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Chapter 5 : Water and Air Pollution


Maintenance of hygienic conditions through services such as garbage

collection and wastewater disposal.
WHO defines sanitation as, the provision of facilities and services for
the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is
the major cause of disease in the world and improving sanitation is
known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in
households and across communities.



Fecal Oral infection transmission route

Oral related to mouth
It is the transmission of a disease when pathogens in fecal particles
pass from one host and are introduced in the oral cavity of another
Mode of transmission:
1. Water: if water comes in contact of feces at a place that is used for
drinking without adequate treatment.
2. Food: Preparing food like vegetables that is contaminated with feces
without washing properly.
3. Flies: Houseflies may contaminated feces with the food if there is no
proper feces disposal.
4. Washing: If hands and other parts are not washed properly after
feces contact.
5. Sexual practice: sucking d, anilingus ( sucking asshole),
coprophilia ( taking feces from asshole and using it as a mean of
excitement )
Common diseases are as
1. Cholera
2. Hepatitis A
3. Hepatitis E
4. Ascariasis
5. Typhoid fever
6. Bacillary dysentery

Preventive measures

a) Barriers:
All the measures that prevent the fecel contamination are barriers as
shown in the figure in next page.
b) Strategic Activities


Place water supply pipe away from the sewerage pipe

The public water supply pipes should be checked before regularly
before their use.
Inform everyone if there is slightest doubt about water being
impure. Recommend everyone to boil water.
VDC and municipality level programs to synergize sustainable
Advocacy and advertisement about sanitation.
Mobilize governmental bodies, political parties and their
organizations for mass awareness

On site sanitation

It is the process of collection, treatment and disposal of the wastes

at the point of generation of wastes.
In rural areas, the houses are isolated, it is difficult to collect
sewage from house to house through sewerage system. So, onsite
sanitation is preferred.
Examples; pit latrines and septic tanks
Widely used method in both developed and developing countries.
Most suitable for
sparsely populated areas
low water consumption
soil with high infiltration rate
not suitable to
region having high population density.
high water consumption
low infiltration rate of soil
may not be proper if ground water pollution is taken into
major concern

Types of onsite sanitation system

a) Pit latrine or pit privy:
- Here, pit is made inside the latrine to collect and dispose excreta.
- It mainly consists of three parts pit, squatting slab and super
- Pit: 90 -125 cm in diameter and 2 3 m depth or rectangular 1m *
1m. It may or may not be lined. The liquid content infiltrates into
the ground.
- Squatting slab: It is the wooden or stone with a hole in which we
rest to do shit .
- Superstructure: It is provided for privacy of user.

When the level of sewerage reaches 0.5 m from the ground, it is

closed and another pit is made in new place. After two or more
year, previous pit may be used again and excavated product may
be used as a manure.
Simple to build
Insect and odour nuisance
Dangerous for children
Problematic if water table is high and soil infiltration is low

b) Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP):

- Here, latrine is slightly offset from the pit to provide ventilation to
the pit.
- A black pipe of 4 is used to pass foul gases from the pit which is
faced towards maximum sunlight area.
- Due to digestion process, the temperature of the pit is higher than
outside temperature, so air convection takes place which takes
odorous gas inside pit and replaces it with cool gas.
- At the top of the black pipe, a cowl is placed to prevent entry of
insects and flies.
- The pit is closed when the free board is 0.5 m.
- We may use multiple pit latrines to avoid pit transfers.
- Dont use disinfectants for washing, besides use kerosene or
engine oil when necessary to prevent insect breeding.
c) Pour Flush Latrine
d) Automatic Flush Latrine

Eco sanitation

It is

an approach or a system whose main objectives are;

Prevent diseases and promote health
Protect the pollution of surface and ground water
Recover and reuse the nutrients or energy contained within
Major advantages;
Improvement in health
Use of nutrients or energy from unwanted matter
Preservation of fertility of soil
Contribution to the conservation of natural resources

Materials flow in cycle instead of their disposal

Improvement of agricultural productivity
Alternative mean of fuel

The ecological sanitation system can be best explained through the flow
streams as shown at the end of this chapter.


Health Education


Heath is the foundation of all the happiness and power

Importance of health education are as;
To ensure immediate well-being of our children
To build students skills, knowledge and positive attitudes
about health
It teaches us about physical, mental, emotional and social
It motivates students to improve and maintain health
To prevent from disease and avoid risky behaviors

Organic Pollution

Microorganisms feed on the organic matter and it is their basic

requirement of life.
When large quantities of organic compounds are released into
watercourses, the organic pollution occurs.
During the process, these microorganisms decomposes these
organic matter aerobically into NH3, NO2, SO4, CO2 using the
dissolved oxygen present in the water.
Consumption of dissolved oxygen makes aquatic environment
difficult to survive
However, as the polluted water reaches downstream of the river or
any source, the oxygen is replenished by aeration through wind.
Thus, the stream gets purified. This is self-purification of water.
The products of this process are used up by algae and other

Various organic pollutants include all oxygen demanding substances as:

Food processing wastes
Insecticides and pesticides
Petroleum hydrocarbons
Tree and bush debris from logging operations
Cosmetic and hygiene products


Pharmaceutical drugs

Inorganic Pollution

Generally, it is the pollution caused by man made toxins

Inorganic pollutants are:
Chemical waste from industrial discharges
Fertilizers containing nitrates and phosphates
Mine drainage
Heavy metals from motor vehicles
Silt from construction sites

a) Nitrate:
- Essential requirement of plant
- Form of nitrogen
- Found in various states ammonia (NH3), nitrates(NO3), and
nitrites (NO2)
- Sources:
runoff from fertilized soil containing nitrates
animal manure
treatment plants
industrial discharges
- Effects:
Decreases quality of water when excess
Eutrophication It is the process in which the water become
rich in nutrients but oxygen content in the water decreases
resulting extinction of some of the plants and animals,
however new type of plants and animals flourish.
Hypoxia - decrement of oxygen and toxicity in water used
by warm blooded animals.
b) Fluoride
- Found as a salt
- Used in many dental products
- Effects due to excessive consumption:
Fracture of bone
Pain and tenderness of bone
Development of pits in the tooth enamel
Cosmetic effects

c) Iron

Sources of soluble iron:

Ground water
Coatings of pipes like cast iron and galvanized steel
Dead ends in water distribution system
Oxygen free reservoirs
Corroding distribution system
- Effects of excessive presence;
Unpleasant taste and color
Staining of laundry and utilities
Occludes pipe
- Treatment against iron include;
Activated carbon
d) Manganese
- Effects same as iron
e) Arsenic
- Lung and skin cancer
- Kidney and liver cancer
- Reproductive problems
f) Heavy Metals
- They are high density metallic elements that are toxic even at low
- Mercury, lead, chromium, thallium, arsenic, and cadmium
- Heavy metals like copper, zinc etc are essential for metabolism
but their high concentration causes food poisoning.
- They may be found in the earth crust freely
- They are non-degredable or undestroyable.
- They results in bioaccumulation i.e. they are stored at faster rate
than they are broken down or excreted.
- Sources:
Acid rain that release them from soil
Industrial and consumers waste


Air Pollution

Air pollution may be defined as the presence of any substance in

the atmosphere in such a concentration that may or may not be

injurious to the human health, other living creatures, vegetation,

buildings and materials or to the atmosphere itself.
It is the presence of chemicals in the atmosphere in sufficient
quantity and duration that effects to us, other living creatures,
vegetation, building and materials and alters climate.
Major classes of air pollutants:
Carbon oxides - carbon dioxide and monoxide
Sulphur oxides - sulphur dioxide and trioxides
Nitrogen oxides nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous
Volatile organic compounds methane, propane, CFCs
Photochemical oxidants hydrogen peroxides
Suspended particle matter (SPM) dust, lead
Radioactive substances Radon-222
Hazardous air polluntants
Burning of fossil fuel carbon monoxide and dioxide
Agricultural activities - ammonia
Exhaust from industries and factories
Mining operations
Indoor air pollution
Atmospheric effect
Climate change
Global warming
Ozone layer depletion
Acid rain
Health effect
Respiratory problems
Heart problems
Skin allergies
Immune system
Central nervous system
Welfare effect- to other than people
Damage to vegetation
Damage to livestock
Decrease in productivity
Mitigation measures:
Use public mode of transportation
Conserve energy
Give emphasis on existing clean energy sources

Promote environment friendly means of transportation

Natural processes like wind, rain, gravity etc.
Regulatory Measures
Make standard acts and laws regarding air pollution
Adaption of laws and standards
Improve the inspection and maintenance system
Phase out old and two stroke engine vehicles
Public awareness
Economic measures
Taxes based on pollution load
Find cheaper and clean source of energy
Technological Improvements
Use energy efficient devices
Control gaseous pollutants using mechanical devices
Develop most efficient clean energy sources
Increase effectiveness of public transportation system

Indoor Air Pollution


It refers to the to the toxic contamination of air faced in our daily

lives in our homes, schools and workplace than outside.
The problem is more severe in industries.
- Smoking tabacco
- Wood burning stoves and gas appliances
-Dust, sprays
Volatile organic compounds
- Paints
- Cleaning supplies
- Copiers and printers
- Glues and adhesives
- Permanent markers
- Tipex or other correction fluids
- Photographic solutions
- Carbonless copy paper

It easily reacts with common skin oils and cosmetics
It is irritating to lung tissue which can easily enter from
outside sources

It quickly reacts with cleaning products containing citrus and

terpene extracts

Effects of indoor air pollution

Eye, nose, and throat irritation

Respiratory problems
Visual problems
Memory problems

Chapter 6: Climate Change

6.2 Mitigation measures
- These are the measures to be taken to limit the magnitude or the rate of
long term climate change processes.

Reduce green-house gases

Emphasize on renewable sources of energy
Taxation based on pollution load
Use cleaner, better and balanced transportation system
Participate in global climate change alliances
Implementation of Kyoto protocol
Geo engineering

Impacts in Nepal

Most of the Nepalese rivers are glacier fed, so temperature rise will
surely affect hydropower projects of Nepal.
Increase in frequency of events such as floods and droughts
Erratic rainfalls
Mountainous region is greatly affected in agriculture, tourism and
Extinction of useful medicinal, food and nutrition related plants and
Ecosystem and biodiversity

Measures taken by Nepal

NAPA- National Action Plan on Adaptation is a globally

accepted strategy against disastrous climate change
Various national parks, conservation areas, wildlife reserves
and hunting reserves.

6.3 International Efforts to mitigate its problems

1. In 1949, Lake Success, New York, The UN Scientific Conference on
the conservation and utilization of resources
- Addressed about the depletion of natural resources and their
proper management for economic and social development.

In 1972, Stockholm, Sweden, The UN Scientific Conference

Also known as the first Earth Summit
It raised the issues of climate change for the first time.
It warned the government to evaluate the likelihood and
magnitude of climatic effects.

3. In 1992, Rio de Janerio, Earth Summit

- Also known as UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
- The treaty was made to stabilize the green house gases
concentration in the atmosphere
- 172 member agreed for further measures against environmental
degradation and pollution
4. In 1997, Kyoto, Japan, Kyoto Protocol
- Highlights are as;
It is the detail of the 1992 UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change

Binding commitments to limit the emission of the

anthropogenic green house gases.
Minimizing impacts on the developing countries by
establishing fund for climate change.
To establish the compliance committee to enforce the
commitments of this protocol.
In 2010, Cancun, Mexico, United Nations Climate Change
Highlights of the conference are as;
To look forward to the commitments of Kyoto Protocol
To make a paradigm shift towards building a low carbon
To not exceed the global temperature of 2 degrees celcius
and consider that lowering to 1.5 degrees in the near future.
To establish a Green Climate Fund to finance the projects,
programs etc
To establish a Climate Technology Center and Network.
In 2012, Doha, Qatar, United Nations Climate Change Conference
Highlights are as;
To compensate those developing countries that are hindered
due to climate change impact by those countries that fail to
control their carbon emissions
It generally focused on five aspects of climate change;
Adaption to the climate change
Finance for compensation
Technology for mitigation
Loss or damage and its compensation
In 2013, Warsaw, Poland, United Nations Climate Change
Agreed on the fact that all the members would start cutting all the
emissions as soon as possible upto 2015
To compensate for the damages caused to the developing




8. In 2014, Lima, Peru, United Nations Climate Change Conference

9. In 2015, Paris, France, United Nations Climate Change Conference
6.4 Bio gas and Organic Farming
Bio Gas

It is a sustainable source of renewable energy.

It is environment friendly
It is economic to use.
It can be set with little capital investment.
It can create large number of jobs.
It is produced from the organic waste like dung of animals whose
byproduct comes in slurry and can be used as manure.
Bio gas is produced due to anaerobic decomposition of organic
wastes by the methanogenic bacteria.
50-70 % methane
30- 45% carbon dioxide
1% H2S
0.1% nitrogen gas
0.2% oxygen gas
0.1% hydrogen gas
Little technology advancements
Contains impurities Due to impurities, the metallic parts get
Not attractive in large scale not economically viable in large
Unstable likely to get explosion

Organic Farming:

It is an ecological production management system that promotes

and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological
It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management
practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony.
It is a technique that relies on crop rotation, green manure,
compost and biological pest control but it doesnt use fertilizers
and pesticides, plant growth regulators and antibiotics in livestock.
It emphasizes on sustainability, health and safety
Improves quality of soil and stability
Removes the risk of ground water pollution
It reduces use of non-renewable sources resulting carbon
storage within soil and thus prevents from air and climate

Biodiversity- It creates suitable habitat for plants and

animals and thus maintains ecosystem
Genetically modified organismsEcological services- soil stabilization, waste recycling,
carbon sequestration (sieze), pollination etc

6.5 Deforestation and its consequences


It is the process of removal of forest or cutting down the trees or

conversion of forestland to farms or agriculture use.

Consequences of deforestation:

Soil degradation and erosion

Climate change
Destruction of natural habitats and reduction in biodiversity
Destruction of pollutant controllers or sink like vegetation, soils

Afforestation vs climate change:


Maintains humidity
Regulates atmospheric temperature
Moderates wind velocity
Enhances precipitation
Prevents from global warming by absorbing carbon content in
the atmosphere

1. Chitwan National Park
First national park of Nepal
Established in 2030 BS.
Lies on Chitwan, Parsa and Makwanpur
932 km2
Enlisted in the world heritage site in
2. Rara

National Park
Established in 2032 BS
Located in Mugu and Jumla
106 km2
Smallest of all.

3. Bardia National Park

Located in Bardia district
Established in 2032 BS as wildlife reserve
Transformed to National park in 2045 BS.
968 km2
4. Sagarmatha National Park
Located in the solukhumbu district
1148 km2
Established in 2032 BS
It is the located in the highest location of the world.
5. Langtang National Park
Established in 2032 BS
Located in Rasuwa, Sindhupalchowk and Nuwakot
1710 km2
6. Shey

Foksundo National Park

Established in 2040 BS
Dolpa and Mugu
Largest National park of Nepal
3555 km2

7. Khaptad National Park

2042 BS
225 km2
Bajhang, Doti, Bajura and Achham

8. Makalu Barun National Park

2049 BS
Sankhwasabha and Solukhumbu
1500 km2
9. Shivapuri watershed national park
2058 BS
144 km2


1. Suklaphanta wildlife reserve

Established in 2031 BS
305 km2
2. Koshi

Tappu wildlife reserve

2032 BS
175 km2
Smallest wildlife reserve

3. Parsa wildlife reserve

2040 BS
499 km2
4. Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve
2044 BS
1325 km2
Only hunting reserve of Nepal
Largest wildlife reserve

Conservation areas in Nepal


Annapurna conservation area

Gaurisankar conservation area
Manalsu conservation area
Kanchenjunga conservation area
Makalu barun conservation area

6.6 Importance of these NP and CA


Climate change
Culturea and heritage
Public enjoyment and access
Economic and social values or ecosystem services

6.7 Water Pollution


It is the decrement in the quality of water bodies like rivers,

oceans, lakes, aquifers and ground water.
Water is an important component of ecosystem.

Types of water pollution

A. On the basis of location
1. Ground water pollution:
- Factors affecting ground water pollution
Rainfall pattern
Water table depth
Distance from the point of contamination
Soil type above it
Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of waste
Waste water disposal systems

Sources of ground water pollution

Industrial wastewater
Domestic wastewater
Agricultural runoff
Soluble toxic content in the soil
Urban runoff

2. Surface Water Pollution

- Factors affecting
Distance from the point of contamination
Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of waste
Hygienic and health situation of the users
Waste water disposal systems

Atmospheric gases (ammonia and hydrogen sulphide gas)
Rainwater (acid rain)
Surface runoff from agriculture, urban areas
Radioactive pollutants (nuclear plant wastes)
Industrial and municipal waste (organic and inorganic
Thermal pollutants
Infecting agents (hookworms, tapeworms etc)
Natural phenomenon like flood, erosions etc
Direct human activities like bathing, washing, animal
bathing, open defecation etc.

Hapazard urbanization and inadequate sewerage facilities

a) Lake water pollution

b) River water pollution
B. On the basis of method of contamination:
1. Point Source Water Contamination
- If the contamination occurs due to single source that can be easily
- Like pipes or ditch carrying discharges from sewage plants, industries,
factory or city
storm drain.
2. Non-point Source Water Contamination
- If the contamination of water source is due to accumulation of
contamination from various places, then the source of contamination is
difficult to identify and the contamination is known as nonpoint source water

6.8 Measures for water pollution control


Waste treatment
Stabilization of the ecosystem
Waste recycling, reutilization, renovation and recharge
Waste water reclamation (use again)
Removal of pollutants
Electrolysis for phosphorus
reverse osmosis for salts
flocculation for organic pollutants
Ion exchange method for ammonia
Ion exchange resin for mercury

Standards and act
Water pollution control board
Economic incentives for control of water quality
Control air pollution
Mass awareness