Volume 4 Number 0404

ISSN 1979-3898

Journal of Theoretical and Computational Studies

Oscilation in three generation neutrinos
Julio and L.T. Handoko , J. Theor. Comput. Stud. 4 (2004) 0404 Received: May 19th , 2004; Accepted for publication: June 29th , 2004

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Indonesian Theoretical Physicist Group http://www.opi.lipi.go.id/situs/gfti/ Indonesian Computational Society http://www.opi.lipi.go.id/situs/mki/

Journal of Theoretical and Computational Studies
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J.M. Tuwankotta (ITB) L.T. Handoko (LIPI) M. Nurhuda (UNIBRAW) M. Satriawan (UGM) P. Nurwantoro (UGM) P. W. Premadi (ITB) R.K. Lestari (ITB) T. Mart (UI) Y. Susilowati (LIPI) Z. Su’ud (ITB) M.O. Tjia (ITB) P. Anggraita (BATAN) T.H. Liong (ITB) K. Yamamoto (Hiroshima)

Indonesian Theoretical Physicist Group Indonesian Computational Society Secretariat Office : c/o Group for Theoretical and Computational Physics, Research Center for Physics LIPI, Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15310, Indonesia http://www.opi.lipi.go.id/situs/gfti/ http://www.opi.lipi.go.id/situs/mki/ c 2004 GFTI & MKI ISSN 1979-3898

J. Theor. Comput. Stud. Volume 4 (2004) 0404

Oscilation in three generation neutrinos
Julio1 and L.T. Handoko1,2 Department of Physics, University of Indonesia∗ Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia , 2 Group for Theoretical and Computational Physics, Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences† Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15310, Indonesia ,

Abstract : We present a complete expression and calculation for neutrino oscilation in three generations. The expression is written in a complete form without any approximation. This result can be used to analyze any models beyond the standard model and to obtain experimental contraints in detail. E-mail : julio@fisika.ui.ac.id Received: May 19th , 2004; Accepted for publication: June 29th , 2004

Neutrino oscilation is one of most highlighted topics in high energy physics during the last decades. The phenomenon was triggered by the result from Kamiokande experiment [1]. However theoretically it has already been pointed out before, long time ago before the standard model (SM) [2]. Within the SM, we have three neutrinos and each of them belongs to different generations associated with its lepton counterparts [3], i.e. νe , νµ and ντ . Concerning that neutrinos are completely massless, it is widely assumed that within the SM neutrinos are lefthanded. This leads to a fact that there is no oscilation (mixing) in the neutrino sector, in contrary with quark sector with its Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix [4]. However, if the right handed neutrinos exist, the CKM-like mixing matrix would also appear in the neutrino sector. This is known as Maki-NakagawaSakata (MNS) matrix [5]. After the monumental discovery of neutrino oscilation, it is believed that the right handed neutrinos should exist and induce some interesting phenomenological consequences, namely tiny neutrino masses. Started by the pioneering work of Kamiokande group, so far there are several experiments providing stringent constraints for neutrino oscilations as depicted in Fig. 1. The oscilation has been analyzed for two generations of neutrinos by introducing a ’Cabibbo-like’ mixing angle, θ, U= cos θ sin θ − sin θ cos θ , (1)

and the mass difference, ∆m. This mixing matrix then induces non-zero probability of transition between the first and second generations of neutrinos in the vacuum as, P (νe → νe ) P (νe → νµ ) = = 1 − sin2 sin2 ∆m2 L 21 4|p| ∆m2 L 21 . 4|p| , (2) (3)

Here, L is the trajectory length between two detectors and m21 denotes the mass difference. Extending the same calculation for three generations of neutrinos, first we have the MNS mixing matrix as follows,   c1 −s1 c3 −s1 s3 c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 s3 + s2 c3 eiδ  , U =  s1 c 2 iδ s1 s2 c1 s2 c3 + c2 s3 e c1 s2 s3 − c2 c3 eiδ (4) with ci ≡ cos θi , si ≡ sin θi and i : 1, 2, 3 respectively. This matrix relates the weak and mass eigenstates of neutrino states,

|να =

Uαi |νi .


On the other hand, the time dependency can be expressed as, |νi (t) ≡ e−iEi t |νi (0) , (6)

and the energy, Ei = p2 + m2 , is an eigenvalue of i i the Hamiltonian operator in vacuum, Hvac , Hvac νi = i ∂ νi = Ei νi . ∂t (7) 0404-1

∗ http://www.fisika.ui.ac.id † http://www.fisika.lipi.go.id

c 2004 GFTI & MKI

Julio, L.T. Handoko

J. Theor. Comput. Stud. 4 (2004) 0404 be Htot = Hvac + Hmat , and since the CC interaction involves only the electron inside the matter,   VNC + VCC  , VNC Hint =  (10) VNC where VNC,CC denotes the potential induced by NC and CC interactions respectively. Hmat is the potential in weak eigenstate and related to Hint through Hmat ≡ U † Hint U with U is the unitary matrix given in Eq. (4). If the additional potential above is much smaller compared to the vacuum energy, the matter effect can be treated perturbationally. This shifts the neutrino energy which is given at the lowest order correction by ∆E = ν| Hint |ν . In the case that the electron density is constant, we obtain,   E1 + VCC  . E2 (11) Etot =  E3 Therefore, the corrected eigenvalues due to the matter effect are, E2 − E1 E3 − E1 E3 − E2 = = = ∆m2 L 21 − VCC , 2|p| ∆m2 L 31 − VCC , 2|p| ∆m2 L 32 . 2|p|

Figure 1: Constraints for neutrino oscilation from several experiments [6].

Using Eqs. (5) and (6), we can calculate the transition between two neutrino states, να → νβ , Pαβ = =


| να |νβ |


2 2 Uαi Uβi


† † Uαi Uαj Uβi Uβj e(Ej −Ei )t + h.c. (8) .

Then, it is straightforward to obtain,



2 2 Uαi Uβi
∆m2 L ij 2|p|

These results should be used to replace the energy differences in Eq. (8). We have presented a complete expression for the neutrino oscilations with three flavors. It is clear that the oscilations could provide a proof the non-zero neutrino masses as shown in the factor of ∆mij in Eq. (9). The authors would like to thank the organizers of Workshop on Theoretical Physics 2K4 at Depok for their warm hospitality.


† † Uαi Uαj Uβi Uβj


+ h.c. , 9) ( REFERENCES

in the approximation that the neutrino masses are much smaller that its momenta, that is Ei ≈ |pi | + |mi |2 /2|pi | and |pi | ≈ |pj |, while the oscilation length is L ≈ t. More detail expressions for oscilations of all flavors can be retrieved from [7]. However, in some cases contributions from the interactions between neutrinos and mattters are quite significant [8]. These contributions come from the neutral current (NC) interaction through Z boson and the charge current (CC) interaction through W boson. These contributions modify the hamiltonian to

[1] Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, Physical Review Letter 81 (1998) 1562. [2] B. Pontecorvo, Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki 33 (1957) 549. [3] Particle Data Group, Physics Letter 592 (2004) 1. [4] N. Cabibbo, Physical Review Letter 10 (1963) 531; M. Kobayashi and T. Maskawa, Progress of Theoretical Physics 49 (1973) 652.


Oscilation for three generation neutrinos [5] Z. Maki, M. Nakagawa and S. Sakata, Progress of Theoretical Physics 28 (1962) 870. [6] W.L. Freedman, Physics Scripta T85 (2000) 37. [7] Julio, BSc Theses, University of Indonesia (2003). [8] L. Wolfenstein, Physical Review D17 (1978) 2369; S.P. Mikheev and A.Y. Smirnov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 42 (1985) 913.

J. Theor. Comput. Stud. 4 (2004) 0404

Presented at the Workshop on Theoretical Physics 2004 (WTP2K4), University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia, 19th May 2004. As a part of migration to the J. Theor. Comput. Stud., this article has been republished from the Physics Journal of IPS vol. C.


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