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systems

NETWORK

ISSUE NO. 78 DECEMBER 2014

A technical journal by Parsons Brinckerhoff employees and colleagues http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx

PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF

Tunnel Systems

Fire
Table
andofLife
Contents
Safety

NETWORK

Tunnel Systems
INTRODUCTION

CLIMATE CHANGE AND RESILIENCY

Global Perspectives on Tunnel Systems
John Munro, Kate Hunt, Steven Lai, Argun Bagis..............3

Railway Cooling Challenges
Mark Gilbey .........................................................................60

FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY

Dynamo – Enhancing Tunnel Ventilation Modelling
Jolyon Thompson ................................................................63

Subway Tunnel Cross-Passage Spacing:
A Performance-Based Approach
William D. Kennedy, Justin M. Edenbaum, Mia Kang,
Kirk G. Rummel....................................................................10
A Note on Fixed Fire Fighting Systems in Road Tunnels
Anna Xiaohua Wang, Norman Rhodes ...........................13
Fixed Fire Fighting Systems in Road Tunnels –
System Integration
Matt Bilson, Sal Marsico ....................................................16
Fire-Life Safety and System Integration: The Functional
Mode Table
Matt Bilson, Andrew Gouge...............................................19

DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx

VENTILATION SYSTEMS
Using Quantified Risk Assessment to Inform
Ventilation System Responses
Kate Hunt ............................................................................23
A Risk-Based Approach to Jet Fan Optimisation
Anthony Ridley ....................................................................26
Cost-Effective Ventilation System for a Light Rail
Transit Project
Silas Li, Andrew Louie ........................................................30
Meeting the Challenges of Smoke Duct Fan Selection
for Australian Road Tunnels
Chris Chen ...........................................................................34
Analysis Considering the Conversion of an Existing Road
Tunnel Transverse Ventilation System to Transit Use
Jesse Harder, Andrew Louie, Vamsidhar Palaparthy,
Silas Li...................................................................................37
Long Road Tunnels and Portal Emission Control
Argun Bagis, Duncan Saunsbury ......................................41
Merging Emergency Ventilation System Sound Power
and Pressure Drop Calculations
Michael MacNiven ..............................................................44
Cost-Effective Power Supply Scheme for Tunnel
Booster Fans in Long Tunnels
CC Cheung, Steven Lai ......................................................48
Air Purification System for a Road Tunnel Project
Cathy Kam, Chris Ma, Steven Lai .....................................51

PRESSURE TRANSIENT
Elimination of Portal Flares
Kenneth J. Harris, Bobby J. Melvin, Steve Gleaton ..........52
Comparison of 3-D and 1-D CFD Simulation Approach
for Aerodynamic Effects in a HSR Tunnel System
Dicken KH Wu, Rambo RB Ye ............................................55

ASSET MANAGEMENT AND PROGRAM
SUPPORT
Asset Management Database for the Brooklyn
Battery Tunnel
Ferdinand Portuguez, Debra Moolin..................................67

COMMUNICATIONS / POWER AND
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
SCADA System Security for Two UK Road Tunnels
Peter Massheder ................................................................71
CCTV Design for a US Road Tunnel
Ryan Williams .....................................................................73
How Alternating Current Interacts with Direct Current
in the Shatin to Central Link Traction Systems in
Hong Kong – A Quantitative Approach
Sam Pang ............................................................................76

CONSTRUCTION AND REHABILITATION
Tunnel Inspection Basics for Mechanical and
Electrical Systems
James Stevens, Mark VanDeRee.......................................81
Tunnel Sump Construction Savings Through Drainage
System Design Modification
Kevin Stewart ......................................................................86

LIGHTING
The Modernization of Tunnel Lighting and Controls:
Technology, Challenges, and Cost of Implementing a
Tunnel LED Lighting System
Christopher J. Leone, Jonathan T. Weaver,
Kimberly Molloy ..................................................................89

SES AND MODELING
Evaluating Freeze Protection Needs with CFD
Raylene C. Moreno .............................................................92
Computational Modeling as an Alternative to FullScale Testing for Tunnel Fixed Fire Fighting Systems
Kenneth J. Harris ................................................................96
Latest Enhancements to the Subway Environment
Simulation (SES) Program
Andrew Louie, Tom O'Dwyer, Silas Li ............................. 100
Use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) on Road
Tunnels and Metro Projects
YF Pin, R. Ashok Kumar, Steven Lai ............................... 102

Call for Articles .............................................................. 104

Introduction: Global Perspectives on
Tunnel Systems

Advances in tunnel systems have evolved to account for
a changing world, and Parsons Brinckerhoff’s response
has been to ensure that we are both anticipating and
responding to these changes and challenges as they occur and that we continue to provide innovative and robust
solutions to our clients.
Responding to the challenges of climate change, and
the resiliency needed to adapt to a rapidly changing
climate, or providing sustainable energy and environmental solutions require advances in existing tunnel
system technologies and new technologies. Examples
of this could be the design of a sustainable LED lighting solution for the Queens Midtown Tunnel in New York
or using groundwater to cool the rising temperatures
in the London Underground tunnels (see Mark Gilbey’s
article in this issue).
Parsons Brinckerhoff remains at the forefront of the
provision of tunnel safety system solutions and their
continued improvement as technology evolves. Our understanding of fire behavior and development in tunnels has increased considerably as a result of testing
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programs such as the Memorial Tunnel Fire tests1 in
West Virginia, led by Parsons Brinckerhoff, and more
recently the Runehammer fire test program in Europe.
This has allowed us to develop more focused strategies that address individual tunnel fire sizes and specific risks. For example, Parsons Brinckerhoff designed
a tunnel fire suppression system for the Doyle Drive
tunnel project in California. The recently opened Airport
Link tunnel in Australia has emergency exits with builtin voice messages to guide users to safety in the event
of a fire incident.
Although systems technology has advanced significantly
over the years, we must keep asking: What will the needs
be for future tunnel owners, operators, and users and
how do we develop our tunnel systems to respond to
those needs?
The imperative to provide resiliency in our designs and to
ensure that our designs are also energy efficient and sustainable are what drives our solutions. Parsons Brinckerhoff has become a charter member of the Institute for
Sustainable Infrastructure to affirm our commitment to
the underlying principles of sustainable infrastructure, as
well as the specific, evolving practices that characterize
sustainable solutions. Our tunnel systems designers are
trained in sustainability assessment.
We also need to keep researching and innovating. Our
2014 William Barclay Parsons Fellowship winner, Anna
Wang of our tunnel systems team in New York, is developing a model to predict the interaction of fixed fire fighting systems on tunnel fires. The outcome of this work
will be used to achieve more efficient designs leading
to considerable cost savings for our clients. (See Anna
Wang and Norman Rhodes’ article in this issue.)
Finally, we need to recognize that smart or connected
road and rail vehicles are a rapidly developing part of our

DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx

For decades, Parsons Brinckerhoff has been at the forefront of providing innovative tunnel systems solutions
to our clients. In 1973 at the First International Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels in Canterbury England, attended by representatives
from 26 different countries, a paper was presented on
the Subway Environmental Simulation (SES) program codeveloped by the late William D. Kennedy. That paper led
directly to a contract for the design of an extension to
the Hong Kong Metro and, out of that project, Parsons
Brinckerhoff’s Hong Kong office was established. Over
40 years later in 2015, Dr. Norman Rhodes of Parsons
Brinckerhoff will chair the 2015 16th International Symposium on Aerodynamics, Ventilation, & Fire in Tunnels
to be held in Seattle.

Fire and
Introduction
Introduction
Life Safety

NETWORK

See “Pioneering New Technology: PB’s Innovation in M&E Analysis and Design,” (Network #34, Spring 1996) for three articles on the Memorial
Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program, at the time the most comprehensive full-scale fire ventilation testing undertaken.

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aspx Standards such as NFPA 130. MAP-21 (the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act of 2012) includes funding for continued improvement to tunnel conditions that are essential to protect the safety of the traveling public. The current standards require that designers analyze the actual fan inlet temperatures that would be experienced for the type of fire that could be realized in relation to the specific rolling stock for that system. which shows that the spacing of cross-passages. materials. CFD and risk analysis were used on recent projects to determine the fire curves for the projects. New York. In addition to the design and construction of new tunnels. NFPA 130 states: ”Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent or discourage the use of new methods. +1-212-465-5588. and the width of cross-passages all have an effect on the simulated evacuation time from a train stopped in a tunnel. The potential for connected vehicles to interact with tunnel systems is limitless. ‘Standard for Road Tunnels. Edenbaum. become more frequent in the US. In many countries. NY. these have been used as the de-facto international standards shaping the design of tunnel solutions globally. National Fire Protection Association. www. Bridges. ‘Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems. An example of Parsons Brinckerhoff adding value for our clients by more accurately defining design inputs is in the area of analyzing design fires. previous standards prescribed a fan inlet temperature that had to be met without regard to the actual temperature that a fan inlet may experience in a fire. Design-build projects are essentially outcome-based and innovation plays a central role in defining their success.) As alternative procurement and delivery methods. such as the recently opened Port of Miami Tunnel. Imagine a tunnel ventilation system that automatically regulates its airflow based on the number and type of vehicles travelling through the tunnel or a deluge system putting out a vehicle fire without waiting for a tunnel operator to respond to the emergency. Parsons Brinckerhoff is involved in a program to evaluate connected vehicle technology. and Other Limited Access Highways. such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). (See “Cost-Effective Ventilation System for a Light Rail Transit Project. munroj@pbworld. performance-based tunnel systems design can play a central role in providing value. allows us to much more accurately define the design fire which is a major criterion in tunnel system design. For example.Fire andIntroduction Life Safety NETWORK present and future. design fires were prescribed. For example. the width of walkways. Performance-based design challenges designers to more accurately define inputs and parameters.” by Silas Li and Andrew Louie. Parsons Brinckerhoff has continually developed and refined our NFPA 130 (2014) and NFPA 502 (2014). US. and thus create more accurate models. making it an ideal design methodology that is suited to design-build projects. The advancement of analysis tools.nfpa. In the United States. the more accurately you can define and analyze the situation. The flexibility of performancebased design not only allows but encourages innovation. Tunneling Overview in the United States by John Munro. the less conservative the design and.’2 or NFPA 502. hence. provided that sufficient technical data are submitted to the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) to demonstrate that the new method. we have been using the latest fire modeling and heat transfer techniques to refine tunnel structure thickness requirements due to fire effects. Historically. often conservatively. there is an increasing focus in the US on aging infrastructure.” by Kennedy. et al.pbworld. such as design-build. more value is provided to our clients. or devices. Parsons Brinckerhoff has been central in shaping the direction of both NFPA 130 and NFPA 502 through active committee participation and chairmanship. or device is equivalent or superior to the requirements of this standard with respect to fire performance and life safety. Another example is described in “Subway Tunnel Cross-Passage Spacing: A Performance-Based Approach.com/news/publications. ultimately leading to a cost-effective design. Perhaps the most significant development in recent years is the change from purely prescriptive standards to standards that allow performance-based approaches.” The change from prescriptive to performance-based designs has led to a situation where designers can exercise a greater level of flexibility and innovation in providing solutions for our clients. based on limited information at the time.org 2 4 . material.com DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Reducing structural thickness can reduce construction cost and delivery schedules. On recent projects. As with any engineering design.’ have been a cornerstone guiding the design of tunnel systems for the last few decades. coupled with better research data.

Europe. Similarly. Whether we are providing strategic advice to operators (see the “Railway Cooling Challenges” article by Mark Gilbey in this issue).to connect the European and Asian parts of the old city via a 1.3 Meanwhile. In addition. the investment in the UK’s tunnels market was small in comparison to the enterprising projects undertaken in Scandanavia. Cairo. Similarly. further tunnelled crossings of the River Thames are being considered.one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world . Fire andIntroduction Life Safety techniques.5 kilometre (. Riyadh. June 2007. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. plans for a high speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem are being developed.pbworld. upgrade. and refurbishment is ongoing or planned for the North Wales Coast Road tunnels and the Brynglas Motorway tunnel (South Wales). designs for the proposed metro in Israel’s Tel Aviv urban district continue to be developed. and utilities networks. Parsons Brinckerhoff can draw on global and local experience to provide solutions for unique challenges such as analyzing the pressure waves associated with high speed trains (see article by Wu and Ye) and providing cost-effective tunnel ventilation and fire and life safety strategies to accommodate the extended egress distances of long tunnels. the landmark Channel Tunnel (rail – 1994). Kuwait. the Lower Lea Valley utilities tunnel (2012). A high proportion of these are in the transport sector. The Crossrail project.aspx NETWORK 5 . road. significant investment has been made to refurbish. pp 1-58. +44 (0)1483 528966. Jeddah. including using the latest inspection and asset management technologies. the Middle East. with more tunnels predicted in the near future for the rail.1999) and. is also in construction. along with a number of urban road tunnels on the periphery of London. to efficiently assess existing tunnel infrastructure (see articles by Stevens and VanDeRee. and the Middle East by Kate Hunt. Many of our past and current projects involve technical innovations. including metro schemes for Abu Dhabi. in the Middle East. Tyne Tunnel (Tyneside). see “Linking Two Continents: The Marmaray Project. In addition. At the same time. we are working towards the construction phase of High Speed 2. the High Speed 1 tunnels (high speed rail – 2007). However. leading discussions For 18 articles on many aspects of this multidisciplinary project including 5 articles on tunnel mechanical and electrical systems. Godalming. UK. the Marmaray Crossing in Istanbul (opened in 2013) successfully negotiated the Bosphorus Strait . the Jubilee Line Extension (metro . Tunnelling Overview in the United Kingdom. and Tehran. The 1990s saw a number of significant new tunnelling projects including the opening of the Limehouse Link tunnel (road – 1993).” Network #65. with the construction phase drawing nearer. Doha. London Underground.4 mile) Drogden tunnel. a new commuter line railway running East/West below Central London.High speed rail projects frequently involve long tunnels and long distances between stations. and improve a number of key road tunnels around the UK including the Hatfield and Bell Common tunnels (on London’s M25 orbital motorway). our performance-based methodologies are used to develop innovative upgrades that provide a level of safety equivalent to code-compliant solutions and that minimize or eliminate interruptions to tunnel operations. Parsons Brinckerhoff has a long and ongoing history of assisting London Underground in these works. huntk@pbworld. Following the assessment. Looking to the future.9 mile) immersed tube tunnel – the world’s deepest at 60 metres (196 feet) below sea level. more than $279 billion worth of projects were being planned or underway in 2012. and Israel.com/news/publications. Istanbul. the Mersey tunnels (Liverpool).com The UK’s tunnelling market has seen substantial and rapid growth in recent times. and the long-awaited Hindhead Tunnel (road . or cutting edge techniques to address clients’ unique challenges. has been investing heavily in replacing the fleet and increasing the service levels on all their lines. linking London with Birmingham and on to the North East and Scotland. 3 Alongside this infrastructure investment. phase 1 of the route alone features a dozen new high speed rail tunnels ranging in length from just 500 metres (1640 feet) to an impressive 13 kilometres (8 miles). metro. Saltash Tunnel (in the South-West). the Bakerloo line southern extension. A new fixed link between the countries of Sweden and Denmark was opened in 2000: the Øresundsbron linked the metropolitan areas of Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden via a combined rail and road link consisting of the 8 kilometre long (5 mile) Øresund bridge and 4 kilometre (2. more recently. Other tunnel-related rail projects in the planning stages include the Northern line extension to Battersea. and by Portuguez and Moolin).2011). The Docklands Light Railway added new tunnels as part of the Lewisham (rail – 1999) and the Woolwich Arsenal extension (rail – 2009). Transport for London’s metro operator. and Crossrail Phase 2.

the tenable environment along the evacuation path. Taiwan High Speed Railway. stations. Subway Environment Simulation (SES). Hong Kong/Singapore. and North Africa regions is to enhance our service offering across a broader range of sectors. Taiwan. The pressure transient created by high speed trains can create issues for the passengers inside the trains. a reduction of air velocity at the platform edge and staircases.g. to embrace the many exciting opportunities available. the challenge in the Europe. Parsons Brinckerhoff is also assisting various clients in increasing the capacity of existing metro lines through extending the catchment area. and a lower noise level. Parsons Brinckerhoff introduced the platform screen door (PSD) system for the first metro in Singapore and has continued to be involved in this design for other metro systems in the region (e. resulting in better land use and a better interchange (transfer) arrangement with other metro lines. using the latest risk-based techniques to optimise designs and operations (see articles in this issue by Kate Hunt and Anthony Ridley). Parsons Brinckerhoff introduced an energy efficient closed system for the first metro in Hong Kong thereby providing a comfortable air-conditioned station environment for passengers. and to continue to provide our clients with the technical excellence they rightly expect of Parsons Brinckerhoff. .Fire andIntroduction Life Safety NETWORK with the UK’s Climate Projections group (UKCP). Since the mid 1990s. Middle East. Parsons Brinckerhoff has adopted this approach for projects in Hong Kong. India. Parsons Brinckerhoff has developed various mitigation schemes which have been used to resolve the pressure transient issues in the Hong Kong Airport Express Railway. Closed systems and platform screen doors. 25 degrees C instead of 28 degrees C (77 degrees F instead of 82 degrees F). Jolyon Thompson’s article in this issue. or introducing world-class high speed rail to the UK. The high speed trains in Taiwan and Mainland China travel at 300kph (186mph) or even greater speeds. As we engage with WSP. A PSD system can provide a more comfortable and less dusty environment inside the station. Pressure transient from high speed trains. lai. modification of rolling stock. and Vietnam). Tunneling Overview in Asia DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Fire engineering approach.2 mile) Cross Harbour Tunnel in Hong Kong in which a transverse ventilation system was used. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling.) Parsons Brinckerhoff’s work on road tunnels includes: • design of the 2km (1. (See article by Dicken Wu and Rambo Ye in this issue. • design of a longitudinal ventilation systems for road tunnels in Singapore with the use of the critical velocity concept. Parsons Brinckerhoff provided engineering design support in the conversion of an elevated metro line to an underground metro line in Taiwan. Thailand. several metro systems in mainland China.. and Express Railway Link in Hong Kong. +852-2963-7625 / +65-6589-3661. Then in late 1970s. and was recognized with an award for innovation for the design of a station with an atrium in Shanghai. developing sustainable designs through the use of innovative cooling techniques such as groundwater cooling or embedded liners. concepts.com 6 Parsons Brinckerhoff has a rich history of working on major tunnel projects and designing innovative solutions for tunnel systems in Asia. our team of engineers is at the forefront of innovation. a version of which won the 2014 Parsons Brinckerhoff Emerging Professionals Technical Paper competition).pbworld. Mainland China. and areas around ventilation shafts and tunnel portals. Taiwan.aspx by Steven Lai. for example. etc. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s in-depth knowledge and internationally renowned global team is able to deliver technical excellence to clients across all geographies and all sectors. In the 1970s. West Rail in Hong Kong. Better land use and increased carrying capacity. and challenges are presented below.com/news/publications. Parsons Brinckerhoff has also assisted metro companies in the integration of individual operations control centers (OCC) for existing lines and new lines in the region. developing a new toolset such as DYNAMO to address a developing market (see Dr. and evacuation models have been used to study the impact of these methods on the environmental control systems (ECS) and the fire and life safety systems in stations and tunnels and to assist clients in establishing cost-effective design schemes. and Singapore. a performance-based fire engineering approach has been widely used to analyse the heat release rate from a train. Some of these designs. and reducing headway of the trains. Japan.steven@pbworld. Parsons Brinckerhoff continues to retain its high profile in tunnel systems capability through many of the major projects being undertaken. with the availability of a more advanced signaling system for accurate train stopping positions.

Value engineering and cost effective design. (See article by YF Pin. • use of Saccardo nozzles to replace numerous jet fans (West Rail in Hong Kong. These schemes include: • the use of combined ventilation shafts instead of individual ventilation shafts to reduce the constraint on the station planning and the size of aboveground structures (Suzhou metro). • design of the 2km long (1. Apart from the above. with Sydney. Singapore.7 mile) Chongming road tunnel which links Shanghai to the out-lying Chongming Island and has an upper deck for vehicular traffic and a lower for the metro line. and Mainland China. and Steven Lai in this issue. This reduced the overall immersed tube tunnel cross-section and resulted in construction cost savings. (See article by Cathy Kam. This system has been applied to various road tunnels in order to achieve a better environment. and • design of an Air Purification System (APS) for the Central and Wanchai Bypass project in Hong Kong in order to produce cleaner air at the tunnel portals and the ventilation buildings.9km long (2. Nowadays.com Australia’s population is projected to grow significantly by 2050. and • the Macau Sai Van Bridge which has an upper deck used for vehicular traffic and an enclosed lower deck used for light rail operation (normal condition) and vehicular tunnel operation (during typhoon conditions). bagisa@pbworld.pbworld. which also resulted in early completion of this design-build project.2 mile) Fuxing East Road Tunnel in Shanghai which also has an upper deck and a lower deck both of which are used for vehicular traffic. with the use of CFD modelling. • use of tunnel cooling systems for long tunnels to reduce the number of ventilation shaft structures (Tsuen Wan Line in Hong Kong).) Tunnelling Outlook in Australia and New Zealand by Argun Bagis. Ashok Kumar. To increase productivity and provide a better visualization of complicated engineering solutions to stakeholders.) Fire andIntroduction Life Safety NETWORK 7 . Parsons Brinckerhoff is the first company in Hong Kong to use building information modelling (BIM) for the tunnel systems of a road tunnel project. • the 2km long (1. and the safeguarding of rail corridors. 61-2-9272 5435. • the 6km long (3. Building Information Modelling.New challenges in tunnel systems.com/news/publications. Parsons Brinckerhoff has designed and developed costeffective ventilation systems for various cable tunnels in Hong Kong. KPE in Singapore). and has also used BIM for a cable tunnel project in Singapore.aspx • minimizing the tunnel construction cost of the 3. R.2 mile) Western Harbour Crossing in Hong Kong with optimized mechanical and electrical (M&E) services and ventilation ducts. AUS. primarily on the eastern coast of Australia. Melbourne. Parsons Brinckerhoff has developed various value engineering schemes and creative approaches to achieve cost effective design for our clients and provide a better environment for the people. as described in an article by CC Cheung and Steven Lai in this issue (Airport Express Line in Hong Kong. Accordingly. Sydney. There are a significant number of tunnelling projects in the works for the latter half of this decade. Cheung Ching Tunnel in Hong Kong). the development of road and rail infrastructure has been at the forefront of the Australian government’s priorities and has resulted in the construction of a number of strategic road tunnels. • the use of a centralized chilled water system to reduce the overall spatial requirement and result in a more energy-saving system (Tsuen Wan Line in Hong Kong). Chris Ma. • sharing of tunnel ventilation fans for different lines (Taiwan Nankong Extension). • the use of higher voltage to supply the power for tun- nel ventilation equipment in long tunnels to reduce the cable cost and overall spatial requirement. and Brisbane identified as cities where the majority of this growth will take place.4 mile) Tate’s Cairn Tunnel in Hong Kong with the use of construction shafts as permanent ventilation adits. Parsons Brinckerhoff has participated in the following design of tunnel systems for several special tunnel projects in China: • the 18km long (11 mile) Zhong Nam Shan Tunnel with very long ventilation shafts. Parsons Brinckerhoff is also the first company in Singapore to use BIM for designing the mechanical and electrical (M&E) systems in a metro project. Funding has already been approved for most of the nine new tunnels DECEMBER 2014 http://www. and Steven Lai in this issue. exceptionally long tunnels with large cross-sectional areas and/or multi-purpose tunnels create new challenges to engineers. and • the use of water mist systems to cool down long vehicular tunnels (Chongming road tunnel in Shanghai). more than 500 meter (1640 feet).

com/news/publications. This raises the need to upgrade existing rail infrastructure as well as to develop new rail routes to relieve the already congested east coast rail network. A reduction in vehicle emissions. Tunnel ventilation and fire & life safety are key aspects in the successful delivery of these projects. the Waterview Connection for Auckland’s Western Ring Route is the largest road project ever undertaken in the country. and Legacy Way (still under construction) road tunnels. traffic fleet composition.0 M4 East (NSW) Toowoomba Range Second Crossing (QLD) Lane Cove Tunnel (NSW) Legacy Way (QLD) 2. Figure 1 provides both a summary and a forecast for the tunnelling sector in Australia.0 M4 South (NSW) Melbourne Rail Link (VIC) 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 Source: BIS Shrapnel. from 2003 through to 2023. with the construction of the M7 Clem Jones Tunnel (Clem 7). and even mine ventilation have been markets where Parsons Brinckerhoff has delivered successful outcomes.0 East-West Link (QLD) North West Rail Link (NSW) Airport Link (QLD) 4. Other examples of technical challenges include: • The planning and design of longer tunnels which is gaining momentum in Australia. Parsons Brinckerhoff has been involved in the detailed design work on many unidirectional traffic tunnels. Kevin Stewart’s article on “Tunnel Sump Construction Savings through Drainage System Design Modification” describes how this DBOM project structure gave all parties an interest in costeffective design for both construction and maintenance. provision of post construction services to tunnel operators. and the Maldon to Dombarton rail link in New South Wales are initiatives that have been brought to the forefront of infrastructure spending. Brisbane.5-km long twin-tube tunnel with three lanes in each tunnel. As is evident from the graph. the Australian government is focused on shifting the transportation of freight from road to diesel rail. and there will be a strong need for specialist engineering services.aspx currently being planned along the east coast of Australia. Parsons Brinckerhoff has diversified into non-traditional road and rail tunnel services. Parsons Brinckerhoff is a member of the Well-Connected Alliance which is both delivering the project.pbworld.0 East-West Link Eastern Section (VIC) CityLink Western (VIC) M1 to M2 Link (NSW) Cross City Tunnel (NSW) 03 05 Year ended June East-West Link Western Section (VIC) M5 East (NSW) North-South Bypass Tunnel (QLD) East Link (VIC) 0. Rail projects linking the city of Brisbane with Melbourne over a new inland rail path. including a 2. ABS Data Figure 1 – Major road and rail projects with tunnel components (value of work done) DECEMBER 2014 http://www. In New Zealand. Airport Link and Northern Busway. employing a combined longitudinal and distributed smoke extraction ventilation (smoke duct) system for fire emergencies. QLD in particular became (and continues to be) a major centre for tunnelling construction in Australia. such as in tunnel ventilation. and operating and maintaining the facility for 10 years after the opening. Chris Chen’s article on “Meeting the Challenges of Smoke Duct Fan Selec- tion for Australian Road Tunnels” describes the unique fan duty requirements for this type of tunnel ventilation system. The re-development of existing rail stations.0 $ Billion Forecast Brisbane Underground (QLD) Forrestfield Airport Rail Link (WA) 6. 8 In addition. and recent innovations in ventilation plant design have enabled the design of tunnel lengths to be almost double that of existing Australian tunnels. with fewer intermediate tunnel ventila- .Fire andIntroduction Life Safety NETWORK 8. the outlook for tunnel projects from 2014 onward is looking very positive. the extension of this rail path to the Port of Brisbane. with the west coast expecting some movement as well with the planning of an extension to the existing metro system.

NY. the future demand for tunnel ventilation and tunnel systems in Australia looks strong. John Munro Director. US Steven Kam-Hung LAI Director.aspx NETWORK 9 . Infrastructure. Rail & Transit Godalming. principally in mid to north Australia. M&E New York. construction. Climate projections beyond 2030 and 2050 are now commonly used for the design of tunnel ventilation systems. New Zealand Fire andIntroduction Life Safety tion plants. There are currently three tunnels in the early design phase with lengths expected to be in the 8-9 kilometre (5-5. UK Argun Bagis Principal Engineer.nels. and operation phases. with funding for major road and rail tunnel projects already confirmed. The challenge remains to fully utilise Parsons Brinckerhoff’s capability outside of the traditional concept phase by taking on leading roles in the detailed design. particularly in relation to rail tun- DECEMBER 2014 http://www.6 mile) mark. has made the effects of climate change a key consideration in the design of tunnel ventilation systems. • The relatively hot Australian climate. • The current Australian policy to limit emissions at tunnel portals (see the article on “Long Road Tunnels and Portal Emission Control” in this issue) continues to be a major factor in increased energy use in Australian road tunnels. as on the Victoria Park Tunnel and the Waterview Connection projects. Overall. China Region Hong Kong Kate Hunt Service Leader. Tunnel Systems Australia. Tunnel Ventilation & Fire Engineering (RMS).com/news/publications.pbworld.

The results of this type of analyses are affected by many specific project factors. Therefore. Edenbaum@pbworld.” DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Intuition says that the spacing should vary with the length of the train. the design fire scenario. it was concluded that the maximum cross-passage spacing should be such that those downstream of the fire could evacuate to a point of safety within the time that it takes for the floor of a train car to burn through (which leads to flashover of the entire train car). the results provided in this paper MUST NOT be directly applied to any projects. This leads to the conclusion that increasing the car-floor burn-through time would allow greater tunnel-to-tunnel cross-passage spacing and possibly reduce costs. Kennedy. No guidance is provided on how the actual spacing should be determined. Driver override should allow the movement of the train to the nearest station even if a passenger activates the emergency brake.pbworld. This is suggested in NFPA 130 (Section 8. The analysis for this paper assumes that this is the circumstance and that the only fire that will stop a train in a tunnel is a below-car fire that critically damages the propulsion system or derails the train.or main-line rail passenger system. His reputation in tunnel ventilation was recognized in March 2012 by the International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security.com. Kennedy. the walkway width." requires that tunnel-to-tunnel cross-passages shall be spaced a maximum of 800 feet (244 meters) apart. 10 The US National Fire Protection Association's Standard 130. Seven cross-passage spacings.Fire Tunnel and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Subway Tunnel Cross-Passage Spacing: A Performance-Based Approach by the late William D. he was instrumental in the development of tunnel ventilation systems for road and rail tunnels worldwide.2(1)).5. The computer model accounts for the unique geometry of a bored tunnel by considering shoulder space requirements. Toronto. ten walkway widths. A number of assumptions were made in the model in order to be conservatively safe and simulate a reasonable worst case situation. Mia Kang (formerly of Parsons Brinckerhoff). See Figure 1 for data used. and discusses NFPA 130 compliant methodologies for reducing the numbers of cross-passages required.com/news/publications. and Kirk G. an internationally recognized expert in tunnel ventilation. and one passenger load were analyzed. "Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems. Rummel (formerly of Parsons Brinckerhoff) William D. etc. died in June 2012.1. which awarded him its 2012 Achievement Award. such as: . Another possibility is wider walkways or cross-passage doors to speed passenger movement away from the fire site. This paper presents a performance-based approach for calculating cross-passage spacing for downstream emergency evacuations from the fire site. Justin M.aspx This abstract is condensed from a paper that was originally prepared for the 2006 APTA Rail Conference and has been updated to reflect the current 2014 version of NFPA 130. the number of passengers on board the train. Edenbaum. The simulation results provide sample engineering information to develop a sample of cost-effective alternatives without compromising safety. The physical scenario for modeling is selected to be typical of a heavy. Introduction Based on earlier emergency ventilation studies. Physical Scenario for Computer Model Physical scenarios are simulated using computer modeling to predict the evacuation times for passengers downstream of the fire site to reach a point of safety. The simulations account for the geometry of a bored tunnel. It also leads to the inference that an interior or post-flashover fire should not be allowed to stop a train in a tunnel. citing his “long and illustrious career in ventilation engineering of tunnels” and calling his lifetime body of work “a shining example of wedding practice and theory in the design of tunnels. Canada. The performance-based calculations include the use of computer software for analyzing and comparing exiting strategies. During a 46year career with Parsons Brinckerhoff.3. +1-917-225-6314.

” Constructed Width is the actual width of walkway on the ground. 42. 400. 1219. 1168. 1067. (When the given walkway is wide enough. • A population of rail passengers consists of typical “commuters” with a range of demographics and walking speeds. This leads to the concept of “Constructed Width” vs. 91. fire ignition. and with reasonable walkway and cross-passage widths. This does not include any allowance for modeling accuracy. Li. 50. any evacuation times required to be lower than 30 minutes. The passengers were considered to reach a point of safety after reaching 10 feet (3048 mm) inside of the cross-passage. W Fire and Life Safety NETWORK 2 11 . 1118. Glasgow G4 0LT. James Road. to 1372 mm) Figure 1 – Evacuation Scenarios "SIMULEX Users Manual".” American Public Transportation Association (APTA). 1 DECEMBER 2014 http://www. “Simulation of Escape from Rail Tunnels Using SIMULEX.Bored Tunnel Geometry • The location of the fire is in the middle of the train. Effective Width refers to the width entered into the SIMULEX model to accurately simulate the evacuation. require spacing of cross-passages significantly shorter than the 800 foot maximum in NFPA 130. Massachusetts. the model allows faster individuals to overtake slower walkers.pbworld. 1321. William D. Scotland. - Time 10 minutes. The SIMULEX model inputs are adjusted for a bored tunnel construction. 1016. 500. with train capacities in this study range. 10 minutes (15-5) should be added to the evacuation time. • The to-be evacuated train has a fire that is aligned with a cross-passage. 46. Some observations • Clearly the spacing of cross-passages has a significant impact on evacuation times. In general. wider walkway widths help evacuation scenarios when the spacing has crosspassage doors that are not adjacent to the train and The evacuation method was assumed to be all doors open to the walkway with movement to the nearest cross-passage downstream or adjacent to a stopped car. Downstream 595' (181 m) Under-Car Fire W X X= Cross Passage Spacing Upstream X (200. 52. 965. Norris A. The program algorithms for the movement of individuals are based on real-life data and predict realistic flow of people. 40. Kennedy. 600. 1998. 300. 44. This is because the wider walkway after the train allows faster passengers to overtake slower passengers. to 244 meters) W= Constructed Walkway Width (36. “Effective Width. Other variables such as walkway or cross-passage width would also have an impact. 700. fire reaches below-car fire heat release rate.aspx These observations are based on the sample data and should not be directly applied to other projects. • There are significant benefits of wider walkways and wider cross-passage doors at cross-passage intervals above 700 feet or so. Costs to construct each cross-passage in this situation can be high. relating to factors such as walkway width at shoulder height and the natural inhibition of walking near the edge of an empty track. 38. Cross-passage spacing is particularly important in bored tunnel construction where cross-passages have to be mined in poor soil. - Time 5 minutes. evacuation begins. and 800 feet) (61. and 54 inches) (914. when calculating the minimum car-floor burnthrough time required.com/news/publications. 1270. which simulates the emergency exiting of people. The emergency exiting analysis was done using the computer program SIMULEX1. 141 St. and - Time 15 minutes.152. 183. Therefore. Figure 2 presents the results of the simulations for 250 people per car and seven cars being evacuated. 48. 213. 122. Limited. Integrated Environmental Solutions. It simulates the escape movement of each person instead of using a mathematical formula for uniform flow rates and average speeds of groups of people. This program is well-validated and has been used to model rail system emergency evacuations for a number of years2. fire stops train.) • The fire scenario was assumed to be: - Time 0 minutes. For the assumed data. Harvey. and Silas K. June 2001. Boston.

A close Recommendation examination of the dynamics of the evacuation paths After peer review this approach could be used to develsuggests that a project-specific application might want op an enhancement to NFPA 130. 130 maximum of 800 feet (244 meters). Because the train can discharge passengers at a greater rate 12:00 than they can exit through cross-passages. careful attention must be given to the model increasing the cross-passage spacing beyond the NFPA inputs for evacuation speeds.the cross-passage. and walkway and cross-passage door width. in to consider the entire evacuation path—to whatever relating cross-passage to other project characteristics.aspx 12 NETWORK Conclusion A performance-based approach for estimating evacuation times downstream from a tunnel fire site and minimum car-floor burn-through times has been presented. at the lonpassage locations and widths. car-floor burn-through time. etc.com/news/publications. For existing systems with fixed cross- of tunnel ventilation systems for road and rail tunnels worldwide and he led the development of the Subway Environmental System (SES) software program. the effect on evacuation times due to varying passenger travel Figure 2 –Time vs.are located far away from the end of the 36:00 1200-foot Cross Passage Spacing train. Evacuation Time (min:sec) Fire and Life Safety DECEMBER 2014 http://www. this approach could be used to develop a cost shorter spacing cases. around cross-passage spacings that are beyond the car-floor burn-through time. Passage Spacings • In the scenario adopted for analysis. a station platform. The effects of the complete path spacing that could be greater or lesser than the current should be modeled to study if there is an adverse af800-foot requirement (244 meters). Under these circumstances. this approach could be ger intervals. again.pbworld. fect of the evacuation in the non-incident tunnel. possibly train. it (feet) is obvious that shorter cross-passage in800 24:00 700 tervals (in the range of 200 to 500 feet) 600 result in one to three cross-passages 500 400 adjacent to the train immediately ac18:00 300 cessible as soon as the evacuees move 200 onto the walkway. “Bill” Kennedy was instrumental in the development instructional and training emphasis. Justin Edenbaum is a Supervising Mechanical Engineer in the Toronto office of Parsons Brinckerhoff specializing in tunnel ventilation and fire life safety. . and walkway width. the opposite could provide a more logical basis for cross-passage bore trackway. widely considered the standard tool for the analysis and design of transit systems. the effect of wider walkways in these 06:00 shorter intervals is minimal. For future tion immediately next to the train that dominates the designs. wider 1000-foot Cross Passage Spacing 800-foot Cross Passage Spacing walkways can be considered as an alterCross 30:00 native to shorter cross-passage spacing. the model examines the paths of evacuation up to the point of safety . • Finally. of interest where continuous movement used to select car-floor burn-through times when cars is occurring as opposed to the accumulated congesare retrofitted or new rolling stock is ordered. if performing analysis analysis combining cross-passage spacing and widths. 34 38 42 48 50 54 • While not immediately apparent from the Constructed Walkway Width (inches) data shown. At a minimum. Width speeds is significant. such analysis could suggest appropriate William D. It allows the trade-off among cross-passage spacing. ends: a rescue train. Thus. This enhancement.

two fires occurred in the underwater tunnels of the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway and the FFFS helped control the fires so firefighters could approach and eventually extinguish the fires. and the development of alternative types of FFFS. and Sweden.A Note on Fixed Fire Fighting Systems in Road Tunnels by Anna Xiaohua Wang. the Tauern Tunnel (Austria. The deluge system in Sydney Harbor Tunnel in Australia is reported to have worked well during a van fire in 2004. New York. Norway. Such fires were regarded as manageable and ventilation systems were sized to control smoke for such events. rhodesn1@pbworld. high pressure water mist systems can be effective in controlling potential 200 MW solid fuel fires DECEMBER 2014 http://www.resulted in loss of life.com. with early activation. and this position was reflected in US standards. which employed pools of aircraft fuel. 2001). and the Frejus Tunnel (France/Italy. wangx1@pbworld. based on very fine water droplets. • Water mist systems. between 1983 (World Road Congress in Sydney) and 2004.the Mont Blanc Tunnel (France/Italy. Based on this experience. Gotthard Tunnel (Switzerland.aspx Introduction Fire and Life Safety NETWORK 13 . 1999). After extinguishment the fuel continued to evaporate. the FFFS is one technique that is actively being promoted. injury. NY. Another example is the Burnley Tunnel fire in 2007. Several severe road tunnel fires . Water sprinkler type FFFS have been installed in road tunnels of significant length for many years in Japan and Australia. based on dense water jets consisting of large-size droplets. US. Types of FFFS Several types of FFFS have been used in road tunnels worldwide: • Sprinkler/spray (water deluge) systems. The tests.com Historically. including UPTUN (Multinational European Research Project) and the SOLIT (Safety of Life in Tunnels) Project.pbworld. Tunnels that have water deluge fixed fire fighting systems installed can also be found in the United States. These fire incidents demonstrated that fire sizes could be much larger than 20-30 MW and completely changed the perception of the design fire size. the disappointing results of the Ofenegg Tunnel fire tests (1965. US. These have been found to be effective in preventing fire spread and enhancing cooling of the tunnel structure. One of the factors that maintained this attitude against the application of FFFS in tunnels was the fire sizes generally used. reaching critical concentrations within about 20 minutes. The fire sizes chosen on which to base the design were relatively small—20 to 30 MW—typical of a bus or truck fire. In 1999. Canada. PIARC re-evaluated its position with regard to FFFS and at the same time the European Community undertook research programs to examine fire suppression and the impact of larger design fires. Several relevant European research programs. 2005) . the deluge system was activated quickly and this was deemed by firefighters to have kept the fire under control. and infrastructure damage that were far more extensive than if they had occurred on surface roadways. 1999). +1-212-613-8861. New York. led to the view that visibility was much reduced by the sprinkler systems and hot steam was generated that could cause scalding at long distances from the fire. NY. Subsequent deflagrations occurred that created air velocities of up to 30 meters per second. The steam production also displaced smoke more quickly causing temperatures to be higher than without sprinklers. Since then the maximum design fires utilized in tunnel design have increased as much as tenfold in some cases. These re- cent incidents have emphasized the need for further improvement to be made in tunnel fire management.com/news/publications. It was the impact of this experience that was reflected in the World Road Association (PIARC) recommendations which. and • Foam water suppression systems. and Norman Rhodes. the St. have demonstrated through independent tunnel fire tests that. consistently advised against the installation of fixed fire fighting systems (FFFS) in road tunnels. +1-212-465-5756. Switzerland) had a negative impact on sprinkler application in tunnels.

but is considered to be less suited for Class B (liquid fuel. Washington. For both types of foam-water suppression systems. the system is less efficient to combat solid fuel fires compared with the water sprinkler system. the Roertunnel and the Tunnel Swalmen in the Netherlands. it may be less efficient in cooling or wetting the fuel surfaces. There are two types of foam-water fire suppression systems proposed for road tunnels: • the foam-water sprinkler system (see Figure 3). . Both the water mist and water vapor system can measurably reduce radiant heat flux to objects near the fire . However. FFFS are now increasingly being considered in the design of tunnel systems worldwide. Figure 2 – Water mist nozzles in the tunnel Piping Network Proportioning Controller Figure 3 – Schematic of a foam-water sprinkler system CAF Generation Water Releasing Controller Air Piping Network Mixing Chamber Foam Concentrate Fixed Foam-Water Fire Suppression Systems Fixed foam-water fire suppression systems may be another alternative to combat tunnel fires. corrosion protection is required for the storage tanks and the pipe systems. Some of the different aspects of the systems are as follows: DECEMBER 2014 http://www. deluge water sprinkler systems are the common FFFS in Australia and Japan. The system performs very well for Class A (solid fuel) fires. This position is also reflected in changes to the recent NFPA 502 and PIARC documentation. and other tunnels in Europe.aspx Water Sprinkler Fire Protection System The water sprinkler fire protection system (see Figure 1) has existed for over 100 years and is a commonly used and reliable technology. The use of the foam-water sprinkler system against diesel pool fires was investigated in the Memorial Tunnel Nozzles Alarm Check Valve Main Control Valve Water Supply Bladder Tank CAF Nozzles Figure 4 – Schematic of a compressed air foam (CAF) system in West Virginia by Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff. Choosing a Fire Suppression System Figure 1 – Water sprinkler nozzles in the tunnel Choosing the type of fire suppression system for a road tunnel is not an easy decision to make. the M30 tunnel in Madrid. because the system contains fine water particles. and • the compressed air foam (CAF) system (see Figure 4).this helps firefighters approach the fire and provides better conditions for evacuation.Fire and Life Safety NETWORK and 200 MW diesel oil pool fires. The compressed air foam (CAF) system has been tested in road tunnels in the Netherlands. Therefore. The foam-water sprinkler deluge system has been installed in several tunnels in Seattle. 14 Water Mist Fire Protection System Compared to the water sprinkler system. A foam agent is especially suited for the control and extinguishment of flammable and combustible liquid-type fires. and the system can be costly in the long run because of the corrosion problem associated with the use of foam agents.com/news/publications. oil) fires or where "splashing" of the fuel is to be avoided.pbworld. The water mist systems have been installed in the A86 tunnel in Paris. therefore. the water mist system (see Figure 2) generates much smaller water droplets and therefore has advantages in promoting more efficient gas-phase cooling and uses 2 to 3 times less water for road tunnels (depending on the system used).

Lougheed.com/news/publications. Test Report (section 8.J. Without FFFS.. A. Orlando. • Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program.” ITC Conference Basel 2-4. NRCC -49232. FFFS. R. many design issues remain. December 2002. June 2010. Kim..10). • Lemaire. H.300 MW) dictate the need for a very powerful ventilation system. National Fire Protection Association. such as dangerous goods or heavy goods vehicles. as recommended by NFPA 502 and most European standards. G. such as: the reduction in the design fire size with the inclusion of the FFFS and the subsequent reduction in ventilation requirements. the use of foam-water fire suppression systems may be challenging: DECEMBER 2014 http://www. 2007. J. Massachusetts Highway Department. Norman Rhodes is the Technical Director of the Parsons Brinckerhoff Mechanical/Electrical Technical Excellence Center. When authorities prepare to permit all types of traffic. and Other Limited Access Highways. and Meeussen. Germany.K. Drysdale. National Fire Protection Association. The SOLIT Research Project.. 2010. Frankfurt am Main. • Tunnels Study Center (CETU). Conclusion The FFFS is also being considered in road tunnels to reduce the size of the ventilation system required. Bridges. • NFPA 15. • Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems for Road Tunnels. 2014 Edition." State of knowledge and provisional assessment elements regarding their use. and • for the CAF system. the performance of the FFFS under operational conditions that have not been tested in the tunnel fire experiments. References • Haerter. and operational continuity. Dr. Dr. “Fire Tests in the Ofenegg-Tunnel in 1965”. D. Work Package 2 of the Research Project UPTUN. G. additional mechanical rooms need to be installed at specific intervals of length in the tunnels which increases the initial capital cost of the installation of a CAF system.D.• for the foam-water sprinkler system. 79-130. Nov.. J. the impact of the FFFS on the structural protection system.. Final Report. Standard for Road Tunnels. increasing space requirements and adding significant cost.300 MW fires would be necessary for tunnels. Z. Fire and Life Safety For longer tunnels. to cope with increasing economic activities. March 17-19. 2007 Edition. "Water Mists in Road Tunnel. Although the benefits of FFFS are clear. International Symposium on Catastrophic Tunnel Fires. 2008-Efectis-R0425. Efectis Nederland BV... • Starke. the delivery time of the foam may be too long as the foam tanks have to be installed at the tunnel portals and it may take time for the foam to reach the fire if the fire is located in the middle of the tunnels. tunnel system protection. • PIARC 2008: Road Tunnels: An Assessment of Fixed Fire Fighting Systems. • Huijben.. by Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff. Fire development and mitigation measures. large fires (such as 200 . “Effects of Water Mist on Real Large Tunnel Fires: Experimental Determination of BLEVE-risk and Tenability during Growth and Suppression”. A. A.. Florida. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) fire modeling approach is an alternative and holds great promise once a reasonable correlation between numerical simulations and full-scale tests has been achieved. • UPTUN. and the impact of the FFFS on the overall tunnel safety concept and operation procedures. • Liu. Anna (Xiaohua) Wang is a Principal Technical Specialist in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s New York office.” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 26 (2000). can provide benefits for firefighting.W. In addition. “Challenges for Use of Fixed Fire Suppression Systems in Road Tunnel Fire Protection”. Standard for Water Spray Fixed System for Fire Protection. Fourth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. Sweden. “Fire Suppression by Water Sprays.A. “The Emergence of CAF Fixed-Pipe Fire Suppression Systems”.. • Quenneville.aspx NETWORK 15 . 2007. V. unlike a ventilation system. The most reliable method available to date for those unsolved design questions is full-scale testing. Spring. Rept. 2008. 2006. Ir. Boros. “Tests On Fire Detection Systems And Sprinkler in a Tunnel. Suppression & Detection Research Applications – A Technical Working Conference (SUPDET 2007). “Fire Suppression in Road Tunnel Fires by a Water Mist System – Results of the SOLIT Project”.. • Grant. but that is extremely expensive and impractical for new or existing tunnels. June 2008. November 2003. • NFPA 502. Fire & Safety Magazine. mitigation options that can combat 200 . Brenton. 1995. Kashef.G.pbworld.

• Fire alarm systems. pipes.com Introduction Fires that occur in road tunnels can grow rapidly and reach very high heat release rates. • Drainage. valves. pumps. The main goals of the mitigation measures are to: • Provide a tenable environment for motorist evacuation.Fire and Life Safety NETWORK Fixed Fire Fighting Systems in Road Tunnels – System Integration by Matt Bilson.pbworld. marsicosa@pbworld. Proper integration of the FFFS with other tunnel fire-life safety systems is essential to achieve the FFFS goals. Poor system integration can lead to a reduction in FFFS performance and fire safety. • Ventilation systems. • Egress provisions. A FFFS is typically installed to help reduce the fire growth rate and air/smoke temperature. NY. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.com. water treatment). Fixed camera Traffic and airflow Deluge zone/ventilation zone Linear heat detector Tunnel wall Roadway . +1-212-465-5576. pipes. a full-time operator is present. and this is Plan view of roadway: 179 178 CCTV vision example: LEGEND Zone N178 is in the foreground Zone N179 is in the background Figure 1 – Example of good CCTV and FFFS integration 16 The first important question in FFFS integration is whether or not the tunnel has a full-time operator. heat detection systems. and nozzles – divided into separate zones for water delivery) and also components for water removal (drainage. System Integration with Fixed Fire Fighting Systems CCTV Activation of the FFFS at an early stage of a fire incident is the best way to assure optimal performance. and Sal Marsico. As a result. control systems. US. New York. NY. In this article the integration question is considered in the context of a full-time operator being present. The major components of the FFFS include water delivery infrastructure (pumps. US. but it is noted that if an operator is not present there will be different integration considerations. and • Maintain the structural integrity of the tunnel. New York. In many tunnels with FFFS. +1-212-465-5510.com/news/publications. Tunnel systems and functions that require particular attention for integration with a FFFS. include: • Closed circuit television (CCTV). with full-time operator present. road tunnels are designed with mitigation technology and procedures to help reduce the detrimental effects that can occur. which helps to prolong occupant tenability and provides structural protection.aspx A fixed fire fighting system (FFFS) is one type of mitigation measure implemented to help achieve these goals. and • Traffic and operations. bilsonm@pbworld. • Assist firefighters with their operations.

and practically there may be few design options to achieve this. as the CCTV system would typically detect smoke or stalled traffic well before a heat detector senses the fire..pbworld.00 1. Once the fire has been located. Figure 1 provides an example of effective design integration between a CCTV and FFFS system.) 30m (100 ft. The air velocity can cause water in the FFFS’s water delivery region to shift away from the active zones.g.Bndry ampua kg/m2 10. the very large flow rates of water mean that not all of the FFFS water will be captured at the drains within the zone of discharge. exit doors to escape passages) are generally positioned equidistant from each other along the tunnel and should be placed at the ends of the FFFS zones and not within active FFFS zones where egress may be hindered by visibility reduction.00 8. Placing egress points at the ends of a FFFS zone contributes to more streamlined egress. Firefighters using these egress points to enter the tunnel could experience significant disorientation if entering an active FFFS zone. activation of both the FFFS zone where the fire is located and one zone upstream mitigates drift effects. noise (the active FFFS is in fact very loud). In some systems.00 Figure 2 – Example of FFFS and tunnel ventilation integration-CFD results The figure shows an example of good systems integration with camera locations relative to their proximity to FFFS zones.com/news/publications. or a combination of the two.) FFFS Zone FFFS Zone 7. Placing a camera within a zone. The tunnel operator relies on the CCTV system to assist in identifying the fire location. In the region near a jet fan’s outlet there will be high velocity relative to the average velocity of the tunnel.00 Jet fans Water overshooting zone of application (overshoot by up to 15m) Jet fans Water not reaching entire zone of application (up to 5m of a zone missed) 3. Egress Provisions Egress points (e.00 2. instead of at zone boundaries.aspx typically accomplished through manual activation by the tunnel operator. extracting the heat and smoke through vents along the tunnel (transverse ventilation). Drainage Drainage is another aspect to consider when installing an FFFS. the image would be starting halfway along the zone. may generate confusion for the operator because. which will exacerbate the water delivery drift. Jet fans near the FFFS zone should be activated only if necessary. and psychological stress.00 4. The travelling fuel can create a risk of fire spread since the water can transport the fuel away from the DECEMBER 2014 http://www. thereby slowing their subsequent response. instead of the CCTV image showing the start of a zone. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results in Figure 2 show an example of the extent of water delivery drift for a longi- tudinal ventilation system. It is imperative that operators can easily and accurately identify the fire locations.00 0.00 Airflow is right to left 30m (100 ft. In this example. requiring the operator to cycle through views to confirm the location.00 Fire and Life Safety NETWORK 6. physical restriction.00 5. Ventilation The ventilation system in a tunnel is used to direct heat and smoke away from the egress path by producing a longitudinal tunnel air velocity flow in one direction (longitudinal ventilation).00 Application criterion is 8 kg/ 2 m in one minute Extra water due to zone overlap Plan view of tunnel water accumulation at roadway level AIRFLOW 9. Careful zone activation can mitigate the effect of drift and provide assurance that water will reach the target. the operator activates the corresponding FFFS zone. 17 .

it is important that the tunnel operator is well-trained and that tunnel systems are well-maintained to assure good performance. as described above. If all of these zones were to discharge water. This system typically uses a linear heat detector (LHD) to identify the fire location. In some instances a back-up automatic activation system is provided. which increases the chance of a vehicle collision and exacerbates the emergency. heat will travel over a large number of FFFS zones and trip the LHD in zones remote from the incident. Conversely. traffic must no longer be allowed to flow into the tunnel. Good integration of the FFFS with other tunnel systems and functions. so that they are able to activate the FFFS in the appropriate zone(s). Matt Bilson is a Principal Technical Specialist in the field of tunnel ventilation and fire-life safety in the New York office of Parsons Brinckerhoff. which means the operator needs to have the ability to shut zones off and start others. For example.com/news/publications. prior to exiting the FFFS zone. the following items support good system integration: • FFFS and LHD zones are to be coincident. If no response is made by the operator within the allotted time. a countdown timer activates. using the principles outlined above. the vehicles downstream of the fire are expected to exit the tunnel while those upstream are expected to stop (a common assumption in tunnel fire-life safety design).Fire and Life Safety NETWORK Figure 3 – Effect on visibility due to FFFS DECEMBER 2014 http://www. there may not be enough water capacity available in the incident zone to suppress the fire (a FFFS can be feasibly designed with enough water supply capacity to feed two or three zones). the fire can propagate or the operator may need to correct their choice. creates an unsafe situation (see Figure 3). if it is burning. with each detection zone coincident with a specific FFFS zone. Sal Marsico is a Mechanical Engineer in the field of tunnel ventilation and fire-life safety in the New York office of Parsons Brinckerhoff. . • Any further LHD activations must not trigger any additional FFFS zone activations (as explained below). In a manually operated system. operators are provided with a CCTV system to identify the fire location. In the case of an automated response. and Heat Detection Road tunnels can be fitted with automatic and/or manually activated FFFS. Traffic and Operations After a fire is identified. The fuel draining away from the fire site would be unshielded by vehicles and so it will typically be suppressed. The LHD is an addressable sensing cable which can detect absolute temperature or rate-of-rise. An activated FFFS will reduce motorist visibility and vehicle traction. assists in bringing to fruition its purported benefits for tunnel fire safety. The system must be programmed such that the operator can override an automated response if necessary. Flame traps in the drainage system are sometimes used to prevent a secondary fire moving through the drain pipe network. The system must be designed so that the FFFS is never activated over live traffic. Conclusion An FFFS is a useful fire safety tool for a road tunnel. in a tunnel.pbworld. Control Systems. or worse still. In addition to the engineered systems. • The FFFS should activate in the first LHD zone to detect heat and the adjacent zone upstream.aspx fire site. In unidirectional traffic. 18 Fire Alarm Systems. the FFFS is deployed. Once the LHD signal is received at the control panel. Automated systems are capable of executing ineffective responses. so it is up to the operator to make the final operational decisions.

reducing the complexity and burden placed on the tunnel operator. DETECTION METHODS AND LOCATION Fire and Life Safety NETWORK Figure 1 – The “V” diagram and the Functional Mode Table relationship 19 . Operation and Maintenance System Verification and Validation Detail Integration Test and Verification Detailed Design Manual Implementation Time The goal of the FMT is to assure that all major players in the tunnel’s fire-life safety – the FLS engineer. bilsonm@pbworld. Subsequent system responses for an incident can be pre-programmed using the FMT. it is also necessary to combine the emergency incident plans with the design concepts and operator training.com/news/publications.g. thereby maximizing the probability of a favorable outcome if an emergency occurs. It is based on an incident type. the implementation engineers. One of the main tasks of the fire-life safety (FLS) engineer is to develop a response strategy to manage or prevent such events. However. thereby improving implementation. US. New York. operator responses and coordination. the means of detection. It is then used at every level of the process. the operator. The FMT. training. and the sub-system responses required (see Figure 2). the fire department). NY. is a high-level computer program for tunnel operation during a given emergency scenario. The strategy will frequently rely on many sub-systems such as ventilation. NY.aspx Concept SUB-SYSTEM RESPONSES Ventilation Integration is not a new concept as exemplified by the “V” diagram (see Figure 1) which is a well-known concept in systems engineering. lighting and signage.com. +1-212-465-5510. and emergency services workers – will work to a common framework. New York. and Andrew Gouge. The harmonious and correct operation of the subsystems is essential to protecting life and infrastructure during an incident. It is a matrix of instructions that spells out in a detail how each sub-system must respond for a given emergency incident. US Introduction INCIDENT AND MODE ID A fire or other emergency situation in a tunnel environment can be a serious threat to human life and the infrastructure. The concept of the The functional mode table is set out between Concept and Requirements/Architecture phases. traffic management.. alarms.pbworld. commissioning.Fire-Life Safety and System Integration: The Functional Mode Table by Matt Bilson. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. FLS relies on more than just systems integration. and communication with emergency services agencies (e. clear and concise system integration is needed to achieve this goal. Incident ID (as per the operator’s incident response plans) Requirements and Architecture Traffic Devices Automatic Communications Escalation Modes Lighting/ Signs Fixed Fire Fighting System Figure 2 – Functional Mode Table concept outline Functional Mode Table (FMT) is proposed herein as a tool to assist in this exercise. in principle.

and variable message signs. and • Full-time tunnel operator. system system alone will not necessarily produce a favorable outcome. and the emergency Overcoming Operational Complexity – The FMT and a agencies. door with exit identification. the fire so that people upstream are protectFixed fire Activate system in the correct Valves and pumps.pbworld. Lighting Provide direction to exits. • CCTV system.Fire and Life Safety NETWORK Case Study – An Urban Road Tunnel To illustrate the FMT concept. to manually perform all of the actions required for the • Emergency situations are high stress events within the following reasons: control room. tunnel lights. and ed (see Figure 3). However. a successful outcome needs several provisions to operate correctly. away from people upstream. Jet fans and axial exhaust fans. • Communications (phones. limited by the enormous flow of information among the operator. and a major tunnel as “attention tunneling”. lighting. and deploy staff where possible. CCTV. Jet fans are used to direct smoke downstream Egress: back up the tunnel and via exit Traffic upstream is told to stop Figure 3 – Road tunnel fire-life safety concept 20 System Fire Traffic drives out of the tunnel downstream . signals. versed in tunnel systems design. Traffic management Stop vehicles upstream of the fire and have vehicles downstream exit the tunnel.com/news/publications. Response Sub-systems available Operator Activate sub-systems and adjust response as incident progresses. • Egress points at 200 meter spacing (to an adjacent tunnel). Ventilation Direct smoke downstream of the fire. An operator’s attention becomes focused One Button Response on specific events and as a result may fail to take into Table 1 outlines a number of sub-systems required account the broader situation. Detection and Identify incident. strobes. and then Radio rebroadcast. traffic controls. and door identification lights. Designers of the systems need to be mindful of the possibility for an operator to “lock up” • Operators are typically not engineers and therefore not which could further delay the correct response.aspx • Unidirectional traffic. For the present discussion the tunnel is taken to have the following principal system features: DECEMBER 2014 http://www. variable The ventilation system plays a major role in message signs. CCTV for identification. portal barriers. assist Low-level lights. ventilation operation • During an emergency an operator’s capacity to is only one of several important steps that need to be perform sophisticated system adjustments may be taken. it is not reasonable to expect the operator has limited practice at performing the required actions. a condition referred to to operate during an emergency. life-safety. public address. Human-machine interface. public address). tunnel alarms initiate and direct evacuation. • Longitudinal ventilation. as explained in Table 1. contact fire department and other emergency services. will typically have a full-time and well-trained operator. Table 1 – Sub-system response for a road tunnel fire During a major incident. the ventilation fighting location. the motorists. • Emergencies do not occur frequently and so the operator However. Lane use signs. • Fixed fire fighting system. directing smoke downstream of and heat detectors. a virtual case study of an urban road tunnel several kilometers long is used.

This task is challenging but not out of reach. In the “one button response” the systems are configured in a way that. If the operator has “too many clicks” to initiate at his/ her interface. emergency mode DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Traffic Light. the programmers developing the control system’s detailed automatic routines. the system hardware. and structured presentation that is easily communicated and understood by other stakeholders. with a well-designed FMT and incident response plan. Table 3 provides a simplified account of the response stages. The FMT provides a framework for this and a simple example is provided in Table 2. PA. Egress. a pre-programmed response is enacted. egress mode On. Detection Devices ID Comment For example. the burden on the tunnel operator needs to be minimized. Lighting. It is the connection among the fire safety engineer.pbworld.com/news/publications. and the tunnel operator (see Figure 4). The FMT provides this procedure.Fire-Life Safety and Ventilation Concept Design Operator Emergency Services Occupants Control System Design FUNCTIONAL MODE TABLE Systems (Detection. Alarm. once the operator provides essential information. The outline of questions in Table 3 minimizes the amount of information that the operator must give. Ventilation) FUNCTIONAL MODE TABLE Mechanical Design Electrical Design Figure 4 – Functional Mode Table links Figure 5 – Functional Mode Table design links System integration and programming of the control system to automate much of the incident response is required for the essential actions to take place. It is critical that the responses required with each sub-system for defined emergency scenarios have a simple yet methodical procedure. but also to define the data with language. The FMT also forms a critical link at the design level (see Figure 5). Traffic Devices – Incident Tunnel Egress Devices Ventilation Manual Auto Escalation mode Upstream from incident D’stream from incident Portal Lights. VMS Jet fans 1 Suspected fire CCTV Heat sensor Mode 2 Stop traffic Exit with caution Stop traffic N/A On. it is our responsibility not only to define the spectrum of data and available actions.aspx Incidents and Response Plans Fire and Life Safety NETWORK Table 2 – Functional mode table example (showing a limited number of incidents and devices) 21 . As fire-life safety engineers. it will slow the response and increase the chances of errors. Given the number and complexity of tunnel systems. Generating a one button response requires that all stakeholders in the emergency response system are aware of the realistic information available during an emergency situation and the order of actions to be taken. and system actions. thus reducing the time it takes for a response and maximizing the chances that the correct system actions will be taken and all the essential sub-systems will be activated. terminology. during a fire in a road tunnel the operator would need to answer some basic questions at each stage in order to then activate the physical tunnel systems. emergency mode 2 Confirmed fire Operator N/A N/A Stop traffic Exit with caution Stop traffic On. questions.

commissioning. Table 3 – Operator response concept – “one button” concept The operator may need to make adjustments later. . but with this framework the initial response and activation of critical systems for firelife safety are certain. the designer. the format. This can have significant advantages for an integrated response between the operator and the system programmers because both parties are working to the same terminology. in preliminary discussion with tunnel operators that work with antiquated or ill-equipped control systems. possibly manual adjustments.Fire and Life Safety NETWORK Stage of response Operator inputs (to generate the “one button” response) Pre-programmed system actions once incident confirmed (via the Functional Mode Table programs) 1. The FMT paradigm encourages a one-to-one match between the emergency response plan incidents used by the operator. NFPA 3: Recommended Practice for Commissioning and Integrated Testing of Fire Protection and Life Safety Systems. developed by the agency responsible for operating the tunnel. Matt Bilson is a Principal Technical Specialist in the field of tunnel ventilation and fire-life safety in the New York office of Parsons Brinckerhoff. and the subsequent incidents used by the system developers in the system programming. public address and radio rebroadcast to require evacuation. One of the greatest advantages of the approach is that it can be used to simplify the operator’s actions during an emergency. implementation. He left Parsons Brinckerhoff in 2014 to pursue an MBA. Secondary – evacuation required Is evacuation required? Tertiary – fixed fire fighting required Is fixed fire fighting needed? Activate messaging. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The standard requires that the plan state how the various systems will operate for a given incident. Conclusion A well-integrated tunnel system will provide better functionality at all stages of a project including planning.pbworld. and the system can now simultaneously execute commands to operate the many sub-systems. and terminology of the FMT are critical for operator interpretation and response in an actual emergency situation. The FMT can help to achieve this and provide a safer road or rail facility. 22 Fire-Life Safety Standards NFPA 502: Standard for Road Tunnels. Confirm incident? Activate emergency ventilation mode. 3. Operator has provided enough information. language. and emergency services. and operation. What kind of incident? Initial – suspected fire in roadway 2. thereby improving the chances of a favorable outcome and greatly contributing to public safety. The FMT is a tool to assist with integrating the key stakeholders in the tunnel system design process including the operator. As a leading consultant in fire-life safety engineering. the implementation staff. a similar approach can be taken with the use of clearly defined hardcopy instructions.aspx The example presented assumes an automated control system that will activate all appropriate systems. and Other Limited Access Highways 2014 edition requires that a road tunnel have an emergency response plan. Andrew Gouge is a Senior Controls Engineer in the field of tunnel ventilation and fire-life safety. In addition. The standard addresses the procedural concepts of fire-life safety system commissioning and also provides direction on the integrated system tests—tasks with which the FMT can assist. Parsons Brinckerhoff is well placed to improve the delivery and perception of fire-life safety training and operation within tunnels for our clients. Activate lighting to guide people and warn vehicles in the other tunnel. Close tunnels to traffic. Where is the incident (camera ID)? Activate radio rebroadcast message warning people.com/news/publications. change traffic signals and messaging in tunnel to tell people to stop if they are upstream of the fire. outlines a systematic approach for the owner and the design team to provide documented confirmation that fire protection and life safety systems function as intended. training. NFPA publishes a standard that is pertinent to the role of the FMT. Bridges. However. Activate the system based on the incident location determined from the camera ID or linear heat detector zone. people who use the facility. In summary.

• Passengers remain on train (yes/no). which permits up to three trains to simultaneously occupy a ventilation section. select sub-optimal smoke control mode). while others required more detailed consideration. The client’s own modelling team undertook computer analyses to determine whether smoke control would be achieved with multiple trains in a ventilation section. It provides comfort cooling and smoke control and was based on a fixed block signalling system that allowed only a single train in any ventilation section.7 percent).6 percent). to understand the impact of the ventilation system operation on the level of risk. huntk@pbworld.aspx Abstract Ventilation Fire Tunnel and Water Life Systems Systems Safety Power NETWORK 23 . using available fire frequency data. • Number of trains in section (1.pbworld. • Train reaches next station (yes/no). • Smoke ingress into passenger compartment (yes/no). We concluded that fires could be categorised broadly as: • “Small” in-car fires (up to around 200kW) – “common arson events” using readily available materials such as newspapers and unlikely to cause a major fire. +44 (0)1483 528966. The QRA analysis A set of event trees was developed. overheating equipment a further 22 (5. select optimum smoke control mode. Commercial pressures to enhance timetable capacity resulted in a signalling upgrade to train-based control (“moving block” signalling). 2. 384 related to the line on which we were working and only 18 related to the area of interest. Some were easy to define. such as the number of trains in a single ventilation section (33 percent probability of each possibility under new signalling system).3 percent). • Driver controls passengers (yes/no). • Smoke control achieved (yes/no). for example the probability of smoke being drawn into the passenger compartment. the vast majority of which are small events that are managed by day-to-day operational staff with minor to insignificant consequences for passenger and staff safety. The probability of each outcome was determined in consultation with the client. The significant inputs were as follows: • Frequency of initiating fire event (small or large fire. • “Small” undercar/track/tunnel fires. • Ventilation mode selected (remain in comfort cooling. arson accounted for 32 fires (8. Review of available fire frequency and consequence data The client had comprehensive data covering fire events on its network over the past 20 years. and • “Large” undercar/track/tunnel fires. The data demonstrated that the operator experiences a modest number of fire events. or were listed as “other/unknown”. to date no such event has occurred on the network). Parsons Brinckerhoff performed a comparative quantitative risk assessment (QRA).com/news/publications. and the remainder had a variety of causes. incar or undercar/track/tunnel). and • Protection implemented for evacuating passengers (yes/no). UK. This article describes the work and presents our findings. or 3).Using Quantified Risk Assessment to Inform Ventilation System Responses by Kate Hunt. • “Large” in-car fires (greater than 1MW) – “determined arson events” involving a quantity of accelerant and sufficient to cause a major conflagration (thankfully. at 175 (45.com The tunnel ventilation system for the metro line described in this article was designed in the late 20th century. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. using known initiating events and with various possible outcomes shown on different branches.291 records reviewed. Of the 7. Godalming. Electrical arcing initiated the majority of the relevant fire events. The client wished to understand the risk impact of this change and in particular how the ventilation system should now be operated to best effect in the unlikely event of a tunnel fire. switch off.

the following trains could be close to the train in front (around 25 metres apart). even if critical velocity is lost over the incident train. setting it to a non-optimal mode. critical velocity would be lost at the incident train but achieved at the non-incident trains due to cooling of the smoke along the tunnel length.7% 96.367% Passengers remain in situ 85% 85% 85% 85% Protection implemented for evacuation 96.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Event Small in-car fire Large in-car fire Small under-car / tunnel fire Large under-car / tunnel fire Trains in section (1. Critical velocity – the air flow required to prevent smoke from moving upstream of the fire location. switching it off. Conclusions and recommendations The comparative QRA proved an important tool for decision making.com/news/publications. the ventilation response derived for large fires was considered acceptable for small fires as well.8% TT 99. When there are multiple trains in a section. however. Off.aspx These analyses suggested that critical velocity1 would be met with two trains in section but if three trains were present.7% Maximum fatalities per incident IT = 3 AT = 0 TT = 0 IT = 1400 AT = 1050 TT = 700 IT = 3 AT = 0 TT = 0 IT = 1400 AT = 1050 TT = 700 AT & TT 0% or 100% as appropriate As appropriate AT & TT 0% or 100% as appropriate Figure 1 – Probabilities and consequences used in the QRA event trees DECEMBER 2014 http://www. since staff may not know whether a fire is “small” or “large”.367% 96. since it reduced the tendency for smoke ingress into the incident train. It showed that the optimal smoke control mode gave a significant benefit for large in-car and undercar fires. For large fires. For a single train event. Shaded results show an appreciable increase in risk due to the ventilation configuration selected. regardless of the number of trains in the ventilation section. AT = adjacent train. Optimal smoke control mode.3% 33. The probabilities agreed are shown in Figure 1 above. Note that with a moving block signalling system.3% Train reaches next station (not immobilised) (IT = incident train).7% 96. the presence of additional trains has a marked effect on likely risk level. 2. with the greatest benefit when there are multiple trains in the ventilation section. there is a modest benefit in operating the ventilation system in the optimal mode (although for a fire near the centre of the train. or 3 max) 33. The train positions shown in Figure 2 are not intended to convey an accurate location for each train.3% 33. The structured event trees allowed various ventilation options to be tested and the clear outcome guided changes to maximise safety on this railway. there was no disadvantage in using it.7% 96. For small undercar fires.pbworld.3% 33. using the optimal smoke control mode also gave a fractional benefit.367% 96.8% AT 99.367% 96. TT = third train) IT 99. the impact of using the optimal ventilation mode offers a substantial benefit for a large fire incident. even the optimal mode may incur a large loss of life).8% IT 99% AT Null TT Null IT 95% AT Null TT Null IT 66. 1 24 .5% AT Null TT Null Change of ventilation mode (4 modes) (No change. Other smoke control mode) 25% 25% 25% 25% IT = 10% or Null IT = 5% or 50% IT = 10% or Null IT = 5% or 50% AT & TT = 50% or Null AT & TT = 5% or Null AT & TT = 50% or Null AT & TT = 5% or Null Critical velocity achieved IT = Null IT as appropriate Smoke ingress into passenger compartment Null Driver effectively controls passengers (client data) 96. and setting it to the optimal smoke control mode. Four event trees were then constructed and the resulting relative risk levels were reviewed. The worst case outcome for a small fire was essentially the same for all ventilation configurations: operating the ventilation system gave no material benefit. Therefore. Results of the QRA Figure 2 shows the impact on each scenario of leaving the ventilation in a comfort cooling mode (no change). However.

When there is more than one train in the ventilation section.35 29. and 3) Evacuate train and respond to fire incident in situ.pbworld. Evacuate train and respond to fire incident at station. metro.34 2.24 30.34 2.23 0. Kate Hunt is the Tunnel Ventilation & Fire Engineering Service Leader for the UK. rail.49 4. She has over 20 years’ experience in the design and analysis of tunnel ventilation systems and in developing operational strategies for tunnel ventilation systems for road.48 207. and cable tunnel applications.73 8.90 “Large” in-car fire (determined arson event) 118.aspx Number of trains in section 25 .27 30. out of the ventilation section.90 “Large” in-car fire (determined arson event) 1.21 1.35 103.68 “Large” undercar/track/ tunnel fire 144. 4) Move or evacuate trains behind the incident on a case-by-case basis.35 29.87 187. 3) Evacuate train and respond to fire incident in situ.53 105.24 4.34 2. and 3) Move incident train to next station using any driving mode.23 125.58 Figure 2 – Impact of differing ventilation responses to various scenarios Incident train condition Recommended actions 1 Incident train can move to next station Move train to next station using any driving mode.60 2. trains in front of the incident train should be driven forward at low speed.27 30.Results: Worst case average number of fatalities per 1000 years Direction of travel critical velocity met Scenario No Change Switch Off NonOptimal Optimal “Small” in-car fire (common arson event) 2.27 30.60 2.60 2. 2 or more Incident train can move to next station 1) Use optimal smoke control mode to move smoke forward. to avoid passing smoke over the trains that follow. Figure 3 summarises the recommended actions.46 “Large” undercar/track/ tunnel fire 29.90 “Large” in-car fire (determined arson event) 197.27 1. The preferred direction of ventilation should then be forward.02 153. and 2) Move train(s) in front to the next station at low speed. the optimal smoke control mode should be determined based on the fire location along the train and the driver’s intended direction of evacuation. Evacuate train and respond to fire incident at the station.60 “Small” undercar/track/ tunnel fire 26.60 2.27 0.97 125.28 Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Results: Worst case average number of fatalities per 1000 years Direction of travel critical velocity met critical velocity met Scenario No Change Switch Off NonOptimal Optimal “Small” in-car fire (common arson event) 2.46 “Large” undercar/track/ tunnel fire 98.35 29. and 2) Move train(s) in front to the next station at low speed.28 Results: Worst case average number of fatalities per 1000 years Direction of travel critical velocity lost critical velocity met critical velocity met Scenario No Change Switch Off NonOptimal Optimal “Small” in-car fire (common arson event) 2. Figure 3 – Table of recommended actions When there is one train in a ventilation section. 1 Incident train cannot move (incident train immobilised or platform not available) 1) Establish driver’s intended evacuation direction.60 2.60 2.78 32. 2) Use optimal smoke control mode to move smoke in opposite direction.com/news/publications. 4) Move or evacuate trains behind the incident on a case-by-case basis.90 30.60 “Small” undercar/track/ tunnel fire 26.88 0.90 30. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.60 “Small” undercar/track/ tunnel fire 26.90 30. 2 or more Incident train cannot move (incident train immobilised or platform not available) 1) Use optimal smoke control mode to move smoke forward.42 152.

com/news/publications. This provided information about the tunnel air flow rate for every different configuration of ventilation mode. UK. Part 1. At that stage of the design.ridley@pbworld. 0.1 percent. but should it be 10 percent. Godalming. but for how much wind force should the system be designed? DECEMBER 2014 http://www. 1 percent. A further question arose as to the probability of both a high wind and a failed jet fan.pbworld. Department of Transportation. so it was important to answer this question confidently and with a solid basis. The consequence analysis was broken down into two constituent parts: Critical velocity – the air flow required to prevent smoke from moving upstream of the fire location. Longitudinal ventilation prevents smoke from back-layering. two jet fans were required to control the smoke. train location. Subway Environmental Design Handbook. The critical velocity will depend on factors such as the fire heat release rate and tunnel gradient. Each event path required an evaluation of consequences to passengers. providing a tenable evacuation environment upstream of the fire. and one standby/redundant jet fan • Bulk-flow simulations were undertaken using the Subway Environment Simulation (SES)2 software for three representative tunnels. +44(0)1483-52-8661. in 1975. 26 This article focuses on the optimisation of a range of rail tunnels that would utilise jet fans to provide smoke control in the form of longitudinal ventilation. We based the design on a 1 percent probability of exceedance in any year. a high wind force. was provided to handle other random failures.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK A Risk-Based Approach to Jet Fan Optimisation by Anthony Ridley. Wind and other meteorological forces can negatively affect the performance of the ventilation system. tunnel ventilation systems need to be designed to move smoke in the event of a fire with a ‘good’ level of confidence. Prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff as part of a joint venture for the U. Risk analysis was used as a tool to help the decision-making process. Anthony. Backlayering occurs when the ventilation flow rate is not high enough to meet ‘critical velocity’1 (CV). questions still remained as to whether the wind force that was being designed for was reasonable. The combination of a fire in the tunnel. and a failure of one of the required jet fans might lead to the back-layering of smoke within the tunnel. Various probabilities were then assigned to each scenario. The optimisation was carried out after an initial design phase where the tunnels were found to be sensitive to atmospheric wind. or something different? A tunnel fire frequency rate was estimated through interpretation of statistical data from the UK’s Railway Safety and Standards Board. The design included an assumption that the jet fan nearest the fire was inoperable.S. Volume II. This was subsequently used to estimate risk.com Introduction In addition to providing adequate air quality and maintaining temperatures within acceptable limits. fire heat release rate. seven tunnels with lengths ranging from approximately 500 metres to 3 kilometres were analysed. 1 2 . In total. Each branch or scenario of the event tree had an overall predicted event frequency and consequence assigned. Subway Environment Simulation Computer Program (SES). The consequences associated with providing less than critical velocity required evaluation. approximately one jet fan per portal was required to overcome the wind forces. In the emerging design. Was the investment in the redundant jet fan warranted? A quantitative risk analysis was therefore undertaken to understand the acceptability of this risk of removing the redundant jet fan.aspx Parsons Brinckerhoff’s UK tunnel ventilation team is working on a large railway project with a number of tunnels. Methodology An event tree was generated to consider the probability of various scenarios (see Figure 1).

To model a condition where an “average” number of passengers were downstream of the fire. As the percentage of critical velocity achieved reduces. and wind condition. only one complete branch is fully shown) 27 .100 passengers within the tunnel with different fire heat release rates and air flow rates. ventilation mode. and wind force that was tested.aspx Figure 1 . • A 3-D analysis was then performed on a characteristic short tunnel section using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software. the backlayering of the smoke advances.Common Tunnel fire Ventilation frequency with cause failure mode achieved consequence No Design Fire magnitude Wind direction 7MW Adverse Wind strength Consequence (percentage exceedance) Consequence*final event frequency 10% 1% Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK 0.1% 0. The jump in the predicted number of equivalent fatalities from 55 to 250 as seen in Figure 2 was due to the back layering of smoke past an upstream passenger exit (illustrated by scenario C in Figure 3). The simulations were undertaken for different airflow rates to allow the outcomes to be mapped to the SES simulations. The evacuation model was enacted within the software which allowed the coincident location of the smoke and passengers to be predicted. the fire was set to be a quarter of the length down the train.pbworld. It is evident that for the larger fires simulated there is always a base equivalent fatality rate of approximately 55 persons.01% Beneficial All 1MW 30MW Base Fail SUM Yes ventilation direction. This represents the inherent consequence involved with longitudinal ventilation systems. the ventilation direction is decided by the fire location. Results The results of the consequence analysis can be seen in Figure 2.Event tree (dotted arrows represent uncompleted branches of the tree. From this. Predicted effects or consequences to passengers during the evacuations were recorded based on the Fractional Effective Dose (FED) method. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.com/news/publications. average percentage of critical velocity was determined for each combination of tunnel. These simulated the evacuation of 1. To minimise passenger numbers downstream of the fire. This process is illustrated in Figure 3. there is a risk that passengers may be located downstream of the fire location. but adjusted for these simulations to also account for the effects of irritant gasses.

Societal risk was evaluated using frequency/severity (FN) curves where the value plotted on the y-axis is the cumulative frequency of experiencing N (passenger fatalities).000 in the UK. b) CV not achieved but no additional passenger fatalities (60-100% CV).0 50. Figure 5 shows an FN plot where the element of human error has been removed.350.com/news/publications.0 Equivalent Fatalities Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK 250.Illustration of evacuation scenarios: a) CV is achieved.0 0.000—orders of magnitude lower than the broadly acceptable limit of 1 in 1.0 30MW 200. These are assessed graphically and were compared to the current national railway risk profile of the UK railway (see Figure 4).Predicted relationship between percent of critical velocity achieved and total passenger fatalities and weighted injuries for different fire magnitudes. . The majority of this risk was predicted to be due to the calculated human error in operating the ventilation system correctly in the event of an incident.100% CV) DECEMBER 2014 http://www.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Critical Velocity Figure 2 . The risk to an individual passenger was predicted to be 1 in 240. c) CV not achieved and resulted in additional passenger fatalities (<60% CV).000.pbworld.000. The points were slightly higher than the baseline risk of the UK railway. a) CV is achieved b) CV not achieved but no additional passenger fatalities (60 . ‘System failure’ points on the bottom right of the FN graph represented scenarios where the ventilation system had suffered complete failure. Risk analysis The UK rail industry has acceptance criteria for the probability of injury for individuals as well as methods to evaluate the so called ‘societal risk’ that can occur for low-frequency high-consequence events such as tunnel fires.0 300.0 7MW 150.0 1MW 100.aspx c) CV not achieved and resulted in additional passenger fatalities (<60 % CV) 28 LEGEND Ventilation direction Walkway Train Train/ Tunnel exit Fire Untenable conditions Evacuation route Figure 3 . The FN risk should be below this line. This suggests a strong benefit in providing a fully automatic control system.

Societal risk with the removal of human error from the operation of the ventilation systems.00 10.E-06 1.00 Fatality Weighted Injuries short tunnels societal risk System failure 100.E-02 1.aspx Frequency (yr-1) 1.E-05 1.E-04 1.00 10. Conclusions It was concluded that the fire hazard could be managed so far as is reasonably practicable with the proposed ventilation approach of using the spare jet fan to also overcome wind forces. 1.E-07 0.Breakdown of societal risk profile of three representative tunnels. Eighteen (18) jet fans were eliminated from the ventilation system design. potentially saving many millions of pounds. Anthony Ridley is a Graduate Tunnel Ventilation Engineer in Godalming.E+00 1.pbworld.10 1. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.E-01 Frequency (yr-1) 1.00 100.00 1000.00 Fatality Weighted Injuries short tunnels societal risk UK railway societal risk 2013 1000.E-03 1.00 Figure 5 .E-04 Inherent Longitudinal risk Wind risk 1.00 UK railway societal risk 2013 Figure 4 . It was also concluded that if efforts were made to reduce the human factor from the operation of the ventilation system.E-03 1.E-01 1.10 1.com/news/publications.E-05 1.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK 1.E-02 29 .E-07 0.E-06 1. the societal risks attributed to the higher consequence events could be significantly reduced. He joined the tunnel ventilation team two years ago after completing his MEng in Aeronautics at Durham University. There was no strong case for adding further jet fans to reduce the risk.E+00 1.

3. Building and Research Laboratory. USA. MA 02269-9101. "Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems". 100 Bureau Drive. fire. Original Ventilation Concept DECEMBER 2014 http://www. there are tunnel ventilation dampers located in the ceiling of the trainway that connect the trainway region to the tunnel ventilation fans. There is a large atrium in the middle of the station where station ventilation dampers connect the station ventilation fans to the atrium area via dampers in the fan room level walls.com An underground light rail transit system project in the US includes two new stations and connecting tunnels of 3.000 cfm (125 m³/s).aspx Figure 2 shows the airflow schematic for the original ventilation concept with two ventilation systems: 30 1. August 2009.000 cfm (50 m³/s). (CFD Software). US. NY. The ventilation system is served by four fans. and ventilation system was a software package FDS1. The cut-and-cover station is a center island platform that is 395 feet (120 meters) long. 1 Batterymarch Park. only one station ventilation analysis is presented here. The average soot yield of the fire is 0. In addition. The design requirements precluded the need to design for simultaneous station and tunnel fires. At the ends of the station. USA.2 MW fire that follows a medium growth rate fire curve and reaches peak fire heat release rate at 17.The intent of the station ventilation system design is to exhaust smoke and hot gases from a fire on a train stopped at the station. The tunnel ventilation dampers are located near the ends of the station platforms to extract the smoke before it enters the station public area. two stair/escalator combinations lead up to two separate entrances at the street level.com and Andrew Louie. lisilas@pbworld. one at each quarter point of the platform. louiea@pbworld. The tunnel ventilation system includes four uni-directional fans each delivering 250. Each train consists of four cars.The intent of the tunnel ventilation system design is to exhaust smoke and hot gases from a fire on a train stopped in the tunnel between stations or between the station and portal. The design fire for this station is a 13. that lead up to the mezzanine level.com/news/publications.1245 kgsoot/kgfuel burnt. published by the National Fire Protection Association. The original station design consists of ventilation fan plants located directly over the trainways at the ends of the station platform.3 miles in length (5. +1-212-465-5217. MD 20899-8600. +1-212-631-3767.5. US. The ventilation criteria is to maintain a tenable path of egress from the incident train to a point of safety for at least six minutes. NY.28 kilometers) that require emergency ventilation to provide a tenable environment along the egress path in the event of a train fire. The smoke would rise up into the atrium and the station ventilation system would extract the smoke near the top of the atrium via the station ventilation dampers. Modified Ventilation Concept with Station Ventilation Fans Eliminated A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to determine if the four station ventilation fans can be eliminated by re-configuring the tunnel ventilation fans and associated ducts and plenums so that the tunnel ventilation fans can exhaust smoke and hot gases from a tunnel fire or from a station fire (Figure 3).000 cfm (125 m³/s). Gaithersburg.pbworld. The station ventilation system includes four bi-directional fans each delivering 100. two fans at each end of the station. Due to the similar design of both stations. Station ventilation system . 2 NFPA 130. 2010. which is the maximum time it should take passengers to evacuate from the platform to a point of safety2. 2010 Edition. 1 . each fan delivering 250. enclosed emergency exit stairways located at both ends of the platform lead to exits at grade level (see Figure 1). The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) Version 5. From the mezzanine level.7 minutes. New York. The platform level is served by two sets of escalators. 2. The fire properties used are representative of the light rail vehicles.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Cost-Effective Ventilation System for a Light Rail Transit Project by Silas Li. Tunnel ventilation system . Stop 8600. The CFD analysis used to model the station. Quincy. New York. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

) Tunnel Ventilation Fans (typ.aspx To Outside Ventilation Shaft to Outside 31 .com/news/publications.) Ventilation Fans (typ.Section View of Station Tunnel Ventilation Dampers (typ.pbworld.) Figure 3 .Airflow Schematic for Original Ventilation Concept Tunnel Ventilation Dampers (typ.) Ventilation Shaft to Outside LEGEND Tunnel Ventilation System Station Ventilation System Figure 2 .) Trainway (below) Mezzanine To Outside To Outside Ventilation Shaft to Outside Station Ventilation Dampers (typ.) Trainway (below) Station Ventilation Dampers (Typ) Mezzanine To Outside Station Ventilation Fans (typ.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Street Level Fan Room Level Mezzaninie Level Platform Level Figure 1 .Airflow Schematic for Modified Ventilation Concept Ventilation Shaft to Outside LEGEND Tunnel Ventilation System Station Ventilation System DECEMBER 2014 http://www.

00 Figure 4 .2 feet (2.00 DECEMBER 2014 http://www.com/news/publications.0 Modified Vent Concept 12.00 Modified Vent Concept 0.0 21.Comparison of Visibility at Platform Level fans are activated two minutes after the fire starts. Un-shaded regions are within the visibility criteria.aspx Original Vent Concept 32 20 minutes 6.pbworld. It outperforms the original ventilation concept when the fire has reached its maximum fire heat release rate.0 15.0 Original Vent Concept 6 minutes 18. Only the contours of visibility are shown. 8.0 Platform Fire Car 4 minutes 27.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Emergency Exits Original Vent Concept Stairs to Mezzanine Emergency Exits 30. Figure 4 shows the CFD results at the platform level. as that is the controlling The result of the CFD analysis shows that the modified ventilation concept performs just as well as the original ventilation concept for the critical first six minutes during passenger evacuation.0 Modified Vent Concept 24. This is due to the increased .5 meters) above the platform for a fire ignited on a train stopped in the station. The simulation results for the original ventilation concept and the modified ventilation concept are shown in comparison. criterion. and reach full operational capacity after 180 seconds.0 9. while regions that are shaded violate the criteria.00 3.

com/news/publications. The CFD analysis also provided insight into key station design elements that impact the effectiveness of the ventilation system. For this type of station. the large atrium functions as a smoke reservoir and locating the smoke extraction dampers near the top of the atrium is effective in removing smoke from the station during the evacuation period. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Andrew Louie is a Professional Associate in Tunnel Ventilation who has worked on tunnel ventilation projects for Parsons Brinckerhoff for the past 9 years across the US and England. in addition to lowered maintenance costs due to less equipment. He has 29 years of experience in the design and simulation modeling of fire/smoke management and ventilation systems for numerous projects involving transit. locating the tunnel ventilation dampers at the ends of the station is effective in preventing the spread of smoke from a tunnel fire to the station.aspx ventilation capacity of the tunnel ventilation fans over the station ventilation fans. Additional savings were realized by the elimination of fan room space and ventilation shafts. The modified ventilation design saved approximately US$6 million in mechanical and electrical costs.Conclusion The CFD results were presented to the ‘authority having jurisdictions’ (AHJ). The AHJ approved the modified ventilation concept with the elimination of station ventilation fans. Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK 33 . rail. and road tunnels in seven countries. Silas Li is Manager of the Parsons Brinckerhoff US Tunnel Ventilation Analysis Group and chairman of the NFPA 130 ventilation task group. In addition.pbworld. He is currently one of the main developers of the SES program.

The jet fans can operate with active controls (with a tunnel air velocity feedback system) to achieve a predetermined critical velocity.4ft/s) Figure 1 . A specific mass of air flow has to be exhausted from the tunnel.com/news/publications. Combined Ventilation Design The longitudinal ventilation system provides air flow at or above the critical velocity upstream of the fire to prevent smoke from backlayering.3 feet) per second respectively. AUS. This mass flow equates to the volume of air at ambient conditions required to prevent backlayering of smoke upstream of the fire and overshoot downstream of the fire. determined by CFD modelling and/ or empirical equations. • tunnel section and grade at the fire site.Typical configuration of a longitudinal ventilation and smoke extraction system 34 .4ft/s) ≥ Critical velocity Case B: 30% and 70% split of total airflow at pressure loss of P1b=P2b Path 1 with duct pressure loss P1b Smoke duct ≥ Critical velocity Path 2 with duct pressure loss P2b Open dampers ≥ 1m/s (3. +61 2 9272 5082. • thermal losses. no overshoot). Ex- cess longitudinal flow needs to be avoided to contain the smoke at the fire incident site (i. including: DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The longitudinal ventilation is primarily achieved by in-tunnel jet fans.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Meeting the Challenges of Smoke Duct Fan Selection for Australian Road Tunnels by Chris Chen. Brisbane’s Airport Link Tunnel. • fire heat release rate. This value is also known as the critical velocity.pbworld. The smoke extraction system is provided to protect occupants downstream of the fire during congested traffic conditions. Figure 1 shows the typical configuration of this longitudinal ventilation and smoke extraction system.aspx • fire location in the tunnel (distance to fans). chenc@pbworld. In order Case A: 50% and 50% split of total airflow at pressure loss of P1a=P2a Path 1 with duct pressure loss P1a Smoke duct Path 2 with duct pressure loss P2a Open dampers ≥ 1m/s (3. Sydney. employ a combined longitudinal and distributed smoke extraction ventilation (smoke duct) system for fire emergencies. A number of these unidirectional traffic tunnels. and analysis is required to ensure all parameters are accommodated. This article describes the challenges and analysis approaches to account for a wide range of parameters that can affect the fan requirements. Values for this air volume flow are typically on the order of 3 metres (10 feet) per second and 1 metre (3. including the M7 Clem Jones Tunnel (Clem 7).com Introduction Parsons Brinckerhoff has been involved in the detailed design work on some recently completed major Australian road tunnels. This is achieved by opening sets of smoke dampers located immediately downstream of the fire. and the smoke extraction system captures smoke downstream of the fire site.. This type of system can result in unique tunnel ventilation fan duty requirements. and Legacy Way (under construction). Fan selection will be based on achieving multiple fan duties (airflow and pressure capacities).e. and • duct leakage.

For example. As an example. Determining the fan capacity can be further complicated by the need to allow for varying air densities due to different fire sizes and heat losses. In reality this may not occur exactly at the geometric tunnel mid-point. and gaps in closed dampers and duct slabs. and depends on the upstream and downstream characteristics of the tunnel and the smoke duct. with simplified heat transfer models under steady state conditions. The results give a prediction of the required fan duties to achieve the air extraction mass flow rate at the fire site. there is no single leakage rate figure). Path 1 and Path 2. for a given fire size at two different fire locations (Case A and Case B. different fire locations in the tunnel) this effect must be accounted for in the analysis to ensure the required extraction is achieved. This needs to be determined at multiple extraction locations. location. Conservative estimates are often applied. and the fan duty. The fan selected must accommodate these multiple capacities. extraction is in the upstream and downstream direction in the duct. the smoke duct system pressure. The amount of damper leakage can be estimated via damper specifications and the expected local duct pressure. It needs to be noted that it is difficult to accurately estimate the impact of civil construction tolerances during the design stage of a project. or in caverns where there are traffic off/on ramps diverging/merging with the mainline tunnel. with leakage 10% increase Flow rate (volume/time) 10% increase Duct Distance (length) Duct pressure loss (force/area) without leakage 1000m ( 3300 ft. regardless of fan sizes at each end of the path. Due to this. The air leakage occurs via cracks.com/news/publications. for fires located in larger cross sectional areas of the tunnel. Additionally.) Smoke duct and damper leakage A road tunnel smoke duct is not completely sealed. As the air is being heated at the fire site.. by increasing design fire size. Leakage is dependent on duct pressure and construction quality (i. When the duct is in extraction mode it is at a lower pressure than the adjacent roadway.aspx to minimise the smoke duct size..e. A numerical analysis can be used to account for incremental air leakage and air density changes along the duct. an increase of around 10 percent in air flow was estimated for a typical construction of “nonsealed” smoke duct for every 1000 metres (~3300 feet) of length for a particular configuration. the volume expands and density decreases. Identical fan properties are used for both paths. For multiple extraction locations (i. By definition the airflow split is 50 percent between each end. refer to Figure 1). The leakage effect both on flow rate and on duct pressure loss along the duct distance is shown diagrammatically in Figure 2. and thermal effects The fire size (heat release rate) and location of the fire in a tunnel are major factors in determining the required extraction. to the exhaust fan upstream of the fire.Fire size. Design and Analysis The analysis to be undertaken on a smoke duct configuration has a number of elements. As an example. The important element is that the pressures are approximately equal on either side of the flow extraction point. As the hot smoke travels along the smoke duct.pbworld. Figure 3 shows a “flow split” between the two smoke extraction paths. the critical velocity may still need to be maintained. • Case A is for a fire located roughly at the aerodynamic midpoint between the extraction fans. causing leakage of air between the tunnel roadway and the smoke duct. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.Effect of air leakage in ducts for both pressure and flow 35 . a higher critical velocity of air needs to be supplied to prevent backlayering of smoke.e. This article focuses on fan selection using this type of configuration. heat transfer cools the smoke and the air density increases. Path 1 is the travel path of exhausted smoke and air mixture from the open dampers in the smoke duct near the fire location. construction tolerances. Both of these factors will require a larger air flow volume and hence increased smoke duct system capacity. Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Figure 2 . Dependent on project requirements. the fire size and location along the tunnel affects the pressure loss along the duct and the density of the air to be handled by the fans.

and physical constraints. Practically. Given that the required extraction will change with differing fire sizes and other locations.aspx Case B Path 1 Case A P1a=P2a Case B Case A Path 1&2 50% Required duty System curve (Two identical fans) Case B Path 2 30% P1b=P2b 0% Legend Flow rate split (%) Figure 3 .pbworld. excess of design performance requirements is not an issue. 36 Pressure (force/area) DECEMBER 2014 http://www. However. by determining the necessary fan requirements and smoke duct requirements to achieve the required capacity. including Airport Link in Brisbane. many locations will need to be considered along with the varying fire size. Designs undertaken by Parsons Brinckerhoff have demonstrated the viability of smoke extraction systems for long road tunnels.• Case B shows a fire located closer to the end of Path 2. interactions of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics. The analysis is an iterative process. by ensuring that the installed systems can perform to their intended purposes and capacities. The design analysis and research the team has undertaken will benefit future smoke extraction system designs for long road tunnels. Chris Chen is a Mechanical Engineer who has worked on various road and rail tunnel projects. Fan requirements for the smoke extraction system are based on the possible fan duty points the system will encounter during operation. the final fan selection is based on the need for the fans to cover all possible fan duty points that may be encountered during operation. Generally for smoke extraction duties.Fan duty curve with different flows Conclusion The process of sizing smoke ducts and determining the smoke extraction fan requirements is technically challenging. the pressures are approximately equal as the length of the airflow of Path 2 is decreased compared to air flow of Path 1. The fans ultimately selected will generate flows in excess of the required flows for many cases which will need to be considered and accounted for. the actual performances of such systems are also dependent on the constructor’s final system design. This will determine a range of fan duty limits. Case A and B show that the fan duty varies considerably with the fire location. 70% flow 50% flow Pressure (force/area) Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK 30% flow Pa Case B Path 1 Legend Required duties Fan curves Case A Path 1&2 System curves Potential Fan curve for covering all duty cases of 30% Case B to 70% of total airflow Path 2 Pb (Two identical fans) Flow rate (volume/time) The resulting fan duties for the two cases are shown parametrically in Figure 4 and show that the fan duty points vary considerably even when only two fire locations are considered. the equipment suppliers. as part of Parsons Brinckerhoff’s tunnel systems team in Australia.com/news/publications. In this example case. When assessing. many fire locations will need to be assessed in order to determine the maximum flow and pressure the fan has to service. and the installer’s performance based on their project contractual obligations. .Flow split and duct pressure loss 70% 100% Figure 4 . Together. The completed smoke extraction systems installed in the Clem7 and Airport Link tunnels are currently in service. involving factors from many tunnel design disciplines.

Vamsidhar Palaparthy. lisilas@pbworld. Considering Road to Rail Tunnel Conversion Longitudinal ventilation systems provide airflow along the tunnel axis at a velocity sufficient to prevent smoke backlayering during fire emergencies. At the time. New York.com. Palaparthy@ pbworld.Full-scale Model Section of the 1927 Holland Tunnel in New York velopment. US. and smoke out of the tunnel near the ceiling. +1-212-465-5521. Until that time. meaningful reductions in vehicle emissions have been realized due to advancements in automotive technology. New York. allowing safe egress away from the incident in both directions.Transit Route in median of congested interstate 37 . Washington the Sound Transit East Link Extension project has proposed the conversion of existing Interstate I-90 center roadway and associated DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld. In Seattle. emissions. New York. the first fully transverse tunnel ventilation sysshifted over the past century from emissions control to a tem was commissioned for the Holland Tunnel in New stronger focus on smoke control during fire emergencies. tunnels had been ventilated only by longitudinal airflow systems. In the decades since the Holland Tunnel ventilation system was designed. ventilating such a congested vehicle tunnel was thought to be impossible.com/news/publications. As a result.Analysis Considering the Conversion of an Existing Road Tunnel Transverse Ventilation System to Transit Use Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK by Jesse Harder. the design paradigm for tunnel ventilation systems has In 1927. and fire science has advanced significantly leading to a greater understanding of fire size and deFigure 1 .com. NY.com dard for fully transverse ventilation system design for many decades to come. Fully-transverse ventilation systems utilize separate supply and exhaust air ducts extending the length of the tunnel to provide fresh air into the tunnel at the roadway level and to extract heat. allowing safe egress in one direction (into the fresh airflow). US +1-212-465-5217. Transverse ventilation limits smoke spread to an area near a fire by extracting smoke generated through openings in the exhaust air duct. Ole Singstad (Barclay. York (see Figure 1).com. road tunnel ventilation systems have been designed to meet contaminant level criteria. and with limited available right of way in populous metropolitan regions. +1-916-567-2512. Silas Li. Andrew Louie.aspx Today. Figure 2 . but the completed Holland Tunnel ventilation system would not only work. +1-212-631-3767. NY. it would set the stan- As rail transit systems continue to expand in an effort to offset heavily congested roadways. CA. louiea@pbworld. some rail transit extensions are converting portions of existing roadways and road tunnels to passenger rail use (see Figure 2). Sacramento. harderjl@pbworld. Parsons and Klapp 1917-1918) was the engineer responsible for developing the revolutionary Holland Tunnel ventilation system. road tunnels throughout the United States and the world contain transverse ventilation systems. US. Traditionally. NY. US.

Investigating the Reuse of a Transverse Ventilation System In 1993. Comparing this fire size and smoke generation rate with the ventilation performance The existing road tunnel ventilation system for each East Link tunnel consists of three fans for supply and three fans for exhaust ventilation. The existing system failed to control smoke spread at 6 minutes (see Figure 5). • Four-Zone Extraction System . were designed to the 100 cubic feet per minute per lane foot criteria. In 2013. Hadley floating bridge center tunnels into a light rail transit (LRT) trainway connecting Seattle to Bellevue (see Figure 3). road tunnel ventilation systems.Close all existing exhaust ports and install new openings. the Mount Baker Ridge Tunnel and the Mercer Island Lid Tunnel. this criterion was not sufficient for many emergency fire scenarios. The existing system failed due to smoke spread (see Figure 4).aspx Existing East Link Tunnel Ventilation 38 The Mount Baker Ridge Tunnel and the Mercer Island Lid Tunnel each consist of a fully-transverse ventilation system with a central fan plant located above the tunnel near the mid-point. The analysis specifically considered modifications to the existing fully-transverse road tunnel ventilation systems to determine the feasibility of reusing it for the new LRT trainway. but not contained to the immediate area at the fire car due to wind forces and extraction port locations. the Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program (MTFVTP) began conducting full-scale fire tests in an abandoned road tunnel to evaluate the ability of several ventilation system types to manage smoke and temperature.478 feet (1060 meters) long and has air ducts along each side of the roadway. 160 square feet (14. Sound Transit East Link project design criteria specified a medium t-squared (time squared) growth rate fire curve with a peak heat release rate (HRR) of 13. Figure 3 . Convert the supply duct into a second exhaust duct and effectively subdivide the system into 4 zones.900 feet (884 meters) long with air ducts arranged above the roadway.Simulation of the proposed East Link Extension along I-90 across the Homer M.pbworld. • Point Extraction System .9 square meters) with motorized dampers every 250 feet (76.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK for 10 and 20 MW fires from the findings of the MTFVTP. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. 240 square . However.2 MW. Install isolation dampers to direct all exhaust ventilation to a single incident zone. The Mount Baker Ridge tunnel is 3. In MTFVTP findings. like those considered for reuse in the East Link extension. Create large openings. investigating the ventilation system design for two existing road tunnels in the Seattle area.com/news/publications. it would appear that some variation of extraction ventilation could control the smoke generated. The tunnel width and existing fan capacity limited the effectiveness of the extaction system. while the Mercer Island Lid tunnel is approximately 2. This system controlled smoke for the duration of egress (8 minutes) with increased fan capacity. The tunnel ventilation systems were tested across a range of fire sizes. • Two-Zone Exhaust System – Transient Run: use the existing system to exhaust half of the tunnel by closing isolation dampers at the tunnel midpoint (supply fans off).Close all existing exhaust and supply port openings.2 meters) on-center creating a point extract system where the three closest dampers to the fire are opened. Parsons Brinkerhoff performed extensive ventilation analysis in support of the East Link project final design. The analysis utilized computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the performance of several system types: • Single Zone Exhaust System – Steady State Run: use the existing system to exhaust from the entire length of tunnel (supply fans off). The ventilation airflow is evenly distributed along the tunnel length through small ports spaced at regular intervals. Smoke spread was limited. and the exhaust fans extract the smoke through the open dampers (see Figure 6). but was rejected due to the rigorous structural analysis required and potential seismic retrofit work. separated from the roadway by a suspended ceiling. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s ventilation analysis specifically considered the re-use of the exhaust ventilation fans for the new LRT trainway.

pbworld.com/news/publications.Two-Zone Exhaust System Exhaust Damper 1 Exhaust Damper 2 250 feet Close all exhaust ports Fire Car Zone 2 ct t Du aus Exh t Duc ply p u S East Portal Zone 1 Zone 3 West Portal Motor-Operated Damper Connection to Fan Plant (typ.) Figure 7 .aspx Figure 6 . Coeff Limit of smoke spread allowed for extraction systems Figure 4 .Point Extraction System Figure 8 .) Zone 4 Exhaust Openings (typ. Coeff Limit of smoke spread allowed for extraction systems Figure 5 .West Portal East Portal Ext.Longitudinal System 39 .Single Zone Exhaust System Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Ext.Four-Zone Extraction System Longitudinal Ventilation Direction West Portal 12 Jet Fan Operating DECEMBER 2014 http://www.

com/news/publications. This system controlled smoke spread for the duration of egress (12 minutes) with increased fan capacity. but such modifications require structural analysis of the tunnel and may not be able to control smoke spread for fire sizes greater than 10MW. Fully-transverse road tunnel ventilation systems were designed to provide distributed transverse air flow evenly along the length of the tunnel.analysis considered 1 fan out of service and 1 fan out due to fire) along the tunnel walls providing longitudinal ventilation and protecting the egress path indefinitely (see Figure 8). but the option was rejected due to concerns about the structural impact on the existing tunnel. • Longitudinal System (Jet Fans) – install 14 jet fans (12 fans operating . the following parameters significantly affect the ventilation system performance: 40 • Wind speed (normal to the portals) – This was the primary parameter contributing to smoke spread along tunnel length for the extraction system analysis. Jesse Harder is a registered Mechanical Engineer specializing in transit facilities. For transit tunnels. rail. where emergency fire conditions drive the design.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK feet (22. He has worked on tunnel ventilation projects for Parsons Brinckerhoff for the past 9 years across the United States and England. He is experienced in the design and construction of mechanical and fire life safety systems and has served in key roles on large transit extensions. He has 29 years of experience in the design and simulation modeling of fire/smoke management and ventilation systems for transit. Vamsidhar (Vamsi) Palaparthy is a Mechanical Engineer and has been involved in the design and analysis of ventilation systems for various major vehicular and subway tunnels. The EastLink tunnel ventilation analysis led Parsons Brinckerhoff to recommend a longitudinal system that resulted in significant cost savings over the preliminary design. Based on CFD analysis of the East Link tunnels for the stated fire size. Such a design works well for controlling air quality during times of congested traffic. extraction ventilation systems must effectively control smoke and heat to a very limited area near the fire car under worst-case conditions. parameters such as wind speed improve air quality by purging the tunnel pollutants. Andrew Louie is a Professional Associate in Tunnel Ventilation. • Tunnel Width – Extraction airflow velocities across the tunnel cross-section were non-uniform and diminished opposite the ports. allowing the extraction capacity to be directed nearest the fire source. Conclusion DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Existing fully-transverse ventilation systems can be modified.pbworld. In road tunnels.aspx Converting an existing fully-transverse road tunnel ventilation system to transit use is feasible but presents many challenges to the designer. where automobiles fill the tunnel from portal to portal and contaminates are evenly distributed. Silas Li is Manager of the Parsons Brinckerhoff US Tunnel Ventilation Analysis Group and chairman of the NFPA 130 ventilation task group. • Extraction points – The existing ventilation port size and spacing significantly limited the extraction capacity nearest the fire car.3 square meters) in the suspended ceiling to extract smoke and hot gases from the incident fire zone (see Figure 7). . and • Fan Capacity – Fan size was limited by maximum allowable airflow velocities in the ducts and at the egress walkway. and road tunnels.

with lengths generally over 1500 metres (4921 feet). Figure 2 provides an overview of a typical longitudinal ventilation system with portal emission control and point extraction prior to the exit portal. Sydney. bagisa@pbworld. This typically requires the ability to control the tunnel airflow so that a net inflow of fresh air is able to be maintained through the exit portal against the traffic direction.com. in particular for those classified as ‘long tunnels’. but rather by the need to control the piston-driven airflow generated by vehicles. Parameters such as the maximum design traffic speed and the proportion of heavy goods vehicles become more critical when designing for portal emission control.5 – 2. with Net positive fresh air inflow into exit portal Exhaust System Reversible Jet Fans Fresh Air Fresh Air Piston Effect Unidirectional traffic Exit Portal Entry Portal Reversible Jet Fans used to reduce or to augment piston effect induced tunnel air flow DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld. generally at a steadystate inflow velocity of between 0.0 metres per second (1.7 – 6. the quantity of airflow generated by the piston effect can be in excess of this dilution air. and Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Duncan Saunsbury.Emission concentration along tunnel Vitiated Air In a longitudinal system the concentration of pollutants in the tunnel air generated by vehicles transiting the tunnel increases continuously from the entry portal to the exit portal (refer to Figure 1).Point extraction for portal emission control – fully reversible jet fans shown 41 . AUS. especially for tunnels located in urban or residential areas. Figure 1 .com/news/publications. depending on the aerodynamic characteristics. AUS. saunsburyd@pbworld. +61-2-9272 1419. Depending on the traffic flow and tunnel length. which would need to be extracted by the exhaust system. The dilution air that is required to maintain in-tunnel pollution limits is introduced into the tunnel through the entry portal(s) and extracted via the exhaust system.aspx Ideally.com The use of longitudinal tunnel ventilation in road tunnels is arguably the preferred method for modern tunnels.6 feet per second). the use of longitudinal ventilation often brings with it the need to control portal emissions. Sydney.Long Road Tunnels and Portal Emission Control by Argun Bagis. the installed capacity of the tunnel ventilation system may not be driven by air quality demands. However. the tunnel air would need to be captured prior to exiting the tunnel. just prior to the exit portal(s). +61-2-9272 5435. and discharged with sufficient dispersion so as to meet ambient air quality limits at the nearest sensitive receptors. Consequently. Figure 2 .

. A short-term increase in the number of heavy goods vehicles travelling through the tunnel in a convoy could generate a piston effect sufficient to not only reduce the portal inflow but also create an outflow condition. In order to ensure that portal emission control is maintained. In a unidirectional tunnel the aerodynamic drag of the vehicles moving in one direction creates a piston effect which generates air flow in the direction of traffic. profile. The number of jet fans needed to operate at any one time is dependent upon a number of factors including the ventilation system exhaust rate. and the capacity of the jet fans. or a complex arrangement of ductwork/adits. the introduction of airflow from the ramp back into the mainline tunnel would increase the concentration of pollutants and the minimum required exhaust capacity of the main ventilation plant. it is widely regarded as a practical and cost effective solution to an otherwise technically and environmentally challenging problem. When portal emissions are to be controlled. Designing for portal emission control can be complex due to the dynamic effects of real world traffic. Additional jet fans may be required to operate within the mainline tunnel sections to augment the ramp airflow control. The capacity of the exhaust system needs to be sufficient to capture both the main tunnel airflow and the additional fresh air inflow through the exit portal. or speed can have on the portal inflow condition.com/news/publications. The ventilation system often has to operate Mid-tunnel exit ramps Portal emission control becomes more complicated and challenging when mid-tunnel exit ramps are introduced into the tunnel alignment creating an additional exit portal. the fleet vehicle profile. which would need to be accounted for. The jet fans would be used to generate sufficient reverse airflow (against the flow of traffic) in the ramp to overcome the piston effect generated by the vehicles and induce a net positive inflow of air through the exit portal. Apart from additional cost implications. to reduce the required extraction system capacity just prior to the exit portal. the traffic speed. Short-term dynamic effects Figure 3 . this has the potential to create unwanted environmental issues and community response. Although controlling the ramp flows in this manner can introduce additional challenges for the control of the system as a whole. The use of jet fans to control the airflow in the ramp should also be considered. The tunnel exit section is typically short in length with the air within that section having a relatively low inertia making it susceptible to short-term fluctuations due to traffic. the tunnel geometry.aspx Generally.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK longer tunnels requiring greater exhaust capacity. the piston effect is utilised with the jet fans augmenting the flow when required. such that higher exhaust rates require fewer jet fans to operate. that connect the exhaust point to the main ventilation plant. This is particularly the case where peak traffic flow is limited to a small number of hours per day. Aerodynamic efficiencies can be improved by augmenting the exhaust system capacity with jet fans within the tunnel to control tunnel and portal airflows (see Figure 3).Example of jet fans in a road tunnel 42 throughout the day in order to maintain control of portal emissions and therefore the system operating cost is an important consideration during the design phase. A dedicated exhaust point incorporated prior to the additional exit portal would require an additional exhaust plant and ventilation outlet near the exit ramp. particularly during peak vehicle flow at maximum design speed. The ramp length must be sufficient to accommodate the installation of the minimum number of jet fans required to achieve the reverse flow. The piston effect from moving vehicles often dominates the tunnel aerodynamics. Figure 2 schematically shows the location of the exhaust system within the context of the tunnel and associated ventilation equipment. jet fans are often utilised to retard the traffic piston effect along the length of the tunnel. it is also important to consider the short-term transient effects that fluctuations in the traffic volume. In addition.pbworld. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. In a simple longitudinal ventilated tunnel without portal emission control. the relationship between the ventilation system exhaust rate and the number of jet fans required to maintain a portal inflow is an inverse one.

which could be compensated for by reducing the cross-sectional area of the portal openings. shoulder. however. The decision to go ahead with portal emission control should be undertaken with support from air quality assessment.com/news/publications. they can be particularly susceptible to short-term fluctuations in the volume of traffic exiting either ramp. ambient air quality limits strictly observed. An increased portal inflow condition does. An inflow will need to be maintained for both exit ramps. Argun Bagis is a Principal Mechanical Engineer at Parsons Brinckerhoff. However. The bifurcation of an exit ramp after the ventilation exhaust point (as shown in Figure 4) can make it difficult to control portal emissions. and life safety. 43 . carbon emissions. Wider considerations It has been shown that there are engineering solutions available for the control of emissions through tunnel exit portals. Duncan Saunsbury is a Mechanical Engineer with over 3 years of experience specialising in tunnel ventilation.7 feet per second) may also be acceptable. community consultation. he has worked on tunnel projects worldwide including in the US. however.5 – 2. considering that the fans may be required to operate on a 24-hour basis. especially if the exhaust point is located at the side of the tunnel. An inflow condition of approximately 1. rather than the top. Middle East. Relaxing portal emission control during off-peak. and whole-of-life assessment. provided that the mainline jet fans are utilised to assist in the control of the airflow. and the physical location of the exhaust point within the tunnel. Analysis has shown that a higher portal inflow condition of approximately 1. and community consultation and subsequent buy-in is obtained. an inflow condition as low as 0.0 metres per second (4. however. depending on the specific project design parameters. due to interconnectivity. The use of jet fans to control in-tunnel airflow and exhaust fans to extract the air from the tunnel is a relatively costly strategy.aspx Short-term effects can be managed by maintaining a relatively high portal inflow condition. primarily in the transportation infrastructure industry. provided that portal emissions are monitored. dispersion modelling. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.5 metres per second (1.pbworld. Australia and New Zealand. fire.0 metre per second (3. with over 18 years’ engineering experience.Air Flow Ram p Exit P ortal Exit Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety Exit Ramp Traffic Flow Exit Portal NETWORK Extraction System Figure 4 . the traffic flow. The inflow of air through each exit portal can be achieved independently of the bifurcation geometry. power demand. Europe. although this could result in relatively high operating costs.Plan view of bifurcation of an exit ramp A complex tunnel geometry also could affect portal emission control.7 – 6. we recommend that a holistic approach be taken prior to committing to a portal emission control ventilation strategy and that it not be carried out in isolation from other disciplines. depending on the traffic and air quality limits.6 feet per second) could be required in order to maintain an acceptable portal inflow condition for bifurcated exit ramps. Originally based in the UK. and future climate change projections on power cost. increase the fan capacities. The bifurcation creates two separate exit portals with a large tunnel cross section just prior to the bifurcation.3 feet per second) should be sufficient for most cases. and night time operation should also be considered.

and geometrical features to attenuate sound waves in the airstream. the relationship of sound and pressure is best understood when simultaneously calculating their values. and adjust key parameters such as fan room layout. CA. The NLLREP stations and connecting tunnels required a ventilation system in the event of a train fire emergency.Ventilation scheme Roosevelt Station SB Portal from Northgate Station NB Portal from Northgate Station . thereby meeting the required velocity and North Emergency Vent Shaft South Emergency Vent Shaft#1 North Emergency Vent Shaft #2 Reversible Emergency Fan (TYP) EMFN-5 Fan Damper (TYP) EMFN-7 EMFN-2 EMFN-4 EMFN-6 EMFN-1 EMFD-3 Push/Pull Push/Pull Push/Pull Track Damper (TYF) South Bound Tunnel U-District Station North Bound Tunnel Figure 1 . The primary solution to sound mitigation is to add silencers. +1-916-567-2542. Knowing how sound and pressure considered together can be made to optimize the cost. The traditional approach of adding longer silencers to solve sound problems often does not take advantage of the contribution that the system duct work can provide in sound mitigation. For this system to work effectively. 44 Traditionally on many tunnel projects. The combined calculation (of the sound and pressure) of the longer silencers determines if the sound meets the environmental regulatory requirements while determining the additional impact on fan horsepower. or noise mitigation can be a beneficial tool. which use sound absorbing materials. This method was used on the Sound Transit Northgate Link Light Rail Extension Project (NLLREP) in Seattle. mechanical advantage. Sacramento. sound and pressure loss calculations have been done separately. attenuator size. A significant proportion of unwanted sound could be mitigated by ductwork system effects in a beneficial way. and duct geometry that would otherwise negatively impact the final design. This adds length to the duct system and often creates more pressure loss.pbworld. macnivenmc@pbworld.aspx This article describes a methodology that simultaneously calculates sound and pressure levels for very large tunnel emergency ventilation systems and explains how this methodology benefits the ventilation design process. station footprint. the fans must be located on either side of the potential fire hazard. The fans can then work in unison to create airflow in one direction with one station fan in exhaust and the adjacent station fan in supply.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Merging Emergency Ventilation System Sound Power and Pressure Drop Calculations by Michael MacNiven. which leads to larger fans and additional sound generation.com Introduction/Overview DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The ventilation strategy chosen was to be a “push/pull” extraction system as shown in Figure 1. Therefore. This methodology provides insight that enables the engineer to quickly identify problematic areas within the system. Washington for the ventilation design strategy for two underground stations (Roosevelt and U-District stations) and the connecting bored tunnels.com/news/publications. US.

sudden contractions. station atrium. dampers.com/news/publications. common geometry. tees. and silencers at the front end of the program. and dampers. Figure 2 . Idlechik’s Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance provides resistance coefficients for various components within an airstream such as elbows. Vs : = f = 1875 . The total pressure loss must be considered in combination with the air flow to determine the required fan motor power needed to move air through the system. EXHAUST / INTAKE NLLREP ventilation system fans were sized based on the resistance losses from the tunnel portal to the exit vent shaft in the forward and reverse fan direction.E. Figure 3 . the face velocity (Vs) is calculated to obtain the pressure loss in the forward direction. component sound. The program is structured by common variables. all air pathways should be evaluated. The flow rate for this type of system is considered a medium attenuator. Pressure Each air pathway in the fan forward and reverse direction is considered when calculating pressure loss as shown in Figure 2.3 in z Length of Silencer Face Velocity Pressure Loss (SMACNA pg 9. min As Pf := –0. Often only one pathway needs to be determined if it can be shown to be the highest resistance path. Q ft. ft. component pressure.Silencer pressure loss from Mathcad® 45 . Lz : = 7. In this example. structural interferences. and diverging and converging transition losses. This software is particularly helpful because it provides a fully documented calculation that can be easily reviewed and altered for different projects. the pressure loss is taken by SMACNA pg 9. These components contribute to the overall pressure loss and sound at the receptor. The total pressure loss also provides input to the calculation of the fan sound power generated. Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK EFAN EFAN PUSH / PULL Method of Integrating Pressure and Sound Calculations The methodology integrates the calculation of pressure loss and sound generation and attenuation of each component in the system using the computer software Mathcad for documentation and validation of engineering calculations. and outside ambient. Common variables and geometry are defined at the front end of the software program to allow for simplifying input and reducing errors. The sound attenuation by each component in the duct system reduces the total sound emitted to the receptor. The same reasoning applies to defining common geometric parameters for plenums. however.10. total pressure.flow rate to control the smoke in the tunnel.pbworld.aspx The ventilation system is a series of duct components that provide pressure resistance losses and sound generation and mitigation. Counter z := z + 1 z = 10 Pressure Loss/Silencer Pressure loss through the silencer may be given by manufacturers’ data (IAC Type L Sound Attenuator). each of which needs to meet the regulatory compliance of the EIS and project criteria. and total sound. The sound generated by the ventilation fan is required to meet the environmental impact statement (EIS) and specific project sound criteria at each designated “receptor” location (where a person might typically be standing). NLLREP ventilation system receptors are located at the tunnel platform.10) DECEMBER 2014 http://www.South Roosevelt Station elevation layout I. If there is no clear distinction of the highest resistance pathway. Figure 3 is a sample calculation from a Mathcad file describing the pressure loss for a seven foot silencer. as well as sudden expansions.

the flow path. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The first option was to add a matrix of silencers at the atrium wall opening. Three options were investigated to attenuate the sound. . the use of tunnel fans to exhaust the atrium presented a challenging sound control problem. which is a measure of the sound intensity. each component is evaluated from the fan to each receptor location. whereas the third option used an acoustically lined elbow. Equation 3 Equation 1 describes the sound power after a component loss where Lw1 is the sound power level before the component loss and Lw2 is sound power level after the component loss (Reference 2). Figure 4 shows the final configuration of the ventilation system. The fan sound power is evaluated from the total pressure loss as shown by Equation 3 (Reference 2). a sound power component is considered for all segments in which sound is either regenerated or attenuated. Equation 1 When calculating the total sound power at the receptor. The sound reduction or absorption is defined as the insertion loss (IL). station. The decibel (dB) scale is logarithmic and as such a doubling or halving of energy changes the sound level by 3dB. Similarly. When sound travels through a duct component such as a silencer an insertion loss occurs. the total sound is combined using Equation 2. The human ear is only sensitive to this range of frequencies. Insertion loss can be determined for any component in the system. Early in the design. The acoustically lined elbow option provided the necessary attenuation to meet project criteria with minimal impacts to the fan horsepower. The program allowed exploration of different options to reach a feasible. The second and third options were to offset the damper to provide additional elbow attenuation. The fans were in close proximity to the atrium receptor.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA) has published that pressure loss is a function of velocity. The insertion loss reduction is calculated over each of eight frequency bands which range from 63Hz to 8000Hz.com/news/publications. This was a viable solution but not considered to be the best choice due to the cost and aesthetics. Sound power. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA) provides methods to calculate insertion and regeneration values for various types of ductwork components. In other words. The total sound power after the silencer insertion loss (Lw2) is then added logarithmically to the regeneration (LwR) values (Reference 2). or ambient locations. and architecturally appealing solution by understanding the parameters that controlled the sound. This allowed very little attenuation to occur. it was determined that the sound levels did not meet project criteria with the configuration of the atrium damper in-line with the fan. Sound In conjunction with the pressure term. After each component has been evaluated for pressure loss. The second option utilized an unlined elbow. Equation 2 A silencer insertion loss and regeneration values for a silencer are available from manufacturers' data for each of the eight frequency band levels in both the forward and reverse fan direction. must then be converted to sound pressure or the power component that directly affects the ear drum. the fan sound power calculated from Equation 3 is taken to be reduced from the insertion component by Equation 1.pbworld. cost effective.aspx Example 46 The regeneration gain by the silencer is used to calculate the total sound power (Lw3) as shown in Equation 2. For components with regeneration. Total Pressure/Sound The total pressure loss of the ventilation system is determined by a summation of losses for components along During the design of the ventilation system at U-District station. it does not double or half the sound level as might be expected. the total summation is used to evaluate the fan brake horsepower. typically in a tunnel. a pressure loss is to be calculated for every ductwork component along the highest resistance pathway. The sound pressure levels are evaluated for the receptors.

: Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association.l. It allows for an optimum design that minimizes motor power requirements. References 1. environmental policy. 2. This methodology of combining sound and pressure simultaneously in the design of ventilation systems provides an efficient tool for understanding how both sound and pressure are influenced by each system component. and fire life/safety systems along with large scale tunnel emergency ventilation systems. I.Sound attenuation material at U-District Station Conclusion Traditionally. Third Edition 1990.SOUND POWER PROVIDED AT TUNNEL DAMPER AT CEILING OF PLATFORM LEVEL (TYP) Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK ADD ACOUSITCAL MATERIAL TO WALLS SOUND POWER FOR SINGLE ATRIUM DAMPER STAIR-6 SOUND PATHWAY Figure 4 . 3. meets sound requirements..E. In recent years.pbworld. pressure loss analysis has received more attention in the design of tunnel ventilation systems than sound analysis. First Edition Dec. Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance. the method provides a means to explore other options more efficiently than before. piping. s. HVAC Systems Duct Design. HVAC Sound and Vibration Manual. 2004. : Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association. Michael MacNiven is a Senior Mechanical Engineer with a technical background in HVAC.aspx SOUND POWER PROVIDED AT AMBIENT AT TOP OF SHAFT 47 . s. In addition to demonstrating compliance with the regulatory requirements. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.l. 4th Edition.com/news/publications. Idelchick. regulatory requirements. and space constraints are making it more important to understand sound mitigation. and minimizes space requirements.

two schemes were considered: Note: In the US – the “nominal” voltage of a fan motor is relatively standardized (3-phase 208V. and Steven Lai.. Since it can be shown that an increase in a feeder nominal voltage results in a significantly higher power capacity (proportional to the square of the percentage voltage increase for the same voltage drop). 480V. 2 Average cabling distance = Total cable length / Number of tunnel booster fans. +852-2579-7066/+65-6589-3674. 60kW for each fan) in another road tunnel in Hong Kong. • Increased cable sizes and possibly additional cable sets to reduce the expected voltage drop (which is expensive).pbworld. • Reinforcing the feeder cable mounting system due to the additional weight of the upgraded cables. rated at 200 to 600kW). • Provision of a large cable termination box to connect the upgraded cables to the tunnel booster fans. which leads to: 48 • An excessive voltage drop in the cable due to the long cables from the power supply to the fans. 2400V. it becomes necessary to run long cables to the tunnel booster fans.aspx In general. the percentage voltage drop along the feeder will be reduced with the square of the nominal voltage boost. boosting the system nominal voltage was considered in order not to increase feeder sizes in long fan booster feeder applications. For example. lai. tunnel booster fans may be installed near the crossover to direct the air flow in the desired direction. has been adopted as a feasible solution for some tunnel projects. √3 x 400V) as appropriate1 (using step-up transformers inside the MCC rooms). +852-2963-7625/+65-6589-3661. including a road tunnel project in Hong Kong (forty 660V tunnel ventilation fans. However. especially if the low voltage equipment insulation classification does not have to be upgraded. and Singapore have considered or adopted this approach of using tunnel booster fans of increased voltages of 660V (i. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. √3 x 380V). such as tunnel ventilation fans or smoke exhaust fans.e. 575V. This nominal voltage boost approach will reduce the nominal operating currents of the tunnel booster fans proportionally. these solutions can be economical. 1 . it is assumed a tunnel project in Singapore has tunnel booster fans (45kW each) with an average cabling distance2 of over 200 metres (656 feet) from the MCC room. Therefore. especially when tunnel space is at a premium. • Space congestion along the entire tunnel services mounting system. tunnel booster fans may assist the ventilation of the tunnel. there are more than 70 tunnel booster fans (1250mm diameter. For metro systems. especially when starting “across the line” with electro-mechanical contractors. and therefore results in significant savings for the overall feeder cabling costs. in particular due to the upgraded cabling systems.chuncheong@pbworld.e. or 690V (i.com. For smaller fans (e. For this situation..) and normally cannot be customized as stated in this paper. To illustrate this approach/solution. India. and • Risk of fan operational problems due to substandard voltage regulation. tunnel booster fans). Examples of Solutions Some projects in Hong Kong. however. Hong Kong/Singapore. increased voltage is also becoming popular as the cost savings for the feeder cabling system is very attractive. if the fans are not located near the power supply. Hong Kong/Singapore. cheung.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Cost-Effective Power Supply Scheme for Tunnel Booster Fans in Long Tunnels by CC Cheung. an increase in the nominal voltage of the serving power distribution system for big motors and fans.com/news/publications. tunnel booster fans are powered from a motor control center (MCC) and operated at a low voltage of about 400V.steven@pbworld.com Background – The Technical Challenge For long vehicular tunnels or tunnels with slip roads (ramps). which in turn results in significantly reduced feeder cable sizes for the same voltage drop requirements.g. etc..

MCC 3 (400V) MCC 1 (400V) However.Cost comparison between Scheme 1 and Scheme 2 49 . Tunnel Booster Fans MCC 4 (690V) Tunnel Ventilation Fans and Other Environmental Control System Loads An example of a cost comparison is shown in Figure 3: twenty (20) 45kW tunnel booster fans spaced along three parallel tunnels at an average cabling distance of 255 metres (836 feet) from the MCC. Also. especially if the local low voltage classifications and certifications cannot be met by off-the-shelf units.000 (Cost Saving of 7. Other Considerations • Cabling System The cost saving as illustrated in Figure 3 is 7.000 Total: $1.000 $427.482.370. especially when a variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) drive system is used.Schematic of Scheme 1 Scheme 1 – Low Voltage Supply for Tunnel Booster Fans The tunnel booster fans’ power supply is connected from the MCC which is operating at 400V.000 MCC (690V) - $210.Schematic of Scheme 2 $112. The MCC is dual-fed from two low-voltage service switchboards (see Figure 1). the tunnel booster fans’ operation current would be reduced by 1/√3 proportionally.000 $1. Scheme 2 – Higher Voltage Supply for Tunnel Booster Fans Transformers for step-up of the voltage from 400V to 690V are proposed to be connected to the MCC for the power supply of the tunnel booster fans. With the increased operating voltage.com/news/publications.000 MCC 3 (400V) MCC 1 (400V) MCC 2 (400V) Overall Savings (by using Scheme 2): Figure 2 .aspx Tunnel Booster Fans. Tunnel Ventilation Fans. based on the adoption of low smoke zero Description Scheme 1 Cost (US$) Scheme 2 Cost (US$ Power cables to tunnel booster fans $736. Cost Considerations MCC 2 (400V) Figure 1 .000 $199. It shall be noted that the cost of a MCC (690V) may be sufficiently high in some countries. and Other Environmental Control System Loads Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK Figure 3 .000 Twenty (20) tunnel booster fans $480. This would also reduce the cable size required and lower the cable costs. additional tests may be required to obtain the authorization and required equipment certifications.pbworld.6% using Scheme 2) DECEMBER 2014 http://www.6 percent.000 MCC (400V) $266.000 $480. as additional effort is required to design and construct the upgraded equipment.000 Two (2) step-up transformers (300kVA) and the additional cost for ventilation/cooling necessary for the booster transformer - $54. the size of the MCC room would have to be enlarged to accommodate the two step-up transformers and the additional switchboard that supplies the tunnel booster fans (see Figure 2).

within 200 metres) and the fan quantity is small (e. the VVVF drive for each fan will be located inside the MCC room so maintenance does not have to be performed in a tunnel environment.Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK halogen (LSOH3) type fire resistant cables. VVVF drives can achieve a very steady current ramping for different fan speeds to suit different air flow requirements. In the US. This is generally a cabling requirement for emergency/life safety systems of all underground tunnel installations in Singapore. He is now working in Singapore as an M&E Project Manager for a metro project which has tunnel booster fans along some of the tunnel area. In Singapore and Hong Kong. the standard LV cable (Uo/U) is rated at 600V/1000V. .Energy consumption for a fan with VVVF drive is in direct proportion to the speed DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Speed 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Energy Consumed 100% 73% 51% 34% 22% 13% Figure 4 . As the energy consumption for a fan with VVVF drive is in direct proportion to the speed. it will not be worthwhile to consider the use of a higher supply voltage cable distribution system.aspx • Location of VVVF Drive For this project. the energy savings will be generally as shown in Figure 4. four fans). where the low voltage (LV) power distribution system is rated at 230V/400V and 220V/380V respectively. Parsons Brinckerhoff successfully has applied the abovementioned cost saving scheme to various road tunnels and metro projects.com/news/publications. CC Cheung is an Electrical Engineer at Parsons Brinckerhoff. • Energy Savings/Efficiency From a viewpoint of energy savings.g. VVVF drives can be considered for many fan/motor installations. He has been involved in a number of road tunnel and metro projects in Hong Kong and Singapore which have required long distant LV power distribution. the use of a step-up boost transformer or autotransformer for tunnel booster fans requires more distribution equipment and more space to accommodate the plant.. He is now working in Singapore as an Electrical Discipline Leader for a metro project..pbworld. If the tunnel booster fans are too close to the MCC (e.g. 3 50 Recommendation Technically. the acronym for low smoke zero halogen is LSZH. Steven Lai is a Mechanical Engineer and a Senior Professional Associate at Parsons Brinckerhoff. He is an M&E Project Manager for a road tunnel project in Hong Kong which has used tunnel booster fans and semi-transverse ventilation system.

ma. Hong Kong. • Civil. lifting provision for the equipment. Subway Environment Simulation (SES). sump pit for the regeneration plant. Reducing the amount of wastewater from the ESP is one of the key considerations in the design (refer to Network Issue 77.com.pbworld. The purification system provides added benefit to the surrounding environment as well. He is an engineer for a road tunnel project which will use an Air Purification System (APS) for the first time in Hong Kong. control and monitoring system. Ventilation Fire and Life Systems Safety NETWORK 51 . The proposed APS is one of the largest in the world.com. an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to remove dust has been installed. With consideration of the current technology and the long term operation of the APS. In designing an APS for a road tunnel. +852-2579-8533. less than ten projects use APS to remove both dust and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx). Mechanical. Eight APS plants will be installed in three ventilation buildings of the tunnel. This tunnel project employs Building Information Modeling (BIM). February 2014. Mechanical and electrical provisions include water supply for the cleaning of the ESP. and Electrical Provisions for APS Sufficient provisions shall be reserved for the APS.aspx Air Purification Systems (APS) have been applied to many road tunnel projects around the world in order to maintain tunnel air quality and/or reduce tunnel emissions. • Fire and Life Safety Features in APS Safety interlocks of the APS with personal access doors and motorized fire dampers connected to the smoke extraction system shall be provided. especially for the regeneration plant. the APS shall achieve at least 80 percent efficiency for removing the dust particulates and NO2 from the airflow stream. equipment for removing NO2 is also provided in the project. including the APS. Chris Ma is a Mechanical Engineer who participates in road tunnel and metro projects and has experience with building information modeling (BIM). In case of fire. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Parsons Brinckerhoff has considered all features and spatial constraints and developed a design that is feasible for various suppliers to bid for the project. To achieve a comparative tender price. kam. +852-2579-7465.steven@pbworld. It is essential that the major parameters of the APS are specified in the tender document and that a sufficient number of market players can join the competition. • Selection of De-NO2 Filter To avoid excessive replacement work. Cathy Kam is a Mechanical Engineer who participates in road tunnel and metro projects and has experience in using Primavera P6 on projects. drainage system for the wastewater produced by the APS. +852-2963-7625 / +65-6589-3661. high voltage power supply system for the ESP. the APS produces cleaner outdoor air for local residents around the tunnel portals and ventilation buildings. With 25 years of experience. Hong Kong. “Wastewater Reduction in Road Tunnel Air Purification System”). and NO2 detection will be provided to monitor the performance of the ESP and De-NO2 systems.com A new road tunnel is being constructed in an urban district of Hong Kong. To satisfy the environmental requirements. However. He is MEP Project Manager for a road tunnel project in Hong Kong which will use an Air Purification System (APS) for the first time in Hong Kong. the APS is bypassed and the tunnel ventilation system will control and effectively discharge smoke to ensure the safety of tunnel users.com/news/publications.cathy@pbworld. he has served as lead engineer on many tunnel ventilation system and environmental control system related projects. Parsons Brinckerhoff is the designer for all the mechanical and electrical (M&E) systems of the project. lai. and Steven Lai. the major challenges and technical requirements are: • Ensuring the Efficiency of the APS The APS consists of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a de-nitrification system (De-NO2) for the removal of dust particulates and NO2 in the tunnel exhaust air stream. the lifetime of the De-NO2 filter shall be longer than 3 years under a tunnel operation environment.chris@pbworld. Civil provisions include space for the plant and the associated delivery route. etc.Air Purification System for a Road Tunnel Project by Cathy Kam. and Primavera P6 on projects. Steven Lai is a Mechanical Engineer and Senior Professional Associate at Parsons Brinckerhoff. • Avoid Converting Air Pollution to Water Pollution Wastewater is mainly generated from the ESP cleaning system. Hong Kong / Singapore. Chris Ma. thereby providing fair market opportunities while meeting local environmental requirements. particle detection. To further improve visibility and air quality. the filter shall be available on the open market. • Control and Monitoring of the APS Adequate heat detection.

DECEMBER 2014 http://www. These are the same as the project design criteria. and tunnel shape changes. Bobby J.S. The Subway Environmental Design Handbook1 (SEDH) is the reference source. US. The reflected wave passes over the train providing a pressure spike. then the rate of pressure change should be less than 1. Harris. 1 . These waves are generated at the discontinuity location. WA. vent shafts. These are all evaluated with respect to the project/ SEDH criteria. The equations and expressions in the calculation describe the effects of pressure transients caused by train movement into and within enclosed spaces.916-567-2503. eliminating some station ventilation shafts that were initially perceived to be required. The analysis performed also provided an additional benefit.pbworld. and Brooklyn Station to the University of Washington. +1-916-567-2508. particularly doors. this initial nose pressure can be reduced. Sound Transit. There are no standard criteria for exterior pressure changes. A transition flare can accomplish this objective and then allow the main bore annular area to be maintained for the remainder of the tunnel. US. and are then reflected back and continued forward. acoustic waves are generated at discontinuities such as portals. travel at the speed of sound along the tunnel. Background Pressure transient calculations were performed for the entire extension tunnel. The system was analyzed in segments between stations.com. harris@pbworld. 1 & 2). reinforcing.69 kPa). Subway Environmental Design Handbook (Vol. vent shafts. US. Special construction. Sacramento. and other discontinuities in metropolitan underground transit operations. In addition to the pressure changes from train passage described above. and Steve Gleaton. Department of Transportation. however. CA.67 inches (0. prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff as part of a joint venture for the U. ductwork. These requirements reflect passenger comfort for subway operations involving frequent pressure changes due to portals. The interior nose pressure on portal entry is usually the highest pressure that occurs on train passage. The SEDH criteria for changes of pressure inside a train are: if the pressure change exceeds 2. +1.aspx Portal Flares 52 Modification of tunnel portals by using a flared portal design serves to reduce the train’s nose pressure as the nose enters the tunnel portal. and also to reduce the sharp change that occurs as the train’s tail crosses that portal. Melvin. In addition to the pres- sure changes that occur. CA.com. This pressure also initiates acoustic wave pressure that is eventually reflected back onto the train. By increasing the local annular area of the portal structure. and other large metal surfaces. Roosevelt Station to Brooklyn Station. Seattle. the air flow through the station elements is estimated and compared to the design criteria requirements. Melvin@pbworld.com/news/publications. The southern direction was used because the North Portal entry is expected to create the most severe condition.WaterFire Resource Pressure and Life Transient Planning Safety NETWORK Elimination of Portal Flares by Kenneth J. The purpose of the calculations was to determine the wayside and interior pressures that exist on the proposed subway design and determine if these pressures were within the design criteria limits. These transients can place large loadings on trains and wayside facilities and can cause passenger discomfort. Sacramento. both as the train enters the portal and as the train tail crosses the portal face. particularly ear discomfort due to pressure. they do represent cyclical loads that must be accounted for on tunnel surfaces.78 inches water column (0. or other treatment is usually necessary to handle these cyclical loading conditions. publication date 1975.42 kPa) per second. +1-206-398-5335 The expertise of Parsons Brinckerhoff in tunnel aerodynamics was utilized in eliminating an expensive and complicating feature—flared tunnel portals—indicated by preliminary engineering for Sound Transit's Northgate Link Extension tunnel in the state of Washington. The calculations were divided into three parts: North Portal to Roosevelt Station.

94 0. there is a sharp rise as the nose enters the Roosevelt Station. Table 1 .50 1.75 0.24 (-0.441 0 ∆ = 3.85) n/a -0.967 4000 6000 8000 Distance in subway (feet) Roosevelt Station In. Pressure (inches water) Calculation Results Fire Pressure and Life Transient Safety NETWORK Figure 2 .00 Figure 1 .441 3.03) 1.5 inches water column (-0. etc.909 ∆ = 2.86 (0. The pressure change criterion is exceeded at the nose entry into the North Portal and tunnel transit. doors. the calculations presented are from one part of the study—the North Portal to Roosevelt Station.83 1.94 0.00 DECEMBER 2014 http://www.62) Nose transiting tunnel -3.54 1.5 -1. Therefore the pressure change criterion is met. Calculations of pressure and air flow assume no pressure relief shafts at stations and no portal flares.81 -2. as the train enters the North Portal of the tunnel. Train Interior Pressures Calculations were performed for both interior nose and interior tail pressure and are summarized in Table 1. wc 2.63 0.67 ∆ = 0.47 (-0.5 2 2.For this article.50 0. the rate of change is not.5 3 3.967 2 4 kPa 0.91* (0.78 inches water column. however.86 -2.49 0. Then there is a sharp drop followed by a gradual decline where the train is in transit through the tunnel as shown in Figure 1. a pressure rise occurs at the nose until the train tail crosses the portal.468 1.97 0.91 0.97) 0.com/news/publications. • Train Exterior Pressures.41* (-0.31 0. until the train tail leaves the tunnel.54 (-0.5 Tail transiting tunnel Tail at nose exit into station Tail at exit into station -1.54 -3 -3. however rate of change is below 1.46) n/a n/a n/a * Exceeds pressure change criterion of 2.11 4000 Distance in subway (feet) Roosevelt Station 8000 In. Interior Nose Pressure 4 3.Interior Tail Pressure 53 .94 (0.24 -2.408 -2 0 2000 North Portal Nose at tail crossing portal entry -2.78 1. The maximum exterior pressure is +7. Train Exterior Pressures The exterior pressure represents loading conditions on wayside facilities such as ductwork. The maximum train speed is 59 miles per hour (95 kilometers). but the loads are necessary for design purposes.31) 0. There are no criteria for wayside facilities.86 3.45 0. For the nose.63 0.36 0.Summary of Pressure Transient Conditions (Southbound Train) ∆ = -1.11 (0.62 kPa).61 0. • Pressure Waves.05 (-0.468 2 1.01) -1.92 kPa) and minimum exterior pressure is -2.24 3.85 0.408 1.pbworld.46 0.5 -4 0 2000 North Portal -3.5 4 kPa 0.aspx Calculation results can be classified into the following: • Train Interior Pressures.Interior Nose Pressure Interior Tail Pressure -1.67 1.67 inches water column per second threshold.336 feet).23) Figure 2 shows the interior tail pressure from the tail crossing the North Portal until tunnel portal exit at Roosevelt Station. wc 3.909 2.81 1. The x-axis shown in figures 1-4 (“Distance in the Subway”) refers to the North Portal (0 feet) and Roosevelt Station (6.63) n/a Pressure (inches water) Tail at portal entry -2 ∆ = 1.7 inches water column (1. and • Station Air Flows. Location Pressure Change (inches water column) (kPa) Rate of Change (inches water column) (kPa) per second Nose at portal entry 3.78 6000 -3. Following a gradual rise and a gradual fall while the train travels through the tunnel.

• The Northgate Link system train speed of 59 miles (95 km) per hour precludes the need for portal flares.28 0. see “Mitigating Pressure Effects in High Speed Rail Tunnels. June 2005. Based on the station cross section area.00 1.05 meters per second).00 Figure 3 . Structural Engineering Manager at Sound Transit.01 -1 -1. PE is a Tunnel Mechanical and Fire Protection Specialist and Principal Professional Associate with 40 years of experience in design.Exterior Nose Pressure Pressure (inches water) 0 0.50 1.01 2.72 6 Pressure (inches water) Fire Pressure and Life Transient Safety NETWORK 5.50 0. Pressure waves There is a pressure wave generated at the North Portal entry that is reflected back from the station. • Air flow criteria for the Roosevelt Station can be met without flares at the North Portal or pressure relief vent shafts at Roosevelt Station. This pressure wave is less than the criteria value. The design values may be considered as between the maximum and minimum.26 0. Network #70.66 meters per second).92 1.02 -2 0 2000 North Portal 4000 6000 8000 Distance in Subway (feet) Roosevelt Station In. Bobby Melvin is a Supervising Mechanical Engineer in the Sacramento office of Parsons Brinckerhoff where he has worked for 15 years in the field of tunnel mechanical systems design3.50 2. has 25 years of diverse experience in structural design and construction support engineering for bridges. Kenneth Harris. pp 15-17. pp 90-91. Steve Gleaton.31 0. These are less than the project design criteria averaged maximum of 600 feet per minute (3. so no mitigation is necessary.80 1 2 3 4 kPa 0. • Air pressure criteria for the vehicle interior can be met without portal flares or vent shafts in the Roosevelt Station.Exterior tail pressure Figure 3 shows the nose pressure and Figure 4 the tail pressure. underground structures. the longitudinal velocity through Roosevelt Station would be a maximum of 359 feet per minute (1.26 4 2 0 -0.12 0. For other previous Network articles by Bob Melvin.com/news/publications.34 kPa) and occurs 887 feet (270 meters) from the portal.8 Exterior Nose Pressure 7. 95. • Air pressure criteria for the vehicle interior can be met without flares at the North Portal or pressure relief vent shafts in Roosevelt Station.75 1.12 -2 -2. including fifteen years with large projects for rail transit systems.aspx North Portal 4000 6000 8000 Distance in subway (feet) Roosevelt Station In. and inspection of large civil and industrial projects.49 -3 0 2000 DECEMBER 2014 http://www.80 -0. The narrowest egress opening is 1230 square feet (114 square meters) resulting in a flow of 328 feet per minute (1.25 0. Both of these represent all piston effect2 air traveling through the entrances and no air going down the tunnels which is a very conservative configuration. • Air flow criteria for Roosevelt Station can be met without portal flares or vent shafts in that station.72 5.62 0.00 Figure 4 .20 0. construction. This pressure is 1.49 1.00 0. Piston effect refers to the forced air flow inside a tunnel caused by moving vehicles.82 meters per second). although the locations are different and the actual cyclic differentials will be less. wc 7.pbworld.” with Joe Gonzalez. 2 3 54 Conclusion Exterior Tail Pressure 1 Station Air Flows The airflow from train operations should not significantly impact the station environment. and buildings. and “Geometric Enhancement of Fire Size in Road Tunnels.” Network #60. 0.00 0. November 2009. .38 inches water column (0.02 2 4 6 8 kPa 1.

dicken@pbworld. A. The CFD code used. Hong Kong Usually. portals. two train speeds were analyzed: 177. Hong Kong. special CFD techniques had been adopted. On both ends.thermotun. Figure 1 illustrates the general configuration of the tunnel. p. and train are as follows: Emmequerung Tunnel: Area: 75. 12th International Symposium on the Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels. may no longer be 1-D in nature.7 miles per hour) respectively.com/news/publications. In this model. South Portal 462m Monitoring Point South Shaft 9m 542m North Portal 1633m 12. 2006. calculates the flux between the interfaces of two domains sliding relative to each other. a 3-D CFD model was constructed. the pressure wave propagation and airflow speed inside some complicated geometries. Modelling Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes 1 DECEMBER 2014 http://www. and vent shaft. plenum. and so we investigated the possibility of three-dimensional (3-D) CFD as a suitable method to be adopted. However.25m 75. The detailed geometrical data for the tunnel. the computation domain is divided into two parts. Vardy. ThermoTun software provides pre-defined configurations that are representative of real tunnels.Comparison of 3-D and 1-D CFD Simulation Approach for Aerodynamic Effects in a High Speed Railway Tunnel System Fire Pressure and Life Transient Safety NETWORK by Dicken KH Wu.2 miles per hour) and 204 kilometres per hour (126.General configuration of tunnel.com. it is necessary to verify the approach and estimate the computational resources required. stationary (the tunnel and portals) and moving (the train and the column of air in both ends and around it).aspx To ensure that this method is applicable for a high-speed railway aerodynamic analysis.com/airshaft 3 FLUENT Version 14 User Guide.9m2 Length: 1633m Vent Shaft: Area: 12m2 Length: 12m Train (Cisalpino ETR 470): Area: 10m2 Length: 236m Tunnel and Vent Shaft Section Figure 1 . 343 2 http://www. +852-2963-7631. and Rambo RB Ye. 3-D CFD Approach To model the train entering the tunnel at the given speed.5 kilometres per hour (110. and train based on this information. To accomplish this. vent shaft. full-scale experimental data was used to compare 3-D CFD simulations with the 1-D ThermoTun results. Organized by BHRA Fluid Engineering.9m 8m Introduction 3m Geometry Model and Train Speeds Based on the full-scale experimental data1 tabulated and further details from the ThermoTun website2 regarding a full-scale experiment. layers of meshes are created and destroyed according to the domain movement. such as an underground station. 55 . With this Full-scale flow measurements in a tunnel airshaft”. wu. and measurement location Based on the information provided. ANSYS FLUENT Version 14. Chapter 11. Portoroz. And the 3-D CFD and 1-D ThermoTun approach results would be compared with the full-scale test measurement. vent shaft. vent shaft. namely sliding mesh and dynamic layering3.pbworld. the aerodynamic analysis of a high-speed railway tunnel system can be done by using a highly efficient one-dimensional (1-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation program such as ThermoTun. Slovenia.

Institute of Advanced Aerospace Technology.79 Pa (13. covering the tunnel portal. The interface surface meshes were arranged so that they aligned perfectly during the simulation. For the high-speed air flow and pressure wave analysis of the train/tunnel aerodynamic interaction.5 kph (110. “Prediction and validation on the sonic boom by a high-speed train entering a tunnel’. • Implicit time stepping with time step around 0. No. and also the required computer resource.0013 second. Therefore. • Flux type: Roe flux-difference-splitting (FDS) scheme. Jiang Zonglin. • Density-based. Journal of Sound and Vibration (2001) 247(2). inviscid flow was assumed for all the CFD analysis.76 mph). • Initial air speed = 0 meters per second (m/s) for the whole domain. and • Train speeds: north bound 177. the relationship between absolute pressure.29 mph) and 204 kph (126.com/news/publications. the mesh quality and quantity. Vol. Yoon. T.General train nose and portal CFD model arrangement DECEMBER 2014 http://www. and temporal implicit solver. which should be critical in the portal entry and exit stages.89 psi) and at 287. • Ambient condition: absolute pressure at 95802. Figure 4 . ACTA MECHANICA SINICA (English Series). Layers of meshes removed Layers of meshes created TRAIN Moving Domain Mesh Interface Stationary Domain Figure 3 . College of Engineering. temperature. and the vent shaft. • Green-Gauss Node-based for gradient interpolation.e. the boundary conditions used are as follows: • The ideal gas law to account for the air compressibility. pp. • Second order discretization for flow. this arrangement is necessary. Many successful numerical schemes developed for the same purpose also adopted the same assumption4 5. School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.Concept of sliding mesh and dynamic layering to model the moving train 56 Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the surface mesh arrangement of the 3-D CFD model. otherwise. i.. The tunnel section is also assumed constant from portal to portal. The train is modelled with a wedge shaped nose. the viscous effect was considered negligible and could be ignored. spatial.15K (also as initial condition for the whole domain). Based on our project experience. and density. Apart from the numerical methods adopted. 4 . June 2002. Figure 2 illustrates the general concept of this CFD technique. This arrangement turns the 2-D surface flux interpolation on the interface to 1-D. divergence would occur.S..aspx Figure 2 .General vent shaft CFD model arrangement One very important issue on the mesh arrangement is the interface mesh topology. 195-211 5 “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Wave Dynamics Processes in High-Speed Train / Tunnels”. could be controlled. train nose. 3. • Initial train location = 50 metres from south portal. The portal areas are extended and inclined to model the portal geometry. the total mesh number for the model is approximate 2.pbworld.Fire Pressure and Life Transient Safety NETWORK approach. With a nominal length scale of 0.8 million. 18. Seoul National University.45 metres.

aspx 3-D CFD Results and Comparison with Experimental Data Table 1 .5kph 600 Pt-C (Measurement) Pt-A (CFD) 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 -200 Apart from the numerical values. With reference to the data sets provided in the ThermoTun website and the CFD simulation results recorded for Point A and Point B. Table 1 summarizes the key pressure parameters for detailed comparison. 3-D CFD Results Entry Pressure Gradient (Pa/s) 2050 Point A: 2708 (>32%) Point B: 2600 (>27%) 3280 Point A: 3748 (>14%) Point B: 3632 (>11%) 1st Peak (Pa) 492 Point A: 571 (>16%) Point B: 557 (>13%) 667 Point A: 719 (>8%) Point B: 700 (>5%) 2nd Peak (Pa) 554 Point A: 470 (<15%) Point B: 457 (<18%) 769 Point A: 601 (<22%) Point B: 583 (<24%) DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Figure 6 and Figure 7 are the comparisons of the pressure measurement for 177.5 seconds of simulations were conducted for 177. Fire Pressure and Life Transient Safety NETWORK Point B Point A Figure 5 . due to the limited computer resources available.0013 seconds is around 20 seconds.com/news/publications.pbworld.5kph and 204kph respectively. Unfortunately. Figure 5 illustrates these two CFD model measurement positions.The 3-D CFD simulations were conducted on a high performance workstation supporting 24-CPU parallel processing. it is clear from the figures that the 3-D CFD simulation approach could predict the major pressure wave peaks and troughs correctly at their time of occurrence. The nominal time required for each time step of 0.5kph 204kph Exp. the 3-D CFD simulation approach appears to underpredict the positive pressurization before the train nears the measurement point but Train Speed -400 Pt-B (CFD) -600 Figure 7 .Pressure measurement locations inside tunnel 600 Pt-C (Measurement) 400 200 Two pressure measurement points (A and B) are defined in the 3-D CFD model.Comparison of pressure parameters from experiment and ThermoTun results 57 . However. the complete train entry and exit could not be simulated.5kph and 204kph is 40 seconds and 35 seconds respectively. The second point is in the same chainage but located on the other side of the tunnel for comparison purpose. For the train to run from the starting position to the other end of the tunnel.5kph and 204kph train speeds respectively. And the computer time required is 171 hours and 150 hours respectively. Only 12 seconds and 17.Comparison of pressure measurement and CFD results for train speed 177. The total simulation time required for these two cases using the same workstation is approximately one week. The first point (A) is identical to the on-site measurement point of the experiment mentioned above. 3-D CFD Results Exp. The time axis is adjusted so that the pressure values and pattern could be compared in detail. 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 -200 Pt-B (CFD) -400 Pt-A (CFD) -600 Figure 6 . the total travelling time required for speeds of 177.Comparison of pressure measurement and CFD results for train speed 204kph 177.

It is clear from Table 1 that the pressure gradients (important for sonic boom generation) and first peak values are overpredicted by CFD and the second peak values are underpredicted. the variation may increase.Comparison of pressure measurement and ThermoTun results for train speed 204kph With reference to the data sets provided on its website and the ThermoTun simulation results recorded for Point D. or top side of the tunnel) that will affect the flow and pressure propagation in the shaft. Train Speed -500 Figure 9 .pbworld. CFD Results 1st Peak (Pa) 492 Point A: 585 (>19%) 667 Point A: 779 (>17%) 2nd Peak (Pa) 554 Point A: 576 (>4%) 769 Point A: 805 (>5%) Table 2 . 1-D CFD Results and Comparison with Experimental Data Due to the nature of the 1-D approach. the connection point of the vent shaft and tunnel is a point in a line.com/news/publications. However. the ThermoTun simulation approach appears to overpredict the pressure peak. for comparison purpose. Since ThermoTun is a 1-D approach. it would be necessary to adjust certain parameters to represent the train nose configuration. Therefore. in the full-scale experiment. some Figure 8 . As discussed previously. The chainage of the measurement point (D) is the same as points A and B in the 3-D CFD model.5kph and 204kph respectively.5kph 204kph Exp. While all elements are 1-D. right. • The vent shaft is modelled as a branch of the tunnel.5kph Pt-C (Measurement) 800 600 400 200 0 Pt-D (ThermoTun) 0 2 4 6 8 10 -200 -400 -600 -800 Figure 10 . the train (Cisalpino ETR 470) has a wedge-shaped nose as shown in Figure 8. CFD Results Exp. Figure 9 and Figure 10 are the comparisons for the pressure measurement for train speeds of 177.Comparison of pressure measurement and ThermoTun results for train speed 177.Comparison of pressure parameters from experiment and ThermoTun results 58 2 -400 ThermoTun software is for studying pressure waves within high speed train tunnels.Cisalpino ETR 470 natural disadvantages that may affect the accuracy are raised below: DECEMBER 2014 http://www. • The tunnel section is far more complex than the ThermoTun model. However. it is clear from the figures that the ThermoTun simulation approach could predict the many major pressure wave peaks and troughs correctly at their time of occurrence.Fire Pressure and Life Transient Safety NETWORK overpredicts the negative pressurization after the initial stage of the train passed through the measurement point (Figure 7). 1-D ThermoTun APPROACH Pt-C (Measurement) 400 200 Pt-D (ThermoTun) 0 0 4 6 8 10 -200 • The train is modelled to have the same section from the nose to tail. So if the study is focussed on a non-typical position. the pressure gradient when entering is more close to a vertical line than shown in the experiment. in this ThermoTun test the train nose is modelled by aerodynamic parameters but it is not perfectly modelled. but in fact it has some position character (left. Similar to 3-D CFD results. only one point is needed for recording the pressure history in ThermoTun. 177.aspx 500 . thus. After that the variations in magnitude appear to be less regular.

WU. pp 4-6. In short. The findings in fact are similar to the axisymmetrical model used in a previous study6. The 1-D ThermoTun approach cost less to run the same scenario compared to 3-D. with the current computational resources and the time span required. To enhance the accuracy of CFD approach. Dicken K. it is recommended that such further investigation first be conducted on the axisymmetrical model before being extended to 3-D. Even with the use of the latest high performance parallel processing technique. However. with more numerical method refinement and enhancement of computer speed and capacity. It is concluded that 1-D ThermoTun is the best choice for engineering design purposes under current technology. Fire Pressure and Life Transient Safety NETWORK 59 . An abstract of the same paper is in Network #70. “Aerodynamic design of underground station with high-speed train passing”. Table 2 summarizes the key pressure parameters for detailed comparison. Although the ThermoTun simulation amplifies the pressure peak. 13th International Symposium on the Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels.5kph and 204kph). Organized by BHRA Fluid Engineering. the comparison of the pressure values at a specific measurement point inside the tunnel indicate that 3-D CFD simulations could generally model the pressure wave variation with a proper prediction of the wave pattern. November 2009. He has designed pressure comfort control systems for high-speed subway systems in Hong Kong.H.com/news/publications. for design applications this can be treated as a safety factor.H. November 2009. 6 DECEMBER 2014 http://www. With the balance between result accuracy and time requirement. With the two train speeds analyzed (177. The 3-D CFD simulations appear to provide an improper pressure magnitude. Dr. the overall progress of 3-D CFD simulation is very slow. D. Mainland China.” in “The Engineer’s Crystal Ball. The computational resources and time span required also prohibit the use of the 3-D CFD method as a design tool for high-speed railway aerodynamics analysis. However. 3-D CFD is expected to perform more accurately and provide more detail when simulating tunnel pressure waves. ThermoTun has its own advantage over the 3-D CFD approach.aspx The time axis is so adjusted that the pressure values and pattern could be compared in detail.” Network #70.pbworld. the 3-D CFD approach cannot achieve more accuracy within reasonable time and cost.7 Rambo RB Ye was formerly a specialist in simulation methods at Parsons Brinckerhoff. see “New and Efficient Techniques for Modeling and Meshing with FLUENT and FDS.K. the exception is the peak values of the first maximum positive pressure. Discussions and Conclusions We conducted and compared 3-D CFD simulations against the full-scale experimental results. 2009.The time required to complete the analysis was several hours from modelling to result analysis. and Taiwan. Wu specializes in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and various types of computer simulation analysis. p 26. Due to the long turn-around time for the 3-D CFD simulation. further investigation of the numerical methods used is necessary. 7 For a previous Network article by Dicken Wu and YF Pin about FLUENT.

but the remainder still presents a great thermal stress on the tunnel environment. It could also cause safety concerns for passengers and staff if tunnel temperatures became so hot that the air conditioning of trains in tunnels cut out because their condensers could not reject their heat. a planned UK high-speed rail network from London to Birmingham and to Manchester and Leeds. can become less reliable and have a shorter life when operated in higher temperatures. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Without this technology the braking energy would be released as heat. An external challenge to railways relates to the changing climate. meaning that a very large quantity of kinetic energy is generated when the trains brake.aspx The Challenges 60 Most of the heat in a rail tunnel emanates from the trains and train operations.com/news/publications. and the proposed UK High Speed 2 project in identifying. passengers entering a railway from a warmer temperature would be less willing and able to accept a warm condition on the trains. +44 (0)148 352 8506. retrofitting air conditioning adds further heat into the tunnels. higher train frequency can often be realized. Mitigating Heat Energy efficiency is first and foremost a measure that can be employed to take on the challenges. With improvements in train signaling and control technology. Another issue common to both of these metros is the desire to meet passenger expectations for rolling stock air conditioning. When they work in this way the motors act as generators. but the key factor in this railway has proven to be the very high train speeds. presents similar challenges. A good proportion of this energy can be regenerated. Failure to manage increasing temperatures in tunnels can also drive up operating costs by increasing the amount of energy required to cool the trains and stations. the Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneo de Buenos Aires). For example.pbworld. and thus more heat.Climate Change Fire Tunnel and Water Stormwater Life Resiliency Systems Safety Power NETWORK Railway Cooling Challenges by Mark Gilbey. Other in-tunnel equipment. making the railway a less attractive transport mode. Godalming. UK. High Speed 2 (HS2). understanding. 1 . Over time. Such energy efficiency was an important part of the scope of work for London Underground where Parsons Brinckerhoff played a key role in the optimisation of Regenerative braking is when the train motors are used to slow the train down. Gilbey@pbworld. Optimizing rolling stock and traction power specifications. Railway infrastructure has a life of over 100 years and over this period reasonably foreseeable climate change could cause warming of 1½ to 2 degrees C in the UK. For example. providing energy back to the traction power system for use by other trains. London Underground and the Buenos Aires Metro are examples of metros currently accommodating passenger demand well above what was originally envisaged. Failure to manage temperatures can increase discomfort for passengers. Compounding the challenge. and overcoming the challenges associated with warming railways. However. this tackles the heat release at its source.com Parsons Brinckerhoff has been providing engineering support to London Underground. and maximizing regenerative braking1 receptivity all play a major role in reducing temperatures. an average temperature increase of 10 degrees C (18 degrees F) may more than halve the useful life of an electronic component when calculated using the techniques given in MIL-HDBK-217F (Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment). The higher train frequency can also be coupled with higher train speeds to meet passenger demands for reduced journey time. This means more braking kinetic energy to dissipate. it might be preferable to provide more motored axles on the train to allow more regenerative braking (the number of motored axles might otherwise be rated on acceleration requirements alone). creating the potential for warmer tunnels and reduced thermal comfort and safety. train speed operating profiles. as well as reducing energy usage. such as electronic wayside communications and signalling equipment. the inside tunnel environment would experience change similar to the outside environment.

measures such as platform edge doors.the cooling and traction energy demands for the recent Victoria Line upgrade. Greatest Contribution to London Award.Air handling unit delivering 100 kW of cooling to the platform of Green Park station DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The technology has recently been successfully delivered by London Underground at Green Park station where Parsons Brinckerhoff provided engineering support across a range of disciplines. Sustainable methods can be evaluated as a first alternative. allowing the heat to be taken away in the ventilation ducts before it influences conditions in the station or tunnel. and it is still viable today. Figure 3 . The Green Park system uses a submersible pump located approximately 60 metres (197 feet) below ground to extract 25 litres (6. generated challenges in mitigating the noise from the larger fan shafts that are now surrounded by dwellings and offices. The borehole water is warmed by about 8 degrees C (14. Climate Change Fire and Life Resiliency Safety NETWORK 61 . Where mechanical cooling is required.Borehole locations and pipe routes near Green Park station Figure 2 .6 US gallons) per second of water from an aquifer below London. Note that Figure 2 shows only the wellhead chamber.4 degrees F) before being re-injected back into the aquifer via re-injection wells (see Figures 1 and 2). For the Victoria Line upgrade it was possible to upgrade 13 existing mid-tunnel ventilation shafts. The use of groundwater in tunnel cooling systems can be traced back to New York City’s Brooklyn Bridge subway station in 1906. For example. however. air-tempering of platforms. underplatform or over-track exhaust provides air extraction points near the heat sources. the next logical step is the provision of cooling. In hotter climates.aspx When practicable traction energy optimisation methods have been adopted. The system successfully cools the station and tunnels and was awarded the first prize in the Environmental and Sustainability category for the 2013 Figure 1 . The main cooling system uses a secondary water circuit with air handling units (a cooling coil and fan) located at the platform level of the Green Park station (see Figure 3). the borehole is about 450mm diameter and starts at the base of the wellhead chamber. ventilation might be inadvisable on hot days and mechanical cooling may be preferred. For existing systems it can be significantly more challenging. natural water sources may offer significant energy savings. This.Borehole wellhead near Green Park station. For new systems.com/news/publications.pbworld. This was part of a suite of three London Underground projects that recently won the Institute of Civil Engineers 2014. The water is naturally at 13 degrees C (55 degrees F) and is pumped through a heat exchanger belonging to the main station cooling system. and night time cooling may be used.

a heat exchanger in the tunnel may capture the heat from the tunnel. pipework embedded within the tunnel liner (see Figure 4). Mark Gilbey is EAME Head of Discipline for Tunnel Ventilation.aspx Re-using Heat 62 Sustainability may be further improved by heat recovery. and in the broadest possible sense.com/news/publications. For High Speed 2 we have developed a finite difference model of tunnel wall heat transfer and airflow within the tunnel (called Dynamo. Social sustainability can be enhanced by providing the temperature control to support railway capacity upgrades that improve the quality of life for transit users and city dwellers. Capturing the heat from the tunnel in a cost-effective manner remains a key challenge. US.pbworld. We have industry-leading tools for the evaluation of transient thermal comfort.Climate Change Fire and Life Resiliency Safety NETWORK 25mm diameter pipe 200mm below the surface of a 300mm thick liner and spaced at 350mm centres Figure 4 . He is a Mechanical Engineer and has worked for Parsons Brinckerhoff since 1998 in Hong Kong. Typical methods include multi-train simulation to understand and optimize train energy usage. Parsons Brinckerhoff is reviewing the potential application of this technique to one of the High Speed 2 railway stations. and Gilbey on “CFD Estimation of Heat Transfer Enhancement on a Cooling Pipe in Underground Railway Tunnels. November 2009. numerous other mitigations. The heat-source side of the heat pump may be connected to a third party’s building or small-scale district heating system. Economic sustainability can be enhanced by optimising the cooling provisions and customer benefits to minimize whole-life costs with a demonstrable benefit to cost ratio. Parsons Brinckerhoff has been involved in the investigation of several technologies including tunnel cooling pipes2. A Sustainable Outcome Sustainability is a key factor in railway cooling. For example. For the abstract of a previous article by Ting. Drake. and have developed methods in which changes in thermal conditions can be mapped to customers’ willingness to pay. including ventilation shaft upgrades and the use of mechanical cooling via air cooled chillers have recently been implemented. and the UK. and the location of air source heat pumps in exhaust air plenums. Parsons Brinckerhoff has an enviable track record in balancing these sustainability needs.Thermal analysis of the heat recovery potential for pipework embedded into a 300mm tunnel liner with a soil depth of 20m UK Rail Industry Awards. see article in this issue on Dynamo by Jolyon Thompson) and are looking at the most cost effective way to re-use the heat from these tunnels. p 42.” see Network #70. and a water circuit transfers the heat to the heat-sink side of a heat pump. Environmental sustainability can be enhanced by reducing heat release in the railway through increased energy efficiency and low energy cooling methods such as groundwater cooling systems. Building the Case One of Parsons Brinckerhoff’s key roles on railway projects is the modelling and financial appraisals of cooling demands and cooling schemes. often done in conjunction with tunnel ventilation modelling. and provided with monitoring systems to record the amount of heat captured and utilised. Note that borehole cooling is just one of the techniques being used by London Underground. 2 . again by a water circuit. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.

A Newtonian fluid can change viscosity if the temperature or pressure changes. commuter rail. Dynamo is a modular program which enables additional functions to be easily added and tested. freight tunnels. The fluid would still be regarded as Newtonian providing the viscosity remained constant at these new temperatures or pressures. output. Dynamo is a one-dimensional (1-D) model of a single length of tunnel which can simulate the effects of a ventilation shaft connected at any point along the length of the tunnel. metros. This could include mixing or a sudden application of force. Dynamo uses an energy balance approach to determine the thermofluid interactions. SES is used worldwide for a variety of underground construction and tunnel applications. Dynamo uses a fully transient finite difference approach to allow thermal evolutions to be calculated in response to the tunnel environment. road tunnels. 1 DECEMBER 2014 http://www. or other significant variations in the system. Dynamo has been used by Parsons Brinckerhoff on projects. allowing complete year profiles to be developed. or storage) can be included. Dynamo predicts the thermofluid interactions using a variety of boundary and initial conditions which can be specified at each tunnel portal. DYNAMO Parsons Brinckerhoff created a calculation tool to estimate the annual temperatures of long tunnels and with the ability to calculate the heat transfer from heat recovery mechanisms such as embedded liners and tunnel cooling pipes. A Newtonian fluid is any fluid that exhibits a viscosity that remains constant regardless of any external stress that is placed upon it. It allows engineers to mathematically model aspects of the subway environment on a second-by-second basis and continues to be regarded as an industry standard tool in the field of tunnel ventilation. +44 (0)1483 528666.Dynamo – Enhancing Tunnel Ventilation Modelling by Jolyon Thompson. as such.aspx Introduction Climate Change Fire and Life Resiliency Safety NETWORK 63 . Cable Tunnel Design A recent project consisted of an 18 kilometre (11-mile) long cable tunnel carrying 132kV cables beneath a natural bay. UK. two of which are described below. Dynamo uses a similar set of modelling assumptions to SES and therefore a single Dynamo file can and may need to take input from several SES simulations to account for variations in fan. Dynamo has been developed for use in tunnel ventilation and.pbworld. Godalming. The tool is named Dynamo. All that the function requires is to be formulated to add to the energy balance in the correct manner. the Dynamo approach would work for any Newtonian fluid1 providing the relevant fluid parameters were input to the model.com The Subway Environment Simulation (SES) software program was co-developed by Parsons Brinckerhoff for the US Department of Transportation in the 1970s. train operations. Examples of technology systems that have been added in this manner include cooling pipes and embedded tunnel liners. The energy balance is at the core of the flexible Dynamo methodology. This supplement is called Dynamo.com/news/publications. Any technology or system which can be formulated into an energy effect upon the system (input. thompsonj@pbworld. all relevant properties of air are encoded into the analysis engine. A supplement to the SES has been developed by Parsons Brinckerhoff to enhance the capabilities of SES and to meet specific requirements of other tunnel system projects. However. The tunnels must be kept cool enough to limit the conductor temperatures in the cable and provide a safe environment for maintenance workers. The cable circuits emitted a considerable amount of heat (over 800 watts per metre of tunnel length). including high speed rail. and cable tunnels. The most significant difference is in the treatment of the deep heat sink effect through the surrounding soil.

The use of Dynamo also allowed for whole-year temperature predictions to be made. DYNAMO Bulk Post processing – Ventilation push-pull solution 8000 60 7000 50 6000 5000 30 4000 3000 20 2000 10 1000 18000 17700 17400 17100 16800 16500 16200 15900 15600 15300 15000 14700 14400 14100 13800 13500 13200 12900 12600 12300 12000 11100 11700 11400 10800 10500 9600 9300 9000 8700 8400 8100 7800 7500 7200 6900 6600 6300 6000 Tunnel Chainage (m) Figure 1 . This is an increasingly important facet of delivering sustainable design and represents a significant improvement in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s predictive capability. However. The system was then iterated to ensure the accuracy of the calculation. It was initially proposed to divide the tunnel into short sections and construct artificial islands within the bay which would provide ventilation inlets and outlets. The calculation process was thus bespoke to the situation and would need adjusting before it could be used with another tunnel layout option and it also took several days to complete. and simulate. allowing annual system energy usage to be evaluated for each of the options and providing more accurate whole-life costing to be used in the design. The reduced time to set up the Dynamo simulations allowed for more options to be considered to optimise the cooling pipe design by comparing different water flow temperatures and pipe arrangements.Due to the length of the tunnel. in contrast. If the cooling pipes loop and return to the portal-based cooling plants. This resulted in improved economic and environmental sustainability for the final design. Dynamo provided an hourly temperature prediction along the length of the tunnel for the whole-year. Dynamo. The calculation therefore required a macro to control the process. The x-axis (horizontal) shows the length along the tunnel and the y-axis (vertical) shows the time of year (summer being in the middle of the y-axis). The temperatures predicted by Dynamo for both a ventilation only situation and the ventilation cooling pipe solution can be seen in Figure 1 and Figure 2.Dynamo predictions for no cooling case 64 5700 5400 5100 4800 4500 4200 3900 3600 3300 3000 2700 2400 2100 1800 900 1500 1200 0 600 300 0 0 Temperature (°C) 40 Time (hours) DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The summer peak hours predicted by Dynamo compared very well with those predicted by the combination of SES and the Excel spreadsheets. Dynamo for Waste Heat Recovery Dynamo can also be used to enhance the capabilities of SES in the analysis of recovery of waste heat from railway tunnels.aspx The SES/Excel calculation outputs would have provided a temperature prediction along the length of the tun- 10200 Climate Change Fire and Life Resiliency Safety NETWORK .pbworld. check. this would result in a circular formula within the Excel analysis. The Dynamo analysis took less than four hours to set up. This is an area which has received increased attention in recent years but is one which SES alone is not able to directly analyse. nel for summertime peak hours only. can be set up to evaluate the system in an integrated way. this design would be expensive and could negatively impact the marine environment.com/news/publications. Previously a two-stage approach using an initial SES simulation supplemented with an Excel calculation sheet would be used. the ventilation rate is also constant. An analysis of a cooling pipe system was therefore considered necessary. considerable airflow would be needed to prevent the air from becoming too hot. Since the only source of air flow is that generated by the fan against a constant resistance. This required iteration between the two models to get the final result.

it was considered desirable to recover low-grade waste heat from the tunnel all-year round and use this heat in conjunction with heat pumps to offset heating DYNAMO Bulk Post processing – No heat recovery 8000 60 7000 50 Time (hours) 40 5000 30 4000 3000 20 2000 10 1000 Tunnel Chainage (m) 13420 13115 12810 12505 12200 11895 11590 11285 10980 10675 10370 10065 9760 9456 9150 8845 8540 8235 7930 7625 7320 7015 6710 6405 6100 5795 5490 5185 4800 4575 4500 4270 3965 3660 3355 3050 2745 2440 2135 1830 1525 1220 915 610 0 305 0 0 Temperature (°C) 6000 DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Figure 3 . Dynamo was used to analyse the impact of using cooling pipes and embedded liners as the means of cooling the tunnel and for waste heat recovery.Annual tunnel temperature predictions before heat recovery 65 .com/news/publications. The heat and flow rate predictions from SES were used in the Dynamo analysis and similar temperatures for the summer peak hours were predicted.DYNAMO Bulk Post processing – Cooling pipe solution 8000 60 7000 50 Time (hours) 40 5000 30 4000 3000 20 2000 10 Temperature (°C) 6000 Climate Change Fire and Life Resiliency Safety NETWORK 1000 18000 17700 17400 17100 16800 16500 16200 15900 15600 15300 15000 14700 14400 14100 13800 13500 13200 12900 12600 12300 12000 11100 11700 11400 10800 9600 10500 9300 10200 9000 8700 8400 8100 7800 7500 7200 6900 6600 6300 6000 5700 5400 5100 4800 4500 4200 3900 3600 3300 3000 2700 2400 2100 1800 900 1500 1200 0 600 300 0 0 Tunnel Chainage (m) Figure 2.pbworld. a cooling system was proposed and designed with a total peak cooling capacity of approximately 4MW.aspx In a recent project. a 13. The results of the tunnel temperature predictions can be seen in Figure 3.Dynamo predictions for cooling pipe case energy usage for nearby properties and developments. The cooling systems were then added into the Dynamo file and an assessment was made of the tunnel temperature reduction and the available temperature for heat recovery.5 kilometre (8-mile) long highspeed rail tunnel was analysed using SES and predicted to be at a significantly elevated temperature over a substantial length of the tunnel during summer. Whilst the cooling was expected to be mostly needed in summer. To allow the tunnel to meet the design criteria.

prepared for the U. Conclusion Two examples of Dynamo usage have been provided in this article. but an impressive 1500kW of heat from the tunnel environment as an annual average. Where there is significant variation.S.7km and operate in opposite directions. The heat recovery from the tunnel can then be matched to the demands of a local area. Int.com/news/publications. Dynamo has been shown to be capable of supplementing SES predictions in some areas which enhances the analysis capabilities of Parsons Brinckerhoff.A. New Brunswick 2009 Jolyon Thompson is a Senior Tunnel Engineer in the UK office with a PhD in sustainable cooling of underground railways.F.aspx Figure 4 . 2003. Gilbey M.G. which is usual. Aero. The chart shows that heat recovery provided a minor tunnel temperature reduction of approximately 1.pbworld. These cooling pipes are in the form of two loops which originate from chainage 10. Dynamo enables the load profile variations to be accurately established and therefore matched to the demand profiles. Symp. illustrative demand profiles are shown in Figure 4.. the base level loading can be established and any supplementary load requirements can be included in the design of the heat network. Where the variations are in keeping with the available heat it is a relatively simple linkage between the heat source (the tunnel) and the heat sink (the heat load profile).. . Vehicle Tunnels.J. of Transportation • Thompson J. & Vent. In this case. and Maidment G. He has a keen interest in heat recovery and improving the sustainability of tunnels through holistic design and was the lead developer of the DYNAMO analysis tool. Response of wall heat transfer to steady and transient flows along a cylindrical cavity. Heat recovery may not always be considered as a method of reducing tunnel air temperatures appreciably despite producing significant benefits to other systems..Projected heat demand local to the cooling system 66 The heat recovery system used a cooling pipe system that operates with a water flow rate of 70 kilograms per second (kg/s) supplied at 15°C (59°F) in 200 millimetre nominal diameter pipes. Dept. Missenden J. References • Subway Environmental Simulation User Manual.5°C (approximately 3°F).60000 50000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 40000 30000 20000 10000 Heat demand (kW) Climate Change Fire and Life Resiliency Safety NETWORK 0 20 15 50 100 150 10 200 250 Time (hrs) 5 300 350 0 Day of Year (dy) DECEMBER 2014 http://www.

com Facility Description The Brooklyn Battery Tunnel (see Figure 1) crosses New York Harbor. and Air Conditioning The database was populated with inventory information for each facility asset. crossover passages. • Manhattan Underground Exhaust Building.000 vehicles per day. mechanical. The tunnel was opened to traffic on May 25.com.com/news/publications. New York. The tunnel consists of two adjacent tubes. • Brooklyn Plaza and portal. Sanitation Power. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Asset Management andFire Program Tunnel andStormwater Life Support Systems Safety NETWORK Figure 1 . New York. Existing documents. in 2012 with the objective of maintaining the facility in a “state of good repair”. and • Streets ancillary to the Brooklyn and Manhattan plazas. architectural. • Manhattan Plaza Emergency Garage.aspx The database includes structural. Security Water and Fireline/Standpipe Elevators Electrical Distribution Compressed Air Tunnel and Plaza Lighting Communications Carbon-Monoxide (CO) Monitoring Tunnel Drainage Vehicle Fueling Station Tunnel Ventilation Plumbing. and incorporated into the database. • Brooklyn Service Building and parking structure. portal. An overall condition rating of the electrical and mechanical systems was assigned based on this information. MTA Bridges and Tunnels. and electrical components – this article is focused on the tunnel systems which include: 67 . is the key tool in the management of the various facility assets – the tunnel and four major building systems. fender structure. Carey Tunnel. The database was developed by Parsons Brinckerhoff in collaboration with the client. connecting Brooklyn and lower Manhattan. reports. now officially known as the Hugh L.Brooklyn Battery Tunnel The database for the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel (BBT). US. and riprap. Portuguez@pbworld. • Governors Island Ventilation Building. conducted by Parsons Brinckerhoff. each approximately 9.212-631-3891.Drainage. and construction plans were reviewed by Parsons Brinckerhoff before the start of the inventory inspection. the east and west tubes. Ventilation. and cellular structure. • Manhattan Blower Building. • Manhattan Plaza.Asset Management Database for the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel by Ferdinand Portuguez. NY. Assets included in the database are: • Tunnel tubes. • Brooklyn Ventilation Building. and Debra Moolin. Information on deficiencies and functionality of the mechanical and electrical systems were collected during interviews with maintenance staff. moolin@pbworld. +1.pbworld. 1950 and now carries over 50. NY. +1. and construction shafts. Construction of the tunnel began in the 1940s but was suspended during the Second World War.UPS/ Standby Central Vacuum Cleaning Building Lighting Traffic Signals and Controls SCADA/PLC Hoisting-Mechanical Heating. pedestrian bridge.000 feet long making it the longest continuous underwater vehicular tunnel in North America. US.212-465-5443.

mechanical. heavy cast iron ring.000 uniquely identified database elements or “entries” resulting.subdivided by floor/(sub) levels. These elements are defined by: • Asset – Identifies tube.aspx NETWORK Database Architecture The database of tunnel tubes and plazas includes an inventory of 65 different structural. then Construction Type . or Architectural. These element types were inventoried by location with over 23. • The ability to sort and search the data within the database to facilitate condition management and reporting. The Support/Reference worksheets standardize the terminology throughout the databases and minimize manual work during database updates by simplifying the steps for modifying or expanding the current range of data in the databases. and provide the ability to produce reports summarizing filtered and sorted data through pivot tables. building. deficiency types. These include: a summary of the repair/ rehabilitation projects and the coding used to define the element level that is inventoried and rated. plaza. cut and cover concrete.com/news/publications.Asset Management and Fire Program and LifeSupport Safety DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld. Mechanical. • Database Expansion worksheets. and • System Element Condition Rating – Each system element includes a condition rating from 1: Continue in-service (Satisfactory Condition) to 4: Remove from service (Unsatisfactory – High Priority). • End-User Database worksheets. • Identification of element level deficiencies observed during the 2012 inspection with links to photographs of conditions. or pedestrian bridge. to identify the estimated service life. • Discipline – Structural. light cast iron ring.subdivided by expansion joints. and - Pedestrian Bridge . fresh air duct. Support/Reference worksheets These worksheets are the source of defined and known information contained in the Master-Administrator Only worksheets. and expected service life – Parsons Brinckerhoff worked with the TBTA.cut and cover steel bent. and • Summary worksheet(s). along with the deficiency types applicable to each element. The vast majority of the current . The database identifies over 150 element types housed in the buildings. and electrical element types. and quantities of deficiencies. • Installation year.exhaust duct. • System – Various tunnel and building systems. This format was chosen in order to create an asset management tool that is commonly understood by the engineering staff that would be working with the system.subdivided by wall marker stationing. - Buildings . Different groups of worksheets make up the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel’s database: • Support/Reference worksheets. • Master-Administrator Only worksheet. and • Location - Tubes .subdivided by bents. age. Data from Federal Transit Administration (FTA) ‘assumptions regarding useful life for effective cost comparisons’ was considered as well Figure 2 . The comprehensive database also provides the following: • Identification of element-level electrical and mechanical deficiency types for use in future inspections. and then Level . roadway.Sample listing of element types 68 as data being used for the Queens Midtown Tunnel inventory. Electrical. • The ability to summarize condition ratings. Database Worksheets The database was developed in coordination with the client using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. See Figure 2 for a sample listing of element types. The Excel spreadsheets provide ease in the creation and manipulation of the large amount of data through simple functions such as sorting and filtering. - Plazas .

System

Element

Structural

Tunnel Ventilation

Acoustic Baffle

Structural

Tunnel Ventilation

Damper Door Motor Support
Duct - Horiz. & Vert.

Structural

Tunnel Ventilation

Structural

Tunnel Ventilation

Fan Motor Pad

Structural

Tunnel Ventilation

Fan Housing/Shaft Pad

Structural

Tunnel Ventilation

Damper Door

Mechanical

Tunnel Ventilation

Damper Door Motor

Mechanical

Tunnel Ventilation

Fan

Mechanical

Tunnel Ventilation

Fan Housing

Mechanical

Tunnel Ventilation

Fan Shaft

Mechanical

Tunnel Ventilation

Fan Motor

Mechanical

Tunnel Ventilation

Fan Motor Belt Guard

Electrical

Tunnel Ventilation

Fan Motor Control PMP

Electrical

Tunnel Ventilation

PLC - I/O Rack Panel

Electrical

Tunnel Ventilation

Power Capacitor

Figure 3 - Identified elements for the tunnel ventilation system

information included in the Master-Administrator Only
worksheet comes from the support worksheets through
equations and links.
The identified elements for the Tunnel Ventilation System within the tunnel worksheets are shown in Figure 3.
Master-Administrator Only worksheet
The Master-Administrator worksheet contains all the
original data from the inventory and condition inspection. This worksheet is locked and can only be manipulated by users with necessary rights and passwords.
End-User Database worksheets
The End-User Database worksheets include a Filter
worksheet and a Pivot Table worksheet and are intended to be used for queries, data access, sorting,

filtering, and reporting without working directly in the
database spreadsheet. The data is therefore protected
from inadvertent changes while sorting and filtering are
being performed.
The Filter worksheet is set-up with Microsoft Excel tools to
filter specific data by area, regions, stations, element(s),
and element ratings and/or deficiencies. This worksheet
includes a sum of the quantity column and average of
the rating column. This is also a dynamic calculation
and provides the values for the elements that are visible
during the filtering process. As an example, to manage
the elements associated with the tunnel fireline, such as
the fire hose valves and gate valves, the worksheet can be
filtered as shown in Figure 4.
The Pivot Table worksheet allows users to extract specific data from the databases by turning on specific columns from the master database and then filtering them
to specific values. In contrast to the Filter worksheet,
the Pivot Table allows for more specific extractions of
data and allows users to display and print only the columns and rows that are needed (see Figure 5). On the
right hand side, the “Pivot Table Field List” lists all the
columns that are referenced from the Master-Administrator Only worksheet.
As part of the tunnel drainage system, pumps are located in the Brooklyn Portal Pump Station, the Manhattan Blower Building, and the Governors Island Ventilation
Building. A query of the tunnel drainage system housed
on the Brooklyn side would result as shown in Figure 5.
Database Expansion worksheets
The ‘New Element’ tabs within the tunnel and buildings database workbooks are intended for use only when adding

DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx

Discipline

Asset Management and
Fire
Program
and LifeSupport
Safety

NETWORK

Figure 4 - Filter worksheet with elements associated with the tunnel fireline

69

Asset Management and
Fire
Program
and LifeSupport
Safety

NETWORK

Figure 5 - Pivot Table worksheet showing query of the tunnel drainage system

DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx

new elements to the Master-Administrator Only worksheet.
This allows the database to be expanded to include new
items that are added as part of the facility’s updates.

70

Summary worksheets
These worksheets are provided for the tunnel systems
and sum each element’s total quantity and the element’s
quantity per rating value, and quantity per deficiency type.
The east and west tubes of the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel
are tallied separately. Therefore the condition rating of
various tunnel elements can be reviewed per query.

Conclusion
The asset management database is an essential tool that
can be used on a day-to-day basis or when scheduling and
budgeting projects that will maintain the facility in a “state
of good repair”. Within the database there are several worksheets that can be used to manage the various assets.
Some are better suited for reports while other worksheets
are better suited for obtaining data for monitoring the asset
condition. Each worksheet aids in obtaining the necessary
data, in the desired format, to make an informed decision.

During the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy, the database was used to determine replacement quantities
for items damaged in submerged sections of the tubes
(water filled approximately 6,000 feet of the 9,000
foot-long tunnel) and in the flooded sublevels of the
buildings, and to obtain pertinent sump pump information. Its use during the operational response to that
storm in 2012 contributed to the east tube reopening
to limited bus service after 13 days and the west tube
soon afterwards.

Ferdinand Portuguez is a Supervising Engineer with 22 years of
experience in structural design, construction management, condition inspections, and cost estimating and assessment. He has
a structural background and is a registered PE in New York State.
Debra Moolin is a Structural Engineer (PE) with over 30 years
of experience and a focus on bridge and tunnel repair and
rehabilitation. She has worked on all project phases, from inspection, evaluation, and testing through design and construction support services.

SCADA System Security for Two UK Road
Tunnels
by Peter Massheder, Manchester, UK, +44 (0) 161 2005 015, masshederp@pbworld.com

Parsons Brinckerhoff is providing technical support to our
client in specifying and procuring a new SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system and associated
equipment to replace seven obsolete control systems in
use at two UK road tunnels. One tunnel was opened in the
1930s the other in the 1970s.

• Progressively expand and upgrade what is monitored in
order to deliver improved visibility of the tunnels’ operational status; and
• Move toward a decision support environment where
incidents are detected and responses identified to the
operator, simplifying the resultant control actions.

The project seeks to unify currently isolated tunnel control
functions into a single SCADA interface, thereby reducing
the number of separate control systems the tunnel operators have to access. Modern SCADA is no longer separated
from other systems and only used by those who supervise
the process under control. It is a system that collects an
increasing array of data from increasingly ‘smart’ equipment
and provides greater levels of analysis or access to this data
by users whose principle roles are business-related, such as
forecasting, billing, asset management, or planning.

Having defined this approach with the client and procured
the services of a SCADA system integrator, we are now at
the beginning of the journey to realize this vision, and to
face and meet the challenges of delivering the programme
and achieving the client’s objectives.

• Introduce a new SCADA platform and new programmable logic controllers (PLCs) which will communicate via
the client’s converged Ethernet network;
• Initially connect SCADA to existing mechanical and electrical equipment in both tunnels for tunnel environmental control (ventilation, lighting, dewatering, etc.);
• Expand the system at a later date to connect to new
traffic management equipment (signage, barriers, etc.)
that is planned;
• Latterly expand to take control of the emergency refuge
areas installed in the 1930s tunnel, a four-lane single
bore tunnel;
• Interface with other tunnel management systems,
such as the automatic incident detection system, in
order to deliver improved connectivity to the operation of the tunnels;

Challenges
The client’s primary objective is to ensure the safe and secure operation of the tunnels. Whilst a multitude of factors
play a part in this, the security of the new control system
is an important element and the requirement that the new
SCADA and PLCs migrate onto the client’s converged Ethernet network becomes relevant. This network has both operational uses (the management of road tunnels and bus,
rail, and ferry terminals) and business uses (office and enterprise IT for staff). Therefore a traditional separation and
isolation of the control system is not straightforward.
The challenge is specifying security requirements at the
outset. This needs to happen ahead of the design work
that will identify how the control system is integrated on
the converged network, and these requirements will need
to remain relevant as the control system is upgraded over
the next four years. Equally, whilst the SCADA system integrator will hold overall responsibility for the SCADA system
design, the client - through its IT department – will be involved in the design and delivery of the communications,
server, and workstation environment. Here there is a need
to ensure that a secure system can be implemented and
to identify which party will be responsible for delivering the
various elements of this.
Our solution to this challenge has been to specify, within the SCADA system technical specification, adher-

DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx

The method of project delivery presents the challenge
here. In order to avoid disruption to tunnel users and at the
same time align the SCADA works to a wider programme of
tunnel maintenance and upgrade work, a four-year SCADA
programme was developed by Parsons Brinckerhoff in collaboration with the client. This programme will:

Communications / Power and Electrical
Fire Tunnel
andStormwater
Life
Systems
Systems
Safety

NETWORK

71

pbworld. and control systems manufacturers responsible for manufacturing. we are seeing that this standard does form a valuable point of reference on security when specifying. developing.Communications / Power andFire Electrical and Life Systems Safety DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The scope of the standards is specific to defining procedures for implementing electronically secure ‘industrial automation and control systems’. 1 72 .e. put simply. Rather the distinct uses of relatively interchangeable words such as ‘level’. or managing industrial automation and control systems. Further. and ‘zone’ within the specification are recognised and highlighted for the stakeholders. ‘layer’. This recognises that during the four-year programme of SCADA work. a level that corresponds to layers 0 to 4 of the standard’s reference model – you see the potential for confusion if words are interchanged when communicating). is to ensure that there is a mutual understanding and use of terminology among all stakeholders. helping an organisation’s IT and automation control functions to more effectively collaborate on securing a SCADA control system. This guidance applies to end-users (i. transport. which is well constructed and clear. we are learning valuable lessons as we go.com/news/publications. a standard published by the International Society for Automation that has been in use and evolving for a number of years now. and banking sectors. and ecommerce solutions to clients across the utilities. computing. and ultimately maintaining a tunnel SCADA control system. the series is designed to build upon the guidance of ISO/IEC 27000 series and expands on ISA-99: Industrial Automation and Control Systems Security. this standard does not consider the specific requirements of a time-critical control system and. what is published defines enough of a relevant approach to control system security to make its adoption beneficial. therefore. Further. However. the IEC 62443 standard is mature enough to adopt. Whilst the full suite of the IEC 62443 series of standards is not yet complete and its application is in its infancy. we need something more to shape the design. implementing. With the greater integration of SCADA with other computer systems there is also a heightened risk that unauthorised access and manipulation of the process under control could occur. Whilst seemingly a minor point. environment. This is where IEC 62443 comes in. To this end the application of the IEC 62443 standard is coming into play. Although experience applying the standard across all parties is still in its infancy. Peter Massheder is a Principal Engineer with 26 years of experience in delivering automation. system integrators. In summary we have judged that. the current design work needs to ‘correctly’ define a logical segmentation of the control system in order to build defence in depth1 (in this instance. segmenting the system into zones within the operational level. It is at the initial concept design stage and the high-level design necessary for the full SCADA system as envisioned is being explored. where other security guidance gives equally valuable insight into good practice. there is a need for information assurance and security. security practitioners. To conclude. For example. Conclusion Work on implementing the SCADA programme is now underway. one such lesson is what we are calling our ‘levelling layers into zones lesson’. the IEC 62443 series of standards also helps in the development of a security management system that meets the needs of a SCADA control system. Its purpose is to provide more than one line of defence in case any one layer fails. asset owners). This lesson. This is a common lesson in collaborative work and in this case is not one that reflects negatively on the standard itself. IEC 62443: Industrial Communication Networks – Network and System Security is an emerging series of standards with parts still under development. whilst relevant to the wider security context in which the SCADA system will reside. a strategic move. ISO/IEC 27000: Information Technology – Security Techniques was published some time ago and is generally applied by organisations to help define a security management system for their enterprise information systems. as the standards build on guidance of ISO/IEC 27000 the resulting security approach may integrate better with an organisation’s information security management system. ISO/IEC 27000 and IEC 62443. Application of Cybersecurity Standards Cybersecurity standards have been created because sensitive information is now often stored on networked computers. will ensure future SCADA system upgrades are able to build upon sound foundations. Whilst some parts are yet to be completed. the IEC 624443 series of standards will mature and its adoption at the outset.aspx NETWORK ence to two international standards. This holds the potential for unauthorised access from within an organisation’s network or even via the Internet. whilst not yet complete. designing.. Defence in depth is a concept in which multiple layers of security controls are built into an information technology system rather than relying on a single layer of security control.

CCTV Design for a US Road Tunnel
by Ryan Williams, New York, NY, US, +1-212-631-3875, williamsry@pbworld.com

Safety is always the main factor for tunnel operation and
control systems. Roadway tunnels are closed environments that must be monitored and controlled for the
safety of vehicle occupants and tunnel personnel. The
restrictive nature of tunnels, compared to open routes,
makes it extremely hard to remove disabled vehicles
and to evacuate or rescue accident victims. Congestion
and incidents such as breakdowns, fire, or above-limit
carbon monoxide (CO) levels must be detected and dealt
with in a timely manner and the most effective way for
operators within the control room to monitor the safe
operation of the tunnel is via the tunnel’s closed-circuit
television (CCTV) system.
In addition to verifying roadway incidents, monitoring
current traffic conditions, and fire and smoke detection,
CCTV systems can be used for security surveillance of
the tunnel facility and fire control zones. CCTV cameras
are the main traffic monitoring devices for highway and
transportation systems.

caused by the passing of heavy vehicles. Since vibration can negatively affect devices and their connections,
hardened enclosures should be considered. Prior to
commencing detailed design of the new CCTV system,
the following design criteria needed to be addressed:
• Coverage (including sensor type, lenses, aspect ratio,
and camera angles);
• Mounting; and
• Communication System.

Coverage
It is extremely important to identify the right locations for
CCTV cameras and associated equipment panels. Cameras should be located to provide a clear line of sight
with minimal obstructions. Tunnel cameras used in low
light conditions should be located such that the main
view is with the camera looking away from bright light.
This is because video images in bright light taken from
low light vantage points tend to appear washed out.
Where changeable message signs (CMS) are installed,
cameras should be located so that the message of an
adjacent CMS can be read. This allows for visual verification of CMS status.

Parsons Brinckerhoff was engaged to design a new digital IP CCTV (internet protocol closed circuit television)
system, replacing the existing analog system whilst
maintaining the existing operation.

Large trucks and buses are moving obstructions to CCTV
camera views. To overcome this obstruction issue, the
design provided additional cameras with overlapping
coverage to increase CCTV coverage. Overlapping cameras were also provided for curved tunnel sections and
any other location with slower traffic movement. An option of using pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras was reviewed,
which would give the operators additional functionality.
This option was rejected, however, as it would introduce
a risk of misaligning the cameras, and it would change
the existing operational procedures in the control room.

The tunnel environment presents several challenges for
proper design and implementation of CCTV, including humidity, dust, salt, and frequent vibration of equipment

In a CCTV system, the camera visualization options or
functions for different types of applications or surveillance are measured by “pixels per foot”. A higher num-

The tunnel’s existing CCTV system is an analog system, with fixed cameras providing continuous views of
the tunnel to tunnel operators in the control room. In
other words, each camera provides a separate feed on
a screen (four cameras per screen) in the control room.

DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx

Parsons Brinckerhoff was engaged by a client to undertake remedial and resilience design work on a tunnel
in the US that serves as an important thoroughfare for
motor vehicles and was flooded in a storm.

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Figure 1 - Simulated view of camera coverage.

ber of pixels gives a higher resolution (e.g., in order to
read license plates and recognize faces) and a lower
number of pixels gives a lower resolution (e.g., to get
a general idea of what is happening). The camera functions can be classified as:
• Monitoring (a minimum requirement of 10 pixels per
foot-vertical);
• Object Detection (a minimum requirement of 20 pixels per foot);
• Observation (a minimum requirement of 30 pixels per
foot);
• Recognition (a minimum requirement of 40-60 pixels
per foot);
• Identification (a minimum requirement of 60-80 pixels
per foot); and
• Strong Identification (a minimum requirement of 80100 pixels per foot).
To fulfill the application requirements for the tunnel project, the Object Detection and Observation functions (a
minimum of 20-30 pixels per foot) were designed to be
maintained throughout the whole tunnel. Recognition
and Identification functions were provided for some strategic locations.
To verify full CCTV coverage, a CCTV simulation tool with
three-dimensional (3D) view capability was used to assess coverage and provide simulated views at each of
the proposed camera locations (see Figure 1).

Mounting
Three camera mounting hardware mechanisms were
analyzed for the tunnel installation:
• wall-mounted hardware with short arm;
• ceiling-mounted hardware; and
• surface-mounted camera enclosure.
Most camera manufactures have wall and ceiling hardware accessories but a surface camera enclosure would
require a special order.

During the conceptual design, the possibility of mini
camera integration to the lane-use sign (LUS) was also
studied. This option would be an alternative to ceiling
mounting and could provide better view angles as the
lane-use signs are installed on the ceilings, above the
road lanes. However, there are limited mini cameras
available for such integration. This camera assembly
also requires full integration of LUS and mini camera in
NEMA 4X (IP 66/67) rated housing, which has limited
space constraints.
Three mounting options are described and depicted below:
Wall-Mounted
Figure 2 shows
the arm and wallmounted option for
the CCTV camera.
The height of the
camera may lead
to obstructed views
when large trucks
and buses are in
the tunnel. This location also poses a
problem for maintenance, requiring the
wash trucks to be
Figure 2 - Typical Wall-Mount
particularly careful
around the fixtures.
Despite the disadvantages, fixtures at this height would
be easily installed and maintained. This mounting option
also provides more selection of cameras.
Ceiling-Mounted
Figure 3 shows the
ceiling-mounted dome
camera option. This
option provides adequate height for the
camera to minimize
the obstruction of
views by large trucks
or buses. The height
also moves the camera out of the way
of the maintenance
trucks, but this type Figure 3 - Typical Ceiling-Mount
of mounting could still
be knocked loose and
installation may be more difficult due to the height.

Communication System
Migrating from an analog CCTV system to a digital IPbased system enables the tunnel controllers to gain a
level of efficiency and control not previously available in
overall operations. However, doing so requires a communication network to transmit the CCTV camera footage to
the tunnel control center. On this project, various network
types (star and ring topology) were considered based on
ease of maintenance, redundancy, and resilience.
A star topology is when each edge switch (switches in the
field equipment panels) is connected to a central switch,
typically in a control room. A ring topology is where each
edge switch is connected to next and previous edge
switch, forming a large ring. This option provides redundancy in that, if one of the switches were damaged, communication to downstream switches can be established
through the other side of the ring.
For the maintenance department, a star topology was
preferred because it meant that all of the back-end equipment would be located in one central location. This means

that if something goes wrong, the maintenance personnel
would only need to go to one place. It also means that if
one part of the network goes down, it would not affect the
resilience of the rest of the network. In an environment
where it can be difficult to access and maintain network
equipment, the operators can choose to leave a malfunctioning field switch out of service and not worry about a
larger part of the network becoming inoperable if another
fault occurs. It also means that there is a single point
of failure at the core, control room switch (in the control
room). That is, if the center of the star in the network
went down, the whole network would be inoperable.
To overcome the issues of a star network, a modified version of the star network was designed, with backbone
switches installed in physically diverse locations (vent
buildings and the control center) in a ring configuration
and the edge switches (field switches) connected to each
backbone switch in a star configuration. This provided the
capability to operate the network from the vent buildings,
in case the control center went down.
Cybersecurity measures were implemented in Parsons
Brinckerhoff’s design. Cybersecurity is an important component of all digital networks and requires diligent attention. It is not addressed in this article as it calls for much
further discussion.

In Closing
CCTV systems are integral to the safe operation and
control of roadway tunnels. While CCTV technology can
be fairly simple, the tunnel environment, maintenance,
project requirements, and number of cameras can make
the CCTV system design complex. This approach to CCTV
system design is recommended for other projects to facilitate maintenance, whilst providing a robust system that
can be verified through simulation prior to construction.
Ryan Williams is a Senior Systems Engineer in our New York City
office, having spent the last 8 years with Parsons Brinckerhoff in
Australia. He is a registered professional engineer with chartered
status and has substantial experience in transport and communication projects.

DECEMBER 2014 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx

Surface-Mounted Enclosure
Figure 4 shows the wallmounted dome camera
option. The camera inside
the dome enclosure is adjustable to the angle with
an optimum view. This
Camera
option provides enough
height to minimize view
obstruction by large trucks
and buses. The height
also allows for easy installation. Finally, this type
of mounting will result
in minimal damage from
maintenance and wash
trucks, but limits camera
selection options as few
fixed cameras are manufactured with this mount. Figure 4 - Typical Surface-Mount

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DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Upon completion. whereas the existing Diamond Hill Station (DIH) station and the future DIH station of SCL (hereinafter referred to as “SCL-DIH”) are separate structures connected by an adit.5kV direct current (DC). The project is linked with a number of existing railways. +852-2963-7777.com/news/publications. Ho Man Tin Station (HOM). For DIH. East West Corridor North South Corridor Wu Kai Sha East Rail Line Tuen Mun Tai Wai West Rail Line Ma On Shan Line Diamond Hill Shatin to Central Link (Tai Wai to Hung Horn Section) Hung Horn Admiralty Figure 1 . Parsons Brinckerhoff was appointed by the MTR Corporation Limited to carry out the detailed design of the trackside auxiliaries of the SCL. it will link the immigration control points at Lo Wu and Lok Ma Chau to Hong Kong’s central business district. As part of the design.Communications / Power andFire Electrical and Life Systems Safety NETWORK How Alternating Current Interacts with Direct Current in the Shatin to Central Link Traction Systems in Hong Kong – A Quantitative Approach by Sam Pang. Parsons Brinckerhoff carried out a detailed study on the risks associated with the coexistence of AC and DC traction systems in the interchange stations and established the earthing and bonding strategy to mitigate the risks. there are three (3) underground stations where the SCL interchanges with the existing Urban Rail Lines (URL).aspx Lok Ma Chau Lo Wu Along the SCL. and Admiralty Station (ADM). passengers will be able to travel between Tuen Mun in the west and Wu Kai Sha in the east without interchanging (transferring) trains. They are: Diamond Hill Station (DIH). there was an option in the design of bonding the earthing system of the existing and the future DIH station or introducing an isolation zone between the two station structures.Alignment of the Shatin to Central Link 76 The “North South Corridor” extends the existing East Rail Line across the harbor via Hung Hom. pang. Hong Kong. As the SCL will be electrified at 25kV alternating current (AC) while the existing URL is electrified at 1. the earthing (grounding) systems at Ho Man Tin Station and Admiralty Station will essentially be bonded together. With a common station structure. The “East West Corridor” is formed by the Ma On Shan Line (the proposed Tai Wai to Hung Hom Section of the SCL) and the existing West Rail Line.com Background The Shatin to Central Link (SCL) is one of the ten largest infrastructure projects being constructed in Hong Kong. Shatin to Central Link (Hung Horn to Admiralty Section) All interchange railway lines at Ho Man Tin Station and Admiralty Station are accommodated within the same station structure.pbworld. . It is a 17 kilometre territory-wide strategic railway corridor with ten stations.sam@pbworld. AC and DC traction systems will coexist in these underground interchange stations (also referred to as “AC/ DC interchange stations” in this paper). Upon completion. forming two strategic railway corridors: the “East West Corridor” and the “North South Corridor” as shown in Figure 1.

The induced voltages depend on the voltage of the influenced system. increased noise level.pbworld. internal electrical resonance in the transformer winding. there were very limited references on the subject of mutual interaction of AC and DC traction systems. when the DC current flowing into the AC traction system returns through the metallic parts of the station structure. The effects of inductive coupling are induced voltages and currents. These occur when the AC traction system is connected or bonded to the DC traction system. a DC equivalent circuit as illustrated in Figure 3 was constructed for the typical rail section as shown in Figure 4 with the circuit parameters given by DECEMBER 2014 http://www. increased no-load current and losses. Problems of Mutual Interaction of AC and DC Traction Systems This section gives an overview of the potential issues associated with the mutual interaction of AC and DC traction systems. in particular at the interchange stations. a very considerable reduction in the magnetising impedance of the transformer. The DC currents when flowing through the AC train-borne transformers and AC traction transformers may cause saturation of the core of these transformers. The AC traction system can affect the nearby DC traction system or vice versa by coupling. length. That should be the point within the interchange station that interfaces with the DC return. Apart from the galvanic and non-galvanic couplings. To review the degree of stray current corrosion at the interchange station.com/news/publications. According to clause 5. and increased DC traction current causing higher stray current corrosion due to more frequent train service. To estimate the maximum voltage or the potential shift of the station structure and metallic parts in the interchange station. These voltages and currents depend on the distance. The major problem is that the DC currents in the DC traction system can flow into the AC traction system and return to the DC traction system through galvanic couplings. The Parsons Brinckerhoff project team approached the challenges from fundamental theories and developed quantitative analysis methods in order to establish the earthing and bonding strategy for the SCL to mitigate potential problems. DC Stray Current Corrosion at the Interchange Stations Figure 2 illustrates the flow paths of the DC traction currents and the voltage thus created at the station structure of an interchange station where AC and DC traction systems coexists. The galvanic couplings refer to conductive voltages and currents. stray current corrosion will occur. The effects of capacitive coupling are induced voltages into a conductor. and frequency. Related studies indicate that a small DC bias can have the following consequences: complete saturation of the core with the generation of harmonics (distortion of signals). the following operational issues associated with the design of power supply systems require particular attention in the dual electrified interchange stations: • Electric shock caused by 25kV flashover to common station metallic infrastructure and extraneous metal parts. in particular on its quantitative analysis.3 of EN50122-2:2010.At the time of carrying out the study. inducing current conductor arrangement. At this point of maximum stray current.2V as specified in European Standard EN 50122-2:2010.aspx Challenges Communications / Power andFire Electrical and Life Systems Safety NETWORK 77 . • Voltages induced by the 25kV traction currents causing interferences to the signalling. which is the physical process of transmission of energy. The effects of coupling can be galvanic and non-galvanic. • Earth faults in the high tension side of the 25kV AC traction substation may lead to rise of earth potential and rail potential in the AC and DC traction systems. apart from a handful of papers on the subject of AC and DC railway interfaces and the European Standard EN50122-3:2010. The non-galvanic couplings are inductive and capacitive in nature. and the frequency. experience has shown that there is no cause for concern if the average value of potential shift between the structure and earth in the peak traffic hour does not exceed +200mV for steel in concrete structure. This article focuses on the quantitative approach taken to analyse the effects of DC stray current corrosion at the underground interchange stations and DC traction currents flowing into the AC traction system. or electric shock in the DC electrified railway. it can be reasonably assumed that adverse corrosion will occur at the point where the maximum DC stray current passes through. and low voltage circuits. and • Increased AC traction current causing increased mutual couplings. the voltage with respect to earth is calculated and benchmarked with the reference value of +0. communications. the distance. Moreover.

aspx Figure 2 . With the equivalent circuit. the train positions that would give rise to higher stray current at the interchange stations were taken in the voltage calculations.DC Equivalent Circuit for Calculation of Potential Shift at Station Structure the client and the train modelled as a current source of 4.Potential Created by Stray Current at the Interchange Station 78 Figure 3 . and HOM.Communications / Power andFire Electrical and Life Systems Safety NETWORK AC/DC INTERCHANGE STATION DC OHL Network DC FEEDER SUBSTATION DC RAIL NETWORK DIODE EARTH STRAY CURRENT STRAY CURRENT DC STRAY CURRENT RETURN PATHS MAXIMUM VOLTAGE FOR STRAY CURRENT AT AC/DC INTERCHANGED STATION CONNECT TO STATION STRUCTURE AND OTHER METALLIC PARTS DECEMBER 2014 http://www. suggesting that there would not be an adverse effect of stray current corrosion at the interchange stations. As as shown in Table 1. the results of the estimated maximum potential shift of the station structure are all below the +200mV criterion listed in clause 5. ADM. for DIH. However.000A. calculations were then performed to estimate the maximum potential shift at the station structure of the three interchange stations for several different train positions and rail-to-earth resistance (RTE).com/news/publications.3 of the European Standard. For a conservative analysis.pbworld. for better .

The results of the various modelling simulations showed that short-circuit or resistance-bonding of DIH can reduce the maximum DC current flowing through the AC trainborne transformer and AC traction transformer. Therefore. the traction power systems and earthing networks of the related railway lines were modelled by a 3-layer network for current flow simulations with the circuit parameters given by the client. To estimate the maximum DC current under different operating conditions of the railways.2 0.12 V (< 0.2V) HOM 9. it was recommended to the client that mitigation measures be implemented and such measures are summarized in Table 1.05 -3. for consistency of design it is recommended that the same earthing and bonding strategy as DIH and ADM be also adopted for HOM. Train Positions with Rail-to-Earth Resistance Decayed to 15 ohm/km per track Interchange station Estimated Maximum Potential Shift at Station Structure (all at RTE1 = 15 ohm/km per track) DIH 0.24 0. DC Traction Current Flowing into AC Traction System The flow path of DC traction current through the AC -borne transformer and AC traction transformer is illustrated in Figure 5. a total of 168 current flow simulation cases were established in consultation with the railway operator.Circuit A Train positioned at middle of rail section Voltage (V) 0. Besides.pbworld. The motoring train and regeneration train were modelled as DC current injection and DC current source respectively in the network. there were very limited references on this subject. Communications / Power andFire Electrical and Life Systems Safety 0.44 1.92 2.aspx NETWORK 79 . and concurrently will also flow through the OVPD and then through a series of paths to the regeneration train.2 1. in particular on its quantitative analysis. This represents an adverse condition in that the DC traction current reaches its maximum when one motoring train is leaving a station and another train under regeneration is approaching a station.1 V (< 0.2V) Recommended Mitigation Measures against Stray Current Corrosion Platform Screen Door (PSD) Other Metallic Equipment Provide insulation or isolation between PSD and civil structure Provide insulation or isolation for other metallic equipment from structure Although stray current corrosion will unlikely be a concern in HOM. When the overvoltage protection device (OVPD) at the interchange station operates.4 mV (<< 0. Table 1 . it was also recommended that the possible DC current flows in the AC train.96 1. Conservative assumptions on the train positions and injection currents were made in the analysis in consultation with the railway operator for a more realistic estimate of the worst case.Effects of DC Stray Current at the Interchange Stations and the Recommended Mitigation Measures protection of assets.25 0. To estimate the magnitude of DC traction current flowing through the train-borne transformer and AC traction transformer. However. and consistency of design.1 0. it was recommended that an isolation zone not be provided at DIH. the maximum DC traction current will flow from the motoring train through the DC return rail to the regeneration train.68 1.15 Circuit B Train positioned at 250m from interchange station 0.16 2.3 DECEMBER 2014 http://www.borne transformers and AC traction transformers are monitored at the commissioning of each network extension or new line to confirm integrity of the railway systems.Potential Shift vs.48 0.2V) ADM 0. good practice. Results of the analysis indicated that DC stray current corrosion was less of a concern at the interchange stations.4 Distance (km) Figure 4 . It was noted that at the time of conducting the study.89E-15 0 0. Conclusion This article addresses the impacts of coexistence of AC and DC traction systems at the underground interchange stations of the Shatin to Central Link in Hong Kong and describes the approach taken to quantify the impacts.72 0.com/news/publications. for asset protection and good practice.

results of the quantitative analysis indicated that this requires careful attention and monitoring of the DC current flows in the AC traction equipment.DC Traction Currents Flowing Through AC Traction Equipment 80 it was recommended to the client that mitigation measures be implemented. With regard to the DC current flowing through the AC train-borne transformer and AC traction transformer. as saturation of the transformer core by the DC current will bring adverse impacts to the transformers.aspx Figure 5 . in future application of the analysis methods described in this article.com/news/publications. consideration will be given to improving the model with statistical running of those parameters with key assumptions and modelling the earthing diodes in the DC traction system which were not taken into account in the analysis.Communications / Power andFire Electrical and Life Systems Safety NETWORK AC/DC INTERCHANGE STATION DC OHL NETWORK NORMAL PATH FOR DC TRAIN CURRENT REGENERATION AC/DC INTERCHANGE STATION MOTORING DC FEEDER SUBTATION DC RAIL NETWORK DIODE EARTH DC TRACTION SYSTEM STATION EARTH OVPD OPERATED DC EARTHING NETWORK (CABLE ARMOUR/FCRW) STATION EARTH AC TRACTION SYSTEM AC OHL NETWORK AC FEEDER SUBTATION AC RAIL NETWORK AC EARTHING NETWORK (AEW/EARTH STRAP/ FIRE HYDRANT) STATION EARTH STATION EARTH DECEMBER 2014 http://www. He is based in the Hong Kong office of Parsons Brinckerhoff.pbworld. Sam Pang is a Professional Electrical Engineer with 30 years of experience in design and project management of infrastructure projects. Moving forward. .

or environmental conditions that can affect. maintenance of traffic (MOT). Planning involves coordinating scheduling with owner’s personnel.com There are currently over 366 highway tunnels in the United States over 300-feet long. This is also the time to identify potential hazards associated with the inspection and to start developing the Inspection Safety Plan. fire protection/suppression. The United States Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is in the process of developing National Tunnel Inspection Standards that will become part of a federal law. and up-to-date. and Mark VanDeRee. Testing.pbworld. many highway tunnels have electrical. FL.com. stevensja@pbworld. Inspection and Testing Reports Past inspection reports can provide insight to degrading or failed systems. FL. inspection procedures.aspx Introduction Construction and Fire Tunnel Rehabilitation andStormwater Life Systems Safety NETWORK This document is available at http://www. design standards. and mechanical systems that require periodic inspection as well. special access needs. This article presents some of the basic elements involved in preparing for. and reporting on mechanical and electrical inspections of roadway tunnels in the United States. hydraulic calculations. and documentation of tunnel inspections in the United States1.Tunnel Inspection Basics for Mechanical and Electrical Systems by James Stevens. and the inspection staff. accurate. However. Here is presented a broader. and device manufacturer’s data sheets for the life of the system. US. safety. Part of the inspection of the mechanical and electrical systems in roadway tunnels is verification of compliance with testing requirements required by the local authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). +1-813-520-4430. performing. If the requirements indicate testing to DECEMBER 2014 http://www. as well as past inspection reports. A vital step in the planning process is a site visit to acquire first-hand information of the tunnel layout and equipment access as it is not always possible to envision all potential access and safety issues from the tunnel design drawings. Tampa. Preparation also involves reviewing the tunnel plans and specifications. Preparation includes investigations of any revisions to applicable codes. methods for access. communication. All tunnels need periodic in-depth inspections of their structural integrity. 25: “Standards for the Inspection. testing 1 vendors. US. Plans and drawings are often changed during construction and revisions made to effect repairs or improve the safety and reliability of the tunnel systems. and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems” requires owners to retain as-built system installation drawings. preparation.dot.fhwa. vanderee@pbworld. Tampa. 81 . The National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Standard No.cfm. As-Built Documents Tunnel drawings and plans used for an inspection need to be complete. tools.com/news/publications. Preparation and Planning Probably the most essential part of performing a safe and comprehensive inspection of any portion of a tunnel is proper preparation and planning. Most of these tunnels range in age from 50 to 100-years old. +1-813-520-4433. and inspection manuals. original acceptance test records. The Inspection Process The FHWA “Highway and Rail Transit Tunnel Inspection Manual” forms the current basis for inspector qualifications. As-built documents are key components for effective troubleshooting of system failures or planning for system upgrades or modifications. lighting. general overview of steps required to perform in-depth inspections of roadway tunnel mechanical and electrical systems. or even prevent inspection work.gov/bridge/tunnel/inspectman00. This includes as-built documents for any system modifications made after the original installation.

Structural damage. and standing water are only a few issues that pose hazards to personnel and should be corrected before inspections are performed. while the inspections are fairly straightforward. Fire Detection Several of the longer and more heavily traveled roadway tunnels have fire detection systems which may include heat and smoke detectors. or reduce them. Team leaders coordinate the teams’ efforts. carbon monoxide sensing and alarming systems. remove. and hydrants. There are many hazards associated with mechanical and electrical inspections in tunnels. and automatically activated fire suppression systems. fire protection standpipes. MOT. pumps. water or foam deluge systems. improperly supported or damaged equipment. remove. the inspector has a responsibility to verify compliance with required standards. equipment leasing. It is always preferable to have the entire tunnel roadway closed to traffic when inspecting inside the tunnel. testing requirements of NFPA 25 call for specialized training and equipment. There may also be environmental issues that impede inspection efforts. animal waste. dewatering pumps and piping.aspx Staffing and Safety Training Staffing for an inspection of a tunnel mechanical and electrical system can sometimes be very challenging. The inspections of tunnel mechanical and electrical systems require specialized equipment and training. Specialized vendors or subcontractors are usually employed for the special testing. Dead animals. and knowing how to recognize. and sign the safety plan before beginning on-site inspection activities where they are exposed to hazards. and be widespread. understand. emergency or standby generators. Detour plans should be developed and notifications should start early. Each inspector must also review. Fire suppression system specialists are usually contracted to perform this testing. In cases where inspectors are not present for required periodic testing. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. detailed safety plans are developed which list potential hazards and ways to control. To minimize the inconvenience of tunnel or lane closures to the traveling public. Fire Suppression Fire suppression systems in tunnels may include water or foam deluge systems. it is important to provide timely and accurate information of the upcoming closures in several forms of media. 82 Safety training is the most critical type of training an inspector receives. or protect against these hazard cannot be overemphasized. as some mechanical and electrical components and systems cannot be fully inspected with a partial roadway closure. Inspection staff needs to stay abreast of changing codes and standards in order to gauge how the installed systems measure up to the present requirements. reduce.ConstructionFire andand Rehabilitation Life Safety NETWORK be done per NFPA 25. Inspections of fire detection systems require special training and a thorough understanding of the systems’ equipment specifications and are usually performed by fire protection system specialists. excessive dirt or debris. standpipes. reviewing the test report records is the only means to determine the owner’s compliance with applicable regulations. valves. Coordination and safety planning is needed for specialized testing vendors or subcontractors. Project Safety Plan and Maintenance of Traffic In order to keep inspectors as safe as possible when performing roadway tunnel inspections. NFPA 25 is very specific about how often and in what manner these systems shall be inspected and tested and. and inoperable life safety systems can be reasons for an inspection to be postponed or canceled until repairs are made. Site and Area Scouting Site scouting visits serve an important role – that of seeing the current general condition of a tunnel. and motorized gates and doors. Tunnel inspections should be performed by teams comprised of at least two people and large tunnels may require several teams working simultaneously.pbworld. and the owner’s personnel. a monitoring station.com/news/publications. . Each of these systems requires periodic inspection and maintenance to keep them reliably operable. Mechanical Systems and Elements Many tunnels are equipped with large and complex mechanical systems which include: ventilation fans and ducts.

Ventilation systems inspections may include airflow rate measurements. duct inspections. direct drive. and damper operational testing. however. improving the effectiveness of removing smoke and providing a safe egress route. chains and sprockets. or belt driven. and semi-transverse. and Figure 2 .000 cubic feet per minute (CFM).aspx Fans Different ventilation systems employ different types of fans. Inspections of CO monitoring systems require specialized training.Tunnel Transverse Ventilation System Supply Fan linkages. transverse.Tunnel Longitudinal Ventilation System Jet Fans Fan operation may be initiated manually. could also remove smoke from an in-tunnel fire. ConstructionFire andand Rehabilitation Life Safety NETWORK 83 . air flows to strategic locations (see Figure 2). These sensing systems may provide alarms and initiate operation of the ventilation systems.Ventilation Tunnel ventilation was originally designed to remove noxious vehicle fumes. The equipment for transverse tunnel ventilations systems can be quite large. and move volumes of air that exceed 350. Longitudinal systems use high velocity. All these components need to be inspected. Ventilation fans can produce wind velocities that exceed 90 miles per hour (MPH). Access inside the ducting is usually required to visually inspect the damper vanes. Fans may be axial or centrifugal. Carbon Monoxide Sensing Systems Some tunnels have sensing systems to detect high levels of carbon monoxide (CO). fan and fan drive system conditional evaluations. gearbox driven. either from the entrances or at joints between tunnel segments. hydraulics and pneumatics. There are several different types of damper operating systems and inspectors need to be familiar with gears.com/news/publications. Fans that are not directly coupled to the motors also have shafts and bearings. Dampers Dampers can alter the exhaust and supply of air relative to zones in the tunnel. low volume jet fans mounted inside the tunnel (see Figure 1). or submersible and usually have automatic DECEMBER 2014 http://www. equipment. if properly designed. and sometimes supply. it was discovered that a ventilation system. The pumps may be centrifugal.pbworld. Transverse and semi-transverse systems use high volume fans connected to ducts that distribute exhaust. Dewatering Systems Pumping systems are needed to remove the water that enters the tunnels. or automatically if sensing systems are installed. Figure 1 . The distinct differences of these systems require special access and experience in order to be evaluated properly. special vibration analysis vendors are used to quantify potentially damaging vibrations from out-of-balance fans. turbine. Often. and span gases and are normally performed by the owner’s maintenance staff or an outside vendor. The most common types of powered tunnel ventilation systems are longitudinal.

piping. Flammable gases may also be used to test hydrocarbon sensors. controls are located both locally and remotely. measuring and graphing operating current draws. sumps. compressors. public address systems. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. verification that interlocks and permissives are fail-safe. power is often also provided by emergency or standby generators and automatic transfer switches. and operating machinery for gates. Line service technicians from the electric power company typically perform the inspection of the electrical service system. and visually scrutinizing the condition of pumps. Most dewatering systems have hydrocarbon-sensing equipment. Facility spaces and maintenance access routes should have adequate lighting to permit inspection and servicing of the tunnel systems. All testing measurements are tabulated or graphed. and power emergency phones and fire alarms. and testing the insulation resistances of the motor windings. tunnel electrical loads are automatically transferred to the emergency source. Lighting Tunnel lighting is inspected by taking different types of light measurements in specific locations of the tunnel and its portal entrances. transition zones. detect heat. Electric Motors Tunnel equipment with electric motors includes: fans. The light measurements are recorded and compared with those recommended by ANSI/IES RP-22. Inspections of these systems involve running pumps (pumping water if possible). cameras. operate fans. Inspection of tunnel control systems includes evaluating the installed systems for adequacy based on applicable codes. gauging pump flow rates. In most cases.pbworld. and access/flood gate positions.com/news/publications. Many systems allow for local control at the equipment. and water collection grates and gutters. damper and valve actuators. The condition of conductors. Tunnel controls can be monitored and operated from a local control room. traffic loop detectors. valves. In some cases. pumps. and exits. or a remote location many miles away. Control Systems Control systems for tunnels are primarily used to monitor tunnel conditions and manipulate equipment in a way to keep people and vehicles safe. Damage from traffic incidents and environmental effects are common deficiencies noted. and testing every function the systems are designed to perform. These areas should also have emergency egress lighting. Since electricity is important to many of the life safety systems in tunnels. thresholds. a standard for tunnel lighting – developed by the American National Standards Institute and the Illuminating Engineering Society – that minimizes the visibility problems associated with roadway tunnels. Electrical Systems and Elements Most roadway tunnels require electrical power and often have extensive electrical power and control systems going to every tunnel location. 84 Electrical Power Service The electrical power service to a tunnel is the primary link for the electrical current that powers all the electrical components. pumps. In case of the loss of primary electrical power. proper response of systems to automated and manual commands. Electricity is needed to power lighting. These systems are inspected to verify compliance with the requirements of NFPA-70 (National Electric Code) and include operation and testing of circuit breakers and safety disconnects. control signs and signals. The inspection of electric motors involves performing visual assessments. and switches are also checked using insulation resistance testing. The tunnel owner’s electrical system usually begins on the load side of the metering equipment. pump systems. . and the physical condition of all control system elements.aspx Inspecting and testing tunnel electrical systems are important to verify the systems are functioning properly. Systems that may be monitored or controlled include: fire detection. buses. and all pertinent photographs are logged and captioned.ConstructionFire andand Rehabilitation Life Safety NETWORK level sensors for turning the pumps on and off. and valves. ventilation. heat and smoke detectors. manipulate cameras. Circuit breaker trip testing is usually performed by specialized testing vendors. transformers. operations of all equipment can be performed from the control room. Evaluations are made based on: the accuracy of sensing systems. carbon monoxide monitoring systems. lighting. Emergency lighting mandated by NFPA 502 requires inspection for proper operation and serviceable condition. Power Distribution Electrical power distribution for tunnel systems is generally 3-phase medium voltage (5kV to 15kV) or low voltage (208V to 480V).

Five of the ventilation fan motors were found to have elevated bearing vibrations. and NFPA-70E: Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. The motors with elevated bearing vibrations were SF-23 (drive end bearing). SF-29 (both bearings). and one ventilation fan motor was found with a slightly elevated bearing temperature. Troubleshoot and correct the problems with the Simplex control system program not properly controlling the foam pumps. Figure 3 presents a sample of some electrical and mechanical findings and recommendations from tunnel inspections. It is recommended that the trip mechanism be investigated and corrected.Recommendations The Simplex control system did not keep each foam pump running to the low level sensor on the tank. It is recommended that the wiring to the MSD-118 Balancing Damper Starter Panel heater be replaced with high temperature insulated wires and away from the heater. and SF-30 (both bearings). Mark VanDeRee is the Senior Supervising Engineer for the Mechanical and Electrical Technical Excellence Center in the Tampa office and he has led the mechanical and electrical work on several movable bridge and tunnel designs and inspections. It is recommended that arc flash warning labels be installed on the electrical enclosures to comply with NEC Article 110. The arc flash hazard warning labels on the low voltage distribution systems were non-compliant with the requirements of the NEC. The main purpose of inspecting tunnels is to note deficiencies and communicate findings to the owner. It is recommended that elevated bearing vibrations and temperatures be monitored to determine if the conditions are worsening. SF-28 (both bearings). Conclusion Some basics for inspecting tunnel mechanical and electrical systems are presented. only requiring assistance from the owner’s control systems operations personnel.aspx NETWORK 85 . or the breaker replaced.pbworld.16. Balancing damper D-120 did not actuate the fully open position limit switch when it was fully open.Sample findings and recommendations for a tunnel inspection Experienced tunnel inspectors should be capable of inspecting and evaluating a tunnel control system. Figure 3 . ConstructionFire andand Rehabilitation Life Safety Findings DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The trip mechanism of the US2B-TF2B medium voltage feeder breaker was difficult to operate. NFPA-79. MSD-118 Balancing Damper Starter Panel: the panel heater has burned wires. The mechanism was lubricated and exercised during the inspection.com/news/publications. The radio signal override system was noted as not being functional. James Stevens is a Mechanical and Electrical Engineer who has worked at Parsons Brinckerhoff for 12 years on movable bridge and tunnel system designs and inspections. but the condition could not be corrected. The owner can then use this information to budget and schedule needed repairs or modifications to correct the deficiencies. Repair the failed radio signal over-ride system that alerts vehicles inside the tunnel of emergencies through broadcasts on AM and FM stations. Adjust the fully open limit switch for balancing damper D-120 so the damper position indicates correctly in the control room. nor did the system start the lag pump if the lead pump failed to start. The tunnel ceiling mounted axial type jet fan motor inspection cover had two broken fasteners. SF-27 (both bearings). The owner dispatched an on-call repair crew to repair the broken fasteners for the motor inspection cover on the tunnel ceiling mounted axial jet fan.

aspx Parsons Brinckerhoff is a member of the Well-Connected Alliance. Road surface runoff and seepage above road level is gravity piped to the sump. is directed to the tunnel invert (Figure 1). DECEMBER 2014 http://www.6 miles) long twin-tube tunnel. The highway includes a 2. A means was therefore required to remove seepage water from the tunnel invert and deliver it to the low-point sump for pumping to the surface.pbworld. runoff from the road surface. Brisbane.com Introduction The Waterview Connection is the largest road project ever undertaken in New Zealand. house mechanical and electrical (M&E) systems. The small amount of seepage water would flow down the tunnel invert to the low-point where it would be directed through a smaller parallel pipe to the sump (Figures 2 and 3).4 billion (approximately US$1. however.2 feet) diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM). Sources of water include groundwater seepage through the tunnel lining.ConstructionFire andand Rehabilitation Life Safety NETWORK Tunnel Sump Construction Savings Through Drainage System Design Modification by Kevin Stewart. Pavement runoff would be directed to a pipe in the services tunnel. and provide escape paths in emergencies. and at the low-point a DN500 (20-inch) pipe would penetrate the tunnel lining and pass through a horizontal bore to the sump. and operating and maintaining the facility for 10 years after opening. requiring a sump and mechanical drainage system to remove Tendered concept design The tendered concept design used gravity drainage to convey water to the sump. and the tunnel deluge sprinkler system. where it collects at the low-point.2 billion). which is both delivering the project. Australia.Tunnel Cross Section 86 water.0 miles) long six-lane motorway to link two highways and complete Auckland’s Western Ring Route. The tunnel's vertical alignment has a low-point. At a cost of NZ$1. The tunnel invert also includes a service tunnel to reticulate electrical power cables.com/news/publications. +61 7 3854 6339. vehicle spills. stewartk@pbworld.4 metre (47. with three-lanes in each tunnel. The twin-tube design includes cross-passages which connect the tubes. .8 kilometre (3.5 kilometre (1. This project structure gave all parties an interest in cost-effective design for both construction and maintenance. Seepage below road level. bored by a 14. TUNNEL INVERT SERVICES TUNNEL Figure 1 . it involves building a 4.

combined with the required sump storage. Functional challenges The revised sump shape reduced the active storage volume.7 feet) diameter vertical shaft located under the floor of the crosspassage at the low-point. the sump high water level was set below the level of the tunnel invert. Details of proposed redesign and benefits A revised scheme was proposed based on enlarging the cross-passage and using the volume under the passage floor for water collection. This proposal required significantly less excavation with corresponding reductions in construction time and cost. To avoid backflow through the invert drainage pipes into the service tunnel.com/news/publications. • Technical difficulty in penetrating the tunnel lining for the large drainage pipe. resulted in a sump shaft design depth of approximately 12 metres (39. This high water level.P UM TS OIN E WP LO CKAG GE PA DRAIN FROM RISING MAIN KA PAC RT LVE CU (FLOOR DRAIN FROM SUMP UPPER PLATFORM LEVEL) PAVEMENT CONNECTION MINIMUM SL (FLOOR DRAIN PIPE TO TERMINATE 200 BELOW MINIMUM WATER LEVEL) MINIMUM WATER LEVEL PAVEMENT RUN-OFF DRAIN CONNECTION TO LOW POINT SUMP MINIMUM SLOPE 1:100 (DRAIN FROM RISING MAIN) CROSS PASSAGE LOW POINT SUMP TUNNEL S SUMP FLOOR LEVEL ConstructionFire andand Rehabilitation Life Safety NETWORK Figure 2 .7 metre (18. removing the need to penetrate the tunnel lining and bore horizontally.pbworld. The pavement runoff drain could be raised to pass through the cross-passage opening.aspx Figure 3 . and • Difficulty in boring pipe connections from the tunnel invert to the sump. which in turn influenced the run time of the dewatering pumps: a small volume would result in frequent starting and stopping of the pump.4 feet) under the crosspassage floor. Proposed redesign Reasons for redesign The concept design provided several construction challenges: • Time and cost in constructing a deep shaft. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.Sump Concept (Elevation) D450 PAVEMENT DRAIN DN100 SOUTHBOUND TUNNEL INVERT CULVERT FLOOR DRAIN D250 PAVEMENT DRAIN LOW POINT SUMP PAYMENT RUN-OFF DRAIN CONNECTION TO LOW POINT SUMP CROSS PASSAGE PLAN VIEW – SERVICES TUNNEL DRAIN The sump was designed as a 5.Sump Concept (Plan) 87 .

access to the service tunnel requires procedures similar to a confined space. to automatically pump collected water to the main sump.com/news/publications. the best place to position the pumps was in the cross-passage M&E equipment area. As the groundwater seepage into the service tunnel will be at a near-constant rate. and he has experience in the design. we required an alternative to float switches. Operation and maintenance considerations The service tunnel is a 2. This challenged the proposed sump redesign. To further satisfy the O&M strategy of limiting equipment in the services tunnel. inclusion of a foot valve to keep the pump primed was avoided. operated by float switches. water will collect at the low-point in a predictable fashion. The revised proposal therefore included a small pump in the services tunnel. The O&M strategy to minimise difficult maintenance was preserved by finding alternatives to standard drainage system designs and taking advantage of specialist pumping equipment. A drainage pump would normally rely on float switches for control.1 feet) above the tunnel invert and require a positive displacement pump to lift the water. maintaining dewatering while a pump is being serviced or if a suction line becomes blocked.ConstructionFire andand Rehabilitation Life Safety NETWORK The new sump shape also raised the top water level well above the tunnel invert. The new mechanical drainage design met all the functional requirements and the redesigned sump structure enabled a reduction in construction time and cost compared to the initial concept.6 mile) “tunnel within a tunnel”. Kevin Stewart is a Mechanical Engineer who specialises in hydraulics and mechanical services.6 metres (15. with the timer setting to be determined during project commissioning. Due to these restrictions. and instead a self-priming pump was used. The plant management and control system will activate the pump on a predetermined schedule. and commissioning of tunnel fire suppression and dewatering systems and has worked on projects in Australia and New Zealand. deactivating the pumps if no flow is detected on start-up. . a nominal amount of water is left in the pump stator to provide initial lubrication to the rotor on start-up.aspx Tunnel invert drainage A solution was developed to meet the functional requirements for removing water from the service tunnel drainage while satisfying the O&M strategy of limiting equipment in the services tunnel. The flow sensors also act as a safety check. as any pumping equipment in the service tunnel would conflict with the O&M strategy. and will cut the pump once the sensor indicates flow has stopped. 88 From an O&M perspective. Auckland’s Waterview Connection. allowing seepage water to collect to a sufficient volume. a minimum of two people. This will allow the pump control to be based on a combination of a timer and flow sensor. and radio contact with the surface at all times. meaning the invert drain could no longer connect directly to the sump. the operations and maintenance (O&M) strategy was to minimise equipment that required servicing in the service tunnel. starting the pump when sufficient water had collected and stopping it again once the water is pumped away. The inlets and outlets can be arranged so that even if the suction line loses prime. and Victoria Park Tunnel. Final design DECEMBER 2014 http://www. To minimise equipment in the service tunnel.5 kilometre (1. The solution was to use a progressive cavity pump. As a result. The plant monitoring system can be used to review pump run times over a period and determine if the groundwater seepage rate is changing and the timer requires adjustment. including a dedicated ventilation system. including Brisbane’s Clem7 tunnel. Some form of pumping was therefore needed for the seepage flows in the invert.pbworld. running below the road surface with entry points only at the ends. construction. The tunnels' construction program allows monitoring of the seepage rate. which is able to self-prime and can tolerate short periods of running dry if the suction line drains and priming is lost. Redundant pumps and suction lines are also provided in a duty-standby arrangement. This meant the pumps would be installed about 4.

and the installation costs asso- LED Lighting Systems . Challenges. and are often supplemented with the higher wattage HID sources. With the advent of the LED as one of today’s most rapidly-developing lighting technologies. and challenges of a tunnel lighting system become readily apparent. Jonathan T. WeaverJT@pbworld. and are robust enough to withstand the harsh environment of a tunnel. +1-617-960-4880. the human eye has to adapt very quickly to lower light levels.aspx Kimberly Molloy. Weaver. and Tunnel lighting systems provide proper visibility for the safe passage of motorists entering and navigating a tunnel. have a long life. durable. MolloyKM@pbworld. Tunnel luminaires are expensive. and the periodic cleaning of the lighting system. +1-617-960-5520. Traditional high intensity discharge (HID) systems utilizing high pressure sodium or metal halide lamps require the least number of luminaires as the light output available from each luminaire is high. and life of luminaires has changed to DECEMBER 2014 http://www. lighting equipment was limited to fully enclosed luminaires utilizing fluorescent. To accommodate this. the components of the system have to be reliable.The Modernization of Tunnel Lighting and Controls: Technology.com . Operating cost is the cost of the energy consumed by the lighting system. Leone. US. +1-617-960-4944. When developing a tunnel lighting strategy. Boston. and Cost of Implementing a Tunnel LED Lighting System Fire Tunnel andStormwater Life Lighting Systems Safety NETWORK by Christopher J. photometric. many startup lighting manufacturers have been formed. and operating costs over the life of the system. Both switching and dimming control systems utilize either an intelligent photocell or a special camera that records luminance levels outside of each portal. a life cycle approach needs to be used and consideration given to initial cost. trade-offs. Controlling a tunnel lighting system is necessary to ensure that the amount of artificial illumination is in tune with the outside daylight conditions. maintenance costs. Maintenance costs include removing and replacing burned out and damaged equipment. some producing subpar products using inexpensive LED packages. or from dawn to dusk. The method of identifying the cost of the light produced.pbworld. Initial costs include the number of luminaires required to achieve a specific light level. MA. is a more inclusive metric than the individual cost of the luminaires. LED fixtures have a steadily increased light output and control and are now comparable in intensity to the HID. corrosion resistant. MA. LeoneC@pbworld. and LED luminaires have the highest initial cost.com 89 . When entering a tunnel during the daytime. US. Boston. If it is sunny or cloudy throughout the day. and high pressure sodium lamps. US. metal halide. Until recently.com. the supporting structural and electrical infrastructure.com/news/publications. MA. As a result.Benefits and Challenges LED lighting systems offer unique challenges that the lighting designer needs to consider when recommending and finally specifying for a client. These sources are bright. Another reason for lighting control is simply for energy savings. Light emitting diode (LED) technology provides an alternative that has significantly improved in longevity and adaptability. and able to be maintained during traffic flow. the choices. the lighting control system will switch luminaires off and on as needed or dim the supplemental lighting in the threshold and transition zones of the tunnel. The way the industry has tested and measured the electrical. the controlling equipment. ciated with each. Fluorescent systems require more luminaires. dollars per thousand lumens ($/klm). Boston. By comparing these factors. tunnel lighting is designed to be significantly brighter at the entry of the tunnel and gradually decreases in intensity inside the tunnel.

The best way to accomplish this is similar to how a computer takes heat away from the central processing unit . 90 I-70 Twin Tunnels . and of course the quality of the light. however CDOT officials inquired about the benefits associated with using the emerging LED lighting technology. The conclusion was that although purchasing and installing LED tunnel lighting over HPS would result in an additional $1 million ($97/klm). Parsons Brinckerhoff Project Experience DECEMBER 2014 http://www. Also a challenge is the rapidly evolving LED chips that make it increasingly difficult for manufacturers to test their fixtures life expectancy. LED light engines must have a way to dissipate all the back heat they produce as the exponent of creating light as heat affects the light output of the system. dissimilar materials (galvanic reactions between dissimilar metals can cause corrosion of materials in a tunnel environment). The lumen maintenance of a LED luminaire must also be tested. Fixture placement within the tunnel can also affect heat dissipation. This is the first tunnel project by Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) and Parsons Brinckerhoff that fully utilized light emitting diode (LED) technology for both the day and night time tunnel illumination. As a solid state source. The original design concept for the tunnels was a traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) light source. also known as an LED driver. east of Idaho Springs.Idaho Springs.Fire and LifeLighting Safety NETWORK adapt to LEDs. this is the method for measuring the lumen depreciation from the LED’s original light output. ingress protection. knowing that this newer lighting technology offers more flexibility and control as well as energy savings and reduced maintenance. CO Parsons Brinckerhoff was responsible for the design of the lighting system for the I-70 Twin Tunnels in 2012. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) has developed several technical manuals for LED luminaire manufacturers to follow which include a procedure for the manufacturers to interpolate an expected life of their products. that would be offset by a payback of approximately 10 years of maintenance and energy savings. The biggest challenge when using LED lighting in a tunnel is the ability of the fixture to dissipate the heat that is generated by the LED light engines as well as from their driver(s). An LED light engine is a combination of one or more LED modules together with the associated electronic control gear.a heat sink is applied to the back of the diodes and this moves the heat out and away from the LED.aspx Recently Parsons Brinckerhoff has had the opportunity to develop tunnel lighting systems for Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) and Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT)/Elizabeth River Crossing (ERC). The overall construction of the luminaire must also be scrutinized. it came down to tunnel owners and operators recognizing the long-term benefits of LEDs in their tunnels even with the upfront added expense. but with LED luminaires the test has to be completed on the whole package because the LEDs rely on the luminaire for heat dissipation which affects the lumen output and life. especially when retrofitting.com/news/publications.pbworld. gasketing. suspended rack may not always be a possible solution in other tunnel projects. Parsons Brinckerhoff had to work closely with the lighting manufacturer to be sure the same quality and testing requirements were enforced as specified with a more traditional tunnel lighting fixture. including the housing. So special consideration and close working relationships with manufacturers must be in place when specifying LED fixtures to make sure the fixture is not being installed in a way that would shorten the life expectancy of the LEDs or void manufacturer warranties. Methods have been developed by the IESNA to measure the lumen maintenance and to estimate the life of the project based on the measured results. a degradation of their light output occurs continuously to a point where they are beyond their useful light output. Mostly due to the market not supporting the need. LEDs do not typically burnout. However. The focus of the project was the widening of the westbound and eastbound bores of the tunnel on I-70. Traditionally the evaluation of lighting products is based on a separate test for the lamps and luminaires. tunnel lighting had been slow in development. All manufacturers apply the same principle in different ways and each must be carefully reviewed for each tunnel application. While lighting manufacturers have been developing and perfecting LED luminaires across all interior and exterior applications for the last 8 to 10 years. . the very definition of lamp life has been modified to correctly model sources that may well run for 11 years. an open. A cost comparison was performed on the eastbound tunnel only. Placing a LED lighting fixture in an open rack for the Twin Tunnels design provided optimal airflow around the fixture so that heat dissipated appropriately around and away from the fixture.

an Architect and Lighting Engineer. high walkway.1 The 3. Elizabeth River Crossing (ERC). and maintain the facilities for a 58-year concession period and assume the risk of delivering the project on a performance-based. the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) entered into a $2. VA In December 2011.” Network #70. and Virginia’s first full-scale all-electronic toll collection system. pp 64-65. see “Lighting a 3D World: Design and Analysis. rehabilitating the existing Midtown Tunnel and both of the Downtown Tunnels to provide enhanced fire and life safety features to the tunnels. November 2009. As the design process evolved. two 2-foot (0. He is a current member of the IES Roadway Lighting Committee. Under this agreement. operate. is the largest design-build project in the history of Hampton Roads. to build a new Midtown Tunnel. She is the current secretary of the Tunnels and Underpasses Subcommittee of the IES Roadway Lighting Committee. Conclusion LED luminaires are suitable for the tunnel environment and will be more widely used in the future.146 meter) immersed tube tunnel will include two 12-foot (3. The project. fixed-date contract. A rigorous testing procedure should be an integral part of the tunnel luminaire specification. were developing LED luminaires that could finally withstand the environment of a vehicular tunnel. fixed-price.Parsons Brinckerhoff is serving as lead designer to the design-build team responsible for doubling the capacity of the Midtown Tunnel by building an additional two-lane tunnel near the existing one under the Elizabeth River. works as an internal consultant for Parsons Brinckerhoff teams across the country. VDOT will maintain ownership of the facilities and will oversee ERC’s activities. This demand will put pressure on the engineer to fully understand the challenges of LEDs while pushing manufacturers to produce durable.aspx Midtown and Downtown Tunnels – Norfolk and Portsmouth. and utility corridor.pbworld.6-meter) travel lanes. and consistent products. and modifying the interchange at Brambleton Avenue/Hampton Boulevard in Norfolk.760 linear foot (1. Fire and LifeLighting Safety NETWORK 91 .6-meter) shoulders. and contributing author to IES RP-22-2011 Recommended Practice for Tunnel Roadway Lighting. scheduled for completion in late 2017. lighting manufacturers Kim Molloy is an Electrical and Lighting Engineer in the Boston office of Parsons Brinckerhoff with more than 15 years of experience in tunnel lighting. He is a current member of the IES Roadway Lighting Committee. an escape corridor.1 billion comprehensive agreement with the developer. and extend the Martin Luther King (MLK) Freeway. Christopher Leone is a Lighting Engineer in the Boston office of Parsons Brinckerhoff with 14 years of experience in tunnel and roadway lighting. with an interchange at High Street. reliable. build. rehabilitate the existing Midtown Tunnel and two Downtown Tunnels. Parsons Brinckerhoff carried out a cost and performance comparison of the HPS and LED luminaires. In addition. considered by Parsons Brinckerhoff to be 10 years. During the initial development phase. For a previous Network article on lighting by Chris Leone. a warranty that covers the luminaires needs to be in place for a significant portion of the anticipated life of the light engine in the luminaire.69. Jonathan Weaver. extending the MLK Freeway from London Boulevard to I-264. There is a demand for LED as a lighting solution from tunnel owners and operators as a way of reducing operating and maintenance costs for a project. while embracing a leading edge technology. ERC will finance. The conclusion was that the LED system would have a substantially lower life cycle cost. 1 DECEMBER 2014 http://www. the cost of the lighting for the new Midtown Tunnel was based on a combination of high pressure sodium (HPS) point source lighting and linear fluorescent luminaires.com/news/publications.

The corridor is located on the left and the roadway is on the right. A typical tunnel section is shown in Figure 1. It is needed for water-filled piping systems which are installed in environments subject to freezing conditions. were to be located within a utility corridor which connected to tunnel support buildings at the ends of the tunnel near each portal.6 portal where incoming air would be coldest.2 2 provides a partial secY tion view of the modeled Figure 2 – Cross Section of Model tunnel segment. a small segment of the tunnel length was 0. A thermal analysis was performed using a CFD 1. The two 6-inch piping systems of concern. In many situations. By developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate heat flow within the new tunnel. Analysis Approximately 1158 meters (3800 feet) of the tunnel consisted of segments immersed and buried below a river with the elevation varying by as much as 18 meters (60 feet). Air at -10°C (14°F) and 5 meters per second (11 miles per hour) flowed through the roadway area in the direction of traffic.Evaluating Freeze Protection Needs with CFD by Raylene C. Note—dimensions indicated are in meters. CA. Figure 1. +1-916-567-2525. for the client.8°C (55°F) while all other regions began at 6°C (43°F). a FIRE SUPPRESSION WATER MAINS CORRIDOR ROADWAY CONCRETE Figure 1 – Typical tunnel cross section 92 fire protection standpipe and a sprinkler main.4 1.aspx Freeze protection of wet pipe fire protection systems can be a costly requirement for tunnel systems.8 perature distribution CORRIDOR within the tunnel spaces. The air temperature . These temperatures were deemed appropriately conservative and justification for this is provided in the ‘Discussion’ section below.2 BACKFILL tool to evaluate temCONCRETE 0. transient calculations were carried out for unusually cold weather conditions until a steadystate solution was reached. Initial temperature boundary conditions for backfill at the side and the bottom of the tunnel were set to 12.com Introduction DECEMBER 2014 http://www.0 Z 1.2 0. This resulted in first-cost savings. The heat tape and insulation must span the entire length of piping that will be subject to freezing. as well as elimination of all future operation and maintenance costs.pbworld.com/news/publications. The Geometry and Dimensions (shown thickness of this mod. Typical installations consist of electrical heat tape attached to the pipe and fittings underneath a layer of pipe insulation. Parsons Brinckerhoff provided engineering design services for a new tunnel.in meters) eled segment was 1.2 entire 3800 feet of tunnel. Rather than model the 5. Moreno.92 feet) along the x-axis (not shown). it is difficult to determine whether freezing conditions will occur within proposed structures.2 meters (3. Sacramento.8 modeled near the tunnel 0. particularly tunnel systems. morenorc@pbworld.4 4. Parsons Brinckerhoff was able to determine that freeze protection would not be required on the fire suppression mains in the tunnel utility corridor. Roadway Fire SESTunnel and and Water Stormwater Life Modeling Systems Safety Power NETWORK To assess freezing potential. US.

8°C (37. The top surface of the backfill. Lavine..25) 19-Jan 2. a year which experienced average air temperatures in the lower range.8°C (55°F). °C (°F) 7-Day Average. 2007 Table 2 – Material Properties 12. • Effective properties of backfill material assumed a fully saturated state with 30 percent water.80) -4. boundary temperatures assumed in the analysis were conservative. While the depth at which these measurements were taken is unknown.aspx is based on the two and three-day averages for a period with the lowest recorded temperature for this region (see Table 1).pbworld.55) -10.8°C(55°F) Figure 3 – Locations of Temperature Measurement Roadway -10°C(14°F) BACKFILL CONCRETE DECEMBER 2014 http://www. http://www. D.14) 0. 0°C(32°F) 0. For example. 6th Ed.97 (23. The following simplifying assumptions were applied to the analysis: Discussion • Highest heat transfer rates would occur near tunnel portals where incoming air is coldest.9) -6.70 (5.61 (12. Generally. • Tunnel walls. k B6 3 Source: The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. • Tunnel section geometry and dimension were slightly modified to minimize computational processing time.. °C (°F) Daily Average.11 (31. it can be certain that the temperature of 0°C (32°F) at the top of the fill surface was lower than would be expected.97 (39. was set to a constant temperature of 0°C (32°F) while outer backfill boundaries were set to 12. Fourth Edition.5 kJ/kgK 3 Concrete B5A T2 1.9) -5.64 (27. and floor were assumed to be the same concrete material.44) -2.92) - - 24-Jan -3. and Incropera F. Material properties for concrete and soil are provided in Table 2.com Table 1 – Summary of Historical Temperature Data for the Region of Analysis This was assumed to have negligible effect on overall heat transfer as modeled heat transfer surface areas were nearly equal to actual section geometries. 93 . °C (°F) 3-Day Average.6 W/mK Density. • Material properties were assumed constant with temperature and direction.wunderground.05) - 20-Jan -15.9) -14.14 (28.77 (16.52 (22.06 (28.7 .23) - 22-Jan -10. A.39 (-2. the water interface. An adiabatic.1°F) and a monthly water temperature average of 4.70) - - - Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety NETWORK Source: Weather Underground. • Thermal energy input from conduit co-located within the corridor was neglected.com/news/publications.61 (3. k CORRIDOR B5 Soil Y 12.31 (41.06) -10. °C (°F) 2-Day Average.11 (13. Dewitt.06 (35.4°C (40°F) for the month of January. р 2100 kg/m Specific heat.29) - 23-Jan -8.65 (18.40 (13.47°F).4 W/mK Density.11 (34) 2. Bergman.28) -7.9 days.89 (16) -2.63 (36.. or thermally insulated. indicate a minimum hourly water temperature of 2.58) -2.73) 3. June 1995. р 1700 kg/m Specific heat.. T. available water temperature measurements for 2011.3°C (35 .80) -8.12 (24.55) -0.89 (25) 2. The lowest air temperatures for this region generally occur in January with a monthly average ranging from 1. Figure 3 indicates locations where temperatures were measured.10 (21.80 (33.8°C(55°F) Thermal conductivity. The simulation was carried out to final time of 13. with the exception of the roadway area where domain boundaries remained open.21) - 21-Jan -19.14) -0. Cp 0. Wiley.04 (31.8.88 kJ/kgK T3 B5B Z Thermal conductivity. boundary condition was applied to the outer boundaries of the model. Cp 2. °C (°F) 18-Jan 1.02) -4. A steady-state condition was assumed when the temperature at a fixed location varied by less than one-tenth of a degree (°C) per hour.22 (36) 5. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. National Fire Protection Association.Date Daily Minimum. ceiling.

the corridor air temperature reaches 0°C (32°F) after 2.000 480.pbworld.00 4.9 days -2.7°C (35°F).000 600.00 Legend Temperature. For this case.000 For both cases considered.080.00 T2 T4 B5 B6 Legend 6. a simulation was run with the influent air flow temperature of -19.00 -2.00 1.000 300.000 2.9 days 0 -8.200.4°C (13.00 Figure 5 – Three air temperatures measured within the corridor 8. s Figure 7 – Corridor air temperature 600.000 0 -4.200.000 720.000 360.3°F).com/news/publications.3 days -4. Note that the one-day and two-day average temperatures for this historic low were -14.00 4. the corridor air temperature reaches freezing conditions after some length of time.000 840.000 840. Temperature.000 960. report groundwater temperatures at 9 to 18 meters (30 to 60 feet) below surface to be approximately equivalent to the average annual air temperature for the region.00 0. °C 6. Temperature profiles for depths less than 9 meters (30 feet) will generally experience cyclic fluctuations with the largest change occurring at the surface for annual timescales.000 240. s 1.00 T3 B5A B5B 2.000 2.000 FDS Time.6°F) and -10.000 960. studies by Kusuda et al.16.00 Figure 4 – Evolution of inner wall temperatures for the corridor 8. Note that the one-week and one-month average air temperature for this historic low temperature event were -2. °C Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety NETWORK .000 720.00 FDS Time. This temperature corresponds to the lowest recorded temperature since 1946 and is considered to be quite conservative. respectively.00 0.000 240. the length of time required for the air temperature to reach 0°C (32°F) was longer than the expected duration of the low temperatures assumed in this calculation.9 .000 120. s 1.000 13.000 -6. respectively. both the corridor walls and the air began at ambient temperature and decreased over time.00 -2.000 480. °C Similarly.3 days 60.00 0.00 0.00 0 DECEMBER 2014 http://www.4°C (-3°F).000 13.000 840. respectively. In this depth range.7°C (5.62°F) is expected.200.000 360.00 Temperature.00 2.00 1. While extensive ground and groundwater measurements for this area are not readily available.aspx Figure 4 shows the evolution of inner wall temperatures for the corridor.3 days.00 FDS Time.94 2.000 120.00 1.00 -4.00 Legend T3 B5A B5B 2. Similar to the case with a -10°C (14°F) air flow. s 1.00 FDS Time.000 240.000 300.3°F) and 1.00 Figure 6 – Interior corridor wall temperature 8.000 720.7°C (57 .080.00 6.000 Temperature.080.000 240. T2 T4 B5 B6 Legend 0 To further investigate the influence of ambient air temperatures on temperature within the corridor. 8.00 -2.000 120.000 480. the air temperatures began at the ambient temperature and decreased over the period of the simulation.000 120.00 -8. Figures 6 and 7 show the resulting interior corridor walls and air temperatures. 6. However. °C 4. Figure 5 shows three air temperatures measured within the corridor for the same case.000 420.00 -4.000 180.00 60. a groundwater temperature of 13.00 4.6°C (27. the cooling due to the air flow at -10°C (14°F) has a significant thermal influence on the corridor.000 540. As expected. This indicates that under steady conditions for the boundary conditions assumed.000 360.00 -6. Similar to the walls. All walls began at 6°C (43°F) and slowly approached a steady-state condition with the wall separating the corridor from the roadway tunnel being the coolest (T4).000 180. the air temperature within the corridor is about 0°C (32°F). the initial ambient temperature of 6°C (43°F) within the tunnel is lower than would be expected.000 600.000 960.

com/news/publications. Earth Temperature and Thermal Diffusivity at Selected Stations in the United States. Use of Temperature Profiles Beneath Streams to Determine Rates of Vertical Ground-Water Flow and Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. Gomez Fontalva. 2011 Raylene Moreno is a Registered Professional Mechanical Engineer with experience in plumbing. She provides engineering design. and heat transfer. Wiley.. Fourth Edition. Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety Conclusion DECEMBER 2014 http://www. 8. U. and construction support services on various rail and tunnel projects. Future work will continue to utilize this tool for tunnel systems..W. T. CFD software continues to be a valuable analysis tool for various applications within mechanical engineering design for tunnel systems. United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2337. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology.. C.. • Incropera F. Processes Affecting Groundwater Temperature Patterns in a Coastal Aquifer. June 1995 References • Calvache.M.L. Department of the Army. Lavine. National Fire Protection Association. fire protection. Significant cost savings were realized for the client as it was conservatively determined that a provision for freeze protection of the wet pipe fire protection systems within the tunnel utility corridor would not be necessary.. Crespo.. 1989 • The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. 1965 • Lapham. analysis. Bergman. 2007 • Kusuda.pbworld. T. M. Dewitt.The analysis concluded that the buried tunnel structure provided significant thermal mass such that the effects of surface level temperature fluctuations were minimized within the tunnel utility corridor. J.. A. Duque. W. 6th Ed.. F. D.. 223-236.aspx NETWORK 95 ..S.

Fuel can be defined in terms of a heat of combustion.heat source or net flux m” . which requires energy.mass loss rate of the fuel ∆Hg . Selected material properties can be determined from literature or testing. surface cooling. often expressed in terms of heat flux. Its use has been well-accepted in fluid mechanics and heat transfer. CA.critical water application rate Figure 1 . provided an accurate representation is made of the items affecting heat flux (convection. A series of fire tests were carried out by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) of Singapore that provides a means to calibrate a computer model that can be used for design purposes. reactions. Harris. This interaction is illustrated in Figure 1. Flame H 20 m”w. Computer Calibration Fire Tests In March 2012. +1. .magnitude of the heat required to vaporize the fuel ∆HT . This model is based on the interaction between the heat required to vaporize a solid or liquid fuel and the effect that water has on the prevention of this vaporization. It is important to note that a solid or liquid fuel itself will not burn. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.).com Introduction Requirements for implementation of fixed fire fighting systems (FFFS) in road tunnels often include a full-scale test or series of tests to be performed. to fundamental fire properties. However the requirement for full-scale testing still exists.Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety NETWORK Computational Modeling as an Alternative to Full-Scale Testing for Tunnel Fixed Fire Fighting Systems by Kenneth J. Sacramento. etc. ex q” ∆HW m” Fuel (∆HT) ∆Hg Legend q” . radiation. 96 Computer modeling is an alternative to full-scale testing. For most tests. water.916-567-2503.Dynamics of Fire and Extinguishment Computational modeling can be used to compare the effectiveness of water application rates for solid-fuel types of fires. Recent road tunnel fire events have shown tunnel FFFS to provide a significant benefit in reducing fire damage and many new tunnels are being required to have them on this basis alone.aspx Tunnel FFFS have been a relatively recent development. Therefore full-scale testing became the reasonable requirement to understanding the performance of fixed fire fighting systems in the very different conditions of their application from buildings to road tunnels. and this expense may be creating an unnecessary obstacle to their effective implementation.pbworld.the fuel souce ∆HW . Three in particular were of interest for calibration purposes described in Table 1. The primary objective is to generate sufficient power from the fire to simulate the design scenario.heat of gasification m”w. US. particularly in Europe. Physics of Water/Fire Interaction Fire point theory relates the effectiveness of the suppression agent. These tests were performed with various standard drop nozzle configurations and water application rates. but combustion and the interaction of water introduces a complexity in energy exchanges that has made the acceptance of computer modeling for this use problematic. wood and plastic have been used as common sample fuels. products.com/news/publications. particularly in Europe and sometimes in the US. ex . and reaction rates. LTA of Singapore conducted a series of tests in the A86 Tunnel in Spain. water evaporation. harris@pbworld. A fuel will burn only after it is converted to a gaseous state by vaporization.

7/18 9. Results The results of the free-burning test show reasonable correlation between the model and the test for the heat release rate and gauge heat flux as indicated in Figure 2. Figure 2 – Comparison of model and test results for unsuppressed fire 97 . Heat release rate can be used as an indicator of the fire power.6/82 1. The extreme decay period is not considered significant because the major effects of the fire have passed.711/33 5. both model and test showed temperatures too high for tenable conditions and low enough not to be a concern to the structural integrity.Description of LTA Fire Tests Model Values Wood Plastic Total Test Values Volume (m3)/% 7.410/67 1.0/61 37.2 Total inc.125 meters. The growth rate is slightly faster than the test. This is reasonable correlation for design purposes. Net heat flux is the parameter used to determine if fuel vaporization can occur and with it resulting target ignition. the model gas temperatures are lower than tested.3 80/20 Mass (kg)/% 3. The grid size was chosen as a cube with lengths of 0. In both cases. The net heat flux was not measured. For the unsuppressed fire. the target ignited.6 99.7 No 2 2 8 4 minutes 44.aspx than that measured. a value that has been shown to give reasonable results in other simulations performed by the author.000 Energy (GJ)/% 58. The modeled gauge heat flux is considerably more aggressive Gas temperatures were compared in Figure 3. the model shows reasonable correlation with the test. Gauge heat flux is measured with respect to some reference temperature in the gauge. The modeled peak heat release rate is slightly higher than the test.com/news/publications.pbworld. Free burning (Test 7) 250 Target ignited 200 150 Heat Flux (kW/m2) Heat Release Rate (MW) Heat Flux (5m downstream of fire) Heat Release Rate 200 Model 100 50 Test Gauge 150 Model Gauge 100 Model Net 50 Test 0 0 0 500 1000 Time (sec) 1500 2000 0 500 1000 Time (sec) 1500 2000 DECEMBER 2014 http://www. For the suppressed fire. While there are peaks that are higher and lower than that measured. the overall magnitude reasonably tracks that of the fire and can be used for design purposes.Tabulation and comparison of fuel quantities Computer Models Computer models were developed in fire dynamics simulator (FDS) by the author for these three tests.LTA Test No. often determined by a cooling water feed. The model quantities and reported test values are tabulated and summarized in Table 2. Target (GJ) Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety NETWORK 117 Table 2 . However.6/39 95.1 Unknown Unknown 7 0 none 150 Yes 225 Table 1 .121 5. Water Application Rate (mm/min) Activation Time after 60° C Peak Fire Heat Release Rate (FHRR) (MW) Target Ignited? Max Target Heat Flux (kw/m2) 1 12 4 minutes 37.

pbworld.0 Test gauge 0.5 1.aspx 35 80 .0 Heat Flux (kW/m2) 30 20 Test 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Target not ignited 1.5 15 10 5 0 0 0 500 Time (sec) Figure 4 – Comparison of model and test results for 12 millimeter/minute suppressed fire 98 20 Deluge operation 40 10 25 1000 1500 Time (sec) 2000 Model Heat Flux (kW/m2) 30 70 Heat Release Rate (MW) DECEMBER 2014 http://www.com/news/publications.Gas temperature (10m downstream of fire) Gas temperature (10m downstream of fire) 500 1500 Deluge operation 400 Model Temp 5m downstream of fire 1000 Temperature (oC) Temperature (oC) Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety NETWORK 500 Model Temp 5m downstream of fire 300 200 100 0 0 500 1000 1500 Time (sec) +L51 oMS1 +R51 0 2000 500 0 1000 1500 Time (sec) +L51 oMS1 +R51 2000 Figure 3 – Comparison of model and test results for unsuppressed and 12 millimeter/minute suppressed fire 50 120 110 45 100 Model gauge Model 40 90 60 Model net With deluge system (Test 1) Heat Release Rate 50 Heat flux 5m downstream of fire Deluge operation 2.

the model showed higher values than the test. The model heat release rate was calculated as considerably higher than that tested. but still showed that spread to the target fuel pile was prevented. Computer modeling provides a cost-effective means of demonstrating proposed system performance. PE is a Tunnel Mechanical and Fire Protection Specialist and Principal Professional Associate with 40 years of experience in design. In the case of the suppressed test. In the case of comparison with the LTA tests.pbworld. Kenneth Harris. 25. as well as gas temperatures. Comparison with a test is beneficial to calibrate the model. as the calculation indicates a higher value than measured.1 Kenneth Harris has written a number of articles for Network including “Hydraulic Modeling of Fire Protection Pipelines for the Westside Rail Tunnel” Network #34. Fire point theory shows that net heat flux is the key parameter for predicting water effectiveness and understanding this allows for better predicting of spray performance. the LTA tests are a significant milestone in providing a benchmark to compare model results and their contribution to the knowledge of the industry is extremely important. In the model. Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety NETWORK 99 . The net heat flux was much closer to the gauge flux. and FHRR profile.The model gauge heat flux was also calculated as higher than the measured target gauge flux. insufficient target fuel vaporization occurred. The reverse would be problematic. The fuel vaporization process is well-defined in fire science and the computer models can be structured to utilize this approach. Conclusion Full-scale testing of fire suppression systems is expensive. For this reason. It should be remembered that the purpose of this work is to develop a spray system that meets a particular objective.aspx The fire heat release rate (FHRR) and heat flux test results for the 12 millimeter/minute (mm/min) suppressed fire. did not compare well at all. construction and inspection of large civil and industrial projects. Spring 1996. like the test. as shown in Figure 4.com/news/publications. pp 24. 1 DECEMBER 2014 http://www. this modeling exercise showed reasonably good correlation with the unsuppressed test for heat flux. resulting in no target ignition. This is acceptable for design purposes.

US.Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety NETWORK Latest Enhancements to the Subway Environment Simulation (SES) Program by Andrew Louie. section pressure changes.com. All of the new components.com/news/publications. relatively cool ground water is pumped through pipes that run along the trainway in subway systems. NY. and underground walkways. Cooling Pipes Cooling pipe networks are a novel and effective method for cooling subway environments. and trackway exhaust). based on SES version 4. and new software-based security system were developed in-house by Parsons Brinckerhoff’s tunnel ventilation team in the New York office. This model simplifies the computation of heat generation due to accelerating trains and no longer requires the user to input line current or voltage data. NY. air curtains. nighttime cooling.pbworld. The new motor controller allows the SES user to input the manufacturer's provided motor efficiency versus train speed curve to compute the energy losses for this new motor. The SES program was originally developed by Parsons Brinckerhoff in 1975 under the aegis of the National Transportation Systems Center of the United States Department of Transportation. humidity. The new features of SES Version 6 are described below: AC (alternating current) Motors Modern subway and passenger rail vehicles are using more advanced train propulsion technologies that are not analogous to the original DC (direct current) powered train propulsion systems that were state-of-the-art when SES was originally developed. The SES2000 was the first version that was developed entirely by Parsons Brinckerhoff and released to selected clients with a hardware security lock to prevent the unauthorized distribution of the program. platform screen doors. various systems of environmental control (including forced air ventilation. emergency situations with trains stopped in tunnels and air movement solely by mechanical ventilation and buoyant forces. SES Version 6 is an update to SES2000 that incorporates many new features as well as software bug fixes and an updated security lock system that no longer relies on unreliable hardware dongles. In these systems. +1-212-631-3767. station air conditioning. odwyer@pbworld. SES Version 6 is in internal testing right now. lisilas@pbworld. +1-212-613-8821. The last publicly available version of SES was version 4. airflows in any given network of interconnected tunnels. any desired sequence of train operation (including the mixing of trains with different operating characteristics and schedules). 100 The capabilities of the SES program are comprehensive. US. +1-212-465-5217. and added many new features such as: jet fan de-rating. louiea@pbworld. New York. permitting the user to simulate a variety of train propulsion and braking systems. New York. Tom O’Dwyer. SES2000. stations. due to be released in December 2014. New York. and a special feature to simulate the long-range thermal impact of a possible reduction in the heat absorption capacity of tunnel walls after many years of system operation. NY. various steady-state and non-steady-state heat sources.1 distributed by the Department of Transportation and was released in IP (inch-pound) units in 1997.com. A new motor controller model was developed to complement the existing DC controlled motors modeled in SES. and many other components that enhanced the normal analysis features of SES.1.aspx The Subway Environment Simulation (SES) computer program is a designer-oriented tool which provides estimates of airflows. temperatures.com DECEMBER 2014 http://www. The first SES program in SI (international system) units. was released in 2003. and air conditioning requirements for both operating and proposed multiple-track subway systems. The circulating water acts as a heat sink and cools the subway system environment. The Channel Tunnel between France and England is the first major transit system to utilize cooling pipes to cool the tunnel environment as shown . US. bug fixes. and Silas Li.

SES now allows the designer to adjust the turning losses based on the actual geometry of the dividing wall termination. this system on the tunnel environment is a reduction in He has worked in this field for over 22 years and had designed heat generation by the train's braking system. This feature also allows road tunnel designers based on published research presented at the 13th Anto more precisely capture the airflow resistance due to nual Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vevehicle profiles. Software-Based Security System The security system gives Parsons Brinckerhoff conLocation Specific Train Energy Recovery trol over the distribution and use of the software which The desire for greater energy efficiency in subway syswould allow Parsons Brinckerhoff to license the software tems has led to the development of wayside energy so that it remains the industry standard. Y S. The effect of Tom O’Dwyer is a Professional Associate in Tunnel Ventilation. then supplies it back to the traction power system when He is currently one of the main developers of the SES program. "CFD estimation of heat transfer enhancements on a cooling pipe in underground railway tunnels". SES computes a rear train drag coefficient assuming a rectangular profile. which are modeled in SES in the same hicle Tunnels1.pbworld. the junction losses may be different than the built in losses in SES. one of the main developers of the SES program. Licensing fees recovery systems (WERS) that consist of an electrical could be used to continually develop SES and provide energy storage system such as a flywheel or battery. As great value to our customers and clients. He has been involved in the development braking system at specific locations in the tunnel sysof the SES program beginning at version 4. Ting.Coefficient of Drag for the Back of the Train By default. 2009. The SES airflow junction losses for this type of geometry was developed assuming a certain width of the dividing wall.Cooling Pipe Cross Section Schematic (left). SES can the ventilation systems for many road.com/news/publications. and transit tunnels now account for this reduction in heat from the train's throughout the world.0. Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety row dividing walls. Variable Junction Losses for Type 2 Dividing Walls Typically subway stations with center island platforms have trackway dividing walls at the platform ends.aspx NETWORK 101 . The SES cooling pipe model was developed coefficient. He has 29 years of experience in the design and simulation modeling of fire/smoke management and ventilation systems for numerous projects involving transit. New high speed trains may have more aerodynamically shaped rear train profiles and therefore this would affect the airflow resistance of a train in the subway system. p. a train reduces speed in the vicinity of the WERS. the train's traction motors convert the train's kinetic energy Andrew Louie is a Professional Associate in Tunnel Ventilation. Typical passenger cars have more aerodya number of cooling pipe networks and will compute the namically shaped rear profiles than typical subway trains. BHR Group. Actual Cooling Pipe Installation in the Channel Tunnel (right) ify the rear train drag coefficient exactly as it allows the designer to specify the front of train drag in Figure 1. to electrical energy and feed it back to the traction power He has worked on tunnel ventilation projects for Parsons Brincksystem where the WERS stores this braking energy and erhoff for the past 9 years across the United States and England. SES allows the system designer to set up way as trains. et al. a train in the vicinity starts to accelerate. heat transferred to the pipe network and its corresponding effect on subway system temperature. 629. rail. SES now allows the designer to specFigure 1 . For stations with very wide or nar- 1 Silas Li is Manager of the Parsons Brinckerhoff Tunnel Ventilation Analysis Group and chairman of the NFPA 130 ventilation task group. rail and road tunnels in seven countries. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.. 13th Annual Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels. and is currently tem as designated by the system designer.

The Level of Development (LOD) is a reference to help the designer and owner specify BIM deliverables and get a clear picture of what will be included in a BIM deliverable. the project team can identify uncertainties. It is defined and developed by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) for the AIA G202-2013 Building Information Modeling Protocol.a@pbworld. Hong Kong/Singapore.Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety NETWORK Use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) on Road Tunnels and Metro Projects by YF Pin. BIM software can assist engineers in identifying potential problems or clashes among different disciplines (including interdiscipline and intra-discipline clashes). pin. At present. etc.aspx One method to shorten the construction period. 1 102 • Many resources are required to develop a standard library for M&E equipment and BIM standards for infrastructure projects. Based on the three-dimensional (3-D) model. and resources and budget are more accurately defined. Some of the systems in the BIM model are shown in Figure 1. Ashok Kumar. 350. As a result. BIM can greatly help MEP engineers in their analyses through integration with third-party software for heat load calculations.steven@pbworld.pbworld.Systems in the BIM models for the Singapore and Hong Kong projects include. Parsons Brinckerhoff is also currently working on the first largescale metro BIM model with M&E services in Singapore. reduce uncertainty factors. 500). building information modelling (BIM) software is replacing two-dimensional (2-D) drafting software in the design stage as computer technology advances. a four-dimensional (4-D) timeline and a five-dimensional (5-D) cost analysis can also be developed. Singapore. LOD 350 and 400 are suitable for construction stage. potential impacts. and safety concerns before construction even begins. lighting analysis. The project is in the construction stage and the contractor has taken the responsibility to further develop the BIM model to a higher Level of Development (LOD)1. rajamani. Key Challenges and Samples of Recommended Solutions The following lists the key challenges faced in developing BIM models for infrastructure projects with many M&E systems and sub-systems: Singapore Metro Project Hong Kong Road Tunnel Project Waterside System • • Airside System • • Mechanical Ventilation System • • Power Supply System • • Lighting System • • Earthing System • • Lightning Protection System • • Not Applicable • Fire Detection System • • Sprinkler System • • FH/HR System • Not Applicable Clean Gas System • • Smoke Control System • • Hot Water System • Not Applicable Cold Water System • • Sanitary System • • Drainage System • • Environmental Control System Electrical System Road Lighting System Fire Services System Plumbing & Sanitary System Tunnel Ventilation System Air Purification System • • Not Applicable • • • Not Applicable • Control & Monitoring System • • High Voltage System • • ELV System TCSS System Figure 1 . At present there are six LOD levels (LOD 100.com. . By using BIM. +852-2579-8899. 300. LOD 100 – 300 are suitable for the design stage. Parsons Brinckerhoff has completed the first large-scale mechanical and electrical (M&E) BIM model for a road tunnel in Hong Kong. Information from suppliers of BIM services and software for infrastructure projects is limited.yf@pbworld.com/news/publications. Hong Kong. +852-2963-7625/+65-6589-3661. lai. 400. the above. and LOD 500 is specific to the as-built model for owner. the project schedule is potentially shortened. but are not limited to. Parsons Brinckerhoff is using BIM experience from other projects in different regions to help develop and recommend standards across various disciplines. R. and Steven Lai.com Background DECEMBER 2014 http://www.com. and lower overall cost of infrastructure projects is to reinforce the coordination between systems by using Building Information Modelling (BIM) to virtually imitate the construction sequence. 200. +65-6290-7834.

input from multi-disciplines is required. Parsons Brinckerhoff has successfully used BIM technology in various road tunnels and metro projects and will continue to enhance the skills and resources on the use of BIM in projects. Exporting the 2-D DGN format and the 2-D DWG format from the BIM model may not result in a 100 percent match of the exported layers. inter-discipline and intra-discipline coordination. Although extra time and effort could be spent to modify the 2-D drawings to suit the traditional 2-D CAD standards. an underground trench for cable. the architect and the structural engineer will create an individual BIM model for buildings and another model for tunnels. or how the services in the 2-D drawings generated from the BIM model shall be shown. • There is equipment designed by the M&E sector that will be installed by other disciplines (e. etc. Usually. He is now working in Singapore as a M&E Project Manager for a metro project which has used BIM for the first time. For some projects. • Some engineering calculation programs and numerical analyses are available as add-ons to BIM software. YF Pin is a BIM Coordinator for a road tunnel project in Hong Kong.tems. such as hotels. Furthermore.g. and it is effective to conduct coordination workshops so that experienced engineers and architects can resolve conflicts together. interface coordinator. the results of these engineering calculation programs may deviate from other commonly used commercial engineering calculation programs. Input parameters for design can be gotten directly from the BIM model and the engineering calculation or analysis can be performed automatically. further development of these add-on programs is expected from the suppliers. DECEMBER 2014 http://www. and technical support. it is preferred to have BIM modellers with an M&E engineering background. cable. and create higher project profits is the upcoming trend. • The computer hardware requirement for creating a BIM model for MEP (mechanical/electrical/plumbing) design exceeds that for other disciplines. and concealed conduit. Ashok Kumar is a BIM Manager for a M&E metro project in Singapore. cable hangers. A collaboration process is recommended. • The 2-D output generated from the BIM model will be different from the traditional 2-D layout. Communication and managing coordination are important factors in the solution. improve productivity. Revit software is used for developing the station or ventilation building BIM model and AECOsim software is used for the tunnel model. it is difficult but important to ensure continuity of the M&E services at the boundary between the two models. when resolving clashes concerning an M&E model. and high-rise commercial buildings. However. as compatibility issues and information loss has been experienced. this approach may result in human error. He is responsible for model management. which services shall be shown on which BIM model. and the software tracks each of these components inside the model. there are limited skillful BIM modellers in the market. it is not always possible to include all M&E features (e. Steven Lai is a Mechanical Engineer and a Senior Professional Associate at Parsons Brinckerhoff. and the client as well as the engineer will need guidance and instruction on the expected drawing output from BIM.g. The normal workstation cannot handle a BIM model for a large-scale infrastructure project and generally needs to be upgraded. improve construction efficiency. • There are two major software options (Revit and AECOsim) being used for infrastructure projects. hospitals. model management. R.aspx NETWORK 103 . To develop the BIM model in a cost effective way. reduce conflicts and rework. M&E BIM models contain many systems and sub-sys- Using BIM technology to create data-rich models in three or more dimensions to facilitate better design.com/news/publications.. provide shorter construction periods. production documentation. and the above-mentioned issues can be discussed and resolved at BIM coordination workshops for a better collaboration among different disciplines. He is M&E Project Manager for a road tunnel project in Hong Kong which has used BIM for the first time.. as the software performance would degrade noticeably. As a result. Currently there is not always a recognized guideline on which discipline shall develop the BIM model. foster better collaboration.pbworld. Due to the constraint of hardware and software when working on a normal workstation. cable brackets. All members of the project team should be encouraged to attend these workshops to ensure the model is kept up to date. the civil sector) such as earthing mats. Fire SESand andLife Modeling Safety • As BIM is relatively new in the M&E discipline. Partnerships with Bentley and Autodesk will help to overcome the above issues and help to drive the software changes needed. When integrating the building model and the tunnel model. His responsibilities include BIM E&M Coordinator. He is also the BIM E&M Coordinator for other building projects.) in the BIM model for a large-scale project.

com Network ©December 2014. Past issues are available to employees via the Parsons Brinckerhoff intranet. • Byline: Include the name. and e-mail address of each author. climate change adaptation. – Screen captures are only 72 ppi and not acceptable. daloisiosl@pbworld. • Include only essential information in a readable format. Resiliency Parsons Brinckerhoff is helping communities to build or improve their ability to "bounce back" after hazardous events. We look forward to hearing from you.com.pbworld. Articles may be reprinted only with permission from the executive editor.pbworld. • Body of text: – Clearly describe the challenge you faced and how you or your team solved it. New York. 1-212-465-5249 and Susan Lysaght. Steven Kam-Hung Lai. daloisiosl@pbworld.com/ • Conclusion: – What lessons did you learn? – What was the impact of your solution on your project? – What does your new technology or technique mean to our firm and the state-of-the-art of the industry? – What is the current status of your project. – Resolution should be at least 240 dpi. John Munro.200 words or less. eps. Employees may request printed copies to use for conferences. Kenneth Harris. Executive Editor: John Chow. Network 79. • Introduction/Overview: Provide a brief paragraph stating your topic and how it is significant. Guidelines for Articles • Articles should conform to Network format (defined below). or psd. 1-212-465-5000. • Keep your article as short as you can—include only relevant details and descriptions. Sydney.aspx. 1-717-859-7449. Hong Kong. Submit Your Article E-mail article and graphics files to: John Chow.onlineconversion. The opinions expressed by the writers are their own and are not necessarily those of Parsons Brinckerhoff. – Tell what innovative technologies or approaches you developed or used. technique. green infrastructure. or technology? • Biographical Information: Please provide your title and a brief description of your work in 1–2 sentences at the end of your article.com Advisor: Judy Cooper.com/news/publications. jpeg. PA 17522. New York. phone number. New York. NY Cover photo: Eurasia Road Tunnel (Istanbul Strait Road Tube Crossing). Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc. NY. • Encourage readers to contact authors for more information. One Penn Plaza. Godalming. All rights reserved. PA. Kate Hunt. PA. tiff. This journal is intended to foster the free flow of ideas and information among Parsons Brinckerhoff staff. We will explore topics such as risk reduction through policy and engineering. Send your request to pbnetwork@pbworld. • Appeal to a broad range of readers. • Papers written for other publications must be modified to conform to Network format.com Editor: Susan Lysaght. New York. 1-717-859-7427. • Related Web Sites: Provide any web addresses that readers can go to for related information.com. File Formats (provide electronic files) • Text: must be an MS Word file without graphics embedded. Norman Rhodes. location. or climate change. New York. chow@pbworld. Lancaster. lysaght@pbworld. lysaght@pbworld. Parsons Brinckerhoff Corporate Graphics Services. Past issues of Network are available electronically on Parsons Brinckerhoff’s web site. chow@pbworld. • Graphics: – Format should be bitmap. health. AUS. NY..com) and Susan Lysaght (lysaght@pbworld. – Provide exact name of client and state your firm’s role and responsibilities. NY 10119. and connections with sustainability.com Graphic Designer: Suzanne Daloisio. habitat restoration. PA.com) or go directly to: http://www. carbon reduction. extreme weather. © Tolga Togan . Lancaster. Contact editors John Chow (chow@pbworld. – Provide all units of measures in metrics followed by US Customary in parentheses. DECEMBER 2014 http://www.com/news/publications. see http://www. and proposals. For assistance in converting measures. layers of protection.Fire and Life Network Safety NETWORK Call for Articles We invite all employees to participate in technology transfer and submit articles to Network. 4139 Oregon Pike. Our Goal The goal of Network is to promote technology transfer by featuring articles that: • Tell readers about innovative developments.aspx Network Format 104 • Length: Articles should be 1. seminars. Sacramento. (http://www. flood mitigation. NY Guest Reviewers for this issue: Guest reviewers for this issue: Doug Graham. CA. Ephrata. All graphics files and a clear hard copy at least 165mm (7 inches) wide must also go to Suzanne Daloisio. Lancaster. UK. and livability.pbworld.com). New York.com.