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Materials & Processes in Manufacturing

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ME 151

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Chapter 14
Expendable Mold Casting Processes

2003 Bill Young

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Introduction

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Casting processes can be classified into 3 categories:

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Single use molds with multiple use patterns


Single use molds with single use patterns
Multiple use molds (Chapter 15)

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Expendable molds are made by combining binders with:


Sand
Ceramics
Plaster
Other refractory materials

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Most frequently cast metals:

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Steel
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Brass

___________________________________

Bronze
Magnesium
Zinc Alloys
Nickel Based Superalloys
2003 Bill Young

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Sand Casting

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Most popular of the casting processes

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Wide range of casting sizes (oz. to tons)


Inexpensive and simple process

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Ordinary sand mixed with clay and water

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_______ is the most common means of filling the mold

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2003 Bill Young

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Patterns
Designing and making a ______ is the first step in making a sand casting

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Consideration must be given to:


Type of casting process used
Metal being cast
Molding technique used

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Pattern materials can be:

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Wood
Metal
Plastics

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Styrofoam

Wax

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Types of patterns:
One Piece or Solid Patterns
Split Patterns
Match-Plate Patterns

Cope & Drag Patterns

Loose-Piece Patterns

2003 Bill Young

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Single Piece Pattern

Split Pattern

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Figure 14-2 Page 298


Figure 14-4 Page 299
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Match Plate Pattern

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Figure 14-5 Page 299


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Cope & Drag Pattern

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Figure 14-6 Page 300


2003 Bill Young

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Loose Piece Pattern

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Figure 14-7 Page 300


2003 Bill Young

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Sand Requirements

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____________ - Ability to withstand high temperatures


(basic nature of sand)

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___________ - Ability to retain a given shape when packed into a mold


(clay additives)

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__________ - Ability to permit gases to escape


(grain size & density)

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___________ - Ability for the metal to shrink and allow casting removal
(organic additives)

2003 Bill Young

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Sand Conditioning & Control

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Muller
Conditioning
Aerator
Grain Size
Moisture Content
Clay Content
Standardized Test
Monitor & Control
Compactability
Hardness
Permeability
Strength

Molding
Material
Properties

2003 Bill Young

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Sand Properties and Related Defects

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Casting quality is affected by sand properties such as:

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Grain ______ - Affects permeability & surface finish


Grain ________ - Affects strength

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Typical casting defects include:

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Sand expansion defects


Voids
Metal penetration into the mold
Hot tears or cracks

2003 Bill Young

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Mold Making Techniques

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Hand Ramming

Jolt-Type Machine

Squeezing Machine

Flaskless Molding Machine

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H-Process (Grouped mold segments with common sprue)


Stack Molding (Stacked cope & drag sections with common sprue)

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Types of Sand Molds

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Green-Sand

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Dry-Sand

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Skin-Dried Molds

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Sodium Silicate - CO2 Molds


Shell Molds

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V-Process Molds (Vacuum Molding)

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Eff-Set Process Molds

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Cores

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_________________ or reentrant sections are created using cores

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Types of cores:
Green-Sand Cores

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Dry-Sand Cores
Dump type core box
Split core box

Hot-Box Method
Cold-Box Method

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Desirable core characteristics:

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Sufficient hardness & strength after hardening


Sufficient strength before hardening
Good permeability
Good collapsibility
Adequate refractoriness
Smooth surface
Minimum gas generation
2003 Bill Young

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Other Types of Molding Processes

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Single use mold / Multiple use pattern

Plaster Mold
Shaw Process (Ceramic Mold)
Graphite Mold
Rubber Molds

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Single use mold / Single use pattern


Investment Casting (Page 317 319)
Full Mold or Lost-Foam Process (Page 320 322)

2003 Bill Young

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Chapter 14 Expendable Mold Casting Processes

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Basic concept of expendable-mold casting and the two categories

Key elements of the sand casting process

Difference between Green-Sand, Dry-Sand, and Skin-Dried molds

Role of cores in the casting process

General knowledge of single use mold / multiple use pattern processes

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General knowledge of single use mold / single use pattern processes


(primarily investment casting)

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Review Questions: _________________________________

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