwave power ratio with ammeter or voltmeter. Relative power
in db is
1 2
2 1
I V
P= 10log db or 10log db
I V
.
The length of the slotted section is such that to accommodate at least three
minima (one guide wavelength) at the lowest frequency of operation. Low power
levels in the bench necessitate too much insertion of the probe leading to distortion
of the standing wave pattern giving rise to erroneous results. So attenuation of the
wave should not be too high.

BLOCKS OF THE BENCH

• The source used in the microwave bench is either Reflex Klystron or Gunn
oscillator. In either case the frequency of the wave can be varied using the
micrometer head provided at one end of the bench.
• Isolator always follows the source. Its purpose is to prevent the reflected wave
entering back into the source. In the lab the Isolator that is configured with three port
circulator and matched termination is used.

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180
• The attenuator used in the bench set up is flap attenuator providing attenuation of 0
to 25 db. The amount of attenuation provided by the device can be read from the
micrometer scale provided.
• Wave-meter: It is designed to measure the microwave frequencies in the X band
directly. Outwardly it is cylindrical in shape with a rotary cap at the top, rotary scale
which is a tuning dial directly calibrated in frequency and a vertical pointer over a
transparent plastic enclosure attached to the fixed base which has a wave-guide
through it. In the grooves over its surface two rings move upwards when the scale is
rotated clock-wise and downwards when it is rotated anti-clockwise. At the top of
the scale it is 12.4 and at the bottom of the scale it is 8.2 frequencies in GHz. Inside
it is a circular cavity with a movable short attached to the cap to allow the
mechanical tuning of the resonant frequency, and the cavity is loosely coupled to
wave-guide with a small aperture. In operation, power will be absorbed by the
cavity as it is tuned to the frequency of the wave travelling through the wave-guide.
The absorption can be monitored by a ‘dip’ in the deflection of the VSWR or power
meter connected to the system.
• The standing wave detector is designed to observe the standing wave pattern existing
in the slotted section and consists of
• Slotted wave-guide: It is a piece of rectangular wave-guide with a non-
radiating slot over its broad wall. Probe can be inserted through the slot into
the guide to sense the field
• Tunable probe: It is movable with its probe into the slot along the slotted
section. The output of the tunable probe is proportional to the power of the
wave into which its probe is inserted and it is normally given to the VSWR
meter. The cap of the tunable probe can be pulled out or pushed in to match
the slotted section to the wave-guide.
• Vernier scale: This is provided along the length of the slotted section to
locate the position of the tunable probe exactly thereby the nodes or
antinodes of the sw pattern.
• Rack and pinion arrangement: it is to move the probe and place it at any
desired location over the SW pattern.
• VSWR meter: It is basically a high gain voltmeter consisting of basic meter
movement and a high (to be able to measure low quantities) variable (to have multi-
range facility) gain (60db) ac (to avoid the drift problems associated with dc
amplifiers) amplifier. To vary the gain three knobs are provided one in steps of 10db
and the remaining two in continuous manner. Its scale has two parts one to measure
absolute VSWR: top ‘1’ to ‘ ∞’and just below to it ‘3’ to ‘10’, another part below the
ordinary scale to measure VSWR in db’s: from ‘0’ to ‘10’. In addition both have
extended scales to measure ‘accurately’ the VSWR in between ‘1.3’to ‘2’.

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• Wave-guide detector: It consists of a diode across, with a movable short inside a
piece of wave-guide. For maximum response the short must be maintained at a
distance of λ
g
/4. It is designed to detect the presence of wave. Its output is
proportional to the power of the wave incident. So it is a square law device.

FREQUENCY
• Dip method or wave meter method:
• The wave meter is connected in the bench with attenuator on one side and the
waveguide detector on the other side. The output of the wave-guide detector is given to
the VSWR meter and power flow in the bench is adjusted until proper deflection is
observed in the meter.
• The wave meter is rotated until it is one end of the scale i.e. the indication of the meter
is either 12 or 8 GHz.
• Rotate the wave meter in the opposite direction slowly but continuously by pressing
the centre finger of the left hand over its cap while observing the deflection in the
VSWR meter.
• At one point of time a ‘dip’ in the deflection of the meter can be observed. Stop the
rotation of the wave meter and note down the indication of the meter in between rings
against the pointer. This is the frequency of the wave running in the bench.
• Slotted line method:
• This method uses cut-off wavelength and guide wavelength to calculate the free space
wave length. From the free space wave length frequency can be calculated.

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( )
2
0
1
g
c
f and
λ
λ
λ
λ λ
= =

• As the mode of the wave in the bench is dominant, the cut-off wavelength is twice the
inner distance between the sidewalls of the wave guide. By measuring this distance
using a scale and multiplying it with two cut-off wavelength can be obtained.

• To find the guide wavelength terminate the bench with a short resulting in the
formation of the standing wave pattern in the slotted section. The output of the tunable
probe is given to the VSWR meter and the distance between two consecutive minima
is measured using the Vernier scale provided. Twice this amount gives the guide
wavelength.
VSWR
• Low VSWR:
• This method can be used to measure the VSWR when it is less than ten with
reasonable accuracy.
• The bench is terminated with the DUT for which VSWR is to be determined resulting
in the formation of the standing waves in the slotted section. In the laboratory, the
DUT is usually a Horn antenna. The output of the tunable probe is connected to the
VSWR meter.
• Place the probe over a maximum and using the gain varying knobs provided over the
front panel of the VSWR meter move the pointer of the meter to ‘1’ over the scale.
• Then move the probe to minimum and note down the indication of the pointer over the
scale which gives the VSWR of the wave over the bench.
• In the case of the pointer drops to no deflection position while moving to minimum,
then increase the gain of the meter by 10db, move the probe to minimum, note down
the indication of the pointer on the scale 3-10 which is the VSWR of the wave.
• Double minimum method:
• Double minimum method can be used only if the SWR over the line is more than 3db
and it requires to be used only when SWR is more than 10. To be able to apply this
method, a VSWR more than 10 has to be established first over the line. In the
laboratory it is done using a match terminated slide screw tuner. With match
terminated slide screw tuner connected to the slotted section, place the tunable probe

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over a maximum of the standing wave pattern and move the pointer of the VSWR
meter over to ‘1’ by varying the gain. Now move the probe to a minimum and vary the
position and depth of the probe of the slide screw tuner until the pointer in the VSWR
meter is over ' ∞' of the top scale. Increase the gain of the meter by 10db and if the
pointer is still over' ∞' (or 10 of the scale below) then the SWR over the line is 10 or
more. If the pointer stays over in between two extreme positions of the scale even after
increasing the gain, then the setting of the slide screw tuner should be changed in such
an amount in such a direction so that the pointer is over ' ∞'. Now the VSWR over the
line is 10 or more and we can use the double minimum method to measure it
accurately.
• The bench is to be terminated with the DUT, which can establish high VSWR i.e. more
than 3db over the slotted section. The output of the tunable probe is given to the
VSWR meter.
• Move the tunable probe over to a minimum and by varying the gain place the pointer
on ‘3’ in the db scale of the VSWR meter.
• Move the tunable probe to either side until the pointer moves to ‘0’ in the db scale.
Note down the position of the tunable probe over the Vernier scale. Let it be d
1
.
• Now move the probe in the opposite direction until the pointer again stands over the
‘0’ after passing over the ‘3’ in the db scale. Note down the position of the probe. Let
it be d
2
.
• Now replace the termination of the bench with short and measure the distance between
two consecutive minima. Twice this distance gives the guide wavelength
g
λ .
• The VSWR can be obtained using the formula
( )
1 2
VSWR
g
d d
λ
π
=
To establish to high VSWR in the lab:
ATTENUATION:
Power ratio method:

o The DUT for which attenuation is to be measured is placed before the slotted section of
the bench terminated with matched load.
o The output of the tunable probe is given to a power meter.

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o Let us suppose the indications of the power meter are P
1
and P
2
with the DUT and with out
DUT in the bench.
o Then the attenuation of DUT is
2
1
A in db 10log
P
P
=
o In case of the non-availability of the power meter, the power ratio can still be obtained by
measuring the output current or voltage of the tunable probe using multi-meter or CRO.
The ratio
1 2 1 2 1 2
P P V V I I = = as
o This method uses two different points on the characteristic of curve of the diode detector
at which the detector may not be obeying square law characteristic leading to erroneous
RF substitution method:

o Place the DUT before the slotted section and connect the tunable probe output to VSWR
meter. Termination of the bench must be matched. Note down the deflection of the pointer
in the VSWR meter.
o Replace the DUT with standard variable precision attenuator and vary its attenuation until
the deflection of the pointer is same as that in the previous step.
o At this position the attenuation of the standard attenuator which can be noted down gives
the attenuation of the DUT
IMPEDANCE
Slotted line method:
o The bench is terminated with the DUT for which impedance is to be measured. And the
position of a minimum is located along with the measurement of SWRρ .

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o Replace the termination with a short. Measure the guide wavelength and shift in minimum
both in magnitude and direction.
o If the shift is towards left the load is inductive and if it is right the load is capacitive.
o Use the formula shown below to calculate the impedance of the DUT.
θ
θ
j
j
L
e
e
Z
Z
Γ −
Γ +
=
1
1
0

where the magnitude of the reflection coefficient
1
1
+

= Γ
ρ
ρ
and d β π θ 2 ± = where
d is shift in the minimum and
g
λ
π
β
2
= phase shift constant, + in case of right shift and – in
case of left shift.
0
Z is characteristic impedance of the slotted section.
Magic Tee method:
o The matched source and null detector are connected to the side arms of the magic tee.
o The standard variable precision impedance and unknown impedance are connected to the
coplanar arms of the magic tee.
o The standard variable precision impedance is varied until the null is observed in the
detector.
o The indication over the standard variable precision impedance is the impedance to be
known.
Power

Bridge methods:

o Bolometers are devices which change their resistance with temperature. When µ wave power
falls over its surface, it gets converted into heat rising its temperature. With change in
temperature the resistance changes. The change in the resistance, which can be measured
conveniently using bridge methods, is a measure of the µ wave power incident.
o Bolometers can be divided into two categories one Barretters whose resistance rises with
temperature and thermistors whose resistance falls with temperatures.
o Barretters are thin short platinum wires used to measure low µ wave power levels. They
change 5ohm per milli-watt of incident µ wave power. These are very delicate and sensitive
devices useful to measure very low power levels less than few milli-watts. They have

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positive temperature coefficient of resistance. Thermistors are semi conductor devices with
negative temperature coefficient of resistance. Used to measure low and medium µ wave
power levels. The change in resistance is 60 ohm per milli-watt of incident µ wave power.
o Power meter: it is a balanced bridge circuit in which one of the arms is a bolometer. The
µ wave power incident over this arm changes its resistance driving the bridge into
unbalance. The amount of unbalance which is proportional to the incident µ wave power is
amplified using the bridge amplifier and measured using a voltmeter. The voltmeter is
calibrated to read the power directly.
o Single bridge circuits give erroneous readings due to mismatch at the µ wave input port and
also due to sensitivity of thermistor to ambient temperature. These shortcomings can be
overcome by adopting double identical bridge.
Calorimetric methods:
o This method is useful to measure high µ wave powers. It involves conversion of the
µ wave energy into heat, absorption of heat by some liquid or dielectric and then
measurement of the rise of the temperature of the liquid/dielectric.
o Static calorimeter: it consists of a 50ohm coaxial cable filled with a dielectric load with a
high hysterisis loss. The incident µ wave power is dissipated in the load. The average
input is
t
T mC
P
p
18 . 4
= watts where t is time in sec, T is the temperature in
0
C and m
is the mass of the medium in gms.
o Circulating calorimeter: in this method the power is made to incident on the water
flowing at a constant rate through a water load. The heat introduced into the fluid makes
the exit temperature to be higher than the input temperature. The incident power is then
measured using the relation T C d v P
p
18 . 4 = watts where v is rate of the flow of the
fluid in cc/sec, d is the specific gravity of the fluid in gm/sec,
p
C is the specific heat in
cal/gm.
‘Q’ of cavity:
By transmission:
• This method is used when the cavity for which ‘Q’ is being measured has two ports or
openings. It is to be connected before the slotted section in the bench with tunable
source. The termination of the bench must be matched and the output of the tunable
probe is given to a power meter.
• The power that is transmitted by the cavity is measured using the power meter at
different frequencies and a graph is drawn. It resembles inverted ‘U’.

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• From the graph find the resonant frequency, the frequency at which the transmitted
power is maximum and also the half-power frequencies at which the transmitted power
half of the maximum.
• Using the relation
resonant frequency
bandwidth
Q = find the Q of the cavity.

By measuring VSWR:
• This method is useful when the cavity has single opening or port. The bench with
tunable source is terminated with the cavity and output of the tunable probe is
connected to VSWR meter.
• The VSWR due to the cavity is measured at different frequencies and graph is drawn
whose shape is similar to ‘U’.
• The resonant frequency
r
S , frequency at which the VSWR is lowest and the lowest
VSWR both can be noted down from the graph
• From the lowest VSWR using one of the following relations which ever gives more
than one find the half-power VSWR.
2
1 2
2
1 1
2 4
r r
r r
ρ ρ ρ
ρ ρ
= + + + or

2
1 2
2
1 1
2 4
r r
r r
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ ρ
= + + +

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• Using the computed
1
2
ρ from the already drawn graph find the half-power
frequencies and from them band-width.
• Now using the formula
resonant frequency
bandwidth
Q = find the Q of the cavity.

Parameters of DC

The important characteristics of the DC are coupling factor, directivity and isolation.
• Measure the output power of the source
in
P . In case of non-availability of the power
meter, use the wave-guide detector –CRO combination to measure the voltage
proportional to the power. Let it be
in
V
• Give input at the port 3. Measure the output power at port 1 with port 2 match
terminated. Let it be
c
P . If the voltage proportional to power is measured using wave-
guide detector–CRO combination, let it be
c
V
• Give input at the port 2. Measure the output power at port 1 with port 3 match
terminated. Let it be
d
P . If the voltage proportional to power is measured using
wave-guide detector–CRO combination, let it be
d
V
• Give input at the port 2. Measure the output power at port 3 with port 1 match
terminated. Let it be
T
P . If the voltage proportional to power is measured using
wave-guide detector–CRO combination, let it be
T
V
• Now coupling in db ( ) ( ) 10log 10log
in c in c
C P P V V = = , directivity in db
( ) ( ) 10log 10log
c d c d
D P P V V = = and isolation in db ( ) 10log
in d
I P P =
( ) 10log
in d
V V = . If the measurements of correct I C D = +
• Precaution: After the power output of the source
in
P in measured, the settings of the
source, attenuator or waveguide detector should not be changed.

s-parameters

• S-parameters are complex quantities and to measure them network analyzer is required. If
the device is assumed an ideal, reciprocal with equal arm lengths, then the s-parameters
become pure real quantities.
• Let us try for the s-matrix of the magic tee assuming it an ideal one. As power meters are
not usually available, we can use wave-guide-CRO combination to measure the relative
powers.

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189
• Step I: Measure the output of source. Let it be
in
V . The settings of the sources and
attenuator should not be varied until the completion of the experiment.
• Step II: Give input to port1 and measure output at ports 2,3 and 4 while maintaining
matched terminations at the other ports. Let them be
21 31 41
, and V V V .
• Step III: Give input to port3 and measure output at ports1,2 and 4 while maintaining
matched terminations at the other ports. Let them be
13 23 43
, and V V V .

Now
31 31 in
s V V = ,
21 21 in
s V V = ,
41 41 in
s V V = ,
23 23 in
s V V = ,
43 43 in
s V V = . As the
device is reciprocal
31 13
s s = ,
21 12
s s = etc. Then the diagonal elements of the s-matrix can be
found using unity property. If the measurements are correct them the diagonal elements
must be zeros.

Multiple choice questions

10. The bench cannot be designed to work at lower frequencies [A ]
a) Becomes too lengthy b) becomes too small
c) Standing waves do not occur at lower frequencies d) none

11. The purpose of the microwave bench is [C ]
a) to test transmission line theory principles
b) to observe standing wave pattern
c) both d)none

12. The microwave bench in lab designed to work in the band [A ]
a) X b) L
c) S d) C
13. The minimum frequency that can exist in the Bench (approx.) is [A ]
a) 9 GHz b) 12 MHz
c) 9 MHz d) None
14. The maximum frequency that can exist in the Bench (approx.) is [B ]
a) 9 GHz b) 12 MHz
c) 9 MHz d) None

15. The minimum free space wave length of the Bench in the lab is [ ]
a) 2.5 cm b) 3.3 cm
c) 3.3 mm d) None
16. The max free space wave length on the Bench in the lab is [ ]
a) 2.5 cm b) 3.75 Cm

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c) 3.3 mm d) None

17. The inner dimensions of the waveguide run of the bench are [ ]
a) 2.5 cm b) 3.75 Cm
c) 3.3 mm d) None

18. For a=2.3 cm, the maximum guide wave length on
the bench can be [ ]
a) 2.0 cm b) 6.47 cm
c) 2.98 cm d) None

10. For a = 2.3 cm, the minimum guide wave length on [ ]
the bench can be
a) 2.98 cm b) 3.3 cm
c) 6.47 cm d) None

47. The mode used in the laboratory bench is [A ]
a) Dominant mode b) degenerate mode
c) any one of the above two d) none

48. The cut off wave length of the bench is [A ]
a) 2a b) 2b
c) c f d) none

49. For radio frequencies above 1000 MHz the method
used for Impedance measurement is [A ]
a) Slotted line b) Impedance Bridge
c) Either of the method d) None

50. The isolator used in between source and slotted section is [B ]
a) Avoid harmonics in the source
b) to prevent the reflected wave entering back into the source
c) A & B d) None

51. In VSWR meter the amplifier is of high gain because [A ]
a) Input to meter in low b) To provide multi range facility
c) Both d) None

52. In VSWR meter, the amplifier’s gain is variable because [B ]
a) Input to meter in low b) To provide multi range facility
c) Both d) None

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53. The amplifier in VSWR meter is tuned to a frequency [A ]
a) 1 KHz b) 2 KHz
c) 10 KHz d) 100 KHz

54. The lower part of the VSWR meter scale represents [A ]
a) VSWR b) Power
c) Attenuation d) None

55. The PiN diode in the bench is used to modulate the output of [B ]

a) Reflex klystron b) Gunn oscillator
c) Both c) None
18. In VSWR meter the amplifier used is ac type because [A ]
a) to avoid drift problem of dc amplifiers b) Cheap
c) Small size d) All

56. The diode detector was input/output relation that is [C ]
a) Non linear b) Square
c) Both d) None

57. The mode of the wave over the bench is [C ]
a) Dominant b) TE
10

c) Both d) None

58. Wave meter is [ ]
a) Cavity b) Resonator
c) Both d) None

59. In wave meter the pointer is [B ]
a) Oscillatory b) Rotary
c) Stationary d) None

60. In the bench the source is always followed by [B ]
a) Attenuator b) Isolator
c) Wave meter d) Detector

61. In the bench the source is modulated by a frequency [A ]
a) 1 KHz b) 10 KHz
c) 100 KHz d) None

62. Tunable probe exists over / in [B ]
a) VSWR meter b) Slotted section

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192
c) Attenuator d) None

63. The method used to measure high VSWR is [B ]
a) Slotted line method b) Double minimum method
c) Both d) None

64. Low VSWR method can be used to measure VSWR up to [A ]
a) ten b) five
c) three d) None

65. In low VSWR method, in VSWR meter the pattern maximum [A ]
is set to

a) One b) zero db
c) Both d) None
66. In high VSWR method, in VSWR meter the pattern minimum [C ]
is set to
a) One b) zero db
c) Three db d) None

67. While measuring guide wave length, the termination of the bench [A ]
must be
a) Short b) Matched termination
c) Open d) None

68. While measuring guide wave length, always minimum points are [C ]
considered because
a) Minima are sharp b) minima are easily locatable
c) Both d) None
69. Guide wave length does not depend upon [A ]
a) Termination b) frequency
c) Mode of the wave d) none
70. While measuring attenuation, the termination of the bench must be [B ]
a) Short b) Matched termination
c) Open d) None

71. Short is required at a distance from diode in wave guide detector [B ]
a)
4
λ
b)
4
g
λ

c)
2
λ
d) None

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72. Gyrator gives a phase shift to a wave travelling from output [B ]
to input
a) 180
o
b) 0
o

c) 90
o
d) None

73. Calibration standards are [C ]
a) Rotary type phase shifter b) Rotary type attenuator
c) Both d) None

74. When the depth of penetration is > λ /4, the susceptance
of the probe is [ ]
a) Inductive b) Capacitive
c) Nil d) None
75. The range of VSWR in db indicated VSWR meter is [B ]
a) 0-2db b) 0-10db
c) 0-5db d) 0-100db

38. For low power measurement the technique used is [A ]
a) Bolometer technique b) Calorimeter technique c)
Reflect meter technique d) Calorimetric wave meter technique

39. The temperature coefficient of the Thermisters is [ ]
a) Positive b) negative
c) Zero d) None
40. The ‘Q’ of Cavity with single opening can be measured [ ]
a) Transmission method b) Double minimum method
c) Both d) None
41. Barretters have [ ]
a. Positive temp efficient of resistance
b. Negative temp coefficient of resistance
c. Both d) None
42. The magic T can be used for the measurement of [B ]
a) Frequency b) Impedance
c) Q factor d) None

56. Impedance of the line to the left of voltage minimum is [ ]
a) Inductive b) capacitive
c) High resistance d) low resistance

57. Impedance of the line to the right of voltage minimum is [ ]
a) Inductive b) capacitive
c) High resistance d) low resistance

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194

58. Impedance of the line at the voltage minimum is [ ]
a) Inductive b) capacitive
c) High resistance d) low resistance

59. Impedance of the line at the voltage maximum is [ ]
a) Inductive b) capacitive
c) High resistance d) low resistance

60. Thermo couple is a junction of [B ]
a) Two similar metals b) Two dissimilar metals
c) Identical but different lengths d) None

61. The relation between VSWR (S) & reflection coefficient (P) is [ ]
a) S =
P
P
+

1
1
b) S =
P
P

+
1
1

c) S =
P
P
+ 1
d) None

62. If
r
P is reflected power,
i
P is the incident power, [B ]
the reflection coefficient ‘P’ is
a)
r i
P P b)
r i
P P
c)
i r
P P d)
i r
P P

63. Q – factor is measured using [ ]
a) Reflect meter method b) Transmission method
c) Power ratio method d) None

64. The bolometer that is having a negative temperature coefficient [ ]
of resistivity that is called
a) Barrater b) Varistor
c) Thermisters d) Calorimeter

65. In laboratory experiments the output from Reflex [ ]
Klystrons are modulated by square waves because
a) It is easy generative a square wave b) It prevents frequency modulation
c) Detector circuit is easy to design d) The termination is less complicated

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66. In microwave power measurement using bolometer the principle of working is the
variation of
a) Inductance with absorption of power b) Resistance with absorption of
power
c) Capacitance with absorption of power d) All

67. We use two 20db directional couplers along with two [ ]
detectors in which technique of impedance measurement
a) Slotted line b) Reflecto-meter
c) Heterodyne technique d) None

68. We use two matched detector in which
technique of q factor measurement [ ]
a) Slotted line b) Reflectometers
c) Heterodyne technique d) None

56. .The technique used to measure the dielectric constant is [ ]
a) Slotted line b) Waveguide method
c) Reflect meter method d) Wave meter method

57. for impedance measurement the following oscillator is used [ ]
a) Reflex klystron tube oscillator b) Gunn oscillator
c) a and b d) a or b