ABAP: Refresher Course

Course Content
Table of Contents

Topic 1

INTRODUCTION TO ABAP
Sap Netweaver: An overview Navigation in R/3 system Overview of ABAP

Topic 2

ABAP WORKBENCH BASICS
Data types and data objects Internal tables Modularization of R/3 : Subroutines, Macros , Passing Data, Terminating Subroutines etc. ABAP runtime system : Debugging Function groups and function modules g p

Topic 3

ABAP DICTIONARY
Introduction Database Tables Domains Views Search helps Locking Concept

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Course Content
Topic

Topic 4

ADVANCED ABAP
Open SQL O Dynamic programming

Topic 5

ABAP OBJECTS
Classes and objects Cl d bj t Inheritance Polymorphism (casting) Interfaces Events Global classes and interfaces Exception handling

Topic 6

LIST CREATION TECHNIQUES
Extract Datasets List ( Standard, Self defined, List with several pages ) Interactive lists( At line selection, At user-command ) List creation with the ALV grid control

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Course Content
Topic

Topic 7

DIALOG PROGRAMMING
Screen (basics) Screen logic, Screen Painter , Menu Painter Input checks, changing of input values Error handling Step loops Table Control Field help and value help

Topic 8

DATABASE CHANGES
Database updates with open SQL LUW Processing Update Bundling Techniques Programming Bundling Updates. Updates Unbundled Updates Local Updates

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Course Content
Topic
Topic 9 ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS
Enhancements to SAP Objects Enhancements via Menu Exits / Screen Exits / Function Module exits E h t i M E it S E it F ti M d l it Business Add-Ins Modifications via Registering the Modifications in SSCR, Modification Adjustment, Rules for Modifications

Topic 10

ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS
Introduction to BAPI BAPI Usage Structure of Business Objects Important Transaction codes BAPI Creation Understanding Business Requirements before BAPI Creation Technical Steps for BAPI Creation p List of Macros

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Course Content
Topic
Topic 11 ADDITIONAL TOPICS : SMART FORMS
Introduction to Smart Forms Structure of a form Windows Architecture Forms Nodes Form Painter Table Painter PC Editor Style Builder Driver Program

Topic 12

ADDITIONAL TOPICS : SAP SCRIPTS
Standard Text Layout Set Print Program

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Course Content
Topic

Topic 13

ADDITIONAL TOPICS : WORKFLOW BASICS
Business W k l B i Workplace Workflow Builder Tasks Business Object Repository (BOR)

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1. INTRODUCTION

Sap Netweaver: An overview Navigation in R/3 system Overview of ABAP

SAP PMG

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1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Sap Netweaver: An overview Navigation in R/3 system Overview of ABAP

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Sap Netweaver: An overview Navigation in R/3 system Overview of ABAP

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

1. INTRODUCTION

Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG

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2. ABAP WORKBENCH BASICS

Data Types & Data Objects Internal Tables Modularization of ABAP R/3 ABAP Runtime system : Debugging Function Module & Function Groups p

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Data Types
The following list is an overview o the main features o data types a d e o o g st s a o e e of t e a eatu es of and objects: •Data types: A data type describes the technical attributes of all the objects with that type. There is no memory associated with data types.
Data types Elementary Predefined C,D,F,I,N,P,T,X ABAP/4 Contains eight predefined elementary data yp types User-defined User defined elementary data yp typesare based on the predefined Elementary data types Field Strings and internal tables : These structured data types can be used for data objects and are user defined.

Structured

TABLE : This predefined structured data type is used for the typing of formal parameters and field symbols Reference types describe data objects You will have to create your own that contain references (pointers) to references other objects (data objects and objects in ABAP Objects).

Reference

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Elementary Data Types- Predefined:
•Predefined: Predefined elementary types are the smallest indivisible unit of types. They can be grouped as those with fixed length and those with variable length. g •Fixed-Length Elementary Types: There are eight predefined types in ABAP with fixed length: A)Four character types: B)One hexadecimal type: C)Three numeric types: Character (C), Numeric character (N), Date (D), and Time (T). Byte field (X) (X). Integer (I), Floating-point number (F) and Packed number (P).

•Variable-Length Elementary Types: There are two predefined types in ABAP with variable length: STRING for character strings
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Elementary Data Types - User Defined User-defined: elementary data types are based entirely on predefined elementary data types. To define your own elementary data types, you use the TYPES statement Example: TYPES: TYPES NUMBER TYPE I I. DATA: NO_FLIGHTS TYPE NUMBER

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Structured Data Types:
Structured Data types are made up of other types and generally are user defined. There are two kind of structured data types. •Field Strings: A field string is a collection of other data types You Define Field types.You string with the TYPES statement or with the DATA statement. structures as components. Internal Tables: Internal tables consists of a several lines that all have the same data type. Unlike field strings, which extends only horizontally, Internal Table also extends vertically.You define Internal Table with occurs p parameter of the types or Data statement yp Internal tables are characterized by: The line type The key and The access method.
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ABAP/4 Program Layout
To write a high quality program you should keep certain Layout o te g qua ty p og a s ou d eep ce ta ayout standards for ABAP/4 Programs. You should observe these standards as soon as you start defining your data. Follow when structuring your program flow, and use as many as informative comments as possible. If you follow these suggestions your program will be • more readable • easier to test and change • more reliable • To improve the quality of your programs, use the following Techniques: Indenting statement blocks Using Modularization Tools Inserting Program comments
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ABAP/4 Program Layout
Indenting statement blocks You should combine statements that belong together into a single block . Indent each block by at least two columns. Using Modularization Tools To produce good programs you should use modularization tools. If you write larger processing blocks as subroutines, the logical structure of your program b becomes easier to identify.It also allows you to sort the i t id tif It l ll t t th subroutines according to the tasks they perform. Inserting Program comments Correctly g g y You should avoid placing comments on statement line. Placing them on separate comment lines improves the readability of the program.To insert subroutine headings and comments in your program use the ready-made ready made structures available in ABAP/4 Editor. Pretty Printer: The ABAP/4 Editor includes a tool which helps you to design the Layout of your program more easily. It follows ABAP/4 Layout guidelines
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Inserting ready-made structures
Ready-made structures simplify the coding of ABAP/4 Programs Programs. They provide the exact syntax and follow the ABAP/4 layout guidelines. You Y can insert two kinds of ready-made structures into your program i tt ki d f d d t t i t code when using the ABAP/4 Editor: A) Ready-Made Keyword Structures To insert a ready-made keyword structure into your code, proceed as follows: 1. Place the cursor on the line where you want to insert the structure. 2.Choose EDIT --> Insert statement or select Pattern. 3. 3 In the dialogue Box that appears, choose a statement with appears radiobutton or enter it in the other instruct . Field: To display a list of all available ready-made keyword structures, place the cursor in other instruct. field and click the possible entry button to the right of instruct the input field.
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Inserting ready-made Comment Lines

B) Inserting Ready-Made Comment Lines: To insert ready-made comment lines into your code, proceed as follows: 1.Follow steps 1 to 2 in inserting Ready-Made keyword Ready Made structures. 2.Select a structure with an asterisk(*) as a first structure from the other instruct. field. instruct field 3.The system inserts comment lines into your program

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Data Objects
Data objects contain the data with which ABAP programs work at runtime. ABAP contains the following kinds of data objects: A) Literal They are not created by declarative statements Instead they exist statements. Instead, in the program code. They have fixed technical attributes but no name. Hence they are also referred to as unnamed data objects. B) Named Data Objects You declare these data objects either statically or dynamically at runtime. Their technical attributes are always fixed. ABAP contains the following kinds of named data objects:

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Data Objects
Text symbols are pointers to texts in the text pool of the ABAP program. Variables are data objects whose contents can be changed using ABAP statements. t t t Constants are data objects whose contents cannot be changed. Interface work areas are special variables that serve as interfaces between programs, screens, and logical databases. Predefined Data Objects They do not have to be declared explicitly - they are always available at runtime. Dynamic Data Objects You create them dynamically using data references. They do not have a name.

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Internal Data objects
•Internal data objects are created for use in one particular program. They have no validity outside that program. •Internal data objects include: A)Literal A)Lit l - Text literals (using type c) Example: Data name(10) type c value ‘SATYAM’. - Numeric literals (using type n) Example: Data Pincode(10) type n value '600024'. B)Variables Example: DATA: S1 TYPE I. SUM = S1 + 10. C)Constants Example: CONSTANTS PI TYPE P DECIMALS 10 VALUE '3.1415926536’.

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Data Objects
External data objects External data objects exist independent of programs. You cannot work directly with them, but you can copy them to internal data objects y , y py j and write them back when you have finished. External data objects can be used globally throughout the system environment. ABAP/4 stores external data objects in tables defined in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. To access this data from within a program, you declare the tables in the program with the TABLES statement .

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Data Objects : Contd..
System-defined data objects Besides user-defined data objects, some data objects are defined automatically by the system. When you start an ABAP/4 program, some data objects are available automatically and do not need to be declared. These are called System-defined data objects. They include: Space: The data Object SPACE is a constant of type C. It is one character long and contains a space. System fields: All System fields have names with the format SY-<name>, where <name> specifies an individual field. To display a list of available system fields in the ABAP/4 Editor type SHOW SY in the command line. Editor, line Example: SY-UNAME : login name of the user SY-DATUM : current date SY-UZEIT : current time
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Special data objects

ABAP/4 includes some data objects with special features namely: features, Parameters

Parameters are variables which are linked to a selection screen. They can accept values after a program is started. Selection criteria

Selection criteria are special internal tables used to specify value ranges. They are linked to a selection screen.

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Creating Data Objects and Types
Apart from literals, you must declare each data object with a dec a at e pa t o te a s, ust dec a e eac t declarative statement . In declarative statements, you must specify the data type of all data objects You define the data type of an object in the declarative statement either statement, directly, using <declaration>…………TYPE<datatype>………….. Indirectly, using <declaration>like<dataobject>………….. •Type and like are optional additions to most of the data declaration yp p statements listed below. •With the TYPE option, you assign the data type<datatype>directly to the declared data object object. •With the like option,you assign the data type of another data object<data object> to the declared data object.

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Creating Data Objects and Data Types:
ABAP/4 includes the keywords for creating Data objects and Data types statically: The Data statement The C Th Constants statement t t t t t The Statics statement for creating variables for f creating constants ti t t for creating variables which exist as long as the program runs but are runs, only visible in a procedure The Tables system The Type statement for creating table work areas for creating user-defined data types

In the context of Internal Tables, you use the operational statements ,y p APPEND,COLLECT and INSERT to create lines of an Internal Tables dynamically. In case of selection screens you use the additional statements screens,you PARAMETERS SELECT-OPTIONS to create Data objects with special function
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Basic Form of the DATA Statement

•Data Statement •Syntax S t DATA <f>[(<length>)] <type> [<value>] [<decimals>]. In its basic form, the keyword DATA has the following parameters: <f> f <length> <type> <value> <decimals> Naming a Variable Specifying the Data Type and the Length of the Variable Specifying a Start Value p y g Specifying the Number of Digits after the Decimal Point

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Constants,Static and Tables
If you use a constant frequently in a p og a , you can declare it as a co sta t eque t y program, ca dec a e t Fixed value variable with the CONSTANTS statement as follows: Syntax: Constants<c>[<length>]<type><value>[<decimals>] Statics Statement If you want to retain the value of variable beyond the runtime of a procedure, you define the variable with STATICS St t d d fi th i bl ith Statement i th t t in that procedure. Syntax: Statics<s>[<Length>]<type>[<Value>][<decimals>] Tables statement With the TABLES statement you can create a data object called a statement, table work area. A Table work area is a field string which refers to ABAP/4 dictionary objects. Syntax: Tables<dbtab>
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The Types Statement
You use the TYPES statement to create user-defined elementary data types and structured data types. You can use data types defined by the TYPES statement in the same way you use predefined data types for declaring d t bj t d l i data objects. Syntax: Types<t>[<length>]<<type>[<decimals>]

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TYPE GROUPS
You use Type-Groups to store user-defined data types or constants in the ABAP/4 Dictionary for cross program use.In your ABAP/4 program, you declare type groups with the TYPE-POOLS statement as: Syntax: Type-Pools<name> S t T P l

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Determining the Decimal Places

To determine the number of decimals for a Type P field, you use the DECIMALS parameter with the DESCRIBE FIELD statement as follows:

Syntax: Describe Field<f>Decimals<d>.

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Determine the conversion routine
To determine whether a conversion routine exists for a field in ABAP/4 Dictionary use the EDIT MASK parameter with the Describe Field statement as follows: Syntax: Describe Field<f>EDIT MASK<m> If a conversion routine exists for the field <f> in the ABAP/4 Dictionary, the th system writes it to the field <m> and sets the return code value in t it t th fi ld d t th t d l i the System Field SY-SUBRC equal to 0. You can then use the field <m> directly as a format template in a write statement , as below: Write<f>using EDIT MASK<m>

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2. ABAP WORKBENCH BASICS

Data Types & Data Objects Internal Tables Modularization of ABAP R/3 ABAP Runtime system : Debugging Function Module & Function Groups p

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Internal Tables
Objective: The following section explains : • Defining Internal Tables • Processing Internal Tables •A Accessing Internal Tables i I t l T bl • Initializing Internal Tables

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Internal Tables
Internal tables are structured data types provided by ABAP/4. I t l t bl t t dd t t id d b ABAP/4 Internal tables cannot be accessed outside the program environment. Purpose of internal tables • Internal tables are used to reorganize the contents of database tables according to the needs of your program • Internal tables are used to perform calculations on subsets of database tables. • The number of lines in an internal table is not fixed. fixed • Internal tables exist only during the run time of a program.

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Accessing Internal Tables
•You access internal tables line by line. You must use a work area as an interface for transferring data to and from the table. •When you read data from an internal table, the contents of the addressed table li t bl line overwrite the contents of the work area.. it th t t f th k • When you write data to an internal table, you must first enter the data in the work area from which the system can transfer the data to the internal table.

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Types of internal tables
There are two kinds of internal tables in ABAP/4: · Internal tables with header line If you create an internal table with header line, the system automatically creates a work area with the same data type as the lines of the internal table. Note : Work area has the same name as the internal table. · Internal tables without header line Internal tables without a header line do not have a table work area which can be used implicitly you must specify a work area explicitly.

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Creating Internal Tables

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Creating Internal Tables

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Creating Internal Tables

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Filling Internal Tables

Appending Lines: To append a line to an internal table, use the APPEND statement as follows: Syntax APPEND [<wa> TO] <itab>. Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, N END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF LINE. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘1’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. TAB1

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Filling Internal Tables

Appending Lines depending on the Standard Key (COLLECT STATEMENT) To fill an internal table with lines which have unique standard keys. Syntax S t COLLECT [<wa> INTO] <itab> If an entry with the same key already exists(all non numeric fields) the non-numeric collect statement does not append a new line but adds the contents of the numeric fields in the work area to the contents of the numeric fields in the existing entry

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Filling Internal Tables
Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE I, END OF LINE. LINE
DATA ITAB1 TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF LINE.

ITAB1-COL1 A ITAB1-COL2 1 ITAB1 COL1 = ‘A’. ITAB1 COL2 = ‘1’. COLLECT TAB1. ITAB1-COL1 = ‘B’. ITAB1-COL2 = ‘2’. COLLECT TAB1. ITAB1-COL1 = ‘A’. ITAB1-COL2 = ‘1’. COLLECT TAB1. This Produces the output as follows: A 2 B 2

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Filling Internal Tables
Inserting lines : se t g es To insert a new line before a line in an internal table, you use the INSERT statement as follows: Syntax INSERT [<wa> INTO] <itab> [INDEX <idx>]. [ it b id ] Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, C COL2 TYPE N, END OF LINE.
DATA TAB1 TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF LINE LINE.

LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘1’. INSERT LINE INTO TAB1 INDEX 2.

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Filling Internal Tables
CO COPYING INTERNAL TABLES : G S To copy the entire contents of one internal table into another, use the MOVE statement. Syntax: MOVE <itab1> to <itab2> Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, N END OF LINE.
DATA TAB1 TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF LINE. DATA TAB2 TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF LINE.

LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘1’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. MOVE TAB1[ ] TO TAB2.
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Filling Internal Tables
Filling Internal T bl from Database Table: Filli I t l Table f D t b T bl Example DATA : ITAB TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF SPFLI WITH HEADER LINE. SELECT * FROM SPFLI INTO TABLE ITAB WHERE CARRID = 'LH'. LOOP AT ITAB. WRITE: / ITAB-CONNID, ITAB-CARRID. ENDLOOP. In this example, all lines from the database table SPFLI in which CARRID field contains "LH" are read into the internal table ITAB, where they can be processed further.

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Filling Internal Tables
To T read data component by component into the internal table. dd t tb t i t th i t l t bl

In this example, all lines from the database table SPFLI in which CARRID field contains "LH" are read into the internal table ITAB1 one by one, where they can be processed further.

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Reading Internal Tables
To read the contents of internal tables for further processing, you can use either the LOOP or the READ statement. Reading Internal Tables Line by Line You use the the LOOP statement to read internal tables line by line. LOOP AT <itab> [INTO <wa>] [WHERE <condition>] <condition>]. ..... ENDLOOP. Eg: DO 3 TIMES. LINE-COL1 = SY-INDEX. LINE-COL2 = SY-INDEX * SY-INDEX. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. ENDDO. LOOP AT TAB1 WHERE COL1 > 2. WRITE : / TAB1-COL1. ENDLOOP.
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Reading Internal Tables
You can select a single line by the READ statement: ou ca se ect s g e e t e state e t Syntax: READ TABLE <itab> [INTO <wa>] WITH KEY<key> [BINARY SEARCH]. Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, END OF LINE. LINE DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. DO 3 TIMES. LINE COL1 SY INDEX. LINE-COL2 SY INDEX 2. LINE-COL1 = SY-INDEX LINE COL2 = SY-INDEX ** 2 APPEND LINE TO TAB1. ENDDO. READ TABLE TAB1 INTO LINE WITH KEY COL2 = 4.

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Reading Internal Tables
The CO e COMPARING addition, the specified table fields <f i > of the structured G add t o , t e spec ed tab e e ds o t e st uctu ed line type are compared with the corresponding fields of the work area before being transported. If the contents of the compared fields are the same, SY-SUBRC is set to 0. If the contents of the compared fields are not the same, it returns the value 2. Syntax: READ TABLE <itab> [INTO <wa>] INDEX <idx> COMPARING <fields>. Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, N END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. DO 3 TIMES. TIMES LINE-COL1 = SY-INDEX. LINE-COL2 = SY-INDEX ** 2. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. ENDDO. READ TABLE TAB1 INTO LINE INDEX 2 COMPARING COL1 COL2.
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Modifying Internal tables
You can modify single line using MODIFY statement: Syntax : MODIFY itab [FROM wa] [INDEX idx]. Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, C COL2 TYPE N, END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE LINE. DO 3 TIMES. LINE-COL1 = SY-INDEX. LINE-COL2 = SY-INDEX ** 2. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. TAB1 ENDDO. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. MODIFY TAB1 FROM LINE INDEX 2.

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Modifying Internal tables

Syntax : MODIFY itab [FROM wa] [TRANSPORTING f1 ... fn [WHERE cond]]. Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, LINE COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. DO 3 TIMES. LINE-COL1 = SY-INDEX. LINE-COL2 = SY-INDEX ** 2. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. ENDDO. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. MODIFY TAB1 FROM LINE TRANSPORTING COL1 WHERE COL2 = 4. O O S O G CO CO
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Deleting Internal tables
To d l t li T delete lines from an internal table in a loop: f i t l t bl i l Syntax: DELETE <itab>. <itab> Note: The System can process this statement only within an LOOP..ENDLOOP block. Eg: DO 3 TIMES. LINE-COL1 = SY-INDEX. LINE-COL2 = SY-INDEX * SY-INDEX. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. TAB1 ENDDO. LOOP AT TAB1. IF TAB1-COL1 > 2 TAB1 COL1 2. DELETE TAB1. ENDIF. ENDLOOP.

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Deleting Internal tables
TO delete the lines using Index. d l t th li i I d Syntax: DELETE <itab> INDEX <idx>. <idx> Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. DO 3 TIMES. LINE-COL1 = SY-INDEX. LINE-COL2 = SY-INDEX * SY-INDEX. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. ENDDO. DELETE TAB1 INDEX 2.

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Deleting Internal tables
TO delete the Adjacent Duplicates from the Internal Table. Syntax: DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATE ENTRIES FROM <itab> [ COMPARING it b <comp>] Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, LINE COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘1’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘2’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATE ENTRIES FROM TAB1 COMPARING COL1.
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Deleting Internal tables
TO delete the Adjacent Duplicates from the Internal Table. d l t th Adj t D li t f th I t l T bl Syntax: DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATE ENTRIES FROM <itab> [ COMPARING <comp>] Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘2’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘2’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATE ENTRIES FROM TAB1 COMPARING ALL FIELDS FIELDS.
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Deleting Internal tables
TO delete a set of selected lines from the Internal Table. Syntax: DELETE <itab> [FROM <n1>] [TO <n2>] [WHERE <condition>]. it b 1 ] 2 ] diti ] Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘1’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. TAB1 LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘2’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. DELETE TAB1 WHERE COL2 = 2. 2
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Sorting Internal Table
TO Sort an Internal Table . Syntax: SORT <itab> [<order>] [AS TEXT] [BY <f1> [<order>] [AS TEXT] . . <fn> [<order>] [AS TEXT] ] . Eg: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE N, N END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. LINE COL1 A LINE COL2 2 LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘2’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘1’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. SORT TAB1 BY COL2 ASCENDING .
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Loop Processing
Ca cu at g t e tota s t Calculating the totals within loop…endloop. oop e d oop Syntax: SUM Eg. TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE I, END OF LINE. LINE DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. DO 3 TIMES. LINE-COL1 SY-INDEX. LINE-COL2 SY INDEX 2. LINE COL1 = SY INDEX LINE COL2 = SY-INDEX ** 2 APPEND LINE TO TAB1. ENDDO. LOOP AT TAB1 TAB1. SUM. ENDLOOP.

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Using Control Levels
This top c describes how to use control level statement b oc s which s topic desc bes o co t o e e state e t blocks c process only specific values within loop…endloop. Syntax: AT <line> <statement block> ENDAT. The line condition <line>, at which the statement block within ATENDAT. <Line> Meaning FIRST First line of the internal table LAST Last line of the internal table NEW <f> Beginning of a group of line with same contents in the fields <f> & in the fields of <f>. END OF <f> End f E d of a group of line with same contents in f li ith t t i the fields <f> & in the fields of <f>. Note: Before working with control breaks, You should sort the internal table in the same order as its columns are defined.
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Using Control Levels
Hierarchy of AT-ENDAT statement statement. If the internal table has the columns <col1>,<col2>,… and if it is sorted by the columns as they are defined, the loop is to be programmed as follows: f ll LOOP AT <itab>. AT FIRST. …..ENDAT. AT NEW <col1>….ENDAT. AT NEW <col2>……ENDAT. ……. <single line processing> ……... AT END OF <col2>…..ENDAT. < l2> ENDAT AT END OF <col1>……ENDAT. AT LAST……ENDAT. ENDLOOP.
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Using Control Levels
Example: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE I, I END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 TYPE TABLE OF LINE WITH HEADER LINE. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘2’. A 2 APPEND LINE TO TAB1. LINE-COL1 = ‘B’. LINE-COL2 = ‘1’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘3’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. LINE-COL1 = ‘C’. LINE-COL2 = ‘4’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. SORT TAB1 BY COL1.

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Using Control Levels
Cont.. Cont LOOP AT TAB1. AT FIRST. WRITE:/ ‘HEADING’. ENDAT. NEW COL1. WRITE:/ TAB1-COL1. ENDAT. AT END OF COL1. SUM. , WRITE:/ TAB1-COL1, TAB1-COL2. ENDAT. LAST. WRITE:/ TAB1 COL1, TAB1 COL2. TAB1-COL1, TAB1-COL2. ENDLOOP. ENDAT.

AT

AT SUM.

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Initializing Internal Tables
To i iti li T initialize an internal table with or without header line. i t l t bl ith ith t h d li Syntax : REFRESH <itab>. This statement resets an internal table. CLEAR <itab>. If you are working with an internal table with a header line , the clear statement clears only the table work area resetting to initial values. CLEAR <itab>[ ]. The square bracket after the name of the internal table refer to the body of the internal table.This statement also resets an internal table. FREE <itab>. You can release the memory with the FREE statement once initialized.

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Initializing Internal Tables
Example: TYPES : BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 TYPE C, COL2 TYPE I, END OF LINE. DATA TAB1 . LINE-COL1 = ‘A’. LINE-COL2 = ‘2’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. LINE-COL1 = ‘B’. LINE-COL2 = ‘1’. APPEND LINE TO TAB1. CLEAR TAB1. REFRESH TAB1 TAB1. IF TAB1 IS INITIAL. WRITE:/ ‘TAB1 IS EMPTY’. FREE TAB1. TAB1 ENDIF.
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2. ABAP WORKBENCH BASICS

Data Types & Data Objects Internal Tables Modularization of ABAP R/3 ABAP Runtime system : Debugging Function Module & Function Groups p

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Modularizing ABAP/4 Programs
Objective: The following section explains : • Include Programs • Macros • Subroutines • Passing Data • Terminating Subroutines • Field Symbols • Clusters

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Modularizing ABAP/4 Programs
Each ABAP/4 p og a has a modular structure. ac / program as odu a st uctu e ABAP/4 programs are divided into: · Processing blocks that are controlled by events when the program is a report program ( program of type 1). · Modules that are controlled by the screen flow logic when the program is an dialog program (module pool of type M). You can modularize either M) your source code or tasks which are to be performed repeatedly.

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Source Code Modularization

To modularize source codes the following two methods apply: a. Include programs b. b Macros To modularize tasks the following two methods apply: a. Subroutine b. Functional modules

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Include Programs

If you want to use the same sequence of statements in several programs, you can code them once in an include program. Example - In the case of lengthy data declarations. How to create include programs ? How to use Include programs ?

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Defining and Calling Macros

You can create callable modules of program code within your ABAP/4 program by defining macros. macros To define a macro which contains part of the source code, you use the DEFINE statement as follows: Syntax: DEFINE <macro>. <statements> END-OF-DEFINITION. This defines the macro <macro>. You must specify complete statements f f between DEFINE and END-OF-DEFINITION. Note : Debugger does not stop at break points applied at Macro. break-points Macro
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Subroutines

Subroutines are program modules which can be called from ABAP/4 programs. There are two types of subroutines. · Internal subroutines: I t l b ti The source code of internal subroutines is in the same ABAP/4 program as the calling procedure (internal call). · External subroutines: The source code of external subroutines is in an ABAP/4 program other than the calling procedure (external call). call)

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Defining Subroutines

A subroutine is a block of code introduced by FORM and concluded by ENDFORM. T d fi ENDFORM To define a subroutine, use the following syntax: b ti th f ll i t Syntax: FORM <subr> [<pass>] [<pass>]. <statement block> ENDFORM. <subr> <pass> The name of the subroutine. You specify how to pass data to and from the subroutine {mainly for external call}. { y }

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Calling Subroutines
1. 1 Calling Internal Subroutines:

To call an internal subroutine, use the PERFORM statement as follows: Syntax: PERFORM <subr> [<pass>]. 2. Calling External Subroutines:

To call an external subroutine, use the PERFORM statement as follows: Syntax: PERFORM <subr>(<prog>) [<pass>] [IF FOUND].
[<pass>] can be interpreted as : [TABLES itab1 itab2 ...] [USING a1 a2 ...] [CHANGING a1 a2 ...]

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Calling Subroutines

Note: · In the case of internal subroutines, you do not have to use the <pass> option, because the subroutine can access all data objects declared in the main ABAP/4 program. · In the case of external subroutines, you must decide whether to use the y <pass> option or declare data objects in common parts of the memory.

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Passing Data

Passing Data Between Calling Programs and Subroutines: 1. Declaring Data as Common Part 2. Passing Data by Parameters

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Declaring Data As Common Part
To declare data objects as common part, use the DATA statement as follows: Syntax: DATA: BEGIN OF COMMON PART [<name>], <data declaration>, d t d l ti .............. END OF COMMON PART [<name>]. You can use several common parts in one program. In this case, you must assign a name <name> to each common part. If you use only one common part per program, the name <name> is optional.

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Passing Data By Parameters

You can pass data between calling programs and subroutines by using parameters. · Parameters which are defined during the definition of a subroutine with g the FORM statement are called formal parameters. · Parameters which are specified during the call of a subroutine with the PERFORM statement are called actual parameters. Syntax: PERFORM <subr>[(<prog>)] [TABLES <actual table list>] [USING <actual input list>] t l i t li t ] [CHANGING <actual output list>] FORM <subr> [TABLES <formal table list>] [USING <formal input list>] [CHANGING <formal output list>]

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Different Methods Of Passing Data

Calling by Reference : During a subroutine call, only the address of the actual parameter is transferred to the formal parameters. The formal parameter h no memory of its own. If you change the formal parameter, t has f it h th f l t the field contents in the calling program also change. Calling by Value : During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are call created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have memory of their own. Changes to the formal parameter have no effect on the actual parameter. Calling by Value and Result : During a subroutine call, the formal p parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal p p parameters have their own memory space. Changes to the formal parameters are copied to the actual parameter at the end of the subroutine.

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Passing By Reference

To pass data between calling programs and subroutines by reference, use USING or CHANGING for the <pass> option of the FORM and PERFORM statements as follows: Syntax: PERFORM... [USING <ai1> ... <ain>] [CHANGING <ao1> ... <aon>] … FORM ..... [USING <fi1> ... <fin>] [CHANGING <fo1> ... <fon>] ... You specify the formal and actual parameters in the list behind USING and CHANGING without any addition.

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Passing By Value

To ensure that an input parameter is not changed in the calling program program, even if it is changed in the subroutine, you can pass data to a subroutine by value. For this, use USING for the <pass> option of the FORM and PERFORM statements as follows: Syntax: PERFORM... USING .......<aii> .. FORM ..... USING ...VALUE(<fii>) ..

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Passing By Value And Result

If you want to return a changed output parameter from a subroutine to the y g p p calling program only after the subroutine has run successfully, use CHANGING for the <pass> option of the FORM and PERFORM statements as follows: Syntax: FORM ..... CHANGING ...VALUE(<fii>) .. PERFORM... PERFORM CHANGING .......<aii> .. < ii>

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Example

REPORT FORMTEST. DATA: DATE1 TYPE D, DATE2 TYPE T, STRING1(6) TYPE C, STRING2(8) TYPE C, C C NUMBER1 TYPE P DECIMALS 2, NUMBER2 TYPE P, COUNT1 TYPE I, COUNT2 TYPE I. PERFORM TYPETEST USING DATE1 STRING1 NUMBER1 COUNT1. COUNT1 PERFORM TYPETEST USING DATE2 STRING2 NUMBER2 COUNT2.

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Example
Cont.. FORM TYPETEST USING NOW TXT TYPE C VALUE(NUM) TYPE P INT TYPE I. DATA: T. DESCRIBE FIELD NOW TYPE T. WRITE: / 'Type of NOW is', T. DESCRIBE FIELD TXT LENGTH T. WRITE: / 'Length of TXT is', T. DESCRIBE FIELD NUM DECIMALS T. WRITE: / 'Decimals of NUM are', T are' T. DESCRIBE FIELD INT TYPE T. WRITE: / 'Type of INT is', T. ENDFORM. ENDFORM
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Example
Example of passing internal tables: PROGRAM FORM_TEST. DATA: BEGIN OF LINE, COL1 CO 1 TYPE I, COL2 TYPE I, END OF LINE. DATA ITAB LIKE STANDARD TABLE OF LINE. PERFORM FILL CHANGING ITAB ITAB. PERFORM OUT USING ITAB.

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Example
Co t Cont.. FORM FILL CHANGING F_ITAB LIKE ITAB. DATA F_LINE LIKE LINE OF F_ITAB. DO 3 TIMES. F_LINE-COL1 = SY-INDEX. F_LINE-COL2 = SY-INDEX ** 2. APPEND F LINE TO F ITAB F_LINE F_ITAB. ENDDO. ENDFORM. FORM OUT USING VALUE(F_ITAB) LIKE ITAB. DATA F_LINE LIKE LINE OF F_ITAB. LOOP AT F ITAB INTO F_LINE. F_ITAB F LINE WRITE: / F_LINE-COL1, F_LINE-COL2. ENDLOOP. ENDFORM.

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Terminating Subroutines

To terminate the processing of a subroutine, you can proceed in a similar way as for terminating a loop by using the EXIT or CHECK statements. · Use EXIT to terminate a subroutine unconditionally. · U CHECK t t Use to terminate a subroutine according to a condition. i t b ti di t diti If you terminate a subroutine using EXIT or CHECK, the system terminates the processing of the subroutine at this point passes the point, parameters, and continues with the statement after the PERFORM statement.

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Field Symbols

Field symbols are placeholders or symbolic names for other fields. They do t h i ll d not physically reserve space for a field, but point to its contents. A f fi ld b t i t t it t t field symbol can point to any data object. The data object to which a field symbol points is assigned to it after it has been declared in the program. To declare a Field Symbol, use the statement, FIELD-SYMBOLS <FS> [<type>|STRUCTURE <s> DEFAULT <wa>]. Typing Field Symbols: The <type> addition allows you to specify the type of a field symbol. Syntax: FIELD-SYMBOLS <FS> <type>

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Field Symbols
Example: E l DATA: WA(10) VALUE '0123456789'. DATA: BEGIN OF LINE1, COL1(3), COL2(2), COL3(5), COL3(5) END OF LINE1. DATA: BEGIN OF LINE2 LINE2, COL1(2), COL2 LIKE SY-DATUM, END OF LINE2. LINE2

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Field Symbols
Cont.. FIELD-SYMBOLS: <F1> STRUCTURE LINE1 DEFAULT WA, <F2> STRUCTURE LINE2 DEFAULT WA. WRITE: / <F1>-COL1, <F1>-COL2, <F1>-COL3, / <F2>-COL1, <F2>-COL2. The output is: 012 34 56789 01 2345/67/89

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Field Symbols
Static Assign: The name of the data object you want to assign to a field symbol before run time. Syntax: S t ASSIGN <f> TO <FS>. Eg: FIELD-SYMBOLS: <F1> , <F2> TYPE I. DATA : NUM TYPE I VALUE 5, TEXT(10) TYPE C VALUE ‘HELLO’. ASSIGN TEXT TO <F1>. ASSIGN NUM TO <F2>. WRITE: / <F1> , <F2>. <F2> OUTPUT: HELLO
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Field Symbols
Dynamic Assign: y a c ss g The name of the data object you want to assign to a field symbol only at run time. Syntax: ASSIGN (<f>) TO <FS>. Eg: PROGRAM SAPMZTST. PERFORM FORM1(SAPMZTST1). * Calling Subroutine PROGRAM SAPMZTST1. FORM FORM1. FIELD-SYMBOLS <F1>. DATA : NUM TYPE N VALUE 5. ASSIGN (NUM) TO <F1>. WRITE: / <F1>. ENDFORM. ENDFORM OUTPUT: 5
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Clusters

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Data Clusters

You can store data clusters in ABAP/4 memory. ABAP/4 memory is not dependent on the ABAP/4 program or program module which generates it during a transaction. This means that an object stored in ABAP/4 memory can be read again by any ABAP/4 program during the same transaction. For example, you can pass data between: · Reports and other Reports called with SUBMIT · Transactions and Reports · Programs and Function Modules Note : The memory is released again when you leave the transaction.

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Storing Data Objects In ABAP/4 Memory

To write data objects from an ABAP/4 program to ABAP/4 memory, you use the following statement: Syntax: EXPORT <f1> <f2> ... TO MEMORY ID <key>.

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Reading Data Objects From Memory

To read data objects from ABAP/4 memory into an ABAP/4 program, you use the following statement: Syntax: IMPORT <f1> [TO <g1>] <f2> [TO <g2>] ... FROM MEMORY ID <key>.

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2. ABAP WORKBENCH BASICS

Data Types & Data Objects Internal Tables Modularization of ABAP R/3 ABAP Runtime system : Debugging Function Module & Function Groups p

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OBJECTIVES The slides for the ABAP/4 Development Workbench’s on line Debuggers Contain the f ll i t i C t i th following topics: •Online debugging tools •Starting the debugger •The debugger’s views •Using break points •Setting static break points Setting •Setting dynamic break points •Setting watch points •Setting breakpoints at keywords or events g p y •Deleting and deactivating breakpoints •Stepping through program codes •Displaying field contents

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Debugging
•Displaying Internal tables •Displaying ABAP/4 lists •Replacing field values at runtime •Changing internal tables at runtime •Switching to the ABAP/4 Editor S it hi t th Edit •Releasing the database during debugging

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Debugging
•Online debugging tools : A review The ABAP/4 Debugger lets you stop a program during runtime and examine the flow and results of each statement during execution. Stepping th St i through a program with th d b h ith the debugger h l helps you t d t t and to detect d correct errors in your code.This documentation is designed for developers new to the Workbench’s debugging facilities or for those who want to learn the tool to use the tool more effectively effectively.

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Debugging
After working through this slides , you should be able to debug both familiar and unfamiliar programs effectively. With this slides, you will learn how to •Switch on the debugger •Set and delete static and dynamic break points. •Set watch points •Stop a program at specific key words or events or when a field contents change. •Continue processing after an interrupt. Continue •Display field contents during runtime. •Display the contents of an internal table. •Change field contents for testing purposes. g gp p •Change the contents of an internal table. •Display and use debugger’s views.

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Debugging

Debugging Strategies form within ABAP/4 Development Work bench. We can set b t breakpoints i a program and th start the program within the k i t in d then t t th ithi th Debugger.Alternatively, we can run the program in the debugger without any breakpoints. A Breakpoint is a signal within a line of code that tells the ABAP/4 runtime processor to interrupt the program at the line.Setting break points is a good strategy if we want to examine a program: After the system has already processed certain events Just before a specific event is carried out By skipping quickly to a specific routines or calls. y pp g q y p

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Debugging
•Starting the Debugger On running a program in the debugging mode the following steps can be followed. In the object browser , Select a report or transaction. Choose debugging in the ABAP/4 editor initial screen Choose Program Execute Debugging or choose debugging. From any screen , Choose System Utilities Debug ABAP/4. •Debugger’s views A debugger selects different views , by selecting appropriate view name gg y g pp p in debugger’s menu.

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Debugging

These buttons has following specific meaning. Th b tt h f ll i ifi i Overview - Displays the structure of the program to be debugged. debugged Call stack - Displays an active event chain and the call sequence up to the current breakpoint. Fields - Displays the fields content and technical characteristics. Table - Displays the content of an internal table.

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Debugging
•Structure of the Debugging view. Each debugging view has the same structure. The top half of the screen displays a portion of the programs source code. The lower half shows information specific t th t particular view .At th Li i f ti ifi to that ti l i At the Line ‘S ‘Source C d of’ Code f’ appears two push buttons to scroll through the program code. The line currently ready for processing is indicated by “>”.A small stop > A sign appears to the left of each dynamic break point . Using Breakpoints A breakpoint is a signal within a program’s code , which tells the ABAP/4 processor to interrupt the program at a particular point. The type of breakpoint depends on the purpose of debugging. p p p p gg g

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Debugging
ABAP Debugging Screen

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Debugging
Following are the types of breakpoints. •Static These are user independent , set directly into a program’s code with the Th i d d t t di tl i t ’ d ith th editor. User dependent breakpoints also is possible. •Dynamic Set within the ABAP/4 debugger or editor. This type is visible when the program is displayed in the editor. •Watch points Set within the ABAP/4 debugger .Watch points are field-specific. This is used to observe changes to a particular field .The debugger interrupts g p gg p the program when fields content change.

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Debugging
•Key word (statement) or event breakpoints Set within the ABAP/4 debugger. The debugger interrupts the program when the ABAP/4 processor comes in contact with a specific key word (statement) or event in program’s code. •When a static breakpoint is used? Static break point are generally user-independent. On setting this breakpoint , every use who executes the program encounters the breakpoint. This is used when several developers are working in the same program, and all wants to the program to interrupt at the same place during execution. g These breakpoints are visible in the programs code. •When a dynamic breakpoint is used? Dynamic break point is user-specific. If we want to interrupt a program when we execute and while others are running, we use dynamic break-point. Dynamic D namic breakpoints are more fle ible than static breakpoint , the flexible they can be removed or deactivated during runtime.
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Debugging
•When to use watch points. e atc po ts We can set watchpoints only from within the debugger.They are useful if we want to interrupt a program only when there is a change in a particular field or a field string. We can set and remove watch points as Needed .This , as dynamic breakpoint , does not disturb the other users of the same program. •When to use breakpoints at Keywords (statements) or Events. From within debugger , we can allocate breakpoint for specific ABAP/4 keywords or program events. This is useful if we do not know exactly where a key word or event occurs , but still want the program to be interrupted just before the command or event is carried out. g p •Setting Static Breakpoints. To set a static break point use ‘BREAK-POINT’ keyword. Place the break point on the line where to interrupt the program:
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Debugging
REPORT RSDEBUG1 …………… CHECK ACCOUNT IF SY SUBRC NE 0 SY-SUBRC 0. BREAK-POINT. ENDIF. ……. When we start the report , ABAP/4 interrupts the processing at the break point. We can number breakpoints like BREAK-POINT1 ,BREAK-POINT2..for BREAK POINT1 ,BREAK POINT2..for easier identification. •Removing Breakpoints. g p It is necessary to remove the breakpoints after debugging .Use function Utilities Global search to help in locating break-points in larger programs. It is necessary to remove breakpoints since it may cause serious disruptions in productive process.
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Debugging
•Setting Dynamic Breakpoints We can set dynamic breakpoint , without changing the program’s code. Following are the steps to set a breakpoint in ABAP/4 Editor. Place the cursor on the line where to position the breakpoint. Choose Utilities --> Breakpoint > top. Set or press the ‘stop’ pushbutton at the stop

A display of all breakpoints in a program can be obtained by selecting Utilities Breakpoint Display . The dynamic breakpoint display leads to navigate to a certain breakpoint or delete one or all breakpoints from the program code.

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Debugging
•Setting Watchpoints. A watch point is set to interrupt a program when the contents of a specific field or a string change. Following F ll i are th steps t set a watch point. the t to t t h i t •On the Debugging editor, enter the table-field. •Press the pushbutton ‘Watchpoint’ on the top left . •A dialog box appears , asking for the ‘local watch point’, local point relational operator and comparison field .Fill in as per requirement. •Fill the appropriate value in the text field next and press the tick . •A display of watch points can be viewed by goto-->Control debugging--> Watchpoint. gg g p

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Debugging
•Setting Breakpoints at (statements) keywords or subroutines. If we want to interrupt the program directly before a certain keyword event or a subroutine , we use this facility. We W can achieve thi with th f ll i steps i th editor. hi this ith the following t in the dit •Choose either Breakpoint Breakpoint at subroutine or function module module. Statement or

•The system will display a small screen prompting to enter statement keyword or subroutine etc., as per requirement. The system will set a breakpoint each time the statement , or subroutine appears in the program. pp p g •For break point in form routines , it is possible to access the current program , not external subroutine calls.

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Debugging
•Deleting a dynamic Break-point. To delete a dynamic breakpoint , place the cursor in a line and choose Breakpoint Set/Delete or Delete. Deleting this breakpoint is also possible by double clicking the appropriate li i t line. From within the editor, deleting the dynamic breakpoint is done by the following steps steps. •Choose Goto--> Control Debugging-->Breakpoint. •The System will list all the breakpoints. •Select one breakpoint. •Choose individual by double clicking on the icon ‘Stop’ and it deletes . Temporary deleting of Dynamic breakpoint is possible by selecting the appropriate line and select Breakpoint Deactivate/Activate in the abap Debugger.
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Debugging
•Deleting Watchpoints. Watch points are special break points set for specific fields. To remove a watch point , the following steps will do. Choose G t --> C t l d b Ch Goto Control debugging-->Watchpoint. i W t h i t A display of the watch point occurs , and can be deleted by pressing ‘delete’ checkbox at the end of each Watchpoint . •Displaying the Location of breakpoints. Select Goto--> Control Debugging -->Breakpoints to get an overview of all existing breakpoints in a program’s code. From the breakpoint display , it is possible to set or delete individual p p y p breakpoints.

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Debugging
•Stepping through program code. From within the debugger several options for stepping through the program. Single step : Execute a program statement by statement. If single step is chosen while on a line that calls a FORM routine , for example the next mouse click carries to the called routine After stepping the way through routine.After the subroutine, returns to the line of code directly following the subroutine call. Execute : Process a program line by line. On choosing Execute while on a line, that calls a FORM routine, the debugger executes the subroutine subroutine and halts at the line of code directly following the call. y g Thus this skips over the lines of the subroutine itself. Continue: Processes the program up to the next active dynamic or static break point. If no further breakpoints exists, the system executes the report in its entirety without stopping.
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Debugging
Return: Returns the debugger to where a calling program resumes control.Can be used from within a subroutine call. •Displaying th fi ld contents. Di l i the field t t While debugging display of the critical of the critical contents of the fields are possible possible. Display of the contents up to eight fields or field strings possible can be done. We can enter the field names directly in the spaces provided or double click the field in the code display and the system lists it as a variable automatically. We can use the variable screen to display the contents of any system field or all field that a program references. Also the debugger to display fields p g gg p y defined in the ABAP/4 Dictionary can be used. To display the contents of dictionary fields, we must define relevant table in the TABLES statement of the current program.

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Debugging
Additionally the contents of the fields from external programs can be displayed. For this we need to place the name of the external program in brackets in front of the field name.

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Debugging •Displaying Internal tables.
Within the debugger , we can display the contents of an internal table by choosing the Table pushbutton. The Th system di l displays the T bl view. S h Table i Specify a table name i the I if bl in h Internal l table field or double click on the table. If the internal table contains a header line, this line appears before the actual table contents and is marked in the display by >>>>>>> The table rows are numbered We can >>>>>>>.The numbered. scroll through the table display using the Index field or the scroll icons. If we want to see those parts of the tables that are not visible on the left or right of the screen , use the push buttons for horizontal scrolling or simply shift the title bar of the table. Using the column header line, we can also change the sequence of the g , g q fields we want to see. If we remove a field name from the column header line, then the system deletes the field from the display. If we specify an incorrect field name, the system displays a string of question marks.

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Debugging
A View o internal tab e d sp ay e of te a table display

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Debugging
If the space you leave to display a field is too small , the system truncates the display and indicates this by a “<” character. As with the field display , we can customize the display format for internal tables. Th standard entry i th F t bl The t d d t in the Format fi ld i an E (f edited) . Y can t field is (for dit d) You change this to an X for hexadecimal or a C for character display. Once we have finished examining the internal table , return to the screen with the field display and program code by selecting the program button.

•Displaying ABAP/4 Lists.
If we are debugging an online report that generates a list, we can display gg g p g , p y this list in the debugger. As soon as this list is started, the display list pushbutton appears. Choose Display list to switch to the list display. The system displays all the lines generated so far in their respective formats. Note : The current list line is formatted only after completion (NEW-LINE).
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Debugging
•Replacing fields at Runtime. While we are debugging a program , we might want to change the content of specific fields to influence our program’s flow. If error analysis reveals that th t a fi ld contains a wrong value , f example , we can replace th field t i l for l l the faulty value at run time to determine if the program then runs correctly. We can change the values of all fields , database tables (with offset) and internal tables referenced in a report . If we alter the values of database fields , we do not change them in the database itself , but only in the work area ABAP/4 provides for one run of the report .The system displays an appropriate message if any format errors occur.

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Debugging
To replace the value , we can do the following steps. 1.Go to the variable display screen. This is the Debugger’s default view. 2.Double li k 2 D bl click on a variable t place it i th variables di l i bl to l in the i bl display. 3.Enter a new value in the field contents row . 4.Choose the ‘Change field content’ button. ABAP/4 writes the new value back to the program field or fields and the system notes the change in the system log. If we forget to click on the ‘Change field content’ push-button , the system ignores the values we Change content push button entered. Note: ABAP/4 accepts our entries in the contents column exactly as we p y specified them. You need to pay special attention to the correct format.( Upper or lower case , right justified output with packed numbers).

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Debugging
•Changing Internal Tables at Runtime The debugger allows to manipulate the contents of an internal table during runtime. We can delete, edit or add a row to an internal table. •Deleting a row To delete an entry from an internal table: 1. Go to the table display screen 2. Enter the table name in the internal table field. 3. Choose Enter. The system displays the table’s contents. 4.Place the cursor on the line you wish to remove from the table. y 5.Press ‘Delete’ pushbutton. The line disappears from the table and the system adjusts the line numbering accordingly.
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Debugging
•Editing a row The functions Change , Insert and append are field-specific in the Debugger and can be carried out only one field at a time by pressing the respective pushbuttons. For example ,If we want to edit the following line: LH001 FRANKFURT NEWYORK 145400 400 X, we first need to decide which field to change. Then the following steps must be done. 1.Place the cursor on the row and field we want to edit. 2.Choose Change. 3.Enter a new value for the field. 4.Choose Enter. The system updates the line and displays the new contents in the table.
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Debugging •Adding a Row .
We can add a new row to an internal table by using either Append or the Insert function. Append places the new line at the end of the table. Insert lets us to position the line anywhere anywhere. To add a new row to the end of the table , the following steps will do. 1.Choose append. 2.Enter a value for the first field in the line. 3.Choose Enter. The system adds a line to the table and fills in the first field. 4.Enter the remaining fields of the line by following the procedure for editing a row as described above. To insert a new line anywhere in the internal table ,position the cursor on y g pp the line directly following the line where we want the new row to appear. Then ,Choose Insert button and proceed as we want to append the line.
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Debugging
• . Switching to the ABAP/4 Editor We can switch from the Debugger to ABAP/4 Editor at any time. If we discover a program error during the debugging process , for example,we can enter the ABAP/4 Editor to immediately correct the error in the program’s code. We can also switch back to the editor in order to set new static break-points. After we set static breakpoints in the editor they are not active in the editor,they debugger when we switch back.We must re-generate the program.Then the breakpoints appear in the debugger. To return to the Editor for the program currently being debugged , Select Development-->ABAP/4 Editor.

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Debugging
SYNOPSIS A representation of Debugging Process -Branching to Debugging Mode
ABAP/4 Debugger ABAP/4 Editor
... Test/execute / ...

Object List
Development object ... ... ...

Debugging gg g
Program B170D051

Breakpoints
Program ... . Breakpoint ... .

Any screen
... ... ... System Help

/h
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... Utilities ...

... Debug ABAP/4 ...

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Debugging
Debugging Mode
Execute Single step Execute Continue Table

PROGRAM B170D051. DATA: DIFF TYPE P, . . . COMPUTE DATE_1 = SY-DATUM. . . . Variables V i bl DATE_1 SY-DATUM 00000000 19940223

O

S V

F

T

P

View pushbuttons

R R R R

X

R

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Debugging
The Most Important Debugging Functions e ost po ta t ebugg g u ct o s

Single Step Execute Continue

Processes the next program line line. In contrast to the single step, executes a processing all p ocess g steps belonging to one line. be o g g o e e Processing continues until the next breakpoint or until the end of the program. Displays the contents of internal tables. With the functions of this menu you define breakpoints. You go to the ABAP/4 editor. Data contents can be displayed in hexadecimal format.

Table Breakpoint Editor Hexadecimaldisplay

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Debugging
Setting Breakpoints
1 ABAP/4 Editor
Menu Utilities -> Breakpoints

Keyword

BREAK POINT BREAK-POINT

2 Debugging mode
Line selection (double-click)

Menu:

Breakpoint -> Set/delete Goto -> Breakpoints

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Debugging
Ge e a Queries General Que es Question •Static Break-point are user independent (YES/NO) YES •Dynamic Breakpoints are not user-specific(YES/NO) NO •Dynamic breakpoints are visible in the program(YES/NO) YES •Dynamic Breakpoints are more flexible than Static Breakpoints(YES/NO) YES •Static Breakpoints are hard-coded in the program(YES/NO) YES •Temporary deletion of dynamic breakpoints are not possible(YES/NO) NO
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Debugging
•Watchpoints can be set only from within the debugger (YES/NO). YES •How can a temporary deletion of dynamic Breakpoints are done? Temporary deletion of Breakpoints are ACTIVATE/DEACTIVATE in the debugging editor. done by option

•What are the different options to step through the program in the debugger? Single Step Execute Continue Return •While debugging ,it is impossible to correct wrong values in a table’s field dynamically during runtime (YES/NO) NO
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Debugging
•Addition and deletion Debugger(YES/NO). YES •From th ABAB D b F the Debugger , switching t ABAP/4 Edit i not allowed. it hi to Editor is t ll d (YES/NO) NO of fields in a table is possible in

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Debugging
Summary The above slides have given an idea of debugging , the debugging tools for various operations like usage of breakpoints , watch points ,internal tables di l t bl display,stepping through a program code, switching to ABAP t i th h d it hi t editor and associated utilities.

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2. ABAP WORKBENCH BASICS

Data Types & Data Objects Internal Tables Modularization of ABAP R/3 ABAP Runtime system : Debugging Function Module & Function Groups p

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Function Modules Object e Objective The following section is intended to explain: • • • What function modules are Components of function modules Testing and releasing of function modules

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Function Modules • Function modules are special external subroutines(program type F) • Function modules are classified in function groups and stored in the Function Library. Function groups act as containers for function F ti Lib F ti t t i f f ti modules that logically belong together. • Function modules allow us to encapsulate and reuse global functions in the R/3 System. • Function modules also play an important role in database updates and in remote communications between R/3 Systems or between an R/3 System and a non-SAP system. • The R/3 System provides numerous predefined function modules that we can call from your ABAP/4 programs. We can also create your own function modules using Function Builder. (Transaction Code SE 37)

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Function Modules vs Subroutines

• Subroutines are principally for local modularization while Function modules are for global modularization, that is, they are always called from a different program. p g • Subroutines are defined in ABAP programs while Function modules are defined within function groups • Function modules have clearly defined data interfaces to the calling program. • We can test function modules in a stand-alone mode independent of the calling program.

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Function Groups • • Function groups are containers for function modules. modules We cannot execute a function group. When we call a function module, the system loads the whole of its function group into the internal session of the calling program (if it h not already b i f th lli has t l d been l d d) loaded). Function group names are freely definable up to a maximum length of p 26 alphanumeric characters. When we create a function group or function module in the Function Builder , the main program and include programs are generated automatically. t ti ll

• •

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Creating Function Groups New function groups can be created from the menu Goto - Function Group - Create

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Programming Function Modules To program a function module, we must include our statements o p og a u ct o odu e, e ust c ude ou state e ts between the FUNCTION and ENDFUNCTION statements as follows: Syntax : FUNCTION <module> <statements> ENDFUNCTION An existing Function Module can be inserted into ABAP Code using Edit - Pattern

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Components of Functional Modules Import: Values transferred from the calling p og a to t e function module.You po t a ues t a s e ed o t e ca g program the u ct o odu e ou cannot overwrite the contents of import parameters at runtime. Export: Values transferred from the function module back to the calling program. Changing :Values that act as import and export parameters simultaneously. The i i l l Th original value of a changing parameter is transferred from the calling f h i t i t f df th lli program to the function module. The function module can alter the initial value and send it back to the calling program. Tables: Internal tables that can be imported and exported. The internal table's contents are transferred from the calling program to the function module. The function module can alter the contents of the internal table and then send it back to the calling program. Tables are always passed by reference. p Exceptions:Error situations that can occur within the function module. The calling program uses exceptions to find out if an error has occurred in the function module. It can then react accordingly.
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Import Parameters Import parameters : These must be supplied with data when we call the function module, unless they are flagged as optional. We cannot change them in the function module.

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Export Parameters Export parameters: These pass data from the function module back to the calling program. Export parameters are always optional. We do not have to receive them in our program.

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Changing Parameters C a g g pa a ete s Changing parameters are Changing parameters : C a g g pa a ete s a e passed by reference o e e e ce or by value and result. Changing parameters act simultaneously as import and export parameters. They change the value passed to the function module and return it to the calling program.

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Tables Parameters
Tables parameters :We use these to pass internal tables. They are treated like CHANGING parameters. However, we can also pass internal tables with other parameters if you specify the parameter type appropriately. The use of these exists in earlier FM definitions, as they are considered obsolete now .

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Exceptions • When creating function modules, we can define exceptions. The calling program determines whether and which exceptions it is to handle itself. • We can assign the same error number to several exceptions exceptions. • The OTHERS clause covers all exceptions not explicitly specified.

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Source Code Tab This tab shows the source of the function module in the ABAP/4 editor. We can work with the source code in the same way as is done for normal ABAP/4 programs opened via forward navigation.

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Creating Function Modules

• Check whether a suitable function module already exists. If not, create one as follows. • Create a function group, if no appropriate group exists yet. • Create the function module. • Define the function module interface by entering its parameters and exceptions. • Write the actual ABAP code for the function module, adding any relevant global data to the TOP include. • Activate the module. • Test the module. • Document the module and its parameters for other users. • Release the module for general use use.
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Runtime Considerations • The CALL FUNCTION statement can pass import, export, and changing import export parameters either by value or by reference. Table parameters are always transferred by reference. • If you declare the parameters with reference to ABAP Dictionary fields or structures, the system checks the type and length when the parameters are transferred. If the parameters from the calling program do not pass this check, the calling program terminates. • At runtime, all function modules belonging to a function group are loaded ith th l d d with the calling program. As a result, you should plan carefully lli A lt h ld l f ll which functions really belong in a group and which do not. Otherwise, calling your function modules will unnecessarily increase the amount of memory required by the user user.

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Function Builder The Function Builder allows us to create, test, and administer function modules in an integrated environment.

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Function Builder

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Function Module Attributes

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Function Module Attributes - Processing Types

• Normal Function Module : Indicates that the function is a normal one • Remote-enabled Module : Shows that the function is remote enabled • Update Module • Start Update Immediately :The function module is processed immediately in the update task task. • Immediate Start, No restart : The function module will be edited in the update task. It cannot be updated subsequently. • Start Delayed :The function module is processed in the update task as a low priority item. You use delayed update primarily for database changes that are not time-critical (e.g. statistical updates). g ( g p ) • Collective Run :A number of similar function modules that previously used to run individually in the V2 update process can be grouped together and run collectively.
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Finding Function Modules • U i Using th Repository Information System the R it I f ti S t To search for a module, choose Find from the initial screen of the Function Builder. The system displays the standard Function Module search screen. screen

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Finding Function Modules • U i Using th Application Hierarchy the A li ti Hi h The Application Hierarchy provides an overview of all the applications in your R/3 system. You can use this hierarchy to display function modules associated with particular applications applications.

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Calling Function Modules CALL FUNCTION <module> < d l > [EXPORTING f1 = a 1.... f n = a n] [IMPORTING f1 = a 1.... f n = a n] [CHANGING f1 = a 1.... f n = a n] [TABLES f1 = a 1.... f n = a n] [EXCEPTIONS e1 = r 1.... e n = r n [ERROR_MESSAGE = r E] [OTHERS = ro] ].

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CALL FUNCTION - Example
PROGRAM CALL_FUNCTION. CALL FUNCTION DATA: TEXT(10) TYPE C VALUE '0123456789', TEXT1(6) TYPE C, TEXT2(6) TYPE C. PARAMETERS POSITION TYPE I. CALL FUNCTION 'STRING_SPLIT_AT_POSITION' EXPORTING STRING = TEXT POS = POSITION IMPORTING STRING1 = TEXT1 STRING2 = TEXT2 EXCEPTIONS STRING1_TOO_SMALL = 1 STRING2_TOO_SMALL = 2 POS_NOT_VALID = 3 OTHERS = 4.
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CASE SY-SUBRC SY-SUBRC. WHEN 0. WRITE: / TEXT, / TEXT1, / TEXT2. WHEN 1. WRITE 'Target field 1 too short!'. WHEN 2. WRITE 'Target field 2 too short!'. WHEN 3. WRITE 'Invalid split position!'. WHEN 4. WRITE 'Other errors!'. ENDCASE.

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Documenting function modules The d Th documentation for the function module is done in the Function t ti f th f ti d l i d i th F ti Builder. There are two kinds of documentation - parameter documentation, and full function module documentation. • The parameter documentation must provide users with information f about the different parameters and exceptions. • Function module documentation contains important detailed p information about the task of the function module. A detailed documentation will help us to understand the function module without having to examine its source code.

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Activating Function Module Function Module can be activated from the menu as shown below below.

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Activating Function Group

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Testing Function Modules - Initial Screen • We can test function modules without having to include them in a program using the Function Builder. When we test a function module, the system displays any exceptions. The system also identifies the time required to execute the module in microseconds. Example Function : BAPI_CCODE_GET_FIRSTDAY_PERIOD Import Parameters: Company Code, Fiscal Period, Fiscal Year

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Testing Function Module - Result Screen The function BAPI_CCO _G _FIRSTDAY_PERIOD when e ecuted with e u ct o CCODE GET S O e executed t values given in the previous screen gives the following output. It also shows the time required for executing the function module.

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Releasing function modules Releasing a function module is a purely administrative gesture with no effect on the function or its usability. Releasing a function module signals that a developer has tested it. When a function module is released its documentation is released for translation and appears in the relevant translator's worklist. t l t ' kli t

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Function Modules Summary This section explained : • • • The creation of function modules Components of function modules Releasing and activation of function modules

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3. ABAP DATA DICTIONARY

Introduction Database tables Domains Views Search Helps p Locking Concept

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Data Dictionary
The ABAP Dictionary centrally describes and manages all the data definitions used in the system. The ABAP Dictionary is completely integrated in the ABAP Development Workbench. All the other components of the Workbench can actively access the definitions stored in the ABAP Dictionary Dictionary. The most important object types in the ABAP Dictionary are :1> Tables 2> Views 3> Types (data elements, structures, table types) 4> Domains 5> Search helps 6> Lock bj t 6 L k objects
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Data Dictionary
Tables are defined in the ABAP Dictionary independently of the database. A table having the same structure is then created from this table definition in the underlying database. Views are logical views on more than one table The structure of the table. view is defined in the ABAP Dictionary. A view on the database can then be created from this structure. Types are used in ABAP program. The structure of a type can be defined globally in ABAP programs. Changes to a type automatically take effect in all the programs using the type.

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Data Dictionary
Lock Objects are used to synchronize access to the same data by more than one user. Function modules that can be used in application programs are generated from the definition of a lock object in the ABAP Dictionary. Different fields having the same technical type can be combined in domains. A domain defines the value range of all table fields and structure components that refer to this domain. The ABAP Dictionary also contains the information displayed with the F1 and F4 help for a field in an input template.

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Data Dictionary

The documentation about the field is created for a data element that describes the meaning of the contents of a table field. The list of possible input values that appears for the input help is created by a foreign key or a search help.

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Data Dictionary

ABAP Dictionary (Transaction se11): Initial Screen
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3. ABAP DATA DICTIONARY

Introduction Database tables Domains Views Search Helps p Locking Concept

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Data Dictionary/ Table

Technical Settings
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Data Dictionary/ Table
Data Class If you choose the data class correctly, your table is automatically assigned to the correct area (tablespace or DBspace) of the database i d t th t (t bl DB ) f th d t b when it is created. Each data class corresponds to a physical area in which all the tables assigned to this data class are stored. stored There are the following data classes: APPL0 (master data): Data which is seldomly changed. An example of master data is the data contained in an address file, such as the name, address and telephone number. APPL1 (t (transaction d t ) Data th t is frequently changed. ti data): D t that i f tl h d
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Data Dictionary/ Table
An example of transaction data is the goods in a warehouse, which change after each purchase order. APPL2 (organizational data): Customizing data that is defined when the system is installed and seldomly changed. An example is the table with country codes. Two further data classes, USR and USR1, are provided for the p g customer. These are for user developments. The tables assigned to these data classes are stored in a tablespace for user developments.

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Data Dictionary/ Table

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Data Dictionary/ Table
Size Category The size category defines the expected space required for the table in the d t b th database. You can choose a size category from 0 to 4 for your Y h i t f t f table. Each category is assigned a certain fixed memory size in the database, which depends on the database system used. When a table is created, initial space (an Initial Extent) is reserved in the database. If more space is required at a later time due to data entries, additional memory will be added depending on the selected size category. i t
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Data Dictionary/ Table

Selecting the correct size category prevents a large number of very small extents from being created for a table. It also prevents space from being wasted if extents which are too large are created.
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Data Dictionary/ Table
Buffering You must define whether and how a table is buffered in the technical settings f th t bl There are three possibilities h tti for the table. Th th ibiliti here: 1> Buffering not permitted: Table buffering is not permitted, for example because application programs always need the most recent data from the table or the table is changed too frequently. 2> Buffering permitted but not activated: Buffering is permitted from the business and technical points of view. Applications which access the table execute correctly with and without table buffering.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
Whether or not table buffering will result in a gain in performance depends on the table size and access profile of the table (frequency of the different types of table access). Table buffering is deactivated because it is not possible to know what these values will be in the customer system. If table buffering would be advantageous for the table size and access profile of the table, you can activate it in the customer system at any time. 3> Buffering activated: The table should be buffered. In this case you must specify a buffering type.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
Buffering types: 1> Single-Record buffering With single-record buffering, only the records that are actually read are loaded into the buffer. Single-record buffering therefore requires less storage space in the buffer than generic and full buffering. The administrative costs in the buffer, however, are greater than for generic or full buffering. Considerably more database accesses are necessary to load the records than for the other buffering types types.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
In this example, the record highlighted in red is read by a program from table SCOUNTER. If single-record buffering is selected for the table, only the record that was read is loaded into the buffer.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
When Should you Use Single-Record Buffering? Single-record buffering should be used particularly for large tables where only a few records are accessed with SELECT SINGLE. The size of the records being accessed should be between 100 and 200 KB KB. Full buffering is usually more suitable for smaller tables that are accessed frequently. This is because only one database access is necessary to load such a table with full buffering, whereas several database accesses are necessary for single-record buffering.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
2> Generic buffering With generic buffering, all the records in the buffer whose generic key fields match this record are loaded when one record of the table is accessed. The generic key is a part of the primary key of the table that is left-justified. left justified

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Data Dictionary/ Table
In this example, the record highlighted in red is read by a program from table SCOUNTER. If the table is generically buffered, all the records read whose generic key fields (MANDT and CARRID) agree are loaded into the buffer.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
When Should you Use Full Buffering? A table should be buffered generically if only certain generic areas of the table are normally needed for processing. Client-specific, fully buffered Client specific fully-buffered tables are automatically generically buffered since normally it is not possible to work in all clients at the same time on an application server. The client field is the generic pp g key. Language-specific tables are another example where generic buffering is recommended. In general, only records of one language will be needed on an application server. In this case, the generic key includes ll th k fi ld i l d all the key fields up to and including the language field. t d i l di th l fi ld
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Data Dictionary/ Table
3> Full buffering With full buffering, either the entire table is in the buffer or the table is not in the buffer at all. All the records of the table are loaded into the buffer when one record of the table is read.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
In this example, a program reads the record highlighted in red from table SCOUNTER. If the table is fully buffered, all the records of the table are loaded into the buffer.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
When Should you Use Full Buffering? When deciding whether a table should be fully buffered, you should take into account the size of the table, the number of read accesses, and the number of write accesses. Tables best suited to full buffering are small read frequently and rarely written. small, frequently, written Full buffering is recommended in the following cases: Tables up to 30 KB in size. If a table is accessed frequently, but all p q y, accesses are read accesses, this value can be exceeded. However, you should always pay attention to the buffer utilization. Larger tables where large numbers of records are frequently

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Data Dictionary/ Table
accessed. If these mass accesses can be formulated with a very selective WHERE condition using a database index, it could be better to dispense with buffering. Tables for which accesses to non existent records are frequently non-existent submitted. Since all the table records reside in the buffer, the system can determine directly in the buffer whether or not a record exists.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
Logging The logging flag defines whether changes to the data records of a table should be logged. If logging is activated, every change logged activated (with UPDATE, DELETE) to an existing data record by a user or an application program is recorded in a log table in the database. Note: Activating logging slows down accesses that change the table. First of all, a record must be written in the log table for each change. Secondly, many users access this log table in parallel. This could cause lock situations even though the users are working with different application tables. ki ith diff t li ti t bl

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Data Dictionary/ Table
Dependencies Logging only takes place if parameter rec/client in the system profile is set correctly Setting the flag on its own does not cause the table correctly. changes to be logged. The existing logs can be displayed with Transaction Table history g g p y y (SCU3).

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Data Dictionary/ Table
Delivery class The delivery class controls the transport of table data for installation ,upgrade, client copy and when transporting between customer d li t d h t ti b t t systems. The delivery class is also used in the extended table maintenance. maintenance There are the following development classes: A: Application table (master and transaction data). C: Customer table, data is only maintained by the customer. L: Table for storing temporary data.

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Data Dictionary/ Table
G: Customer table, SAP may insert new data records but may not overwrite or delete existing ones. E: System table with its own namespace for customer entries. The customer namespace must be defined in table TRESC. S: System table data changes have the status of program changes table, changes. W: System table (e.g. table of the development environment) whose data is transported with its own transport objects (e.g. R3TR PROG, R3TR TABL, etc.).

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3. ABAP DATA DICTIONARY

Introduction Database tables Domains Views Search Helps p Locking Concept

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Data Dictionary/ Domain
Fixed values for a domain The value range of a domain can be further restricted by defining fixed l fi d values. If fixed values are defined for a domain, these are used fi d l d fi d f d i th d in the input check in screen templates. If no other means of help is defined for a field ( search help,foreign key ), the fixed values are help foreign ) also offered in the input (F4) help. Domain S_CLASS (data type CHAR, length 1) in the flight model describes the possible classes of a flight booking. The value range of domain S_CLASS is defined by the fixed values C (business class), F (first class) and Y (economy class). Only the values C, F and Y may be entered in screen templates for all the fields that refer to this domain. d i
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Data Dictionary/ Domain
You can define fixed value intervals either by entering upper and lower limits or by specifying single values. Value ranges and single values can be combined as required. You can enter an explanatory text for every single value or interval; it is displayed in the input help. help It is only possible to define fixed values for domains of data types CHAR, NUMC, DEC, INT1, INT2 and INT4. There is only an input check of the template for data types CHAR and NUMC.

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Data Dictionary/ Domain

Fixed values for a domain
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Data Dictionary/ Domain
Value Table for a domain In some cases you can see when you define a domain that all the table fields or structure components referring to this domain should be checked against a certain table. This information can be stored in the domain by entering a value table. table The system proposes the value table as check table when you try to define a foreign key for the field or component. This proposal can g y p p p be overridden. Domain S_CARR_ID (data type CHAR, length 3) in the flight model describes the three-place code of the airlines. All the airlines are listed together with their codes in table SCARR.

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Data Dictionary/ Domain
It is generally advisable to check fields referring to domain S_CARR_ID against table SCARR. SCARR is therefore entered as value table for domain S_CARR_ID. If you want to define a foreign key for a field referring to S_CARR_ID, SCARR is proposed as the check table. table A check is not implemented by simply entering a value table! The check against the value table only takes effect when a foreign key has been defined.

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Data Dictionary/ Domain

Value table for a domain
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Domain
Before creating a new domain, check whether a domain that defines the same value range already exists. In this case you should use the existing domain if possible. Procedure 1> Select object type Domains in the initial screen of the ABAP Dictionary, enter the name of the domain and choose Create. 2> The maintenance screen for domains appears. Enter an explanatory short text in the field Short text. You can for example find the domain at a later time using this short text.

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Data Dictionary/ Creating Domain
3> On the Data type tab page, choose the data type, number of places (valid positions without editing characters such as comma or period) and number of decimal places (only needed for data types DEC, FLTP, QUAN and CURR). Note that some data types have a fixed length For example the length. example, data type CLNT (client) always has 3 places. If you enter an invalid number of places for such a data type, the system corrects p yp , y this automatically after issuing a warning. 4> If only certain input values are valid for the domain, you can enter them in the Value range tab page as fixed values. You Y can also define a value table as proposed value for foreign l d fi l t bl d l f f i
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Domain
key checks on this tab page. 5> Save the domain. You are asked to assign the domain a development class. 6> Choose Activate icon. Result The domain is activated. You can find information about the activation flow in the activation log, which you can call with Utilities ® Activation log. If errors occurred when the domain was activated, the activation log is automatically displayed.

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Data Dictionary/ Creating Foreign Key
Procedure 1> In the field maintenance screen of the table, select the check field and choose If the domain of the check field has a value table, you can have the system create a proposal with the value table as check table. table In this case a proposal will be made for the field assignment in the foreign key. If the domain does not have a value table or if you reject the y j proposal, the screen for foreign key maintenance appears without proposals. In this case, enter the check table and save your entries. The check table must have a key field to which the domain of the check field is assigned.

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Data Dictionary/ Creating Foreign Key
2> Enter an explanatory short text in the field Short text. The short text provides a technical documentation of the meaning of the foreign key. 3> Choose Copy The foreign key is saved and you return to the Copy. maintenance screen for the table.

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3. ABAP DATA DICTIONARY

Introduction Database tables Domains Views Search Helps p Locking Concept

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Data Dictionary/ Views
Inner Join and Outer Join The data that can be selected with a view depends primarily on whether the view implements an inner join or an outer join. With an inner join you only get the records of the cross product for join, cross-product which there is an entry in all tables used in the view. With an outer join, records are also selected for which there is no entry in some of the tables used in the view. The set of hits determined by an inner join can therefore be a subset of the hits determined with an outer join.

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Data Dictionary/ Views

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Data Dictionary/ Views
Data about an application object is often distributed on several tables. By defining a view, you can define an application-dependent view that combines this data. The structure of such a view is defined data by specifying the tables and fields used in the view. Fields that are not required can be hidden, thereby minimizing interfaces. A view can be used in ABAP programs for data selection.

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Data Dictionary/ Views

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Data Dictionary/ Views
Four different view types are supported. These differ in the way in which the view is implemented and in the methods permitted for accessing the view data. Database views are implemented with an equivalent view on the database. database Projection views are used to hide fields of a table (only p j j ( y projection). ) Help views can be used as selection method in search helps. Maintenance views permit you to maintain the data distributed on several tables for one application object at one time. l t bl f li ti bj t t ti
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Data Dictionary/ Views- Database Views
Data about an application object is often distributed on several database tables. A database view provides an application-specific view on such distributed data. Database views are defined in the ABAP Dictionary. A database view is automatically created in the underlying database when it is activated. Application programs can access the data of a database view using pp p g g the database interface. You can access the data in ABAP programs with both OPEN SQL and NATIVE SQL. However, the data is actually selected in the database. Since the join operation is executed in the database in this case, you can minimize the number of database accesses i this way. Database views implement an inner join. in thi D t b i i l t i j i
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Data Dictionary/ Views- Database Views

If the database view only contains a single table, the maintenance status can be used to determine if data records can also be inserted with the view. If the database view contains more than one table, you can only read the data. o onl data
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Data Dictionary/ Views- Creating Database Views
Procedure 1> Enter an explanatory short text in the field Short text. You can for example find the view at a later time using this short text. 2> Define the tables to be included in the view in the Tables field of the Tables/Join conditions tab page. Keep in mind that you can only include transparent tables in a p y y p database view. 3> Link the tables with join conditions. Place the cursor on a table name and choose Relationships. All foreign keys to other tables defined for this table are displayed. Select the foreign keys and choose Copy. di l d S l t th f i k d h C
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Data Dictionary/ Views- Creating Database Views
The join condition is now derived from the definitions in the foreign key. 4> On the View fields tab page, select the fields that you want to copy to the view. Choose Table fields All the tables contained in the view are fields. displayed in a dialog box. Select a table. All the fields contained in this table are displayed. You can copy fields by selecting them p y py y g in the first column and choosing Copy. 5> On the Selection conditions tab page, you can (optionally) formulate restrictions for the data records to be displayed with the view .

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Data Dictionary/ Views- Creating Database Views
The selection conditions define the data records that can be selected with the view. 6> With Goto - Technical settings , you can (optionally) maintain the technical settings of the database view. You can define whether and how the database view should be buffered here. Proceed as for the technical settings of a table b ff dh P d f h h i l i f bl 7> On the Maintenance status tab page, select the maintenance status of the database view. view If the view contains more than one table, the maintenance status read only cannot be altered. y 8> Save your entries. You are asked to assign the view a development class. 9> Choose Activate .
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Data Dictionary/ Views- Projection View

Projection views are used to hide fields of a table. This can minimize interfaces; for example when you access the database, you only read and write the field contents actually needed. A projection view contains exactly one table. You cannot define selection conditions for projection views. There is no corresponding object in the database for a projection view. The R/3 System maps the access to a projection view to the corresponding access to its base table You can also access pooled table. tables and cluster tables with a projection view.

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Data Dictionary/ Views- Projection View

Projection View
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Data Dictionary/ Views- Creating Projection View
Procedure 1> Enter an explanatory short text in the field Short text. You can for example find the view at a later time using this short text. 2> Enter a table name in the field Base table table. A projection view always contains exactly one table. 3> Select the fields of the base table that you want to include in the y view. Choose Table fields. The fields of the table are now displayed in a dialog box. You can copy fields by selecting them in the first column and choosing Copy. 4> Save your entries.You are asked to assign the view a development class. l
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Data Dictionary/ Views- Creating Projection View
5> Choose Activate. Result The help view is activated. At activation, a log is written; it can be displayed with Utilities ® Activation log. If errors or warnings occurring when the view was activated, they are displayed directly in the activation log.

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Data Dictionary/ Views-Help View

You have to create a help view if a view with outer join is needed as selection method of a search help. p The selection method of a search help is either a table or a view. If you have to select data from several tables for the search help, you should generally use a database view as selection method. However, a database view always implements an inner join. If you need a view with outer join for the data selection, you have to use a help view as selection method method. The creation method for Help view is similar to that of Database view. p

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Data Dictionary/ Views-Help View

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3. ABAP DATA DICTIONARY

Introduction Database tables Domains Views Search Helps p Locking Concept

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Data Dictionary/ Search Help
The input help (F4 help) is a standard function of the R/3 System. The user can display the list of all possible input values for a screen field with the input help. This standard process can be completely defined by creating a search help in the ABAP Dictionary. This search help only has to be assigned to the screen fields in which they should be available. g y There are two types of search help: Elementary search helps describe a search path. The elementary search help must define where the data of the hit list should be read from (selection method), how the exchange of values between the th screen template and selection method is implemented t l t d l ti th d i i l t d
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Data Dictionary/ Search Help
(interface of the search help) and how the online input help should be defined (online behavior of the search help). Collective search helps Combine several elementary search helps. A collective search help thus can offer several alternative search paths paths.

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Data Dictionary/ Search Help- Examples
Each customer of a carrier or of a travel agency has a customer number. You want to find a search option for this customer number. The user must be offered two different search paths. 1> The user should be able to search for the customer number using the customer data such as the name and address. data, address 2>The user should be able to search for the customer number using g existing customer bookings. Two elementary search helps SCUSTOM_NAME (for searching with the customer data) and SCUSTOM_BOOK (for searching with th existing bookings) are created for the actual search paths. ith the i ti b ki ) t d f th t l h th
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Data Dictionary/ Search Help- Examples
These elementary search helps are included in the collective search help SCUSTOM. Elementary Search Help SCUSTOM_NAME This elementary search help should enable you to search for the customer number using the name and address (street, city, country) (street city country). All this data is contained in table SCUSTOM. Table SCUSTOM must therefore be selected as the selection method of the elementary search help. You now have to decide which fields of the selection method are needed for the input help process. These are the fields that should appear either in the dialog box for restricting values or in the hit list.

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Data Dictionary/ Search Help- Examples
In the dialog box for restricting values, the user should be able to restrict values with the customer’s name and address, i.e. the fields for the street, city and country. These fields as well as the customer’s number (the information to be found must always be in the hit list) should appear in the hit list. The fields ID, NAME, STREET, CITY list ID NAME STREET and COUNTRY of table SCUSTOM must be included in the search help as parameters. The parameter ID is declared to be an import parameter. A pattern entered in the corresponding field of a screen template can therefore be used directly for the value selection. Restrictions for the other parameters of the search help must be entered in the dialog box for

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Data Dictionary/ Search Help- Examples
value selection.All the parameters of the search help are declared to be export parameters. As a result, all the parameters of the hit list can be returned to the screen template if the corresponding fields are available there.

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Data Dictionary/ Search Help- Examples

Elementary Search help
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Search Help
Procedure 1> In the initial screen of the ABAP Dictionary, select object class Search help, enter the name of the search help and choose Create. A dialog box appears in which you must select the type of search help. help 2> Select Elementary search help and choose . y p The maintenance screen for elementary search helps appears. 3> Enter an explanatory text in the field Short text. You can for example find the search help at a later time using this h t t t thi short text.
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Search Help
4> In the Definition tab page enter the selection method of the search help. You can enter the name of a table or a view (database view , projection view or help view) here. If you enter a table that has a text table, the name of the text table is automatically entered in the corresponding field. field 5> Using the input help (F4 help), select fields of the selection g p p( p), method as parameter in the Search help parameter area. Select the fields that should be used in the dialog box for value selection or in the hit list. If the selection method is a table that has a text table, both the fields f th t bl fi ld of the table and the fields of the text table are offered in the d th fi ld f th t t t bl ff d i th
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Search Help
input help. The data element of the parameter is automatically copied from the selection method. The data element defines the output attributes and the F1 help of the parameter in the hit list and in the dialog box for value selection. selection You can assign the parameter another data element. To do so, select the Mod flag. The Data element field is now ready for input. Then g y p select a data element with the input help (F4 help). Only data elements whose data type, length and number of decimal places is the same as those of the previous data element can be assigned. This removes the link between the data element of the search help parameter and the data element of the selection method field having t d th d t l t f th l ti th d fi ld h i
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Search Help
the same name. If you cancel the Mod flag, the data element of the assigned table field is used again. 6> Define the attributes of the search help parameters. Select the IMP flag if it is an import parameter Select the EXP parameter. flag if it is an export parameter. You can define the dialog for the input help with the fields LPos, g p p , SPos and SDis. Enter the parameter position in the hit list in LPos. If you enter nothing or the value 0 here, the parameter is not displayed in the hit list. Enter the parameter position in the dialog box for value selection in SP i SPos. If you enter nothing or the value 0 here, the parameter is t thi th l h th t i
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Search Help
not displayed in the dialog box for value selection. Set the SDis flag if the parameter should be a pure display field in the dialog box for value selection. The user is thus informed that the contents of the parameter restrict the value, but he cannot change this restriction. This makes sense for example when the restriction parameter is an import parameter or if it has a default value. You can assign the parameter a default value in the Default g p value field. 7> Select the dialog type of the search help. The dialog type defines how the hit list is displayed in the input help. h l
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Search Help
8> Save your entries. A dialog box appears in which you have to assign the search help a development class. 9> Choose Activate .

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Data Dictionary/ Creating Search Help
Dialog types for a Search help The dialog type of an elementary search help defines how the hit list is di l i displayed when the input help is called. d h th i th l i ll d The following dialog types are possible: 1> Immediate value display: The hit list is immediately displayed when the input help is called. This is only meaningful if the hit list usually only contains a few entries. 2> Complex dialog with value restriction: The dialog window for restricting values is offered immediately. Choose this option if the list of possible entries is usually very large. If the user limits the th amount of data to be processed, the hit list will become more t fd t t b d th li t ill b
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Search Help
comprehensible and the system load during value selection will be reduced. 3> Dialog depending on number of values: If the hit list contains less than 100 entries, it is displayed immediately. If the hit list entries immediately contains more than 100 entries, the dialog box for restricting values is displayed.

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Data Dictionary/ Collective Search Help

Collective Search Help SCUSTOM
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Data Dictionary/ Collective Search Help

F4 for Collective Search Help
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Data Dictionary/Creating Collective Search Help
Procedure 1> In the initial screen of the ABAP Dictionary, select object class Search help, enter the name of the search help and choose Create. A dialog box appears in which you must select the type of search help. help 2 2> Select Collective search help and choose . The maintenance screen for collective search helps is displayed. 3> Enter an explanatory text in the field Short text.You can for example find the search help at a later time using this short text.

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Data Dictionary/Creating Collective Search Help

4> In the Definition tab page enter the parameters of the collective search help. Select the Imp flag if it is an import parameter. Select the Exp flag if it is an export parameter parameter. Define the types for the parameters of a collective search help by assigning a data element. Enter the name of the data element that describes the contents of the search help parameter in the Data element field. You can assign the parameter a default value in the Default value field. 5> In exceptions it could be necessary to change the standard process defined by the search help. You can implement the deviation from the standard using a search help exit. In this case enter the name of the search help exit in the corresponding field.

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Data Dictionary/Creating Collective Search Help

6> On the Included search helps tab page, define the search helps that you want to include in the collective search help.You can include l i l d elementary search helps and collective search helps. Use t hh l d ll ti hh l U the Hide flag to control whether an included search help should appear in the dialog box for selecting the elementary search help. If the flag is set the search help is not offered. set, offered 7> Save your entries. A dialog box appears in which you have to assign a development class to the search help. 8> Choose Activate.

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3. ABAP DATA DICTIONARY

Introduction Database tables Domains Views Search Helps p Locking Concept

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Data Dictionary/ Lock Objects
The R/3 System synchronizes simultaneous access of several users to the same data records with a lock mechanism. When interactive transactions are programmed, locks are set and released by calling function modules . These function modules are automatically generated from the definition of lock objects in the ABAP Dictionary. Dictionary Structure of a Lock Object j The tables in which data records should be locked with a lock request are defined in a lock object together with their key fields. When tables are selected, one table (the primary table) is first selected. Further tables (secondary tables) can also be added using foreign key relationships. f i k l ti hi
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Data Dictionary/ Lock Objects

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Data Dictionary/ Lock Objects

Lock Arguments The lock argument of a table in the lock object consists of the key g j y fields of the table. The lock argument fields of a lock object are used as input parameters in the function modules for setting and removing locks generated from the lock object definition. When these function modules are called, the table rows to be locked or unlocked are d l ll d th t bl t b l k d l k d specified by defining certain values in these fields. These values can also be generic The lock argument fields therefore define which generic. subset of the table rows should be locked.

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Data Dictionary/ Lock Objects

The simplest case of a lock object consists of exactly one table and the lock th l k argument of th t bl i th primary k of thi table. t f the table is the i key f this t bl Several tables can also be included in a lock object. A lock request therefore can lock an entire logical object and not only a record of object, a table. Such a logical object can be for example a document comprising an entry in a header table and N entries in a position table.
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Data Dictionary/ Lock Objects

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Data Dictionary/ Lock Objects

Lock Mode The lock mode controls whether several users can access data records at the same time The lock mode can be assigned separately time. for each table in the lock object. When the lock is set, the corresponding lock entry is stored in the lock table of the system for each table. Access by more than one user can be synchronized in the following ways: Exclusive lock: The locked data can only be displayed or edited by a single user. A request for another exclusive lock or for a shared lock is rejected. h dl ki j t d Shared lock: More than one user can access the locked data at the same time in display mode A request for another shared lock is mode.

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Data Dictionary/ Lock Objects
accepted, even if it comes from another user. An exclusive lock is rejected. Exclusive but not cumulative: Exclusive locks can be requested several times from the same transaction and are processed successively. In contrast, exclusive but not cumulative locks can be called only once from the same transaction. All other lock requests are rejected rejected.

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Data Dictionary/ Creating Lock Object
1> Select object type Lock object in the initial screen of the ABAP Dictionary, enter an object name and choose Create. The name of a lock object should begin with an E (Enqueue). The maintenance screen for lock objects is displayed. 2> Enter an explanatory short text in the field Short text. You can then use the short text to find the lock object at a later j time, for example with the R/3 Repository Information System. 3> Enter the name of the primary table of the lock object. All other tables in the lock object must be linked with the primary table i t bl using foreign keys. f i k
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Lock Object
4> Select the lock mode of the primary table in the field below it. The lock mode is used as the default value for the corresponding parameters of the function modules generated from the lock object. 5> Choose Add if you want to lock records in more than one table with the lock object. j A list of all the tables linked with the primary table using valid foreign keys is displayed. Select the appropriate table. The lock mode of the primary table is copied as lock mode. You can change this setting as required, for example you can assign the lock mode separately for each table. t l f h t bl
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Lock Object
Similarly, you can add a table linked with the secondary table just added with foreign keys. To do this, place the cursor on the name of the secondary table and choose Add. If no lock mode is assigned to a table, no lock is set for the entries in this table when the generated function modules are called. You called should not assign a lock mode if a secondary table was only used to define a path between the primary table and another secondary p p y y table with foreign keys. 6> Save your entries. A dialog box appears in which you have to assign the lock object ad development class. l t l
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Lock Object
7> You can define whether the function modules generated from the lock object should be RFC-enabled on the Attributes tab page. If you set the Allow RFC flag, the generated function modules can be called from within another system with Remote Function Call. Call If you permit Remote Function Calls for an existing lock object, y you must ensure that the g generated function modules are called from within an ABAP program with parameters appropriate for the type. You should therefore check all programs that use the associated function modules before activating the lock object with the new option. 8> Choose A ti t 8 Ch Activate.
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Data Dictionary/ Creating Lock Object
Result When you activate the lock object, the two function modules ENQUEUE_<lockobjectname> and DEQUEUE_<lockobjectname> are generated from its definition to set and release locks.

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Data Dictionary/ Function Modules for Lock Requests
When booking flights it is important to prevent flights from being overbooked. For this reason, you have to lock the particular flight as well as all the bookings existing for this flight during processing. You can do this with lock object E_BOOKING. The flights are recorded in table SFLIGHT and the bookings for the flights in table SBOOK. The two tables are linked with a foreign key. Lock object E_BOOKING must therefore contain table SFLIGHT as primary table and table SBOOK as further table.

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Data Dictionary/ Function Modules for Lock Requests

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Data Dictionary/ Function Modules for Lock Requests
The lock argument of table SFLIGHT thus contains the fields MANDT, CARRID, CONNID, and FLDATE. The lock argument of table SBOOK thus contains the fields MANDT, CARRID, CONNID, FLDATE, BOOKID and CUSTOMID. Select exclusive lock mode, that is the locked data can only be displayed and edited by one user. When the lock object is activated, the following function modules are generated from its definition: ENQUEUE_ E_BOOKING (set locks) DEQUEUE_ E_BOOKING (release locks)

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Data Dictionary/ Function Modules for Lock Requests

Calling Enqueue Function module
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Data Dictionary/ Function Modules for Lock Requests
With this call, flight LH 400 on Nov. 29,1998 is exclusively (lock mode E) locked in table SFLIGHT together with all the bookings entered in table SBOOK for this flight (since the initial value 0 is transferred for BOOKID and CUSTOMID). The lock is sent to the update program (_SCOPE = ‘2’). If there is a lock conflict, another attempt is made to set the lock after a , p certain time (_WAIT = ‘X’).

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Data Dictionary/ Function Modules for Lock Requests

Calling Dequeue Function module
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Data Dictionary/ Function Modules for Lock Requests
The existing exclusive lock entries for flight LH 400 are deleted in table SFLIGHT and the bookings for this flight are deleted in table SBOOK. The request to delete the lock entries is passed on to the update program (_SCOPE = ‘3’).

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Data Dictionary/ Parameters of Function modules
Field Names of the Lock Object The keys to be locked must be passed here. A further parameter X_<field> that defines the lock behavior when the initial value is passed exists for every lock field <field>. If the initial value is assigned to <field> and X <field> then a generic lock X_<field>, is initialized with respect to <field>. If <field> is assigned the initial value and X_<field> is defined as X, the lock is set with exactly the , y initial value of <field>. Parameters for Passing Locks to the Update Program A lock is generally removed at the end of the transaction or when the th corresponding DEQUEUE f di function module i called. ti d l is ll d
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Data Dictionary/ Parameters of Function modules
Parameter _SCOPE controls how the lock or lock release is passed to the update program. You have the following options: _SCOPE = 1: Locks and lock releases are not passed to the update program. The lock is removed when the transaction is ended. _SCOPE = 2: The lock or lock release is passed to the update SCOPE program. The update program is responsible for removing the lock. The interactive program with which the lock was requested no longer p g q g has an influence on the lock behavior. _SCOPE = 3: The lock or lock release is also passed to the update program. The lock must be removed in both the interactive program and in the update program. This is the standard setting for the DEQUEUE f function module. ti d l
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Data Dictionary/ Parameters of Function modules
Controlling Lock Transmission Parameter _COLLECT controls whether the lock request or lock release should be performed directly or whether it should first be written to the local lock container. This parameter can have the following values: Initial value: The lock request or lock release is sent directly to the lock server. X : The lock request or lock release is placed in the local lock container. The lock requests and lock releases collected in this lock container can then be sent to the lock server at a later time as a group b calling the function module FLUSH_ENQUEUE. by lli th f ti d l FLUSH ENQUEUE
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Data Dictionary/ Parameters of Function modules
Behavior for Lock Conflicts (ENQUEUE only) The ENQUEUE function module also has the parameter _WAIT. This parameter determines the lock behavior when there is a lock conflict. You have the following options: Initial value: If a lock attempt fails because there is a competing lock, the exception FOREIGN_LOCK is triggered. p gg X : If a lock attempt fails because there is a competing lock, the lock attempt is repeated after waiting for a certain time. The exception FOREIGN_LOCK is triggered only if a certain time limit has elapsed since the first lock attempt. The waiting time and the time limit li it are defined by profile parameters. d fi d b fil t
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Data Dictionary/ Parameters of Function modules
Controlling Deletion of the Lock Entry (DEQUEUE only) The DEQUEUE function module also has the parameter _SYNCHRON. If X is passed, the DEQUEUE function waits until the entry has been removed from the lock table. Otherwise it is deleted asynchronously, table asynchronously that is, if the lock table of the system is read directly after the lock is removed, the entry in the lock table may still exist. , y y Exceptions of the ENQUEUE Function Module FOREIGN_LOCK: A competing lock already exists. You can find out the name of the user holding the lock by looking at system variable SY-MSGV1. i bl SY MSGV1
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Data Dictionary/ Parameters of Function modules
SYSTEM_FAILURE: This exception is triggered when the lock server reports that a problem occurred while setting the lock. In this case, the lock could not be set.

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Data Dictionary/Summary

SUMMARY ( The ABAP Dictionary centrally describes and manages all the data definitions used in the system. The ABAP Dictionary is completely integrated in the ABAP Development Workbench. ( Tables are defined in the ABAP Dictionary independently of the database. ( Vi Views are logical views on more than one table. l i l i h bl ( A domain defines the value range of all table fields and structure components that refer to this domain domain. ( Lock Objects are used to synchronize access to the same data by more than one user.

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Data Dictionary/Exercise
EXERCISE Using SE11 create an user defined table with the following fields, Employee No. (Primary Key) No Name Designation Salary Try to add few records into that table. Note: Follow the steps explained in the presentation for the creation of N t F ll th t l i d i th t ti f th ti f the table.

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4. ADVANCED ABAP

Open SQL Dynamic Programming

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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ADVANCED ABAP

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5. ABAP OBJECTS

Classes and objects Inheritance I h it Polymorphism (casting) Interfaces Events Global l Gl b l classes and interfaces di t f Exception handling
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Course Contents
Course Contents : Module I ABAP Objects Overview Classes and Objects Visibility sections Methods Constructors C t t Inheritance Module II Interfaces Module III Events handling in classes Module IV Friends Persistent Classes Theory Test Practical Test Course Duration : 5 working days Module V Global classes Module VI Report development using ALV Module VII Exception handling in classes Module M d l VIII Casting

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ABAP Objects

About ABAP Objects

ABAP Objects is fairly a new concept in R/3. Th t Obj t i f i l t i R/3 The term h t has two meanings. i • It stands for the entire ABAP runtime environment environment. and • It represents the object-oriented extension of the ABAP language

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ABAP Objects

ABAP Runtime Environment

The Th ABAP Workbench allows you to create R/3 Repository objects W kb h ll t t R it bj t such as •programs •authorization objects •lock objects •Customizing objects, etc.

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ABAP Objects The Object-oriented Language Extension

ABAP Objects is a complete set of object-oriented statements that has been introduced into the ABAP language. language This object-oriented extension of ABAP builds on the existing j g language, and is fully compatible with it. You Y can use ABAP Obj t in existing programs, and can also Objects i i ti d l use "conventional" ABAP in new ABAP Objects programs.

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ABAP Objects The Object-oriented Language Extension

• ABAP Objects supports object-oriented programming • The object-oriented enhancement of ABAP is based on the models of Java and C++. It is compatible with external object interfaces such as DCOM and CORBA

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ABAP Objects

Object-Orientation

Object o e tat o (OO), or to be more p ec se, object o e ted orientation o o e precise, object-oriented programming, is a problem-solving method in which the software solution reflects objects in the real world . •Objects • An object is a section of source code that contains data and provides services. i • The data forms the attributes of the object. • The services are known as methods (also known as operations or functions).

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ABAP Objects

Advantages of OO

•The main difference between real object orientation and function g p is that j groups although a program can work with the instances of several function groups at the same time, it cannot work with several instances of a single function group. • Thi requirement i met b object orientation. ABAP Obj t allows you t d fi This i t is t by bj t i t ti Objects ll to define data and functions in classes instead of function groups. Using classes, an ABAP program can work with any number of instances (objects) based on the same te p ate template. •Complex software systems become easier to understand, since object-oriented structuring provides a closer representation of reality than other programming techniques. •In a well-designed object-oriented system, it should be possible to implement changes at class level, without having to make alterations at other points in the system. Thi reduces the overall amount of maintenance required. t This d th ll t f i t i d •Through polymorphism and inheritance, object-oriented programming allows you to reuse individual components. j y , g •In an object-oriented system, the amount of work involved in revising and maintaining the system is reduced, since many problems can be detected and corrected in the design phase
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ABAP Objects

Classes

• Classes describe objects. • Classes are templates for objects • From a technical point of view, objects are runtime instances of a class.

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ABAP Objects

Objects

•Objects are instances of classes. •Each object has a unique identity and its own attributes. j q y •All transient objects reside in the context of an internal session (memory area of an ABAP program). •A class can have any number of objects (instances).

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ABAP Objects

Overview Graphic - Classes

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ABAP Objects

Structure of a Class

• A class contains components • Each component is assigned to a visibility section • Classes implement methods

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ABAP Objects

Class Components

• All components are declared in the declaration part of the class. t d l d i th d l ti t f th l p j • The components define the attributes of the objects in a class. • When you define the class, each component is assigned to one of the th th three visibility sections, which define the external interface of the i ibilit ti hi h d fi th t li t f f th class. • All of the components of a class are visible within the class. All components are in the same namespace. • This means that all components of the class must have names that are unique within the class.

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ABAP Objects

Attributes

•Attributes are internal data fields within a class that can have any ABAP data type. • The state of an object is determined by the contents of its attributes. • One kind of attribute is the reference variable. • Reference variables allow you to create and address objects objects. Reference variables can be defined in classes, allowing you to access objects from within a class.

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ABAP Objects

Methods

•Methods are internal procedures in a class that define the behavior of an object. •They can access all of the attributes of a class. This allows them to change the data content of an object. •They also have a parameter interface, with which users can supply them with values when calling them, and receive values back from them •The private attributes of a class can only be changed by methods in p y g y the same class.

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ABAP Objects

Methods - syntax

• The definition and parameter interface of a method is similar to that of function modules. • You define a method <met> in the definition part of a class and implement it in the implementation part using the following processing block: METHOD <meth>. ... ENDMETHOD. ENDMETHOD • You can declare local data types and objects in methods in the same way as in other ABAP procedures (subroutines and function modules). You call methods using the CALL METHOD statement. ) C O • CALL METHOD <ObjName> -> <Method>
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ABAP Objects

Methods - types

• Instance Methods
You declare instance methods using the METHODS statement. They can access all of the attributes of a class, and can trigger all of the events of the class

• Static Methods
You declare static methods using the CLASS-METHODS statement. They can only access static attributes and trigger static events.

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ABAP Objects

Types of classes

• Types of classes - local and global • Local classes - are d fi d i your program. defined in - cannot be accessed outside your program. • Global classes - Are defined in the repository using either transaction SE80 or SE24 - Can be accessed by all programs

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ABAP Objects

Encapsulation - Classes Visibility

•Encapsulation: capsu at o •Objects restrict the visibility of their resources (attributes and methods) to other users. Every object has an interface, which determines how other objects can interact with it. The implementation of the object is encapsulated, i.e. invisible outside the object itself. •Encapsulation is implemented using class visibility sections. •Classes Visibility Sections •You can divide the declaration part of a class into up to three visibility areas: PUBLIC SECTION. ... PROTECTED SECTION SECTION. ... PRIVATE SECTION. ...

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ABAP Objects

Public Section

Public Section •All of the components declared in the public section are accessible to all users of the class, and to the methods of the class and any classes that inherit from it. •The public components of the class form the interface between the class and its users users. •READ-ONLY addition can be used for public attributes. This implies that the public attributes can be read from outside the class, but can be modified by only methods of the class.

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ABAP Objects

Private Section

•Private Section •Components that you declare in the private section are only visible in the methods of the same class. class •The private components are not part of the external interface of the class.

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ABAP Objects

Protected Section

• Protected Section
All components in the protected section can be accessed by all methods of the same class as well as all methods of its sub-classes sub-classes. All of the components in the protected section can access the components from the public section. In turn, they can be accessed by the components of the private section section.

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ABAP Objects

Introductory Example

CLASS C COUNTER DEFINITION C_COUNTER DEFINITION. PUBLIC SECTION. METHODS: SET_COUNTER IMPORTING VALUE(SET_VALUE) TYPE I, INCREMENT_COUNTER, GET_COUNTER EXPORTING VALUE(GET_VALUE) TYPE I. PRIVATE SECTION. DATA COUNT TYPE I. ENDCLASS. CLASS C_COUNTER IMPLEMENTATION. METHOD SET_COUNTER. COUNT = SET VALUE SET_VALUE. ENDMETHOD. METHOD INCREMENT_COUNTER. ADD 1 TO COUNT. ENDMETHOD. METHOD GET_COUNTER. GET_VALUE = COUNT. ENDMETHOD. ENDMETHOD ENDCLASS.
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ABAP Objects

Object references

•To access an object from an ABAP program, you use object references. •Object references are pointers to objects. In ABAP, they are always Object contained in reference variables. •A reference variable is either initial or contains a reference to an existing object. •The identity of an object depends on its reference. •A reference variable that points to an object knows the identity of that object.

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ABAP Objects

Data Types for References

•You define class references using the ... TYPE REF TO <class> •LIKE may not be used. •LIKE can be used for local data types.

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ABAP Objects

Creating Objects

•Before you can create an object for a class, you need to declare a reference variable with reference to that class. •DATA: <obj> TYPE REF TO <class> •Once you have declared a class reference variable <obj> for a class <class>, you can create an object using the statement CREATE OBJECT <obj>. •This statement creates an instance of the class <class>, and the reference variable <obj> contains a reference to the object.

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ABAP Objects

Addressing the Components of Objects

•Programs can only access the instance components of an object using references in reference variables. •To access an attribute <attr>: <obj>-><attr> •To call a method <meth>: CALL METHOD <obj>-><meth>

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ABAP Objects

Addressing the Components of Objects

•You can access static components using the class name as well as the reference variable. •It is also possible to address the static components of a class before an p p object has been created. •Addressing a static attribute <attr>: <class>=><attr> •Calling a static method <meth>: CALL METHOD <class>=><meth>

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ABAP Objects

Self references

•Within a class, you can use the self-reference ME to access the individual components: •To access an attribute <attr> in the same class: ME-><attr> •To call a method <meth> in the same class: CALL METHOD ME-><meth> •Self references allow an object to give other objects a reference to it. •You can also access attributes in methods from within an object even if they are obscured b l b d by local attributes of th method. l tt ib t f the th d

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ABAP Objects
REPORT zharesh .

Self references- Example

CLASS lcl DEFINITION. PUBLIC SECTION. METHODS: m1. PRIVATE SECTION. DATA: v1 VALUE 'a'. ENDCLASS. "lcl DEFINITION lcl CLASS lcl IMPLEMENTATION. METHOD m1. DATA: 1 DATA v1 VALUE 'b' 'b'. WRITE v1. "This will print 'b' since it is local data and has more precedence than global data *Now how do we print the g p global data v1 ( (which has vale 'a')? ) *We use the self-reference "ME" WRITE me->v1. "Now this will print ‘a' ENDMETHOD. "m1 ENDCLASS. ENDCLASS "lcl IMPLEMENTATION lcl

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ABAP Objects

Overview Graphic - Objects

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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 1

The DATA statement creates a class reference variable CREF1 with type C_COUNTER. This variable can contain references to all instances of the class C_COUNTER. The class C_COUNTER must be known to the program when the DATA statement occurs. You can either declare it locally before the data statement in the same program, or globally using the Class Builder. The contents of CREF1 are initial. The reference does not point to an instance.
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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 2

The CREATE OBJECT statement creates an object (instance) of the class C_COUNTER. The reference in the reference variable CREF_1 points to this object. This instance of the class C_COUNTER is called C_COUNTER<1>, because this is how the contents of the object variable REF_COUNTER_1 are displayed in the debugger after the CREATE OBJECT statement has been executed.
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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 3

The ABAP program can access the public components of the object using the reference variable CREF1, that is in this case, it can call the public methods of the class C_COUNTER. After the program on the left-hand side has been executed, the program variables NUMBER and the private object attribute COUNT both have the value 8.
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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 4

This declares three different class reference variables for the class C_COUNTER. All of the references are initial.

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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 5

The system creates three objects of the class from the three class reference variables. The references in the three reference variables each point to one of these objects. In the internal program management, the individual instances are called C_COUNTER<1>, C_COUNTER<2>, and C_COUNTER<3>. They are named in the order in which they were created.
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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 6

The ABAP program can use the reference variables to access individual objects objects, that is in this case, to call the public methods of the class C_COUNTER. Each object has its own state, since the private instance attribute COUNT has a separate value for each object. The program on the left-hand side administers several independent counters.
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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 7

Here, Here three class reference variables are declared for the class C COUNTER C_COUNTER, and two objects are created for the class. The references in the reference variables CREF1 and CREF2 each point to one of these objects. The reference in CREF3 is initial.

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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 8

After the MOVE statement, CREF3 contains the same reference as CREF2 and statement CREF2, both references point to the object C_COUNTER<2>. A user can thus use either reference to address the object C_COUNTER<2>.

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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 9

The CLEAR statement resets the reference in CREF2 to its initial value The value. reference variable CREF2 then contains the same value as it did immediately after its declaration, and does not point to an object any more.

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ABAP Objects

Example - Step 10

The effect of the assignment statement is to copy the reference from CREF1 to CREF2. As a result, the reference in CREF3 also points to the object C_COUNTER<1>. No more references point to the object C_COUNTER<2>, and it is automatically deleted by the Garbage Collection. The internal name C_COUNTER<2> is now free again.
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ABAP Objects

Declaring Methods

You can declare methods in the declaration part of a class or in an interface To interface. declare instance methods, use the following statement: METHODS <meth> IMPORTING.. [VALUE(]<ii>[)] TYPE type [OPTIONAL].. EXPORTING.. [VALUE(]<ei>[)] TYPE type [OPTIONAL].. CHANGING.. [VALUE(]<ci>[)] TYPE type [OPTIONAL].. RETURNING VALUE(<r>) EXCEPTIONS.. <ei> EXCEPTIONS <ei>.. and the appropriate additions. To declare static methods, use the following statement: CLASS-METHODS CLASS METHODS <meth>... th Unlike in function modules, the default way of passing a parameter in a method is y by reference. To pass a parameter by value, you must do so explicitly using the VALUE addition. The return value (RETURNING parameter) must always be passed explicitly as a value.
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ABAP Objects

Implementing Methods

You must implement all of the methods in a class in the implementation part of the class in a METHOD <meth> <meth>. ... ENDMETHOD. block.

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ABAP Objects

Calling Methods

To call a method use the following statement: method, CALL METHOD <meth> EXPORTING... <ii> =.<f i>... IMPORTING... <ei> =.<g i>... CHANGING ... <ci> =.<f i>... RECEIVING r=h EXCEPTIONS... <ei> = rc i... Within the implementation part of a c ass, you ca ca t e methods o t e sa e t t e p e e tat o pa t o class, can call the et ods of the same class directly using their name <meth>. CALL METHOD <meth>... Outside the class, the visibility of the method depends on whether you can call it at class all. Visible instance methods can be called from outside the class using CALL METHOD <ref>-><meth>... where <ref> is a reference variable whose value points to an instance of the class. Visible instance methods can be called from outside the class using CALL METHOD <class>=><meth>... where <class> is the name of the relevant class class.

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ABAP Objects
Constructors C

Constructors

•Constructors are special methods that cannot be called using CALL METHOD. •Instead, they are called automatically by the system to set the starting state of a new object or class. •Executed only once per i t E t d l instance at th ti t the time of creating an object f ti bj t •Constructors initialize objects •Constructors are methods with a predefined name. •To use them, you must declare them explicitly in the class. •Only has IMPORTING parameters and EXCEPTIONS •METHODS CONSTRUCTOR IMPORTING param TYPE type EXCEPTIONS exception.
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ABAP Objects

Static Constructors

Static Constructors S C •CLASS-METHODS: CLASS_CONSTRUCTOR •Only accessed once per program Only •Automatically called before the class is first accessed Eg: •Creation of 1st object C ti f bj t •1st access of static method •1st access of static attribute •Cannot have parameters and exceptions

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ABAP Objects

Functional Methods

Functional Methods These are methods which can be called like functions. •Only 1 parameter can be RETURNING parameter and this has to passed BY VALUE •Can have importing parameters •No EXPORTING and CHANGING parameters N d t Format: Eg: a = b + function_name(). g ()

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5. ABAP OBJECTS

Classes and objects Inheritance I h it Polymorphism (casting) Interfaces Events Global l Gl b l classes and interfaces di t f Exception handling
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ABAP Objects

Inheritance - 1

Inheritance allows you to derive a new class from an existing class. y g You do this using the INHERITING FROM addition in the CLASS <subclass> DEFINITION INHERITING FROM <superclass>. <superclass> statement. The new class <subclass> inherits all of the components of the existing class <superclass>. The new class is called the subclass of the class from which it is derived derived. The original class is called the superclass of the new class. Only the public and protected components of the superclass are visible in the subclass. You can declare private components in a subclass that have the same names as private components of the superclass. Each class works with its own private components.
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ABAP Objects

Inheritance - 2

A class can have more than one direct subclass, but it may only have one direct superclass. This is called single inheritance. The root node of all inheritance trees in ABAP Objects is the predefined empty class OBJECT. This is the most generalized class possible, since it contains neither attributes nor methods.

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ABAP Objects

Inheritance - Example

Inheritance Example

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ABAP Objects

Inheritance – Redifining Methods - 1

All subclasses contain the components of all classes between themselves and the f root node in an inheritance tree. The visibility of a component cannot be changed. However, you can use the REDEFINITION addition in the METHODS statement to redefine an inherited public or protected instance method in a subclass and make its function more specialized. When Wh you redefine a method, you cannot change its interface. Th method d fi th d t h it i t f The th d retains the same name and interface, but has a new implementation. i.e. method overloading is not allowed allowed. However, method overloading is allowed in case of constructors. Any reference that points to an object of the subclass uses the redefined method, even if the reference was defined with reference to the superclass superclass.

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ABAP Objects

Inheritance – Redifining Methods - 2

Within a redefined method, you can use the pseudoreference SUPER-> to access f f S the obscured method. This enables you to use the existing function of the method in the superclass without having to recode it in the subclass. The method declaration and implementation in the superclass is not affected when you redefine the method in a subclass. Any reference that points to an object of the subclass uses the redefined method, even if the reference was defined with reference to the superclass. p If, for example, a superclass method M1 contains a call CALL METHOD ME->[M2], and M2 is redefined in a subclass calling M1 from an instance of the superclass will subclass, cause the original method M2 to be called, and calling M1 from an instance of the subclass will cause the redefined method M2 to be called.

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Inheritance – Constructors

• If you define a constructor in the sub-class, th i d fi t t i th b l then irrespective of whether you h ti f h th have defined a constructor in the super-class or not, you need to explicitly call the constructor of the super-class using the statement CALL METHOD SUPER->CONSTRUCTOR. Incase the super-class does not have a constructor, the default constructor will be called by the system. (which will do nothing) • If you don t have a constructor in the sub class but if you have a constructor in the don’t sub-class super-class, and if you create an object of the sub-class, then the default constructor of the sub-class will call the constructor of the super-class.

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Redefining Methods - Example

Method Redefinition Example

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Abstract, Final and Singleton

The ABSTRACT and FINAL additions to the METHODS and CLASS statements S C O S C SS allow you to define abstract and final methods or classes. Abstract – •Abstract classes cannot be instantiated. •An abstract method is defined in an abstract class and cannot be implemented in that class. Instead, it HAS to be implemented in the subclass. Final – •Final classes cannot have subclasses. •They conclude an inheritance tree. y •A final method cannot be redefined in a subclass. •All methods in final classes are automatically final. Singleton Classes – •Classes that are both abstract and final are known as Singleton classes •Only static components can be used. •Only 1 instance (“single”) of such a class may be defined •This instance needs to be defined within the class itself
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5. ABAP OBJECTS

Classes and objects Inheritance I h it Polymorphism (casting) Interfaces Events Global l Gl b l classes and interfaces di t f Exception handling
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Polymorphism

If you redefine a method of a superclass in a subclass, you can use a reference f f f f variable defined with reference to the superclass to address objects with different method implementations. When you address the superclass, the method has the original implementation, but when you address the subclass, the method has the new implementation. Using U i a single reference variable to call identically-named methods that i l f i bl t ll id ti ll d th d th t behave differently is called polymorphism. e.g. g

Polymorphism Example

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Narrowing Cast

Getting a super class variable to refer to a subclass variable is called Narrowing g p g Cast • E.g. Obj_super = obj_sub. After Narrowing cast you can use the super class reference to access the cast, components of the subclass instance that were inherited from super class The components inherited from the superclass can be addressed Also called “Up-Cast” Use: A user who is not interested in the finer points of subclasses but only in the subclasses, attributes of the superclass, does not need to know about them. The user only wants to work with references to the superclass. Hence in order to allow the user to work with subclass objects, you need a Narrowing cast Also used to access interface components

• • • •

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Widening Cast

Getting a sub class variable to refer to a superclass variable is called Widening Cast g p g The problem (Need for widening cast): Data: r_vehicle TYPE REF To lcl_vehicle. LOOP AT vehicle_list INTO r vehicle vehicle list r_vehicle. *Only for trucks * ENDLOOP. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The solution (Widening cast): Data: r_vehicle TYPE REF To lcl_vehicle, r_truck r truck TYPE REF TO lcl_truck. lcl truck LOOP AT vehicle_list INTO r_vehicle. TRY. r_truck ?= r_vehicle. *processing for trucks CATCH CX_SY_MOVE_CAST_ERROR INTO r_exception. *processing for error situation CLEANUP. ENDTRY. ENDLOOP.
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Widening Cast

Widening Cast

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5. ABAP OBJECTS

Classes and objects Inheritance I h it Polymorphism (casting) Interfaces Events Global l Gl b l classes and interfaces di t f Exception handling
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Interfaces

•It is often necessary for similar classes to provide similar functions that are coded differently in each class but which should provide a uniform point of contact for the user. •For example, you might have two similar classes, savings account and check account, both of which have a method for calculating end of year charges. The interfaces and names of the methods are the same, but the actual implementation is different. different The user of the classes and their instances must also be able to run the end of year method for all accounts, without having to worry about the actual type of each individual account. •ABAP Objects makes this possible b using i t f ABAP Obj t k thi ibl by i interfaces. I t f Interfaces are i d independent d t structures that you can implement in a class to extend the scope of that class. •Interfaces extend the scope of a class by adding their own components to its public section. •This allows users to address different classes via a universal point of contact. Interfaces, along with inheritance, provide one of the pillars of polymorphism, since they allow a single method within an interface to behave differently in different classes.
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Interfaces - Defining Interfaces

•Like classes, you can d fi i t f Lik l define interfaces either globally i th R/3 R ith l b ll in the Repository or it locally in an ABAP program. •The definition of a local interface <intf> is enclosed in the statements: INTERFACE <intf>. ... ENDINTERFACE. •The definition contains the declaration for all components (attributes, methods, events) of the interface. •The components of interfaces do not have to be assigned individually to a visibility section, since they automatically belong to the public section of the class in which the interface is implemented. •Interfaces do not have an implementation part, since their methods are implemented in the class that implements the interface.

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Interfaces - Implementing Interfaces

•Unlike classes interfaces do not have instances Instead interfaces are Unlike classes, instances. Instead, implemented by classes. •To implement an interface in a class, use the statement CLASS <class> DEFINITION INTERFACES <intf>. l i tf in the declaration part of the class. This statement may only appear in the public section of the class. A component <icomp> of an interface <intf> can be addressed as though it were a member of the class under the name <intf~icomp>. The class must implement the methods of all interfaces implemented in it. The implementation part of the class m st contain a method implementation for each must interface method <imeth>: METHOD <intf~imeth>. ... ENDMETHOD. Interfaces can be implemented by different classes. Each of these classes is extended by the same set of components However the methods of the interface components. However, can be implemented differently in each class.
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Interfaces - Interface References

•Instead of creating reference variables with reference to a class, you can also define them with reference to an interface. •To define an interface reference, use the addition TYPE REF TO <intf> in the To intf TYPES or DATA statement. •A reference variable with the type interface reference is called a interface reference variable, or i t f i bl interface reference f short. f for h t •An interface reference <iref> allows a user to use the form <iref>-><icomp> to address all visible interface components <icomp> of the object to which the object p p j j reference is pointing. •It allows the user to access all of the components of the object that were added to its definition by the implementation of the interface interface.

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Addressing Objects Using Interface References

If the class <class> implements an i t f th l < l >i l t interface <intf>, you can use th following <i tf> the f ll i assignment between the class reference variable <cref> and an interface reference <iref> to make the interface reference in <iref> point to the same object as the class reference in <cref>: <iref> = <cref> If the interface <intf> contains an instance attribute <attr> and an instance method <meth>, you can address the interface components as follows: Using the class reference variable <cref>: To access an attribute <attr>: <cref>-><intf~attr> To call a method <meth>: CALL METHOD <cref>-><intf~meth> Using the interface reference variable <iref>: To access an attribute <attr>: < iref>-><attr> To call a method <meth>: CALL METHOD <iref>-><meth>

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Addressing Objects Using Interface References

As far as the static components of interfaces are concerned, you can only use the interface name to access constants: Addressing a constant <const>: < intf>=><const> For all other static components of an interface, you can only use object references or the class <class> that implements the interface: Addressing a static attribute <attr>: < class>=><intf~attr> Calling a static method <meth>: CALL METHOD <class>=><intf~meth>

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Interfaces – Overview Graphics - 1

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Interfaces – Overview Graphics - 2

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Interfaces – Introductory Example – Part 1
CLASS C_COUNTER2 DEFINITION. PUBLIC SECTION. INTERFACES I_COUNTER. PRIVATE SECTION. DATA COUNT TYPE I. ENDCLASS. CLASS C_COUNTER2 IMPLEMENTATION. METHOD I_COUNTER~SET_COUNTER. COUNT = ( SET_VALUE / 10) * 10. ENDMETHOD. METHOD I_COUNTER~INCREMENT_COUNTER. IF COUNT GE 100. MESSAGE I042(00). COUNT = 0. ELSE. ADD 10 TO COUNT. ENDIF. ENDMETHOD. METHOD I_COUNTER~GET_COUNTER. GET_VALUE = COUNT. ENDMETHOD. ENDCLASS.

INTERFACE I_COUNTER. METHODS: SET_COUNTER IMPORTING VALUE(SET_VALUE) TYPE I, INCREMENT_COUNTER, GET_COUNTER EXPORTING VALUE(GET_VALUE) TYPE I. ENDINTERFACE. CLASS C_COUNTER1 DEFINITION. PUBLIC SECTION. INTERFACES I_COUNTER. PRIVATE SECTION. DATA COUNT TYPE I. ENDCLASS. CLASS C_COUNTER1 IMPLEMENTATION. METHOD I_COUNTER~SET_COUNTER. COUNT = SET_VALUE. ENDMETHOD. METHOD I COUNTER INCREMENT COUNTER I_COUNTER~INCREMENT_COUNTER. ADD 1 TO COUNT. ENDMETHOD. METHOD I_COUNTER~GET_COUNTER. GET_VALUE = COUNT. ENDMETHOD. ENDCLASS.

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Interfaces – Introductory Example–Part 2

The interface I_COUNTER contains three methods SET_COUNTER, INCREMENT_COUNTER, and GET_COUNTER. The classes C COUNTER1 and C COUNTER2 implement the interface in the public C_COUNTER1 C_COUNTER2 section. Both classes must implement the three interface methods in their implementation part. C_COUNTER1 is a class for counters that can have any starting value and are then increased by one. C_COUNTER2 is a class for counters that can only be increased in steps of 10. Both classes have an identical outward face. It is fully defined by the p y y interface in both cases. The following sections explain how a user can use an interface reference to address the objects of both classes:

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Interfaces – Introductory Example–Part 3

First, two class reference variables CREF1 and CREF2 are declared for the classes C_COUNTER1 and C_COUNTER2. An interface reference IREF is also declared for the interface I_COUNTER. All of the reference variables are initial.

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Interfaces – Introductory Example–Part 4

The CREATE OBJECT statement creates an object for each class to which the references in CREF1 and CREF2 point.

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Interfaces – Introductory Example–Part 5

When the reference of CREF1 is assigned to IREF, the reference in IREF also points to the object with the internal name C_COUNTER<1>.

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5. ABAP OBJECTS

Classes and objects Inheritance I h it Polymorphism (casting) Interfaces Events Global l Gl b l classes and interfaces di t f Exception handling
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Events

An “ “event” is the occurrence of a special condition during the execution of an ABAP ” f f program. This occurrence must be of sufficient importance for the ABAP program to take a special action. The following steps are required in an ABAP program in order to handle events: •Triggering E Ti i Events t •Handling Events

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Triggering Events

Triggering Events To trigger an event, a class must · Declare the event in its declaration part · Trigger the event in one of its methods

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Declaring Events

You declare events in the declaration part of a class or in an interface. To declare f f instance events, use the following statement: EVENTS <evt> EXPORTING... VALUE( ei ) TYPE type [OPTIONAL].. evt VALUE(<ei>) To declare static events, use the following statement: CLASS-EVENTS <evt>... Both statements have the same syntax. When you declare an event, you can use the EXPORTING addition to specify y ,y p y parameters that are passed to the event handler. The parameters are always passed by value. Instance events always contain the implicit parameter SENDER, which has the type of a reference to the class or the interface in which the event is declared.

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Triggering Events

An instance event in a class can be triggered by any method in the class. Static events can be triggered by any static method. To trigger an event in a method, use the following statement: RAISE EVENT <evt> EXPORTING... <ei> = <fi>...

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Handling Events

Events are handled using special methods. To handle an event, a method must · be defined as an event handler method for that event · be registered at runtime for the event.

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Declaring Event Handler Methods

Any class can contain event handler methods for events from other classes. You y can, of course, also define event handler methods in the same class as the event itself. To declare an event handler method, use the following statement: METHODS <meth> FOR EVENT <evt> OF <cif> IMPORTING <ei>.. IMPORTING.. <ei> for an instance method. For a static method, use CLASS-METHODS instead of METHODS. <evt> is an event declared in the class or interface <cif>. •The interface of an event handler method may only contain formal parameters defined in the declaration of the event <evt>. The attributes of the parameter are also adopted by the event. •The event handler method does not have to use all of the parameters passed in the RAISE EVENT statement. If you want the implicit parameter SENDER to be used as well, you must list it in the interface. This parameter allows an instance event handler to access the trigger, for example, to allow it to return results. If •If you declare an event handler method in a class, it means that the instances of the class or the class itself are, in principle, able to handle an event <evt> triggered in a method.
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Registering Event Handler Methods

To allow an event handler method to react to an event, you must determine at ,y runtime the trigger to which it is to react. You can do this with the following statement: SET HANDLER... <hi>... [FOR]... It links a list of handler methods with corresponding trigger methods methods. For an instance event, you must use the FOR addition to specify the instance for which you want to register the handler. You can either specify a single instance as the trigger, using a reference variable <ref>: SET HANDLER... <hi>...FOR <ref>. or you can register the handler for all instances that can trigger the event: SET HANDLER... <hi> FOR ALL INSTANCES HANDLER <hi>...FOR INSTANCES. The registration then applies even to triggering instances that have not yet been created when you register the handler. You cannot use the FOR addition for static events: SET HANDLER... <hi>... The registration applies automatically to the whole class, or to all of the classes that implement the interface containing the static event. In the case of interfaces, the registration also applies to classes that are not loaded until after the handler has been registered.
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Overview Graphic - Events

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Example – Events

Events Example

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Class Practice - Events
lcl_vehicle lcl vehicle Class-data: count Class-methods: class_constructor, increment

lcl-car Class-data: count Class methods: class_constructor, Class-methods: class constructor increment

lcl-truck Class-data: count Class-methods: class constructor class_constructor, increment

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Friends

•A class can offer friendship to other classes or interfaces A interfaces. •Friends have access to all components of a class and can always instantiate a class. •A class offering friendship is not automatically a friend of its friends. •Sub-classes of friends automatically become friends of the class offering friendship •Advantages: Advantages: •Unrestricted access •Fast access

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Persistent Classes

Transient and persistent data •ABAP programs work with local program data, which resides in the program’s internal session. This data lives only as long as its context – that is, as long as its associated procedure (for local procedure data); its object (for attributes of classes); or its program (for global program data). This data is known as transient. Data that can be preserved beyond the runtime of the program is known as persistent. Data in object-oriented programming object oriented •An object in ABAP Objects is transient. It exists in the internal program session only from the time it is generated (using CREATE OBJECT) until it is deleted by the Garbage Collector. g •Ideally you could save the encapsulation of data and functions persistently within the object instead. A program could then leave an object in a certain state and a second program could continue working on the object in that state. p g g j •Classes of objects are already persistent anyway, but you need some way of saving the attributes of an object persistently and then make reference to the pp p you y appropriate class. The Persistence Service allows y to do exactly that.

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Persistent Classes

The Persistence Service for Persistent Objects •ABAP Objects are always transient, just like the data objects in ABAP programs. There are no persistent objects in ABAP Objects. However, the Persistence Service within Object Services allows application developers to work with persistent objects objects. The Persistence Service can be thought of as a software layer between the ABAP program and the data repository (that is, the database), which allows you to save the attributes of objects with a unique identity, and then load them again when you need th d them. •Put simply, the Persistence Service ensures that an object is initialized in a specified state, and saves the state of that object when required. •The relationship between the object and the description of its state in the database is similar to the relationship between transient and persistent data outlined above. The state of the object when it is instantiated reflects the state of the data in the database at that time time. •Changes to the object state in the ABAP program are not written to the database immediately, but only after the appropriate request has been made (that is, the COMMIT WORK statement has been executed). Thus, a persistent object exists as executed) Thus an original in the database and as a copy in one or more ABAP programs.
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Persistent Classes

Persistent Classes •To use the Persistence Service for objects, the classes of these objects must be created as persistent classes in the Class Builder. •The term persistent class does not imply that a class is persistent. (As a template for objects, every class is persistent). •Rather, it means that the objects of that class and their state are managed by the Persistence Service. •For example, the objects of these classes are instantiated in the ABAP program with a method of the Persistence Service, which ensures that the initialization is correct (not with the usual CREATE OBJECT statement). •When the Class Builder creates a persistent class, it automatically generates an associated class, known as the class actor or class agent, whose methods manage the objects of p j persistent classes.

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5. ABAP OBJECTS

Classes and objects Inheritance I h it Polymorphism (casting) Interfaces Events Global l Gl b l classes and interfaces di t f Exception handling
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Global Classes - 1

• To Create a Class Go •Go to Transaction SE80 or SE24

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Global Classes - 2

• To Create a Class…
•Then specify whether you want to create a class or interface.

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Global Classes - 3

• To Create a Method. •Double click on the object Name(ZNDC) and it will take you the following Screen, where you define the level, visibility, Description etc. for particular method in a class.

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Global Classes - 4

• To Implement your method. Double click on the Method to implement your method. Click to implement your
method

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Global Classes - 5

• To Implement your method.

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Global Classes - 6

• Classes Visibility Section.

•Public Section Public

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Global Classes - 7

Public S Section of the Class, which is visible & accessible to all users of the class. f C f

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ALV Grids - 1

The ALV G control is a flexible tool for displaying lists. The tool provides Grid f f common list operations as generic functions and can be enhanced by selfdefined options. The ALV Grid control is used to build non-hierarchical, interactive, and modern-design lists. As a control, it is a component that is installed on the local PC.

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ALV Grids - 2

Step 1 S 1: In Screen Painter: Create a screen with a custom control object on it and give the custom control a name (e.g. CC_ALV) Step 2: In Screen logic: Create TYPE REF’s to cl_gui_custom_container and cl_gui_alv_grid DATA: container TYPE REF TO cl_gui_custom_container, grid TYPE REF TO cl_gui_alv_grid. Step 3: In PBO of screen: create objects for the above 2 reference variables IF container IS INITIAL INITIAL. CREATE OBJECT container EXPORTING container_name = ' CC_ALV '. ELSE . CALL METHOD grid->refresh_table_display ENDIF.
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ALV Grids - 3

CREATE O C OBJECT grid C EXPORTING i_parent = container. Step 4: In PBO of screen or start-of-selection: -Create an internal table having structure same as what you want to display -Populate internal table with data to be displayed Step 5: In PBO of screen: Transfer data to the grid CALL METHOD grid->set_table_for_first_display EXPORTING i_structure_name = '‘ “structure name CHANGING it_outtab = . “internal table name

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ALV Grids – 4

Step 6 S 6: Before LEAVE PROGRAM: Free the container call method custom container1->free. custom_container1 free. call method cl_gui_cfw=>flush.

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ALV Grids – 5
ALV grids with Field Catalog

*ITAB & W.A FOR FIELDCATLOG DATA ITAB_FCAT TYPE LVC_T_FCAT. DATA WA_FCAT LIKE LINE OF itab_fcat. *POPULATE ITAB WA_FCAT FIELDNAME CTYPE . WA FCAT-FIELDNAME = ‘CTYPE'. WA_FCAT-REF_FIELD = 'CUSTTYPE' . “Database field name WA_FCAT-REF_TABLE = 'SBOOK'. “Database table name WA_FCAT-COL_POS = 27. APPEND WA_FCAT TO ITAB_FCAT. WA FCAT ITAB FCAT *Call method “set_table_for_first_display”, passing the name of the field catalog CALL METHOD r_alv_g grid->set_table_for_first_display p y EXPORTING I_STRUCTURE_NAME = 'SBOOK' CHANGING IT_OUTTAB IT OUTTAB = ITAB IT_FIELDCATALOG = ITAB_FCAT.
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Class Practice – ALV Grids

Using a selection screen, read the value of material type. (MARA-MTART) f ( ) Create an ALV on another screen in the same module pool program and display 100 records. Display only the following fields: Material number (MARA-MATNR) Material Group (MARA-MATKL) Material Description (MAKT-MAKTX) Create GUI status for proper navigation.

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Class-Based Exceptions - Overview

The occurrence of an exception is normally used to display an error situation. p y p y Class-based exception handling is based on exception classes. All exception classes are part of an inheritance hierarchy with a common superclass, CX_ROOT. Class-based exceptions can, therefore, be raised and handled in all ABAP contexts (programs, processing blocks). Class-based exceptions are either raised 1. 1 Explicitly by the ABAP statement RAISE EXCEPTION or 2. Automatically by the ABAP runtime environment. If a class-based exception occurs, the system interrupts the normal program flow and tries to find a suitable handler. If it does not find a handler, a runtime error occurs. Exceptions that are raised in procedures but are not handled in the procedure itself are forwarded to the caller. The caller can either handle the exception or forward it.
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Class-Based Exceptions–Handling Exceptions

The handler of an exception must try to correct the error that has occurred, find an f f alternative solution, or (if this is not possible) at least bring the affected context into a consistent state and then forward the error. If a call hierarchy does not contain a handler for an exception, the program is ended with a runtime error. Class-based exceptions are h dl d i th f ll i control structure: Cl b d ti handled in the following t l t t TRY. ... " TRY block (application coding) CATCH cx_... cx_... ... ... " CATCH block (exception handler) CATCH cx_... cx_... ... ... " CATCH block (exception handler) ... CLEANUP. ... " CLEANUP block (cleanup context) ENDTRY.

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Class-Based Exceptions–Handling Exceptions

Case 1 An exception occurs and there is no handler defined f it either in the current C 1: f for TRY-ENDTRY block or in the caller blocks ⇒Runtime error occurs Case 2: An exception occurs and there is a handler for it in the same TRY-ENDTRY block ⇒Program flow is interrupted ⇒Corresponding CATCH bl k gets executed C di block t t d ⇒CLEANUP is not executed ⇒Program flow continues after the TRY-ENDTRY block Case 3: An exception occurs, there is no handler for it in the same TRY-ENDTRY block, but there is a handler for it either in the enclosing TRY-ENDTRY block or the calling procedure ⇒Program flow is interrupted ⇒CATCH is not executed for the current TRY-ENDTRY block ⇒CLEANUP is executed in the current TRY-ENDTRY block if it exists ⇒CATCH gets executed in the enclosing/calling block

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Class-Based Exceptions – Handling Exceptions

The TRY statement opens a control structure to be ended with ENDTRY, in which three statement blocks can be listed in a specified order. 1. A TRY block, in which exceptions can occur. This exception block consists of all the statements between the TRY and the CATCH statement. One O or more CATCH bl k f catching exceptions. blocks for t hi ti These exception blocks are initiated with CATCH and ended with a further CATCH, CLEANUP, or ENDTRY. A CLEANUP block for cleanup work after the exceptions have been caught. This statement block is initiated by CLEANUP and ended with ENDTRY. A TRY-ENDTRY structure must not contain more than one CLEANUP block in precisely this position position. TRY-ENDTRY structures can be nested in any statement blocks.

2. 2

3.

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ABAP Objects

Class-Based Exceptions – Try Block

The TRY block contains the application coding whose exceptions are to be handled. pp g p This statement block is processed sequentially. It can contain further control structures and calls of procedures or other ABAP programs. • If an exception occurs in the TRY block or in a procedure called up here the here, system starts by searching for a CATCH statement of the same TRY-ENDTRY structure. • It then searches from the inside out for a CATCH statement in any enclosing TRY-ENDTRY structures that handle the event. The system may call this handler. • If the system does not find a handler, but the TRY-ENDTRY structure is contained in a procedure, it tries to propagate the exception to the caller. Exceptions cannot be propagated in any processing blocks without a local data area (event blocks, dialog modules). A runtime error occurs immediately if the handler is missing. If no exceptions occur in the TRY block, program execution is continued directly after ENDTRY after the block has been completed.

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5. ABAP OBJECTS

Classes and objects Inheritance I h it Polymorphism (casting) Interfaces Events Global l Gl b l classes and interfaces di t f Exception handling
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ABAP Objects

Class-Based Exceptions – Catch Block

A catch block contains the exception handler that is executed when a p particular exception has occurred in the TRY block of the same TRY-ENDTRY structure.

• A TRY-ENDTRY structure can contain several exception handlers. The syntax TRY ENDTRY handlers for introducing an exception handler is: CATCH cx_... cx_... INTO ref. • This defines an exception handler for all the specified exception classes and their subordinate classes.

• After an exception occurs, the system searches through the listed exception occurs handlers in the specified order. The first exception handler whose CATCH statement contains the corresponding exception class or one of its superclasses is executed. • The system then continues program execution directly after ENDTRY.

• No subsequent exception handlers are considered. For this reason, the order of the different exception handlers within a TRY-ENDTRY structure must be based on the inheritance hierarchy of the specified exception classes.
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ABAP Objects

Class-Based Exceptions – Catch Block

• The syntax check ensures that the handlers f more specific exceptions for f (subordinate classes) can only be listed before the handlers for more general exceptions (superclasses). • With the INTO addition, a reference to the exception object can be placed into a reference variable. This enables the attributes of the exception object to be accessed in the handler.

The reference variable must be suitable for the exception. Its static type must be the exception class itself or one of its superclasses.

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ABAP Objects

Class-Based Exceptions – CleanUp Block

If the system has not found a handler for an exception, but the exception is y p , p handled in an enclosing TRY-ENDTRY structure or is propagated to a caller, the CLEANUP block is executed before the TRY-ENDTRY structure is exited. Precisely one CLEANUP block can be defined in each TRY ENDTRY structure TRY-ENDTRY structure. For example, objects often have to be brought into a consistent state or external resources, to which an external handler no longer has access, have to be released. All the statements that change the control flow, which cause the CLEANUP block to be exited and would initiate a processing block of the same program program, are forbidden. This applies to statements such as RETURN, STOP, for example. All the exceptions that occur within a CLEANUP block must also be handled here. It is, however, permissible to leave the overall program (LEAVE PROGRAM) or call up procedures, programs, and screen sequences if the system returns to the CLEANUP block. The runtime environment always recognizes that a CLEANUP block is being exited illegally and then reacts with a runtime error.
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ABAP Objects

Class-Based Exceptions – Example

Class based exceptions Example

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ABAP Objects
CX_NO_CHECK CX NO CHECK You CAN handle these exceptions. If you don’t, they are passed along automatically. They cannot be passed explicitly using the RAISING addition. Not part of syntax check

Sub-Classes of CX_ROOT CX_DYNAMIC_CHECK CX DYNAMIC CHECK CX_STATIC_CHECK CX STATIC CHECK

You MUST handle these exceptions or pass them along explicitly using the RAISING addition.

Not part of syntax check

Part of syntax check

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ABAP Objects

Class-Based Exceptions – Propagating Exceptions

Class-based exceptions that occur in p p procedures ( (methods, function modules, , , subroutines) do not necessarily have to be handled here. They can be propagated to the caller of the procedure. If the caller is a procedure and the call takes place in a TRY block, the caller can handle the exception or propagate it to its caller. caller The highest level to which exceptions can be propagated is processing blocks without a local data area, in other words, event blocks or dialog modules. Both the exceptions forwarded from called procedures and the exceptions that have occurred in the individual coding must be handled here. Otherwise, a runtime error will occur. A static constructor of a class cannot propagate exceptions, since a user of a class does not know whether it is the first user and whether or not it has to handle any exceptions that are propagated by the static constructor. Likewise, event handler methods cannot propagate exceptions. To propagate exceptions from procedures, the RAISING addition must usually be used for the definition of the interface of a procedure (except for static constructors and event handlers).
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ABAP Objects

Propagating Exceptions Example

Propagating Exceptions

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ABAP Objects

Class-Based Exceptions – Exception Texts

The most important feature of a caught exception is the fact that it has occurred p g p and that it is handled in the program. It is left to the handler to decide how the exception situation is dealt with. It is not up to the exception itself to interact with the program user. Nevertheless, an explanatory text is assigned to each exception. This text describes the exception situation more precisely and is output as an error message if the exception is not handled. It should, however, only be used sparingly during exception handling for communication with the user. The exception text describes an error situation from a mostly technical view view. If an exception is described to a user, it should be described from the user's perspective.

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ABAP Objects

Exception Texts - Example

Exception Texts

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ABAP Objects

Class Practice

Class Based Exceptions + Widening cast Create a super class and its sub class. Create objects of both classes. Try to assign the object of the superclass to the object of the subclass If successful write subclass. successful, “Bingo” else handle the exception.

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

Extract datasets Data output in lists( Standard, Self-defined, Lists with several pages ) p g Interactive lists( At line-selection , At User-command) List creation with the ALV grid control

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LIST PROCESSING
Refining Data A report must sort d t t t t data,calculate totals,count item in lists and so on. l l t t t l t it i li t d you can read the data to be refined from database tables or from . sequential files or u can create generic report. The refining process is independent of the process of retrieving data. Create data set Refine the data set

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LIST PROCESSING
Creating and Refining datasets: Abap/4 offers two methods of creating datasets in the storage Internal tables . Extract datasets Internal tables : If you want the datasets to map the underlying data structures as closely as possible and if you want to access individual data directly. Extract datasets : An extract is a sequential dataset you can create with a report.Use extracts e tracts if you want to process large amo nt of data as a whole o ant amount hole several times
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LIST PROCESSING
Refining data using EXTRACT DATASETS: An Extract is a sequential dataset in the report’s storage area.this means that you can access its data only within a loop. . During the report’s run time,the system can create exactly one extract dataset. dataset As for internal tables the size of the extract data set is principally unlimited,since the system rolls it out if necessary. In one extract dataset,you can store records of different length and structure one after the other.

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LIST PROCESSING

Declaring Extract Records as Field Groups An extract dataset consists of a sequence of records. These records may . have different structures. All records with the same structure form a record type You must define each record type of an extract dataset as a type. field group, using the FIELD-GROUPS statement. Syntax FIELD-GROUPS <fg>.

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LIST PROCESSING
Filling Filli an Extract with Data E t t ith D t Once you have declared the possible record types as field groups and defined their structure, you can fill the extract dataset using the following statements: . Syntax g EXTRACT <fg>. When the first EXTRACT statement occurs in a program, the system creates th extract dataset and adds the first extract record to it. In each t the t td t t d dd th fi t t t d t it I h subsequent EXTRACT statement, the new extract record is added to the dataset

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LIST PROCESSING
Reading an Extract R di E t t Like internal tables, you can read the data in an extract dataset using a loop. loop syntax . LOOP. … [AT FIRST | AT <fgi> [WITH <fg j>] | AT LAST. ... ENDAT.] ... ENDLOOP. ENDLOOP

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LIST PROCESSING
Sorting an Extract You can sort an extract dataset in much the same way as an internal table by using the following statement: . syntax SORT [ASCENDING|DESCENDING] [AS TEXT] [STABLE] BY <f1> [ASCENDING|DESCENDING] [AS TEXT] ... <fn> [ASCENDING|DESCENDING] [AS TEXT].

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LIST PROCESSING
Processing Control Levels When you sort an extract dataset, control levels are defined in it. For general information about control levels, The control level hierarchy of an extract dataset corresponds to the sequence of the fields in the HEADER . field group. After sorting, you can use the AT statement within a loop to program statement blocks that the system processes only at a control break, that is, when the control level changes. Syntax AT NEW <f> | AT END OF <f>. ... ENDAT.

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

Extract datasets Data output in lists( Standard, Self-defined, Lists with several pages ) p g Interactive lists( At line-selection , At User-command) List creation with the ALV grid control

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BASIC LISTS
Lists Lists are the output medium for data from ABAP/4 report programs. Each program can produce up to 21 lists: one basic list and 20 secondary lists. Structure and the options of a list are The Standard List The Self-Defined List Lists with Several Pages

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BASIC LISTS
The standard list If an ABAP/4 report makes use only of the WRITE, SKIP, and ULINE output statements .This list is called standard list. t t t t t Thi li t i ll d t d d li t The standard list consists of: Standard Page Header Standard Page User Interface of the Standard List The next slide shows a standard list.

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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
The Self-Defined List Self defined Self-defined list is a list created by modifying the standard list by using options of the REPORT statement and using event keywords TOP-OF-PAGE and END-OF-PAGE. The possible modifications that can be performed in a standard list are : Page Header List Width Page Length Page Footer

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BASIC LISTS
Page Header To layout a page header individually, you must define it in the processing block following the event keyword TOP OF PAGE: TOP-OF-PAGE: Syntax TOP-OF-PAGE. WRITE: .... The TOP-OF-PAGE event occurs as soon as the system starts processing a new page of a list and before outputting the first line on a new page. Note : The self-defined page header appears beneath the standard page header self defined header. If you want to suppress the standard page header, use the NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING option of the REPORT statement.

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BASIC LISTS
REPORT demo_list_page_heading NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING. d li t h di HEADING TOP-OF-PAGE. WRITE: sy-title, 40 'Page', sy-pagno. ULINE. WRITE: / 'SAP AG', 29 'Walldorf, ',sy-datum, SAP AG , Walldorf, ,sy datum, / 'Neurottstr. 16', / '69190 Walldorf/Baden'. ULINE. START-OF-SELECTION. DO 5 TIMES. WRITE / sy-index. ENDDO.

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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
List Width To determine the width of the output list, use the LINE-SIZE option of the REPORT statement. Syntax REPORT <rep> LINE-SIZE <width>.

Note : •If you set <width> to 0, the system uses the width of the If 0 standardlist . •The system field SY-LINSZ contains the current line width

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BASIC LISTS
Page Length To determine the page length of an output list, use the LINE-COUNT option of the REPORT statement. ti f th t t t Syntax REPORT <rep> LINE-COUNT <length>[(<n>)]. <n> ---->The system reserves <n> lines of the page length for the >The page footer. Note : •If you set <length> to zero, the system uses the standard page length . •The system field SY-LINCT contains the current number of lines per page

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BASIC LISTS

REPORT demo_list_line_count LINE-SIZE 40 LINECOUNT 4. WRITE: 'SY-LINCT:', sy-linct. SKIP. DO 6 TIMES. WRITE / sy-index. ENDDO.

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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
Page Footer To define a page footer, use the END-OF-PAGE event. Syntax END-OF-PAGE. END OF PAGE WRITE: .... This event occurs when the system reaches the lines reserved for the page footer, or if the RESERVE statement triggers a page break. Note : The system only processes the processing block following END-OF-PAGE if you reserve lines for the footer in the LINE-COUNT option of the REPORT statement .
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BASIC LISTS
REPORT demo_list_end_of_page LINE-SIZE 40 LINE-COUNT 6(2) NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING. TOP-OF-PAGE. TOP OF PAGE WRITE: 'Page with Header and Footer'. ULINE AT /(27). /(27) END-OF-PAGE. ULINE. WRITE: /30 'Page', sy-pagno. START-OF-SELECTION. DO 6 TIMES. WRITE / sy-index. ENDDO.
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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
Lists with Several Pages If in your report has more number of lines than defined in the LINECOUNT option of the REPORT statement, the system automatically creates a new page . t Apart from automatic page breaks, you can use the NEW-PAGE and RESERVE statements to code page breaks explicitly. explicitly

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BASIC LISTS
Page Break- Conditional To execute a page break under the condition that less than a certain number of lines is left on a page, use the RESERVE statement: Syntax RESERVE <n> LINES LINES. This statement triggers a page break if less than <n> free lines are left on the current list page between the last output and the page footer. Before starting a new page, the system processes the END-OF-PAGE event.

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BASIC LISTS
REPORT demo_list_reserve LINE-SIZE 40 LINE-COUNT 8(2). END-OF-PAGE. ULINE. START-OF-SELECTION. DO 4 TIMES. WRITE / sy-index. ENDDO. DO 2 TIMES. WRITE / sy-index. ENDDO. RESERVE 3 LINES. WRITE: / 'LINE 1', / 'LINE 2', / 'LINE 3'.

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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
Page Break- Unconditional Syntax NEW-PAGE. * Ends the current page. All other output appears on a new page. * The system then increases the SY-PAGNO system field by one. * Does not trigger the END-OF-PAGE event. END OF PAGE Variants in NEW_PAGE are: NEW-PAGE [NO-TITLE|WITH-TITLE] NO-HEADING|WITH-HEADING]. NEW-PAGE LINE-COUNT <length>. NEW-PAGE LINE-SIZE <width>.

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BASIC LISTS
REPORT demo_list_new_page LINE-SIZE 40. TOP-OF-PAGE. WRITE: 'TOP-OF-PAGE', sy-pagno. ULINE AT /(17). START-OF-SELECTION. DO 2 TIMES. WRITE / 'Loop:'. DO 3 TIMES. WRITE / sy-index. ENDDO. NEW-PAGE. ENDDO.

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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling from within the Program From within the program, you can scroll through lists vertically and horizontally. h i t ll The SCROLL statement allows you: Vertical Scrolling Scrolling Window by Window Scrolling by Pages Horizontal Scrolling g Scrolling to the List's Margins Scrolling by Columns

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling Window by Window To scroll through a list vertically by the size of the current window use this statement: Syntax SCROLL LIST FORWARD|BACKWARD. This statement scrolls forward or backward through the current list by the size of the current window.

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BASIC LISTS
REPORT demo list scroll 1 NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING LINE SIZE 40. demo_list_scroll_1 LINE-SIZE TOP-OF-PAGE. WRITE: 'Top of Page', sy-pagno, 'SY-SROWS:', sy-srows. ULINE. START-OF-SELECTION. DO 100 TIMES. WRITE / sy-index. ENDDO. DO 3 TIMES. SCROLL LIST FORWARD. ENDDO.

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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling by Pages To scroll a list vertically depending on the page length, the SCROLL statement offers t t t t ff two options. ti Scrolling to Certain Pages Scrolling by a Certain Number of Pages

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling to Certain Pages To scroll to certain pages, use the TO option of the SCROLL statement: Syntax SCROLL LIST TO FIRST PAGE | LAST PAGE | PAGE <page> . This statement scrolls the current list to the first, to the last, or to the page numbered <page> .

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling by a Certain Number of Pages To scroll a list by a certain number of pages, use the following options of the th SCROLL statement: t t t Syntax SCROLL LIST FORWARD | BACKWARD <n> PAGES. This statement scrolls forward or backward <n> pages.

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling to the List's Margins To scroll horizontally to the left or right margin of a list, use the following options of the SCROLL statement: Syntax SCROLL LIST LEFT | RIGHT. This statement scrolls to the left or right margin of the currentlist. currentlist

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BASIC LISTS
REPORT demo_list_scroll_3 NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING LINE-SIZE 200. TOP-OF-PAGE. WRITE: AT 161 'Top of Page', sy-pagno, 'SY SCOLS:', sy scols SY-SCOLS: sy-scols. ULINE. START-OF-SELECTION. START OF SELECTION DO 200 TIMES. WRITE sy-index. sy index ENDDO. SCROLL LIST RIGHT.

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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling by Columns To scroll a list horizontally by columns, the SCROLL statement offers two options. A column in this case means one character of the list line.

•Scrolling to Certain Columns •Scrolling by a Certain Number of Columns

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling to Certain Columns To scroll to certain columns, use the TO COLUMN option of the SCROLL statement: Syntax SCROLL LIST TO COLUMN <colm> . This system displays the current list starting from column <colm>.

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BASIC LISTS
Scrolling by a Certain Number of Columns S lli b C t i N b fC l To scroll a list by a certain number of columns use the following option columns, of the SCROLL statement: Syntax SCROLL LIST LEFT | RIGHT BY <n> PLACES. This system scrolls the current list to the left or right by <n> columns.

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BASIC LISTS
REPORT demo_list_scroll_4 NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING LINE-SIZE 200. TOP-OF-PAGE. TOP OF PAGE WRITE: AT 161 'Top of Page', sy-pagno, 'SY SCOLS:', sy scols SY-SCOLS: sy-scols. ULINE. START OF SELECTION. START-OF-SELECTION. DO 200 TIMES. WRITE sy-index. y ENDDO. SCROLL LIST TO COLUMN 178.

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BASIC LISTS

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BASIC LISTS
Left Boundary for Horizontal Scrolling To determine the left boundary of the horizontally scrollable area, use: Syntax SET LEFT SCROLL-BOUNDARY [COLUMN <col>].

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BASIC LISTS
Excluding Lines from Horizontal Scrolling c ud g es o o o ta Sc o g To exclude a line (for example, a header or comment line) from horizontal scrolling, define the line feed for that line as follows: Syntax NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING. NEW LINE NO SCROLLING The line following the statement cannot be scrolled horizontally. horizontally However, it can be scrolled vertically.

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

Extract datasets Data output in lists( Standard, Self-defined, Lists with several pages ) p g Interactive lists( At line-selection , At User-command) List creation with the ALV grid control

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INTERACTIVE LIST
A list is an interactive list if the user interface allows actions that trigger events and if the corresponding interactive event keywords occur in the report. All lists created during an interactive list event are secondary lists. li t t dd i i t ti li t t d li t Interactive lists enhance the classical type of output list with dialog functionality,thus coming close to dialog programming. Interactive lists provide the user with so called “interactive reporting” facility so-called interactive reporting facility. Interactive reporting allows the user to participate actively in retrieving and presenting data during the the session. Instead of one extensive and detailed list,with interactive reporting you create a condensed basic list from which the user can call detailed information by p y positioning the cursor and entering commands. g g Interactive reporting thus reduces information retrieval to the data actually required. Detailed information is presented in secondary lists.
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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Interactive Reporting

Secondary List Interactive List

REPORT

TRANSACTION

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Events for Interactive Lists E t f I t ti Li t •AT LINE-SELECTION •AT PF<nn> AT PF •AT USER-COMMAND

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Allowing Line S l ti All i Li Selection To allow the user to select a line from the list, define and write a processing block for the AT LINE SELECTION event in your program: LINE-SELECTION Syntax AT LINE-SELECTION. <statements>. In the predefined interface, Edit --> Choose and F2 are assigned to PICK.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Page Headers for Secondary Lists age eade s o Seco da y sts On secondary lists, the system does not trigger the event TOP-OF-PAGE. To create page headers for secondary list: Syntax TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE-SELECTION. The system triggers this event for each secondary list. list

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Program which shows At LINE-SELECTION & TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE-SELECTION. REPORT demo_list_interactive_3 . START-OF-SELECTION. WRITE 'Basic List'. AT LINE-SELECTION. WRITE 'Secondary List'. TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE-SELECTION. CASE sy-lsind. WHEN 1. WRITE 'First Secondary List'. WHEN 2 2. WRITE 'Second Secondary List'. WHEN OTHERS. WRITE: 'Secondary List, Level:', sy-lsind. ENDCASE. ENDCASE ULINE.
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INTERACTIVE LISTS

Page Header in Basic List This is the basic list

• When clicked on the basic list Event AT LINE-SELECTION is triggered. • Next Slide shows the modified Page Header and Text of the Secondary List

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

Changed Page Header in secondary list

This is the secondary list

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Allowing Function Key Selection o g u ct o ey Se ect o To allow the user to select an action by pressing a function key, Syntax AT PF<nn>. <statements>. t t t <nn> is a number between 1 and 24. SY-UCOMM returns the function code PF<nn>.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
START-OF-SELECTION. WRITE 'Basic List, Press PF5, PF6, PF7, or PF8'. AT pf5. PERFORM out. t AT pf6. PERFORM out. AT pf7. PERFORM out. AT pf8. pf8 PERFORM out. FORM out. WRITE: 'Secondary List by PF-Key Selection' PF Key Selection', / 'SY-LSIND =', sy-lsind, / 'SY-UCOMM =', sy-ucomm. ENDFORM.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

If any function keys f5,f6,f7 & f8 are pressed it will take you to the relavent secondary list

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

Secondary list when function key(f5) is pressed

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Setting Status S tti a St t You set the status with the SET PF STATUS statement, PF-STATUS statement Syntax SET PF-STATUS <stat> [EXCLUDING <f>|<itab>]. Note: For the Status type of interactive lists, choose List or List in dialog box. The system then automatically loads function codes predefined for list processing into the Menu Painter.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
The Th AT USER-COMMAND Event USER COMMAND E t To allow your program to react to a user action triggering a self-defined function code Syntax AT USER-COMMAND. <statements>. The AT USER-COMMAND event occurs whenever the user selects a selfdefined function code from a self-defined user interface. The event does not occur if the user selects function codes predefined for system functions or the function code PICK, which always triggers the AT LINE-SELECTION event. LINE SELECTION e ent
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INTERACTIVE LISTS
REPORT demo list at user command NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING demo_list_at_user_command HEADING. START-OF-SELECTION. WRITE: 'Basic List', / 'SY-LSIND:', sy lsind 'SY LSIND:' sy-lsind. TOP-OF-PAGE. WRITE 'Top-of-Page'. ULINE. ULINE TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE-SELECTION. CASE sy-pfkey. WHEN 'TEST'. TEST WRITE 'Self-defined GUI for Function Codes'. ULINE. ENDCASE. AT LINE-SELECTION. SET PF-STATUS 'TEST' EXCLUDING 'PICK'. PERFORM out. sy-lsind sy-lsind 1. sy lsind = sy lsind - 1

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

When clicked on the Basic list AT LINE-SELECTION event is triggred and secondary li t i di l i ti d d d list is displayed which h pfd hi h has f status.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

At USER-COMMAND when any of the button in application tool bar are p pp pressed it will take to relavent lists.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Important System Fields for Secondary Lists I t tS t Fi ld f S d Li t SY-LSIND SY LSIND SY LISTI SY-LISTI SY-LILLI triggered gg SY-LISEL SY-UCOMM SY-PFKEY Index of the list created during the current event (basic list = 0) Index of the list level from which the event was triggered Absolute number of the line from which the event was Contents of the line from which the event was triggered Function code that triggered the event Status of the displayed list

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Messages in Lists: M i Li t They are grouped by language, a two-character ID, and a three-digit number. number From your program, you can send a message with different program qualifications: A E I S W Abend; the current transaction is stopped Error; the system waits for new input data Information; after pressing ENTER, the system continues processing Confirmation; the message appears on the next screen Warning; you can change the input data or continue by pressing ENTER

You must specify the MESSAGE-ID behind the REPORT statement of your program. program

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
REPORT demo_list_interactive_4 NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING d li t i t ti 4 HEADING. START-OF-SELECTION. WRITE 'Basic List'. MESSAGE s888(sabapdocu) WITH text-001. AT LINE-SELECTION. IF sy-lsind = 1. MESSAGE i888(sabapdocu) WITH text-002. ( p ) ENDIF. IF sy-lsind = 2. MESSAGE e888(sabapdocu) WITH text-003 sy-lsind text-004. ENDIF. WRITE: 'Secondary List, SY-LSIND:', sy-lsind.

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Popup window showing the message in the lists

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Defining Titles for Interactive Lists e g t es o te act e sts By default, the system uses the program title as the title of the output screen of a report. To choose another title for the output screens, use this statement: Syntax SET TITLEBAR <tit> [WITH <g1> ... <g9>].

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Displaying Lists in Dialog Windows sp ay g sts a og do s To display a secondary list in a dialog window use the WINDOW statement: Syntax WINDOW STARTING AT <left> <upper> [ENDING AT <right> <lower>]. l ft i ht l ] The WINDOW statement takes effect only within the processing block of an interactive event that is only for secondary lists event, is, lists. Note: Dialog windows have no menu bar and no standard toolbar

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REPORT demo_list_window NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING. START-OF-SELECTION. SET PF-STATUS 'BASIC'. WRITE 'Select line for a demonstration of windows'. AT USER-COMMAND. CASE sy-ucomm. WHEN 'SELE'. IF sy-lsind = 1. l i d 1 SET PF-STATUS 'DIALOG'. SET TITLEBAR 'WI1'. WINDOW STARTING AT 5 3 ENDING AT 40 10. WRITE 'Select line for a second window'. indo ' ELSEIF sy-lsind = 2. SET PF-STATUS 'DIALOG' EXCLUDING 'SELE'. SET TITLEBAR 'WI2'. WINDOW STARTING AT 45 10 ENDING AT 60 12 12. WRITE 'Last window'. ENDIF. ENDCASE.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Triggering Events from within the Program Instead of letting the user trigger an interactive event by an action on the output screen, you can yourself t i t t lf trigger events f t from within th program. ithi the Syntax SET USER-COMMAND <fc>. This statement takes effect after the current list is completed. Before the system displays the list, it triggers the event that corresponds to the function code stored in <fc>,independent of the applied user interface. Note: Function code PICK triggers an event only if the cursor is located on a list line .
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Passing data from list to report ass g o st epo t To effectively use interactive lists for interactive reporting, it is not sufficient for the program to react to events triggered by user actions on the output list. You must also be able to interpret the lines selected by the user and their contents. Following ti F ll i options are available: il bl Passing data automatically using system fields Using statements in the program to fetch data

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Us g SY-LISEL Using S S The SY-LISEL system field is a field of type C with a length of 255 characters. It contains the selected line as one single character string, thus making it difficult for you to retrieve the values of individual fields. ki diffi lt f t ti th l f i di id l fi ld To process certain parts of SY-LISEL, you must specify the corresponding offsets

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REPORT demo_list_sy_lisel NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING demo list sy lisel HEADING. DATA num TYPE i. SKIP. WRITE 'List of Quadratic Numbers between One and Hundred'. SKIP. WRITE 'List of Cubic Numbers between One and Hundred'. TOP-OF-PAGE. WRITE 'Choose a line!'. ULINE. TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE-SELECTION. WRITE sy-lisel. sy-lisel ULINE.
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AT LINE-SELECTION. LINE-SELECTION IF sy-lisel(4) = 'List'. CASE sy-lilli. sy lilli. WHEN 4. DO 100 TIMES. num = sy-index ** 2. WRITE: / sy-index, num. ENDDO. WHEN 6. DO 100 TIMES. num = sy-index ** 3. WRITE: / sy-index, num. ENDDO. ENDDO ENDCASE. ENDIF.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

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Passing Data by Program Statements HIDE The moment you create a list level you can define which information to pass to the subsequent secondary lists. READ LINE Use the statements READ LINE and READ CURRENT LINE to explicitly read data from the lines of existing list levels. GET CURSOR Use the statements GET CURSOR FIELD and GET CURSOR LINE to pass the output field or output line on which the cursor was positioned during the interactive event to the processing block.
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The HIDE Technique e ec que You use the HIDE technique while creating a list level to store linespecific information for later use. Syntax HIDE <f>. This statement stores the contents of variable <f> in relation to the current output line (system field SY-LINNO) internally in the so-called HIDE area. The variable <f> need not necessarily appear on the current area line. As soon as the user selects a line for which you stored HIDE fields the fields, system fills the variables in the program with the values stored.

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REPORT Z_HIDE1 . TABLES : SPFLI, SFLIGHT. SELECT OPTIONS SELECT-OPTIONS : CARR FOR SPFLI-CARRID. SPFLI CARRID. SELECT * FROM SPFLI WHERE CARRID IN CARR. WRITE :/ SPFLI-CARRID , SPFLI-CONNID. HIDE SPFLI-CARRID. ENDSELECT. AT LINE-SELECTION. CASE SY-LSIND. WHEN '1'. SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT WHERE CARRID = SPFLI-CARRID. WRITE :/ SFLIGHT-FLDATE, SFLIGHT-SEATSOCC. ENDSELECT. ENDSELECT ENDCASE.

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

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Value is stored

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Reading Lines from Lists To read a line from a list after an interactive list event occurred, use the , READ LINE statement: Syntax READ LINE <lin> [INDEX <idx>] [FIELD VALUE <f1> [INTO <g1>] ... <fn> [INTO <gn>]]. The statement without any options stores the contents of line <lin> from the list on which the event was triggered (index SY LILLI) in the SY-LISEL SY-LILLI) SY LISEL system field and fills all HIDE information stored for this line back into the corresponding fields .

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Reading Lists at t e Cu so Position ead g sts the Cursor os t o To retrieve information on the cursor position during an interactive event, use the GET CURSOR statement to refer to either the field or the line. Syntax GET CURSOR FIELD <f> [VALUE <val>] . f l ]

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INTERACTIVE LISTS

REPORT demo_list_get_cursor NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING LINE-SIZE 40. DATA: hotspot(10) TYPE c VALUE 'Click me!', f(10) TYPE c, off TYPE i, lin TYPE i, val(40) TYPE c, len TYPE i. FIELD-SYMBOLS <fs> TYPE ANY. ASSIGN hotspot TO <fs>. WRITE 'Demonstration of GET CURSOR statement'. SKIP TO LINE 4. POSITION 20. WRITE <fs> HOTSPOT COLOR 5 INVERSE ON.

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AT LINE-SELECTION. WINDOW STARTING AT 5 6 ENDING AT 45 20. GET CURSOR FIELD f OFFSET off LINE lin VALUE val LENGTH len. WRITE: 'Result of GET CURSOR FIELD: '. ULINE AT /(28). WRITE: / 'Field: ', f, / 'Offset:', off, / 'Line: ', lin, / 'Value: ', (10) val, / 'Length:', len. SKIP. GET CURSOR LINE lin OFFSET off VALUE val LENGTH len. WRITE: 'Result of GET CURSOR LINE: '. ULINE AT /( ) /(27). WRITE: / 'Offset:', off, / 'Value: ', val, / 'Length:', len.

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Calling R C lli Reports t To call a report from with in other report,use the SUBMIT statement. To set the name of the called program statically in the programcoding. programcoding Syntax : SUBMIT <rep> [AND RETURN] [<options>]. The first statement starts the report<rep>,the second statement starts the p p report whose name is stored in field<rep>.

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In thi I this program we r calling a program zsapmztst1 next slide shows the lli t t1 t lid h th zsapmztst1. REPORT ZSAPMZTST . DATA : ITAB TYPE I OCCURS 10, NUM TYPE I. SUBMIT ZSAPMZTST1 AND RETURN. IMPORT ITAB FROM MEMORY ID 'HK'. LOOP AT ITAB INTO NUM. WRITE / NUM. ENDLOOP. WRITE 'REPORT 1'. ULINE.

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REPORT ZSAPMZTST1 . DATA : NUMBER TYPE I, ITAB TYPE I OCCURS 10. SET PF-STATUS 'MYBACK'. PF STATUS MYBACK DO 5 TIMES. NUMBER = SY-INDEX. APPEND NUMBER TO ITAB. WRITE : 'NUMBER'. ENDDO. TOP-OF-PAGE. WRITE 'REPORT 2'. ULINE. AT USER-COMMAND. CASE SY-UCOMM. WHEN 'MYBACK'. EXPORT ITAB TO MEMORY ID 'HK'. LEAVE. LEAVE ENDCASE.
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Called Report

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Exercise 1 Create an interactive list using hide technique based on tables ekko and ekpo. Output the following field in the basic list. EKKO-EBELN. Based on the output of the basic list I.e., EKKO-EBELN, output the following fields in the secondary list by passing the field EKKO MATNR EKKO-MATNR by HIDE Technique. EKPO-BUKRS EKPO-WERKS EKPO-LGORT EKPO-MENGE

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Solution TABLES: EKKO, EKPO. DATA: BEGIN OF ITAB1 OCCURS 0, EBELN LIKE EKKO EBELN EKKO-EBELN, END OF ITAB1. DATA : BEGIN OF ITAB2 OCCURS 0, MATNR LIKE EKPO MATNR EKPO-MATNR, BUKRS LIKE EKPO-BUKRS, WERKS LIKE EKPO-WERKS, LGORT LIKE EKPO-LGORT, EKPO LGORT, MENGE LIKE EKPO-MENGE, END OF ITAB2. SELECT EBELN FROM EKKO INTO ITAB1-EBELN. WRITE :/ ITAB1-EBELN HOTSPOT. HIDE ITAB1-EBELN. ENDSELECT.

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TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE-SELECTION. WRITE:/ 'MATERIAL' ,12 'COMPANY',18 'PLANT',28 'STORAGE',38'QUANTITY'. AT LINE-SELECTION. LINE SELECTION * Interactive event, details list * Read data corresponding to the selection criteria and * display SELECT MATNR BUKRS WERKS LGORT MENGE FROM EKPO INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF ITAB2 WHERE EBELN = ITAB1-EBELN. ITAB1 EBELN. WRITE: / ITAB2-MATNR, * Material Number 12 ITAB2-BUKRS, * Company code 18 ITAB2-WERKS, , * Plant 28 ITAB2-LGORT, * Storage Location 38 ITAB2-MENGE. *Quantity ENDSELECT.

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Exercise NO: 2 Task: Create a list of all flight connections for each airline carrier. carrier Output the following fields: SPFLI CARRID, SPFLI CONNID, SPFLI CITYFROM, SPFLI-CARRID SPFLI-CONNID SPFLI-CITYFROM SPFLI-CITYTO, SPFLI-DEPTIME, SPFLI-ARRTIME. Define a selection screen on which the user can enter selections for the airline carrier (SPFLI-CARRID) and the connection ID (SPFLI-CONNID). Read the data from table SPFLI in accordance with this selection. When the user selects a line the system should display a secondary line, showing the flights (table SFLIGHT) available for the flight connection concerned (see example list). Output the selected line as the header of the secondary list. Calculate and output the number of vacant seats for each flight. Make sure that the program can handle invalid line h fli ht M k th t th h dl i lid li selection.
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INTERACTIVE LISTS
Example list AA 0017 Date 10.29.1995 NEW YORK Price 666.67 USD SAN FRANCISCO Seats max. 660 660 660 11.11.1995 666.67 USD 11.16.1995 666.67 USD occupied free 10 20 38 650 640 622 13:30:00 16:31:00

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Solution REPORT ZABCD00111 . TABLES: SPFLI, SFLIGHT. * Report defined selection criteria for airline and for * connection id SELECT-OPTIONS: SELCARR FOR SPFLI-CARRID, SELCONN FOR SPFLI-CONNID. * A ili Auxiliary fi ld number of free seats field: b ff t DATA: SFREE LIKE SFLIGHT-SEATSMAX. START-OF-SELECTION. START OF SELECTION * Read data corresponding to the selection criteria and * display SELECT * FROM SPFLI WHERE CARRID IN SELCARR AND CONNID IN SELCONN. WRITE: / SPFLI-CARRID, SPFLI-CONNID, , SPFLI-CITYFROM, SPFLI-CITYTO,
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INTERACTIVE LISTS
SPFLI-DEPTIME, SPFLI-DEPTIME SPFLI-ARRTIME. HIDE: SPFLI-CARRID, SPFLI-CONNID. ENDSELECT. END-OF-SELECTION. CLEAR SPFLI-CARRID. "initialization AT LINE-SELECTION. * Interactive event, details list CHECK NOT SPFLI-CARRID IS INITIAL. * Display detail list only if valid line-selection WRITE SY-LISEL. WRITE: /5 TEXT-001, 29 TEXT-002, 49 TEXT-003, / TEXT-004 UNDER TEXT 003 60 TEXT 005 70 TEXT 006 TEXT 004 TEXT-003, TEXT-005, TEXT-006. * D: TEXT-001: Date * D: TEXT-002: Price * D: TEXT-003: Seats * D: TEXT-004: Max * D: TEXT-005: occupied TEXT-006: free
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INTERACTIVE LISTS
ULINE. ULINE SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT WHERE CARRID EQ SPFLI-CARRID AND CONNID EQ SPFLI-CONNID. * Read data for details list using the hided key fields, * list output WRITE: /5 SFLIGHT-FLDATE, SFLIGHT-PRICE, SFLIGHT-CURRENCY. SFREE = SFLIGHT-SEATSMAX - SFLIGHT-SEATSOCC. WRITE: SFLIGHT-SEATSMAX, SFLIGHT-SEATSOCC, SFREE. ENDSELECT. CLEAR SPFLI CARRID "initialization SPFLI-CARRID.

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Summary Extract datasets : An extract is a sequential dataset you can create with a report.Use extracts if you want to process large amount of data as a whole several times Declaring Extract Records as Field Groups Filling an Extract with Data Reading an Extract Sorting an Extract Lists Lists are the output medium for data from ABAP/4 report programs. p g p p Each program can produce up to 21 lists: one basic list and 20 secondary lists.
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Structure and the options of a list are The Standard List The Self-Defined List Lists with Several Pages Interactive List A list is an interactive list if the user interface allows actions that trigger events and if the corresponding interactive event keywords occur in the report. Events for Interactive Lists AT LINE-SELECTION AT PF<nn> AT USER-COMMAND

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

Extract datasets Data output in lists( Standard, Self-defined, Lists with several pages ) p g Interactive lists( At line-selection , At User-command) List creation with the ALV grid control

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INTRODUCTION
• The common features of report are column alignment, sorting, filtering, subtotals, totals etc. To implement these, a lot of coding and logic is to be put. To avoid that we can use a concept called ABAP List Viewer (ALV). • Using ALV, we can have three types of reports: 1. Simple R 1 Si l Report t 2. Block Report 3. Hierarchical Sequential Report

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

There are some function modules which will enable to produce the above reports without much effort. All the definitions of internal tables, structures and constants are declared in a type-pool called SLIS.

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

SIMPLE REPORT

1.

Simple Report

The important function modules are: Reuse_alv_list_display Reuse_alv_fieldcatalog_merge Reuse_alv_events_get R l t t Reuse_alv_commentary_write Reuse_alv_grid_display

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SIMPLE REPORT CONTD….
A. REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY: This is the function module which prints the data. The important parameters are: 1. Export: : report id : routine where a user can set his own pf status or change the functionality of the existing p g y g pf status. c. I_callback_user_command : routine where the function codes are handled. a. I_callback_program b. I_callback_pf_status_set

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SIMPLE REPORT CONTD...
d. I_structure name e. Is_Layout f. It_fieldcat : name of the dictionary table : structure to set the layout of the report : internal table with the list of all fields and their attributes which are to be printed (this table can be populated automatically by the function module REUSE_ALV_FIELDCATALOG_MERGE) : internal table with a list of all possible events of ALV and their corresponding routine names. 2. Tables: a. t_outtab : internal table with the data to be output

g. It_events

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

SIMPLE REPORT CONTD...

B. REUSE_ALV_FIELDCATALOG_MERGE: This function module is used to populate a fieldcatalog which is essential to display the data in ALV. If the output data is from a single dictionary table and all the columns are selected, then we need not exclusively create the field catalog. Its enough to mention the table name as a parameter(I_structure_name) parameter(I structure name) in the REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY. But REUSE ALV LIST DISPLAY in other cases we need to create it.

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SIMPLE REPORT CONTD...
The important parameters are: 1. Export: a. I_program_name b. I_internal_tabname c. I_inclname

: report id : the internal output table : include or the report name where all the dynamic forms are handled. f h dl d

2. Changing ct_fieldcat

yp : an internal table with the type SLIS_T_FIELDCAT_ALV which is declared in the type pool SLIS.

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SIMPLE REPORT CONTD...
C . REUSE_ALV_EVENTS_GET: Returns table of possible events for a a list type 1. 1 Import: Et_Events : The event table is returned with all possible CALLBACK events for the specified list type (column ‘NAME’). For events to be processed by the Callback, their ‘FORM’ field must be filled. If the field is initialized, the event is ignored. The entry can be read from the event table, the field table ‘FORM’ filled and the entry modified using constants from the type pool SLIS.

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SIMPLE REPORT CONTD...
2. Export: I_list_type: I list type: 0 = simple list 1 = hierarchical-sequential list 2 = simple block list 3 = hi hierarchical-sequential block list hi l ti l bl k li t

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SIMPLE REPORT CONTD...
D. REUSE_ALV_COMMENTARY_WRITE : This is used in the Top-of-page event to print the headings and other comments for the list. 1. It_list_commentary : Internal table with the headings of the type slis t listheader. slis_t_listheader. This internal table has three fields: Typ T : ‘H’ - h d ‘S’ - selection, ‘A’ - action header, l ti ti Key : only when typ is ‘S’. Info : the text to be printed
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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

SIMPLE REPORT CONTD...
E. REUSE_ALV_GRID_DISPLAY: A new function in 4.6 version, to display the results in grid rather than as a list. Parameters : same as reuse_alv_list_display

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

The example of a simple list is as follows:

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HIERARCHICAL REPORTS Hierarchical sequential list output.
The f nction mod le is function module A. REUSE_ALV_HIERSEQ_LIST_DISPLAY 1. Export: a. I_CALLBACK_PROGRAM b. I_CALLBACK_PF_STATUS_SET c. I CALLBACK USER COMMAND c I_CALLBACK_USER_COMMAND d. IS_LAYOUT

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Hierarchical Reports Contd.….
e. IT_FIELDCAT f. IT_EVENTS g. I_TABNAME_HEADER : Name of the internal table in the program containing the output data of the highest hierarchy level. h. I_TABNAME_ITEM : Name of the internal table in the program containing the output data of the lowest hierarchy level. i. IS_KEYINFO : This structure contains the header and item table field names which link the two tables (shared key).

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

Hierarchical reports Contd.…. p
2. Tables

a. T_OUTTAB_HEADER : Header table with data to be output

b. T_OUTTAB_ITEM

: Name of the internal table in the program containing

p y the output data of the lowest hierarchy level.

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

BLOCK REPORT

This is used to display multiple lists continuously. continuously The important functions used in this report are:
A. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_INIT B. REUSE ALV BLOCK LIST APPEND B REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_APPEND D. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_HS_LIST_APPEND C. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_DISPLAY
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BLOCK REPORT CONTD.. A. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_INIT Parameters: a. I CALLBACK PROGRAM I_CALLBACK_PROGRAM b. I_CALLBACK_PF_STATUS_SET _ _ _ c. I_CALLBACK_USER_COMMAND This function module is used to set the default GUI status etc. etc

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BLOCK REPORT CONTD..
B. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_APPEND Export : a. IS_LAYOUT : layout settings for block b. IT_FIELDCAT : field catalog c. I_TABNAME : Internal table name of the output data d. IT_EVENTS Tables : a. T OUTTAB a T_OUTTAB : internal table name with all possible events : internal table with output data data.

This function module adds the data to the block.

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

REUSE_ALV_LIST_HS_APPEND REUSE ALV LIST HS APPEND : -

Is I used t append the Hierarchical Sequential blocks. d to d th Hi hi l S ti l bl k

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BLOCK REPORT CONTD..
C. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_DISPLAY Parameters : All the parameters are optional. This function module display the list with data appended by the above function. function

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

Here the functions REUSE ALV FIELDCATALOG MERGE REUSE_ALV_FIELDCATALOG_MERGE, REUSE_ALV_EVENTS_GET, REUSE_ALV_COMMENTARY_WRITE can be used.
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INTERNAL TABLES IN SLIS
Slis_t_fieldcat_alv : This internal table contains the field attributes. This internal table can be populated automatically by using ‘REUSE ALV FIELDCATALOG MERGE’. REUSE_ALV_FIELDCATALOG_MERGE . Important Attributes: a. col_pos b. fi ld b fieldname c. tabname d. ref_fieldname e. ref_tabname f. key(1) g. icon(1) h. hotspot(1)

: : : : : : : :

position of the column internal fieldname i t l fi ld internal table name fieldname (dictionary) ( y) table (dictionary) column with key-color icon hotspot

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i. S b l(1) i Symbol(1) j. Checkbox(1) k. just(1) l. do_sum(1) ( ) m. no_out(1) n. outputlen o. seltext-l p. seltext_m p seltext m q. seltext_s r. reptext_ddic s. ddictxt(1) t. datatype

: : : : : : : : : : : :

symbol b l checkbox (R)ight (L)eft (C)ent sum up p (O)blig. (X)no out output length long key word middle key word short key word heading(ddic) (S)hort (M)iddle (L)ong datatype

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

2. SLIS_T_EVENT : Internal table for storing all the possible events of the ALV. This can be populated by the function module Reuse alv events get Reuse_alv_events_get The columns are : •name •form : : name of the event name of the routine

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6. LIST PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

SYNTAXES FOR THE ROUTINES
• I_CALLBACK_PF_STATUS_SET Syntax : FORM set_pf_status USING rt_extab TYPE slis_t_extab The table RT_EXTAB contains the function codes which are hidden in the standard interface. interface • I_CALLBACK_USER_COMMAND Syntax : FORM user_command USING r_ucomm LIKE sy-ucomm rs_selfield TYPE slis_selfield. The parameter r_ucomm contains the function code. The structure rs_selfield has the details about the current cursor position.

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7. DIALOG PROGRAMMING

Screen (b i ) S (basics) Screen logic, Screen Painter , Menu Painter g , Input checks, changing of input values Error handling Step loops St l Table Control Field help and value help

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7. DIALOG PROGRAMMING

• A Transaction is a program that conducts a dialog with the User • In a typical dialog, the system displays the screen on which the user can enter or request information. • As per the user input or request, transaction is used to – Branch to the next Screen – Display an output – Change/Update the database

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Central Components of an Online Program

ABAP/4 Development Workbench

ABAP/4 Dictionary

Screen Painter

ABAP/4 Editor

Menu Painter

Runtime environment Online processor ABAP/4 Processor

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Transactions

• • • • • • • • •

Structure of the Dialog Programming SCREEN Painter MENU Painter Input Checks I t Ch k Error Handling Flow Logic Screen Modification Table Control and Step Loop Branching to List Processing

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Structure of the Dialog Programming

Program Name
– Dictionary Structure – Global data – PBO modules – PAI modules – Subroutines – Screens – GUI Status – Transaction code

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Transactions- Structure

Define screens

Attributes Att ib t Fullscreen ABAP/4 Dict. fields Field list Flow logic Fl l i

Screen Painter

Online program

Program module pool d l l

ABAP/4

Global data PBO modules PAI modules Subroutines

Define call

Transaction code

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Summary

Program Screen 100 S

Creating module pool and maintaining attributes Creating screen 100: - define attributes - define screen templates and field texts - maintain field list - define flow logic see screen 100 Defining ABAP/4 fields (same name as screen fields!) Defining processing (before screen is displa ed) displayed) Defining processing after the user has pressed ENTER Defining the code you use to call the online program
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Screen 200 Global d t Gl b l data PBO Module PAI Module Transaction code
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Screen Painter
Each Screen contains fields used to display or request Information The Information. fields can be text Sting, Input/Output fields, Radio Buttons, Check boxes or Pushbuttons . Each E h screen consists of i t f • • • • Screen Attributes Screen Elements Screen Fields Screen Flow Logic

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Screen Attributes
•Program (type M) P (t •Screen Number : A four-digit number, unique within the ABAP program, that identifies the screen within the program. •Screen Type : A normal screen occupies a whole GUI window. Modal dialog boxes only cover a part of a GUI window. A subscreen is a screen that you can display in a subscreen area on a different screen in the same y p y ABAP program. •Next Screen : Specifies the next screen. •Hold Data : If th user calls th screen more than once during a terminal H ld D t the ll the th d i t i l session, he or she can retain changed data as default values.

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Screen Elements

Text Fields: Display elements, which cannot be changed either by the user or by the ABAP program. Input/Output Fi ld U d to display data from the ABAP program or for I t/O t t Fields: Used t di l d t f th f entering data on the screen. Linked to screen fields Radio Buttons: Special input/output fields that are combined into groups. Within a radio button group, only a single button can be selected at any one time. Check boxes: Special input/output fields which the user can select (value ‘X’) or deselect (value SPACE). Pushbuttons: Elements on the screen that trigger the PAI event of the screen flow logic when chosen by the user There is a function code user. attached to each pushbutton, which is passed to the ABAP program when it is chosen.

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Screen Elements Subscreen: Area on the screen in which you can place another screen. Table Controls: Tabular input/output fields. Tab St i C t l Areas on th screen i which you can switch between T b Strip Controls: A the in hi h it h b t various pages. Status Icons: Display elements, indicating the status of the application program. Ok_Code Field: Every screen has a twenty-character OK_CODE field (also known as the function code field), which is not displayed on the screen. User actions that trigger the PAI event also place the corresponding function code into this field, from where it is passed to the ABAP p g program. You can also use the command field in the standard toolbar to enter the function code. You must assign a name to the OK_CODE field to be able to use it for a particular screen.

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Screen Fields
Screen fields are fields in the working memory of a screen. Their contents are passed to identically-named fields in the ABAP program in the PAI event, and filled from the same identically-named fields in the program in the PBO event. The screen fields are linked with the input/output fields.

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Screen Fields(Attributes)
Cont.. C t

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7. DIALOG PROGRAMMING

Screen (b i ) S (basics) Screen logic, Screen Painter , Menu Painter g , Input checks, changing of input values Error handling Step loops St l Table Control Field help and value help

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Screen Flow Logic
Screen flow logic contains the procedural part of a screen. The language used to program screen flow logic has a similar syntax to ABAP, but is not part of ABAP itself.It is otherwise referred to as Screen Language.It contains no explicit data declarations.It serves as a container for processing blocks. i bl k There are four event blocks, each of which is introduced with the screen y keyword PROCESS: PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. ... PROCESS AFTER INPUT. INPUT ... PROCESS ON HELP-REQUEST. ... PROCESS ON VALUE-REQUEST. g The screen flow logic must contain at least the two statements PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT and PROCESS AFTER INPUT in the correct order.
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Screen Flow Logic
Co t Cont.. PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT (PBO) is automatically triggered after the PAI processing of the previous screen and before the current screen is displayed. displayed You can program the PBO processing of the screen in this block. At the end of the PBO processing, the screen is displayed. PROCESS AFTER INPUT (PAI) is triggered when the user chooses a function on the screen. You can program the PAI processing of the screen screen in this block. At the end of the PAI processing, the system either calls the next screen or carries on processing at the point from which the screen was called. called PROCESS ON HELP-REQUEST (POH) and PROCESS ON VALUEREQUEST (POV) are triggered when the user requests field help (F1) or possible values help (F4) respectively. You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.

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Screen Flow Logic

Keyword
MODULE FIELD ON VALUES CHAIN ENDCHAIN CALL LOOP ENDLOOP

Function
Calls a dialog module in an ABAP program Specifies the point at which the contents of a screen field should be transported Used in conjunction with FIELD Used in conjunction with FIELD conj nction ith Starts a processing chain Ends a processing chain Calls a subscreen Starts processing a screen table Stops processing a screen table

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Screen Painter

Screen attributes
Screen number Short description Screen type Follow-up Follow up screen ...

Screen layout
Text Fields Input/Output templates

Field attributes
Field Name Data Type Length Input/Output I t/O t t ....

Flow logic
PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE CLEAR. PROCESS AFTER INPUT INPUT. MODULE READ.

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Screen Painter
Screen P i t S Painter To ABAP/4 Edit T Editor
Screen attributes
Screen number Short description Screen type Follow-up Follow up screen ...

Screen layout
Text Fields Input/Output templates

Field attributes
Field Name Data Type Length Input/Output I t/O t t ....

SCREEN PAINTER

Flow logic
PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE CLEAR. PROCESS AFTER INPUT INPUT. MODULE READ.

ABAP/4 Editor Global data
DATA: NUMBER(10) TYPE C. . . .

PBO module
MODULE CLEAR OUTPUT OUTPUT. CLEAR NUMBER. ENDMODULE. . . .

PAI module
MODULE READ INPUT INPUT. SELECT ... . . . ENDMODULE. . . .

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Screen Painter
To call a module, use the flow logic statement MODULE <mod>. The system starts the module <mod>, which must have been defined for the same event block in which the call occurs. occurs If you only use simple modules in the screen flow logic, the data transport between the ABAP program and the screen is as follows: • In the PAI event, all of the data from the screen is transported to the ABAP program (as long as there are program fields with the same names as the screen fields) after the automatic input checks and before the first PAI module is called. This includes the contents of the system fields (for example, SY-UCOMM, which contains the current function code). • At the end of the last PBO module, and before the screen is displayed, , p y , all of the data is transported from the ABAP program to any identicallynamed fields in the screen.

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Screen Painter
Data Transfer within the Screen and Module Pool work Area .

Screen work area
SAREA-AREA
FI

Screen Painter

Module pool work area
TABLES: SAREA.
FI
Financial accounting

ABAP/4

PBO PAI

AREA DATA:

AREATEXT OK-CODE(4).

SAREA-AREATEXT
Financial accounting

OK CODE OK-CODE

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Sequence of operation
Screen Painter

Sequence of operations Execute module Execute module A B

PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE A A. MODULE B. PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE C. MODULE D.

Data transport from the ABAP/4 work area to the screen work area

Send screen ENTER
Data transport from the screen work area t th k to the ABAP/4 work area

Execute module Execute module
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Overview

SET SCREEN

CALL SCREEN

.

.

.

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Set Screen / Leave Screen

Screen attributes
Screen number 100 . . . Follow-up screen 200

Screen Painter

Screen attributes
Screen number 201 . . . Follow-up screen 301

Screen Painter

Screen Painter
PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE OK_CODE.
. . .

Screen Painter
PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT.

ABAP/4
MODULE OK_CODE INPUT.
. . . SET SCREEN 201. LEAVE SCREEN.

PROCESS AFTER INPUT.
. . .

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Inserting a Screen as a Screen Sequence

Screen attributes
Screen number 100 . . . Follow-up screen 200

Screen Painter

Screen attributes
Screen number 201 . . . Modal pop-up window . . . Follow-up screen 301

Screen Painter

Screen Painter
PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE OK_CODE.

Screen PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. Painter
. . . PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE OK_CODE.

ABAP/4
MODULE OK_CODE INPUT. . . . CALL SCREEN 201 STARTING AT 30 10 ENDING AT 60 20.
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ABAP/4
MODULE OK_CODE INPUT. . . . SET SCREEN 0. LEAVE SCREEN. . . .
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Leaving Screen
Syntax: S t • • LEAVE TO SCREEN <screen number>. (or) SET SCREEN <screen number>. LEAVE SCREEN. • LEAVE TO SCREEN 0. – From called screen – From main screen

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Menu Painter
• SET TITLEBAR ‘T01’ WITH v1 v2 v3 v4 1 2 3 4

Example: Module status_100. status 100. SET TITLEBAR ‘T01’ with EKKO-EBELN’. Endmodule. • • SET PF-STATUS ‘xxxxxxxx’. SET PF-STATUS ‘xxxxxxxx’ EXCLUDING <itab>.

Example: Module Status_100 on input. Status 100 input SET PF-STATUS ‘PF0100’. End Module.

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7. DIALOG PROGRAMMING

Screen (b i ) S (basics) Screen logic, Screen Painter , Menu Painter g , Input checks, changing of input values Error handling Step loops St l Table Control Field help and value help

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Input Checks
Field format Ch k :This format limits the kind of input that is valid. Fi ld f t Check Thi f t li it th ki d f i t th t i lid For ex. , a DATS field (Date field) is an 8 char string in YYYYMMDD format. All char must be numbers . For the given value entered, the system checks that the day value is valid. valid Required Check : In the screen painter you can set a field’s required Input Attribute . The system requires the user to enter the input before entering PAI Processing. b f t i P i Foreign Key Check:The field can have a foreign key relationship with another table or its domain can specify a fixed value list for the p y field.The system checks the user input value can be found in the related check table or in the fixed-value lists.

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Field Format Check

Screen Painter

Field list
Field name DATE . . . AMOUNT Format DATE

DEC

Date Amount

31.11.1993 11.13.1996

Date Amount 3A9Y 12A3
E: Please enter numeric value

E: Invalid date

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Required Field

Screen Painter

Field list
Field name OBLIGATORY TEST FIELD X

? ?

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Foreign Key Check

Field name . . . FIELD1 . . .

ABAP/4 Dictionary Check table

P1 Check table KEY A B C . . . P1

Screen Painter

Field list Field FIELD1 Foreign key X Check Field1 C

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Changing Input Values
Use the FIELD..VALUES to check the field values in Screen Flow Logic. FIELD <screen field> VALUES [<value list>]
Screen Painter

PROCESS AFTER INPUT.

FIELD <screen field> VALUES (<copy1>, <copy2>, ...).
Copy: <value> NOT <value> BETWEEN NOT BETWEEN

<value1> AND <value2> <value1> AND <value2> Screen Painter

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. FIELD SCOUR-COURSE VALUES ('01', BETWEEN '20' AND '30', 'ABC').

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Input Check in Module Pool

The FIELD..MODULEstatement checks the validity for a particular screen field.
Screen Painter ABAP/4

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. FIELD <screen field> MODULE <module>.

MODULE <module> INPUT. . . . MESSAGE E ... . ENDMODULE.

1

1

E...Message E M
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Example

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. FIELD SCOUR-COURSE MODULE CHECK_SCOUR.

Screen Painter

MODULE CHECK_SCOUR INPUT. SELECT SINGLE * FROM SCOUR WHERE AREA = SCOUR-AREA AND COURSE = SCOUR-COURSE. IF SY SUBRC NE 0 SY-SUBRC 0. MESSAGE E123 WITH 'SCOUR'. ENDIF. ENDMODULE. ENDMODULE

ABAP/4

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Field Group-Related Checks

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. CHAIN. FIELD: <screen field1>, <screen field2>, . . . <screen field n> n>. MODULE <module>. ENDCHAIN.

Screen Painter

MODULE <module> INPUT. . . . MESSAGE E ... . ENDMODULE.

ABAP/4

1 1 1 . . .

1 1 1

E... Message
1

ready for input
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Example

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. CHAIN. CHAIN FIELD: SCOUR-AREA, SCOUR-COURSE. MODULE CHECK_FIELD. ENDCHAIN.

Screen Painter

MODULE CHECK_SCOUR INPUT. SELECT SINGLE * FROM SCOUR WHERE AREA = SCOUR-AREA AND COURSE = SCOUR-COURSE. IF SY SUBRC NE 0 SY-SUBRC 0. MESSAGE E123 WITH 'SCOUR’,’COURSE’. ENDIF. ENDMODULE. ENDMODULE

ABAP/4

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Conditional Check
• ON INPUT INPUT: If the field value is different from the initial value. • ON REQUEST: This module will be executed if a value has been entered in the specific field since the screen was displayed. • AT EXIT-COMMAND: EXIT COMMAND At EXIT-COMMAND module will be executed only if the invokes a function code with ‘E’ function type. yp user

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On Input / on Chain Input

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. FIELD <screen field> MODULE <module> ON INPUT. . . .

Screen Painter

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. CHAIN. C FIELD: <screen field 1>, <screen field 2>, . . . <screen field n>. MODULE <module> ON CHAIN-INPUT. ENDCHAIN. . . .
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Screen Painter

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On Request / On Chain Request

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. FIELD <screen field> MODULE <module> ON REQUEST. . . .

Screen Painter

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. CHAIN. CHAIN FIELD: <screen field 1>, <screen field 2>, . . . <screen field n>. MODULE <module> ON CHAIN-REQUEST. ENDCHAIN. . . .
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At Exit Command I

Field ?
Cancel

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE X X. MODULE TERMINATE AT EXIT-COMMAND. . . .

Screen Painter

. . . MODULE TERMINATE INPUT. SET SCREEN ... . LEAVE SCREEN. ENDMODULE. . . .
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ABAP/4

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At Exit Command II

Function list F ti li t Function Type E

Menu Painter

ABBR

Field

?
Cancel

List of modification groups Field name ABEND Fcode Type E

Screen Painter

ABBR

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7. DIALOG PROGRAMMING

Screen (b i ) S (basics) Screen logic, Screen Painter , Menu Painter g , Input checks, changing of input values Error handling Step loops St l Table Control Field help and value help

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Error Handling

• • • • •

Error (E) Warning (W) Abend (A) Success (S)

- Displays Error Message on the current screen - Displays Warning Message on the current screen - The current Transaction will be Terminated - Message is displayed on the Following Screen

Information (I) - Displays Popup Message on the current screen

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Error Handling Overview

PROCESS AFTER INPUT. CHAIN. CHAIN FIELD: <screen field 1>, <screen field 2>. MODULE CHECK. ENDCHAIN. ENDCHAIN

Screen Painter

ABAP/4 PROGRAM B220MAIN MESSAGE-ID <id>. . . . MODULE CHECK INPUT. . . . IF SY-SUBRC ...

MESSAGE <qnnn> WITH <value 1>..<value 4>.
ENDIF. . ENDMODULE.
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Dynamic Screen Modification
At runtime , you may want to change the attributes depending on what user has requested in the previous screen.The attributes for each screen field are stored in the memory as SCREEN.You need not declare as table in your program.The system maintains it internally and updates during every screen change. h
Display
Change <-> Display

Change
Change <-> Display

A B

A B

Output template

Input/output template

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Dynamic Screen Modification

Field and its attrib. active Required entry field Input field Output field Highlighted Invisible Shorter output length

SCREEN-ACTIVE SC C SCREEN-REQUIRED SCREEN-INPUT SCREEN OUTPUT SCREEN-OUTPUT SCREEN-INTENSIFIED SCREEN-INVISIBLE SCREEN-LENGTH

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Dynamic Screen Modification- Program

PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. . . . MODULE MODIFY_SCREEN. . . .

Screen Painter

MODULE MODIFY_SCREEN OUTPUT. . . .

ABAP/4

LOOP AT SCREEN. IF SCREEN-GROUP1 = 'GR1'.
SCREEN-INPUT = 1. ENDIF. IF SCREEN-NAME = 'TAB-FELD'. SCREEN-ACTIVE = 0. ENDIF. MODIFY SCREEN.

ENDLOOP.
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SCREEN TABLES A screen table is a repeated series of table rows in a screen Each entry screen. contains one or more fields, and all rows have the same field structure. • Table controls and step loops are types of screen tables you can add to a screen in the Screen Painter. These are the two mechanisms offered by ABAP/4 for displaying and using table data in a screen.

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Table Controls

With table controls, the user can: • • • • Scroll through the table vertically and horizontally Re-size the width of a column Select table rows or columns Re-order the sequence of columns

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7. DIALOG PROGRAMMING

Screen (b i ) S (basics) Screen logic, Screen Painter , Menu Painter g , Input checks, changing of input values Error handling Step loops St l Table Control Field help and value help

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Step Loops

• The feature of step loops is that their table rows can span more than one line on the screen. By contrast, the rows in a table control are always single lines, but can be very long.

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Screen Table Processing
You process a screen table by looping through it as you would through the rows of an internal table. To do this, you place a LOOP...ENDLOOP dynpro statement in the screen's flow logic. What the LOOP Statement Does? The LOOP statement is responsible for getting screen table values passed back and forth between the screen and the ABAP/4 program program. As a result, you must code a LOOP statement in both the PBO and PAI events for every table in your screen. Note : Atleast, an empty LOOP...ENDLOOP must be there in PAI.

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7. DIALOG PROGRAMMING

Screen (b i ) S (basics) Screen logic, Screen Painter , Menu Painter g , Input checks, changing of input values Error handling Step loops St l Table Control Field help and value help

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Syntax for table Controls

At PBO. Loop at <itab> with control <name> cursor <name>-top_line. Module <mod_name>. Endloop. At PAI. Loop at <itab>. Endloop. Declaration for table control. controls <name> type tableview using screen <no>.

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Syntax for step loops

At PBO. Loop at <itab> cursor <var>. Module <mod_name>. Endloop. At PAI. Loop at <itab>. L t it b Endloop.

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Leaving to transaction

To branch to another transaction and end the current one, use the LEAVE TO TRANSACTION statement: Syntax LEAVE TO TRANSACTION '<TRAN>'. Once the new transaction starts, the user can not return to the previous transaction by pressing the Exit icon. Any data the user did not save in the previous transaction is lost.

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Calling a transaction

If you want the user to be able to return to the initial transaction after processing an interim transaction, use the ABAP/4 statement: Syntax y CALL TRANSACTION '<TRAN>'.

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Suppressing the transactions initial screen

When you call a transaction, you can tell the system to suppress the transaction transaction's initial screen and proceed directly to the next screen in the sequence: syntax: CALL TRANSACTION '<TRAN>' AND SKIP FIRST SCREEN. The initial screen is processed but not displayed. while suppressing the first screen, for all required fields in the initial screen, your program must pass in data values when calling the transaction.

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Passing data with SPA / GPA Parameters

You can pass data to a called program using SPA/GPA parameters. SPA/GPA parameters are field values saved globally in memory. Each parameter is identified by a three-character code. There are two ways to use SPA/GPA parameters: • • Syntax SET PARAMETER ID 'RID' FIELD <FIELD NAME1>. GET PARAMETER ID 'RID' FIELD <FIELD NAME1>. by setting field attributes in the Screen Painter by using the SET PARAMETER or GET PARAMETER statements

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Ways to produce list from within transaction
·SUBMIT Use the SUBMIT statement to start a separate report directly from the transaction. SUBMIT <prog>. prog . SUBMIT <prog> AND RETURN. SUBMIT <prog> VIA SELECTION-SCREEN SUBMIT <prog> WITH <prog sele var> = <fld> SUBMIT <prog> WITH <para> IN <seltab> Produce the list from your module pool using LEAVE TO LIST-PROCESSING LEAVE TO LIST-PROCESSING AND RETURN TO SCREEN <screen number>. LEAVE LIST-PROCESSIN LIST PROCESSIN

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How List-Mode in Dialog-Mode Works
You can code list-mode logic in PBO or PAI for the current screen. · To display the list output in addition to the current screen:

Place the LEAVE TO LIST-PROCESSING logic at the end of PAI. On return from the list display, the system repeats processing for the current screen, screen starting with the beginning of PBO PBO. · To display the list output instead of the current screen:

Code the LEAVE TO LIST-PROCESSING logic in the PBO, and follow it with LEAVE SCREEN. This tells the system to display the list without displaying the current screen. PAI processing for the current screen is not p y g p g executed.

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Leaving the List

Your program runs in list-mode until one of the following occurs The system reaches a LEAVE LIST PROCESSING statement in your code. LIST-PROCESSING The LEAVE LIST-PROCESSING statement returns control to the dialog screen. On return, the system re-starts processing at the beginning of PBO. The user requests BACK or CANCEL from the basic-list level of the report. If the user, exits the list using the BACK or CANCEL icons, you do not need to program an explicit LEAVE LIST-PROCESSING. When the user presses one of these, the system returns to the screen containing the these LEAVE TO LIST-PROCESSING and re-starts PBO processing screen.

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Returning to different screen

When returning to dialog-mode, your program can also re-route the user to a screen different from the one that started the list. To do this, use the keywords AND RETURN TO SCREEN when you first branch to list-mode: syntax t LEAVE TO LIST-PROCESSING AND RETURN TO SCREEN 100.

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Programming Field- and Value-Help You can program help texts and possible values lists using the PROCESS ON HELP-REQUEST (POH) and PROCESS ON VALUE-REQUEST (POV) events. Syntax PROCESS ON HELP-REQUEST. FIELD <field> MODULE <module>. PROCESS ON VALUE-REQUEST. FIELD <field> MODULE <module> .

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Programming Field- and Value-Help

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Customizing F4 value request


• • •

Matchcode help Check tables Help views Domain values

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Customizing F4 value request

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Customizing F1 Help

The ABAP/4 development environment provides a number of ways of designing a context-sensitive F1 help: • • Data element documentation Using the PROCESS ON HELP-REQUEST event.

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Database

INSERT UPDATE DELETE MODIFY

DB

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INSERT
Insert a new record into a database I t di t d t b Syntax: INSERT <table>[<workarea>] Eg: MOVE ‘BC’ BC TO SPLAN AREA. SPLAN-AREA. MOVE ‘BC200’ TO SPLAN-COURSE MOVE …. INSERT SPLAN. MOVE ‘BC’ TO REC-AREA. MOVE ‘BC200’ TO REC COURSE BC200 REC-COURSE MOVE …. INSERT INTO SPLAN VALUES REC.

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UPDATE
U UPDATE C a ges a record in t e database Changes eco d the syntax: UPDATE <table>. UPDATE <TABLE> SET <F1> = <V1>…<FN> = < VN> WHERE <f1> = <x1> . Eg: SELECT SINGLE * FROM SPLAN WHERE AREA = ‘BC’ AND COURSE = ‘BC200’ AND WEEK = ‘23’. SPLAN-TID1 = ‘007’. UPDATE SPLAN. UPDATE SPLAN SET TID1 = ‘007’ TID2 = ‘003’ WHERE AREA = ‘BC’ AND COURSE = ‘BC200’ BC BC200 AND WEEK = ‘23’.
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DELETE
Delete record from the database database. Syntax: DELETE <table> . DELETE FROM <table> WHERE <F1> = <V1>.. table F1 V1 .. Eg: MOVE ‘BC’ TO SPLAN-AREA. MOVE ‘BC200’ TO SPLAN-COURSE MOVE …. DELETE SPLAN. DELETE FROM SPLAN WHERE AREA = ‘BC’ AND COURSE = ‘BC200’ AND WEEK = ‘23’.

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ARRAY OPERATIONS
ARRAY operations improve the performance of the database updates Syntax: INSERT <table< FROM <itab>. UPDATE <table< FROM <itab>. <itab> DELETE <table< FROM <itab>. g Eg: Data: begin of itab occurs 10. Include structure splan. Data: end of itab. itab Move ‘BC’ to itab-area. Append itab. ….. INSERT SPLAN FROM ITAB. UPDATE SPLAN FROM ITAB. ITAB DELETE SPLAN FROM ITAB.
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COMMIT WORK – ROLLBACK WORK

. . . MODULE UPDATE INPUT. . . . UPDATE <table1>. IF SY-SUBRC EQ 0. COMMIT WORK. ELSE. ROLLBACK WORK. MESSAGE E ... . ENDIF. UPDATE <table2>. . . . ENDMODULE. . . .

ABAP/4
Dialog1 Dialog2 Dialog3

UPDATE1

UPDATE2

DB-COMMIT

DB-COMMIT

(Implicit) (Explicit)

SAP-COMMIT

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Programming database updates

To T program database updates effectively, programmers are mainly d t b d t ff ti l i l concerned with: • • maintaining database correctness. optimizing response times for users.

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LUW

• If the transaction runs successfully, all changes should be carried out. • If the transaction encounters an error, no changes should be carried out, not even partially. t ti ll In the database world, an "all-or-nothing" transaction is called an (Logical Unit of Work).There are two types of LUW s. Work) There LUW’s • • Database LUW SAP LUW LUW

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Update Bundling

With Update Bundling you can execute updates at the end of the update transaction, rather than at every screen change. You can avoid your updates being committed at each screen change. You can lock the objects to be updated across multiple screens.

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Bundling Techniques

With update bundling, you package your updates in special routines that run only when your program issues a ABAP/4 commit/rollback. To do this, this you use: •PERFORM ON COMMIT •CALL FUNCTION IN UPDATE TASK CALL •CALL FUNCTION IN BACKGROUND TASK These statements specify that a given FORM routine or function module be executed not immediately, but rather at the next ABAP/4 commit/rollback.

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Updating in the dialog task

The PERFORM ON COMMIT statement calls a form routine in the dialog task, but delays its execution until the system encounters the next COMMIT WORK statement. t t t Updating in the update task: The CALL FUNCTION IN UPDATE TASK statement logs a function module for execution in the update task. The subsequent COMMIT WORK statement triggers actual execution.

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Updating in a background task

The CALL FUNCTION IN BACKGROUND TASK statement logs a function module to run in a background task. Normally, this statement is used to execute functions on remote hosts (by specifying an additional DESTINATION parameter). Background-task f B k d t k functions are processed as low-priority requests, but all ti d l i it t b t ll requests for the same destination run in a common update transaction.

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EXAMPLE
In this Exercise we see how to write a simple Transaction First create a program with naming convention SAPMZ<initials>. Eg. SAPMZ_EMPDET

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EXAMPLE
Now create a screen using Transaction SE80 N t i T ti

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EXAMPLE
We W can also create a screen using Transaction SE51 l t i T ti

Click the create button
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EXAMPLE
Enter a meaningful description for the screen and select the screen type

Click on the save button to save the entries
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EXAMPLE
Select the program name and click the change icon icon.

Double click on the Include MZ<initial>TOP
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EXAMPLE
Declare the Global variables in this include section

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EXAMPLE

Cont. Of the previous screen Click on the SAVE icon to save the code. Click the BACK icon to come out. Click on the LAYOUT BUTTON on the application toolbar to design the screen.

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EXAMPLE
C c on the C / OG Click o t e DICT/PROGRAM fields button o the app cat o toolbar to e ds butto on t e application too ba include the fields on the screen from the dictionary tables or internal tables or other fields declared in the program

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EXAMPLE
Enter the Internal or Table or field name on the Table/Field name and click on the Get from program

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EXAMPLE
Using the corresponding icon (Text Entry Check and so on) on the object (Text, Entry, bar and drag and place the object on he screen.

Click on the SAVE icon to save the code .
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EXAMPLE
Double Click on the table Control object to view the attributes or properties

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EXAMPLE
Now write the code for the PBO PAI, POV and POH for this screen PBO, PAI flow logic

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EXAMPLE
In the PBO write t e relevant code for PF-STATUS a d TITLE BAR t e O te the e e a t o S US and

Click on the SAVE icon to save the code .
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EXAMPLE
This is a GUI status containing buttons and menus for the screen. All ABAP programs will have a default GUI status.

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EXAMPLE
The titl B Th title Bar of the window that you will use to display. f th i d th t ill t di l

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EXAMPLE
In th I the PAI of the flow logic we can use the conditional statement f th fl l i th diti l t t t AT EXIT-COMMAND as below.

Click on the SAVE icon to save the code .
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EXAMPLE
Code for the Field check in t e PAI module. o t e e d c ec the odu e

Click on the SAVE icon to save the code .
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EXAMPLE
In this module we can even write t e code to Retrieve t e Data, t s odu e e ca e e te the et e e the ata, Branching to Different Screen and also use function codes .

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EXAMPLE
Depending on the user requirements in the previous screen 100 you can 100, dynamically change the Attributes of the object using SCREEN Attributes in the screen 200.

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EXAMPLE
In th P I the Process on value request (POV) of the flow logic we can use the l t f th fl l i th search help for a particular field

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EXAMPLE
You Can Use the F4 to see the search help

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EXAMPLE
In the Process o value Help ( O ) o t e flow logic we ca use t e t e ocess on a ue e p (POH) of the o og c e can the additional documentation descriptive text for the data element in the ABAP/4 Dict. In the screen painter you place the cursor in the field string of a screen on the field to be documented and select the menu goto > documentation > data el. extra

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EXAMPLE
Now you will get a popup with th data element and the number of the N ill t ith the d t l t d th b f th current screen as an identifier for the additional text. In addition to the help contents in the ABAP/4 Dict you can enter your own Description

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EXAMPLE
Here you enter your own description and SAVE

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EXAMPLE
Now while R N hil Running t i transaction place th cursor on the field and press F1 ti l the th fi ld d

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EXAMPLE
Layout slide for screen 200 200.

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EXAMPLE
Now Create a t a sact o code for you d a og p og a us g Txn S 93 o C eate transaction o your dialog program using SE93

Click on the enter button
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EXAMPLE

Enter the information in the fields and SAVE
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EXAMPLE
In S I Screen 100 we give the required input(Employee No) and retrieve the i th i di t(E l N ) d ti th Data from the Data Dictionary and display the details on to the screen 200.

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EXAMPLE
The details of the employee in screen 200.

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Example : Table Control
In this e a p e we will c eate a sc ee a d use t e tab e co t o object to t s example e create screen and the table control display data. Use SE51 to Create a screen (In our case 300)

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Example : Table Control
We ill design th screen with a t t object and th t bl control object W will d i the ith text bj t d the table t l bj t

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Example : Table Control
Enter t e Internal o Table o field name o t e Table/Field name a d c c te the te a or ab e or e d a e on the ab e/ e d a e and click on the Get from program

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Example : Table Control
Us g t e att bute button of the table control Using the attribute butto o t e tab e co t o you ca put vertical and can e t ca a d horizontal separators an resizing if required and name the table control

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Example : Table Control
Now we have to write code for the data retrieval and populate the internal table. In the PAI of the screen 100 we are branching it to our table control screen i.e. 300.

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Example : Table Control
We write code to retrieve Data Data.

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Example : Table Control
Now using the PBO of the screen 300 flow logic we populate the table control

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Example : Table Control In our example when the user clicks the LIST Button in the initial screen screen, the complete list of employees will be displayed in the second screen.

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Example : Table Control
Here we get the list of all employees employees.

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Transactions
Su Summary ay The slides explained the structure of transaction, screen and menu painter and all the main features associated with dialog programming. programming

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8. DATABASE UPDATES

Database updates with open SQL LUW processing Update Bundling Techniques Programming Bundling Updates Unbundled Updates Local Updates

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Database

INSERT UPDATE DELETE MODIFY

DB

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INSERT
Insert a new record into a database I t di t d t b Syntax: INSERT <table>[<workarea>] Eg: MOVE ‘BC’ BC TO SPLAN AREA. SPLAN-AREA. MOVE ‘BC200’ TO SPLAN-COURSE MOVE …. INSERT SPLAN. MOVE ‘BC’ TO REC-AREA. MOVE ‘BC200’ TO REC COURSE BC200 REC-COURSE MOVE …. INSERT INTO SPLAN VALUES REC.

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UPDATE
U UPDATE C a ges a record in t e database Changes eco d the syntax: UPDATE <table>. UPDATE <TABLE> SET <F1> = <V1>…<FN> = < VN> WHERE <f1> = <x1> . Eg: SELECT SINGLE * FROM SPLAN WHERE AREA = ‘BC’ AND COURSE = ‘BC200’ AND WEEK = ‘23’. SPLAN-TID1 = ‘007’. UPDATE SPLAN. UPDATE SPLAN SET TID1 = ‘007’ TID2 = ‘003’ WHERE AREA = ‘BC’ AND COURSE = ‘BC200’ BC BC200 AND WEEK = ‘23’.
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DELETE
Delete record from the database database. Syntax: DELETE <table> . DELETE FROM <table> WHERE <F1> = <V1>.. table F1 V1 .. Eg: MOVE ‘BC’ TO SPLAN-AREA. MOVE ‘BC200’ TO SPLAN-COURSE MOVE …. DELETE SPLAN. DELETE FROM SPLAN WHERE AREA = ‘BC’ AND COURSE = ‘BC200’ AND WEEK = ‘23’.

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ARRAY OPERATIONS
ARRAY operations improve the performance of the database updates Syntax: INSERT <table< FROM <itab>. UPDATE <table< FROM <itab>. <itab> DELETE <table< FROM <itab>. g Eg: Data: begin of itab occurs 10. Include structure splan. Data: end of itab. itab Move ‘BC’ to itab-area. Append itab. ….. INSERT SPLAN FROM ITAB. UPDATE SPLAN FROM ITAB. ITAB DELETE SPLAN FROM ITAB.
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COMMIT WORK – ROLLBACK WORK

. . . MODULE UPDATE INPUT. . . . UPDATE <table1>. IF SY-SUBRC EQ 0. COMMIT WORK. ELSE. ROLLBACK WORK. MESSAGE E ... . ENDIF. UPDATE <table2>. . . . ENDMODULE. . . .

ABAP/4
Dialog1 Dialog2 Dialog3

UPDATE1

UPDATE2

DB-COMMIT

DB-COMMIT

(Implicit) (Explicit)

SAP-COMMIT

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8. DATABASE UPDATES

Database updates with open SQL LUW processing Update Bundling Techniques Programming Bundling Updates Unbundled Updates Local Updates

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LUW

• If the transaction runs successfully, all changes should be carried out. • If the transaction encounters an error, no changes should be carried out, not even partially. t ti ll In the database world, an "all-or-nothing" transaction is called an (Logical Unit of Work).There are two types of LUW s. Work) There LUW’s • • Database LUW SAP LUW LUW

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Database Update Techniques PROGRAMMING DATABASE UPDATES
To program database updates effectively, programmers are mainly concerned with: Maintaining database Correctness Correctness. Optimizing response times for users.

( (

For a quick introduction before programming updates, see: Transaction in the SAP system. Introduction to Update Bundling. Introduction to SAP Locking

( ( (

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Database Update Techniques TRANSACTIONS IN THE SAP SYSTEM
( If the transaction runs successfully, all changes should be carried out. If the transaction encounters an error, no changes should be carried out, not even partially. , p y

(

In the database world, an "all-or-nothing" transaction is called an LUW (Logical Unit of Work).There are three types of LUW’s. ( ( ( Database LUW SAP LUW ABAP/4 Transaction

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Database Update Techniques DATABASE LUW
The SAP System triggers database commit operations automatically at every screen change. Database LUW lasts (at longest) from one screen change to the next.

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Database Update Techniques SAP LUW
As a logical unit, update transactions should be executed entirely, or not at all. In general, an update transaction usually spans several database LUWs and is closed at the ABAP/4 level with a COMMIT WORK command.

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Database Update Techniques ABAP/4 TRANSACTION
An ABAP/4 or SAP transaction is an application program that you start using a transaction code. It may contain one or more SAP LUWs. Whenever the system reaches a COMMIT WORK or ROLLBACK WORK statement that is not at the end of the last dialog step of the SAP transaction, it opens a new SAP LUW. ( With one or more SAP LUWs.

Transactions in this form consist entirely of processing blocks (dialog modules, event blocks, function module calls, and subroutines). You should be careful to ensure that external subroutines or function modules do t l d t d not lead to COMMIT WORK or ROLLBACK WORK statements t t t accidentally being executed.

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Database Update Techniques ( By inserting an SAP LUW
The ABAP statements CALL TRANSACTION (start a new transaction), SUBMIT (start an executable program), and CALL FUNCTION... DESTINATION (call a function module using RFC) open a new SAP LUW LUW. When you call a program, it always opens its own SAP LUW. However, it does not end the LUW of the SAP transaction that called it. This means that a COMMIT WORK or ROLLBACK WORK statement only applies to the y pp SAP LUW of the called program. When the new LUW is complete, the system carries on processing the first SAP LUW.

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Database Update Techniques ( By running two SAP LUWs in parallel
The CALL FUNCTION... STARTING NEW TASK statement calls a function module asynchronously in a new session. Unlike normal function module calls, the calling transaction carries on with its own processing as soon as the function module has started, and does not wait for it to finish processing. The function call is asynchronous. The called function module can now call its own screens and interact with the user.

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8. DATABASE UPDATES

Database updates with open SQL LUW processing Update Bundling Techniques Programming Bundling Updates Unbundled Updates Local Updates

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Database Update Techniques INTRODUCTION TO UPDATE BUNDLING
With Update Bundling you can execute updates at the end of the update transaction, rather than at every screen change. ABAP/4 provides commands for bundling updates in special update routines. ( You can avoid your updates being committed at each screen change. You can lock the objects to be updated across multiple j p p screens.

(

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Database Update Techniques SUMMARY OF BUNDLING TECHNIQUES
With update bundling, you package your updates in special routines that run only when your program issues a ABAP/4 commit/rollback. To do this, you use: ( ( ( PERFORM ON COMMIT CALL FUNCTION IN UPDATE TASK CALL FUNCTION IN BACKGROUND TASK

These statements specify that a given FORM routine or function module be executed not immediately, but rather at the next ABAP/4 commit /rollback. An ABAP/4 commit is an ABAP/4 statement that triggers a database commit, but also perform other functions.The ABAP/4 , p statements for performing these commits and roll backs are: ( ( COMMIT WORK ROLL BACK
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Database Update Techniques BUNDLED UPDATING IN THE DIALOG TASK
The PERFORM ON COMMIT statement calls a form routine in the dialog task, but delays its execution until the system encounters the next COMMIT WORK statement. CO O Using PERFORM ON COMMIT: You can bundle updates for dialog-task processing and have them execute in the last LUW for the transaction. To do this: 1. Place all update statements (insert, update,Modify, Delete) in a FORM routine. 2. Call the transaction with PERFROM <form> ON COMMIT>

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Database Update Techniques The effect of using PERFORM ON COMMIT, Instead of simple perform, is that the system delays execution of the form routine until it encounters the COMMIT WORK statement. You should position the commit WORK at the end of the statement or wherever user can select the save condition.
ASSIGNING RUN PRIORITIES TO FORM ROUTINES: You can assign a run priority to each form routine by adding the level parameter to the PREFORM ON COMMIT statement. For Ex. PERFORM update_table1 ON COMMIT LEVEL 2. …. PERFORM update_table2 ON COMMIT LEVEL 3. …. PERFORM update_table3 ON COMMIT LEVEL 1.

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Database Update Techniques When this reaches COMMIT WORK statement, the FORM routines will run in this order.
First : Update_table3. Second : Update_table1. Update table1 Third : Update_table2.

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Database Update Techniques
BUNDLED UPDATING IN THE UPDATE TASK

The CALL FUNCTION IN UPDATE TASK statement logs a function module for execution in the update task. The subsequent COMMIT WORK statement triggers actual execution. You can perform updates in the f dialog task as well as in the update task. Dialog task updates are synchronous updates. Update task updates are asynchronous. (An exception is You can trigger an update function with COMMIT WORK AND WAIT: this is synchronous.)

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Database Update Techniques
The following diagram illustrates the Synchronous Update in Update Task

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Database Update Techniques CREATING UPDATE FUNCTION MODULES
To create a function module, you first need to start the Function Builder. Choose Tools - ABAP Workbench, Function Builder. To be able to call a function module in an update work process, you must flag it in the Function Builder When you create the function module set Builder. module, the Process Type attribute to one of the following values: • Update with immediate start Set this option for high priority ("V1") functions that run in a shared (SAP LUW). These functions can be restarted by the update task in case of errors. • Update w. imm. start, no restart Set this option for high priority ("V1") functions that run in a shared (SAP LUW). These functions may not be restarted by the update task.
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Database Update Techniques
• Update with delayed start

Set this ti S t thi option f l for low priority ("V2") f i it functions th t run i th i own ti that in their update transactions. These functions can be restarted by the update task in case of errors. To display the attributes screen in the Function Builder, choose Goto - Administration. DEFINING THE INTERFACE Function modules that run in the update task have a limited interface: • • Result parameters or exceptions are not allowed since task function modules cannot report on their results. update-

You must specify input parameters and tables with reference fields or y reference structures defined in the ABAP Dictionary.

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Database Update Techniques CALLING UPDATE TASK FUNCTION MODULES:
Function modules that run in update task can run synchronously or asynchronously. ( COMMIT WORK: Your program does not wait for the requested functions to finish processing, which specifies asynchronous processing. ( COMMIT WORK AND WAIT Your program will wait for the requested functions to finish processing. Control returns to your program after function module run successfully. Which specifies synchronous processing.

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Database Update Techniques CALLING UPDATE FUNCTIONS DIRECTLY
To call a function module directly, use CALL FUNCTION IN UPDATE TASK directly in your code code. CALL FUNCTION 'FUNCTMOD' IN UPDATE TASK EXPORTING... For EX: a = 1. CALL FUNCTION 'UPD_FM' IN UPDATE TASK EXPORTING PAR = A A... a = 2. CALL FUNCTION 'UPD_FM' IN UPDATE TASK EXPORTING PAR = A... a=3 3. COMMIT WORK. Here, the function module UPD_FM is performed twice in the update task: the first time, with value 1 in PAR, the second time with value 2 in PAR.
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Database Update Techniques ADDING UPDATE TASK CALLS TO A SUBROUTINE
You can also put the CALL FUNCTION IN UPDATE TASK into a subroutine and call the subroutine with: PERFORM SUBROUT ON COMMIT. If you choose this method, the subroutine is executed at the commit. Thus the request to run the function in the update task is also logged during commit processing. As a result, the parameter values logged with the request are those current at the time of the commit.

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Database Update Techniques a = 1. PERFORM F ON COMMIT. a = 2. PERFORM F ON COMMIT. a=3 3. COMMIT WORK.
FORM f f. CALL FUNCTION 'UPD_FM' IN UPDATE TASK EXPORTING PAR = A. ENDFORM. In this example, the function module UPD_FM is carried out with the value 3 in PAR. The update task executes the function module only once, despite the two PERFORM ON COMMIT statements. This is because a given function module, logged with the same parameter values, can never be executed more than once in the update task.
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Database Update Techniques TRANSACTION THAT CALL UPDATE TASK FUNCTIONS
If your program calls another program that itself calls an update function module, module you should be aware of the following: When the new program is called, a new SAP LUW begins, and a new update k i generated. Thi k i used t id tif all update-task d t key is t d This key is d to identify ll d t t k operations requested during the called program. When returning from the program, the LUW of the calling program is restored together with the old update key. If the called program does not contain its own COMMIT WORK, the database update requests are not processed, and the update function modules are not called In the following example F1 F2 and F3 are called. example, F1, F2, update function modules:
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Database Update Techniques

Here, F1 and F3 are executed in the update task, because the COMMIT WORK for the main program triggers their execution. However, since transaction ZABC contains no COMMIT WORK statement, the function F2 is never executed by the update task. task

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Database Update Techniques BUNDLED UPDATING IN A BACKGROUND TASK
The CALL FUNCTION IN BACKGROUND TASK statement logs a function module to run in a background task. Normally, this statement is used to execute functions on remote hosts (by specifying an additional DESTINATION parameter). For Example if you are maintaining a replicated data in two databases databases. While making the primary updates in the update task of the local system, you would also execute the same updates on a remote database. This system uses RFC to send request to the remote system. y q y To execute updates on a remote host, use the statement: CALL Function <fctmode> IN BACKGROUNG TASK DESTINATION <dest>

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Database Update Techniques This statement requests execution of an update function in an external system. The destination specifies the remote system. On encountering this statement, the system writes your request to the log table and then executes it at the next commit statement.
You can also use this statement without the DESTINATION parameter.In this case , the function runs in a separate work process, but on the local host. host All remote host background task functions triggered with same COMMIT WORK run together in a common LUW. g

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Database Update Techniques ERROR HANDLING FOR BUNDLED UPDATES
Runtime errors can occur during execution of bundled updates. How are they handled? In general, COMMIT WORK processing occurs in the following order: All di l dialog-task FORM routines l t k ti logged with PERFORM ON d ith COMMIT are executed. All high-priority (V1) update-task function modules are executed. The end of V1-update processing marks the end of the . If you used COMMIT WORK AND WAIT to trigger commit processing, gg p g, control returns to the dialog-task program. All low-priority update-task function modules triggered. All background-task function modules are triggered.
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Database Update Techniques Runtime errors can occur either in the system itself, or because your program issues an termination message (MESSAGE type ‘A’). Also, the ROLLBACK WORK statement automatically signals a runtime error. The y g y system handles errors according to where they occur:
In a FORM routine (called with PERFORM ON COMMIT) − Updates already executed for the current update transaction are rolled back. − No other FORM routines will be started. − No further update-task or background-task functions will be started. − An error message appears on the screen.

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Database Update Techniques In a V1 update-task function module (requested IN UPDATE TASK)
− Updates already executed for V1 functions are rolled back. − All further update-task requests (V1 or V2) are thrown away. − All background-task requests are thrown away. − Updates already executed for FORM routines called with PERFORM ON COMMIT are not rolled back. − An error message appears on the screen, if your system is set up t send them to d th

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Database Update Techniques In a V2 update-task function module (requested IN UPDATE TASK)
− Updates already executed for the current V2 function are rolled back back. − All update-task requests (V2) still to be executed are carried out. − All background-task requests still to be executed are carried out. − No updates for previously executed V1 or V2 function are rolled back. − No updates previously executed for FORM routines (called with ON COMMIT) are rolled back back. − An error message appears on the screen, if your system is set up to send them

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Database Update Techniques In a background-task function module (requested IN BACKGROUND
TASK DESTINATION) −B k Background-task updates already executed for the current dt k d t l d t d f th t DESTINATION are not rolled back. − All further background-task requests for the same DESTINATION are thrown away. − No other previously-executed updates are not rolled back. − No error message appears on the screen screen. If your program detects that an error in remote processing has occurred, it can decide whether to resubmit the requests at a later time.

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Database Update Techniques UNBUNDLED UPDATES
You can make database updates in ABAP/4 without these bundling Here You can place update statements (insert,Modify,DELETE) directly in your code. code These are inline updates without using any bundling techniques techniques. Even if you code No COMMIT WORK statement the database commit at the next screen change will commit the updates to the database. This inline update is only suitable for the single screen transactions. With Multiple screen transactions, if any error occurs in later screens, you can't roll back the data committed in earlier screens.

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8. DATABASE UPDATES

Database updates with open SQL LUW processing Update Bundling Techniques Programming Bundling Updates Unbundled Updates Local Updates

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Database Update Techniques UNBUNDLED UPDATES
You can make database updates in ABAP/4 without these bundling Here You can place update statements (insert,Modify,DELETE) directly in your code. code These are inline updates without using any bundling techniques techniques. Even if you code No COMMIT WORK statement the database commit at the next screen change will commit the updates to the database. This inline update is only suitable for the single screen transactions. With Multiple screen transactions, if any error occurs in later screens, you can't roll back the data committed in earlier screens.

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Database Update Techniques Advantages and Disadvantages:
Inline updating may feel simpler and more natural. PERFORM ON COMMIT may make more efficient use of data resources, since all accesses are performed at one time.

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8. DATABASE UPDATES

Database updates with open SQL LUW processing Update Bundling Techniques Programming Bundling Updates Unbundled Updates Local Updates

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Database Update Techniques LOCAL UPDATES
In ABAP/4 You can tell the system to perform updates locally, rather than in the update task. To do this, use the statement SET UPDATE TASK LOCAL whenever your program runs in background You can check the background. task from your code by querying the SY-BATCH system variable. IF SY-BATCH NE SPACE. SET UPDATE TASK LOCAL. ENDIF. … CALL FUNCTION UPDATE TABLE1 IN UPDATE TASK UPDATE_TABLE1 TASK. … CALL FUNCTION UPDATE_TABLE2 IN UPDATE TASK. … COMMIT WORK. LOCKING IN THE SAP SYSTEM Please refer the Locking concepts in DATA DICTIONARY.
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Database Update Techniques SUMMARY
( Transaction is an operation that lets the user make changes to the database. The operation must be carried out in “all or nothing fashion . fashion”. The different transactions in SAP are Database LUW, SAP LUW and ABAP Transactions. The ABAP/4 bundling techniques let you distribute your updates to different work processes. We have seen the bundling techniques in different updates like dialog task, update task and Background task. ABAP/4 provides commands for bundling updates in special routines id d f b dli d i i l i like PERFORM ON COMMIT, CALL FUNCTION IN UPDATE TASK and CALL FUNCTION IN BACKGROUND TASK. Execution of these routine is delayed until your program issues an explicit “SAP COMMIT” In a local update, the update program is run by the same work process that processed the request.

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

Enhancements to SAP Objects Enhancements via Menu exits / Screen exits / FM exits E h t i M it S it it Business Add-Ins Modifications ( Registering the Modifications in SSCR, Modification Adjustment, Rules for Modifications )

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Enhancements
ADAPTABILITY OF SAP

R/3 Customizing Modifying Project Dependent Menu Exit Function Exit Screen Exit Enhancements Customer Development Project Independent Field Exit Keyword Exit

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Enhancements
There are four different ways of adapting the SAP system to fit your needs : Customizing : Configuration of system parameters via a special user interface, the possible changes are preplanned and organized. Customizing is required during implementation of the system. Modification : Alteration of SAP Repository objects in the form of custom changes when SAP changes occur the customer version and occur, the new SAP version must be reconciled manually. Enhancement concept : Changing of SAP Repository objects by the customer without modification. Custom development : Creation of custom objects within the customer name range. g Modification and Customer development involve high maintenance and costs. Hence use these only when customer requirements are not met by customizing or by user exits exits.
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Enhancements
Advantages of Enhancements There are two main reasons why you should use exits rather than Th t i h h ld it th th modifying SAP software yourself. Add-ons attached to exits have the advantage that: They do not affect standard SAP source code. They do not affect software updates.

Enhancements can be achieved by Exits.

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

Enhancements to SAP Objects Enhancements via Menu exits / Screen exits / FM exits E h t i M it S it it Business Add-Ins Modifications ( Registering the Modifications in SSCR, Modification Adjustment, Rules for Modifications )

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Enhancements
There are three types of exits: Menu Exits Screen Exits Function module Exits

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Enhancements
Locating Applications that Have Exits SAP organizes its exits in packages are called SAP enhancements. Each SAP enhancement can contain many individual exits. Choose utilities -->Enhancements --> Project Management from the ABAP Workbench menu. From here, choose utilities --> SAP enhancements to call a selection screen that lets you look for the exits available in the standard applications. To list all the enhancements in the entire system, choose the Execute function without specifying any selection criteria.

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Enhancements
Searching in the Application Hierarchy Application Hierarchy can be accessed by choosing ABAP Workbench --> Overview --> Application hierarchy. > > hierarchy For a particular application area, for example exits associated with Material Management, proceed as follows: Place the cursor on the material management branch of the application tree and choose sel / dsel --> repository infosys. Expand the Environment sub tree in the repository information sub-tree system. Expand the Exit Techniques sub-tree. Choose either Enhancements or Projects. Choose Execute.

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Enhancements
MENU EXITS Menu exits allow you to attach your own processes to action menu items. For this, the SAP applications programmer reserves certain menu entries in the GUI interface. The Menu exit entries have function codes that begin with + (Plus sign). Once you activate the menu exits, they become visible in the application. When the menu item is selected, either the functionality provided by the SAP applications programmer or your own functionality implemented in the program exit is processed.

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Enhancements
Step-by-step process of creating Menu Exits Evoke the Transaction code CMOD or alternatively you can use the path tools --> ABAP workbench --> utilities --> Enhancements --> Project Management. Specify a Project name in the Enhancement Text box. Click on the create icon on the screen. For example let us create an enhancement project say zuser.

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Enhancements

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Enhancements
In the next screen enter the description of the project. Save the changes made so far in the development class.

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Enhancements
Select Enhancement components. The system lists all customer exits contained in the enhancements included in your project. Place the cursor on the menu exit you want to add your own function to.

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Enhancements
Choose Edit component. The system displays technical information about the menu entry. It also displays two input fields where you can specify a language and the text you want your menu item to have.

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Enhancements
Enter the name of your menu function (such as test menu) in the field New text. Choose Save text. Your special menu function will not appear in the pulldown menu of the corresponding standard transaction until you activate your enhancement project.

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Enhancements

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Enhancements
After activation the menu(rounded) will be visible on the standard menu for the transaction S001.

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Enhancements
Screen Exits Screen exits add fields to screens in R/3 applications. SAP creates screen exits by placing special subscreen areas on a standard R/3 screen and calling a customer subscreen from the standard screen’s flow logic.

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Enhancements
Step-by-step process of creating Screen Exits From the main screen of the Project management transaction, proceed as follows: Select Enhancement components and choose Change.

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Enhancements
Choose Edit component.

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Enhancements

Choose the screen exit and double click on it e it do ble
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Enhancements
Create your subscreen using the Screen Painter.

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Enhancements
Design your screen to be added to the standard screen and activate the particular screen and return back to the flow logic .

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Enhancements
Choose the PAI and PBO to write down the logic.

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Enhancements
Generate your screen and choose Back (the green arrow) to return to the Project management transaction.

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Enhancements
Go to the transaction ME22 to view the customer defined screen exit.

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Enhancements
Enter the purchase order number and press Enter.

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Enhancements
Go to the menu header --> Details.

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Enhancements
Purchase number is visible on the standard sc ee ( ou ded) u c ase u be s s b e o t e sta da d screen(rounded).

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Enhancements
Function module Exits Function module exits allow you, as customer, to implement additional logic in an application function. The SAP applications programmer defines where in the application function the function module exits are placed and which data is to be transferred. The programmer also creates the related function modules with short text, interface, and documentation and describes the intended functionality of the function module exit in the SAP documentation. You code the function modules, and if needed the screens, text elements, and your own Includes for the function group. After you activate the enhancement project that contains the function module as component the ABAP/4 code will be processed. Before that, the program exits have no effect effect.

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Enhancements
Step-by-step process of creating Functional module Exits. From the main screen of the Project management transaction, or transaction CMOD proceed as follows: Select Enhancement components and choose Change Change.

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Enhancements

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Enhancements
Place the cursor on the function module exit you want to use. y Choose Edit component.

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Enhancements
Call the function module’s include program by double-clicking on it. p g y g

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Enhancements
Confirm that you want to create the include p g y program.

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Enhancements
Enter your function’s source code in the editor. y

Save o r include Sa e your incl de program and activate it. acti ate it
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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

Enhancements to SAP Objects Enhancements via Menu exits / Screen exits / FM exits E h t i M it S it it Business Add-Ins Modifications ( Registering the Modifications in SSCR, Modification Adjustment, Rules for Modifications )

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

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9. ENHANCEMENTS & MODIFICATIONS

Enhancements to SAP Objects Enhancements via Menu exits / Screen exits / FM exits E h t i M it S it it Business Add-Ins Modifications ( Registering the Modifications in SSCR, Modification Adjustment, Rules for Modifications )

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Modifications
Registering the Modification in SSCR A registered development user registers changes in SAP sources and manual changes of SAP Data Dictionary objects. Exceptions to such l h f D t Di ti bj t E ti t h registration are matchcodes, database indices, buffer settings, customer objects, patches and objects whose changes are based on automatic generation. generation If the same user changes the object again at a later time no time, new query is made for the registration key. Once an object is registered, the related key is locally stored and copied automatically for later changes, regardless of which registered user is making the change.

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Modifications
How do you benefit from SSCR ( SAP Software Change Registration)? Quick error resolution and therefore high availability of modified systems All th changed objects are l the h d bj t logged by SAP. Based on this information, d b SAP B d thi i f ti SAP’ s First Level Customer Service can quickly localize and remove the causes of problems. This increases the availability of your R/3 system. system Dependable Operation The necessity to register will likely prevent unintended modifications. This in turn promises the dependable operation of your R/3 system. Simplification of upgrades Upgrades and release changes become considerably easier because of fewer modifications.

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Modifications
Procedure for a Registered Modification If you change one of the SAP's Repository objects, the Workbench Organizer will require a change request, same as if you were creating your own object.. The object is automatically added to a repair task. Once the development is completed, the Programmer releases the task. The objects and the object locks are transferred from the task to the change request.. request Once the project is completed, you release the change request. This will remove the object locks of the change request. Change request may be transportable or local. The WBO will automatically classify the change request depending upon the development class. Only transportable change request will be p y p g q transferred to the transport system after their release. Immediately after the export a test import will check if all objects can be imported into the target system system.
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Modifications
Repository objects are exported to the central transport directory. The result of export and test import are recorded in the transport log of the change request to be verified by the programmer. The i Th import into the target system is not automatic, rather it is initiated t i t th t t t i t t ti th i i iti t d by the system administrator of the transport control program tp at the operating system level.

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Modifications
Modification Adjustment at Release Change The modifications must be adjusted to the new standard during release change. h The same is true for maintenance upgrades. Procedure : Determination of overlap and manual adjustment adjustment.

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Modifications

old ZABAP
Release request

Full version
Backward Delta

old ZABAP

Release q request

When you release a change request, a complete version of all objects contained in the changes request is written to the versions database. If you later edit a Repository object again, the current object becomes the complete copy and the differences between the old and the new object are stored in the versions database as backward delta delta. When you assign a Repository object to a task, the system checks whether the current version agrees with the complete copy in the versions database. If not, a complete copy is created. This takes place the first time you change an object.
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Modifications
The versions of a Repository object are the basis for the modification adjustment .To support this adjustments,information on whether the version was created by SAP or by the customer is also stored

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Modifications
Objects of the Modification Adjustment Dictionary objects Tables, Data Elements, Domains, Matchcodes, Views ABAP/4 Programs Reports, Module Pools, Function groups Screens Menus Enterprise Data Models The object listed above are managed by version ,therefore they are included in the modification adjustment.

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Modifications
Modification Adjustment The modification adjustment for Dictionary objects is done during the release change. Other Repository objects are adjusted after the release change. A Dictionary adjustment after the release change would result in the loss of new custom fields. The Dictionary adjustment is done with transaction SPDD, the adjustment of the remaining Repository objects with transaction SPAU.

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Modifications
Rules for Modifications Use the following rules when modifying or adjusting: Try to concentrate the changes in one place ( possibly by using Includes ithi th I l d within the customer name range). t ) The workbench Organizer does not allow modifications by DDIC and SAP*. Release open repairs and open requests containing repair objects prior to the release change. Such repairs and requests will be pointed out to your during the upgrade. Never create custom programs within the SAP name range. You will find the customer name range in the SAP Style Guide. Avoid modification adjustments by avoiding modifications.

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Modifications
Avoiding the Adjustments g j Try to avoid changing SAP objects to prevent the necessity for modification adjustments. By using program enhancements and appends for SAP tables you can enhance SAP object without having these changes overwritten by SAP during an upgrade. To avoid manual patches ,SAP offers online correction services in release 3.0 which allow automatic implementation and deimplementation of hot packages and patches

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Summary
Summary There are four ways of modifying the standard system. Customizing Modifications Enhancement Concepts Custom Development The advantages of enhancements are They do not affect standard SAP source code They do not affect software updates Enhancements can be achieved by Exits. Exits There are three types of Exits. Menu Exits Screen Exits
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Summary
Function Module Exits Registering the Modifications in SAP Software Change Registration (SSCR). Procedure for a Registered Modification. P d f R i t d M difi ti Rules for modifications or adjusting. Avoid the adjustment using the program enhancements for SAP tables. tables

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Exercise
Exercise Create a menu exit SDW00003 in the area menu ‘TEST’ and add an userdefined report for that menu exit.

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Exercise
Solution Follow the steps mention in the step-by-step process of creating the menu exits. For th F the menu exits SDW00003, T it SDW00003 Transaction code +DW3 is predefined. ti d DW3 i d fi d Now go to transaction SE80 and select the user-defined report say for example : ZTEST56.

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Exercise
For the particular report create the transaction as shown in the picture.

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Exercise
Mention the transaction code that is predefined by the menu exit and mention the short text, highlight the Program and selection screen radiobutton and press enter.

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Exercise
Assign report ZTEST55 to the transaction +DW3 and save it.

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Exercise
Go to the transaction S001 and go the menu TEST, there you can find USER DEFINED REPORTS menu item. Click the menu item and it will take you to the output of the report.

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Exercise
Output for the report ZTEST56 executed through the transaction +DW3.

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

Introduction to BAPI & BAPI Usage Structure of Business Objects Important Transaction codes BAPI Creation Understanding Business Requirements before BAPI Creation Technical Steps for BAPI Creation List of Macros

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

Introduction to BAPI & BAPI Usage Structure of Business Objects Important Transaction codes BAPI Creation Understanding Business Requirements before BAPI Creation Technical Steps for BAPI Creation List of Macros

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

Introduction to BAPI & BAPI Usage Structure of Business Objects Important Transaction codes BAPI Creation Understanding Business Requirements before BAPI Creation Technical Steps for BAPI Creation List of Macros

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

Introduction to BAPI & BAPI Usage Structure of Business Obj t St t fB i Objects Important Transaction codes BAPI Creation Understanding Business Requirements before BAPI Creation Technical Steps f BAPI Creation T h i l St for C ti List of Macros
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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

Introduction to BAPI & BAPI Usage Structure of Business Objects Important Transaction codes BAPI Creation Understanding Business Requirements before BAPI Creation Technical Steps for BAPI Creation List of Macros

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

Introduction to BAPI & BAPI Usage Structure of Business Objects Important Transaction codes BAPI Creation Understanding Business Requirements before BAPI Creation Technical Steps for BAPI Creation List of Macros

SAP PMG

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

Microsoft Word Document

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10. ADDITIONAL TOPICS : BAPI & BUSINESS OBJECTS

Introduction to BAPI & BAPI Usage Structure of Business Objects Important Transaction codes BAPI Creation Understanding Business Requirements before BAPI Creation Technical Steps for BAPI Creation List of Macros

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SAP Smart Forms

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SAP Smart Forms

Objectives

About SAP Smart Forms Designing S D i i Smart Forms tF Writing Programs for Smart Forms g g

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SAP Smart Forms •Introduction to Smart Forms •Structure of a form •Windows •Architecture •Forms •Nodes •Form Painter •Table Painter •PC Editor •Style Builder Style •Driver Program
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SAP Smart Forms

What is SAP Smart Forms? • • • • SAP Smart Forms is introduced in SAP Basis Release 4.6C as the tool for creating and maintaining forms for mass printing in SAP Systems. SAP S Smart F t Forms allow you t execute simple modifications t th f ll to t i l difi ti to the form and i d in the form logic by using simple graphical tools. Besides using the p g printer for standard output y can also select the Internet p you (by using a generated HTML output), a fax, or e-mail as output medium. Transaction to start SAP Smart Forms : SMARTFORMS

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SAP Smart Forms

Advantages

g g SAP Smart Forms offers the following advantages:
• The adaptation of forms is supported to a large extent by graphic tools for layout and logic, so that no programming knowledge is necessary (at least 90% of all adjustments). Therefore, power user forms can also make configurations for your business processes with data from an SAP system. Displaying table structures (dynamic framing of texts) Output of background graphics, for form design in particular the use of templates which graphics were scanned. Colored output of texts Reusing Font and paragraph formats in forms (Smart Styles) Data interface in XML format (XML for Smart Forms, in short XSF) HTML output of forms (Basis release 6.10) Interactive Web forms with input fields, pushbuttons, radio buttons, etc. (Basis-Release 6.10)

• • • • • • •

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SAP Smart Forms

Structure of a Form

A form consists of: •pages •output areas – called “windows” •Addresses •graphics (such as company logo) graphics •data or text contents. Within an output area, y can use static or dynamic tables to display data or texts p you y p y in lines, columns, or cells. To further structure and format text and data, use paragraphs with the paragraph and character formats formats.

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Pages of a form

On the pages of a form you determine the page layout and the sequence of pages with different structures structures. Draft pages and print pages: You use a draft page to determine the layout and the contents of one or several p g y print pages. In SAP Smart Forms, you use the Form Builder to define draft pages. Print pages are those pages that are eventually printed. The page layout includes the page format (for example, DIN A4 Letter DIN A5 landscape) and the position of example A4, Letter, the windows on a page. For each draft page, you must specify a next page to make the page sequence clear. You can also repeatedly call the same draft page if you want recursive output.

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Pages of a form

Many forms contain only two pages of different structure, for example one for the letter and one for listing the invoice items. For such a form you need two draft pages; the second page, which is defined as next page of the first one calls itself as next page If the text does not one, page. entirely fit onto the second print page, another print page with identical structure is started automatically. For draft page 2 the page break is triggered either automatically by the main window or built 2, into the form logic.
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SAP Smart Forms

Windows

On O a page, there are two different types of output areas for texts and data: the th t diff tt f t t f t t d d t th main window and the secondary window. You can position windows anywhere on a page, even overlapping. You can position the same window (determined by the technical name on several pages of a form, so that the same contents are displayed on all these pages. You can choose a different size for the window on each page, except for the main window.

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Main Window

In a main window you display text and data, which can cover several pages (flow text). As soon as a main window is completely filled with text and data, the system continues displaying the text in the main window of the next page. It automatically triggers the page break. You can define only one window in a form as main window. The Th main window must have the same width on each page, but can differ i h i ht i i d th th idth h b t diff in height. A page without main window must not call itself as next page, since this would gg p , y y trigger an endless loop. In such a case, the system automatically terminates after three pages.

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Secondary Windows

In a secondary window you display text and data in a predetermined output area. There is no flow text display with page break. If you position a secondary window with th same name on several pages, th system di l ith the l the t displays th contents of this the t t f thi secondary window on each page. y Text and data that do not fit into the secondary window are truncated and not displayed.

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SAP Smart Forms

Architecture

The architecture of SAP Smart Forms separates application data retrieval from the actual definition of the form When you activate the Smart Form, the system generates a function module that encapsulates all attributes of the Smart Form. As soon as the application program calls the function module, the Smart Form uses the module's interface (which corresponds to the form interface) to transfer any table data previously selected and t print th f l t d d to i t the form according t the f di to th form d description. Thi i also i ti This is l referred to as 'calling a Smart Form for printing'.
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SAP Smart Forms

Creating and Printing Forms

When creating a form, you must: • Retrieve the application data. • Describe your form. • Pass the application data to the form form. Printing the Form: Call a function module generated by SAP Smart Forms to print your form. SAP Smart Forms supports the following output options: • The form is printed on a printer connected to the SAP System. Before p printing, use the p g, print p preview to check whether the form is correct. • The function module generates an XSF data stream that transfers, for example, the form description including the retrieved data to programs of third-party companies.

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Describing a Form

Describe the interface of the form. It results from the application data previously selected. 2. 2 Create one or more pages On a page you can position windows addresses pages. page, windows, addresses, and graphics. Within a window, you can create additional elements. 3. Create elements (text, graphics, tables, and so on) for each page, using other tools of the Form Builder: * Use the Form Painter to position windows, graphics, and addresses on a page (the other elements are displayed in an assigned window). * Use the PC Editor to write your texts. tables. * Use the Table Painter to format your tables 4.Use the flow control to control whether and when to print pages and elements

1.

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SAP Smart Forms

Form Attributes

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Form Interface

We define the form interface to pass the data to the form. In the form interface we can define import and export parameters, tables and exceptions.

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Global Definitions

Global definition apply for the entire form We can use any object defined there form. in all nodes of the tree. We can initialize the global data before we start processing the start page. Within th f Withi the form routines we cannot access any global data unless we explicitly ti t l b ld t l li itl pass them to the form routine interface.

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SAP Smart Forms

Global Definitions

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SAP Smart Forms

Form logic

In th F I the Form Builder you describe a Smart Form by a set of nodes. To do this, B ild d ib S tF b t f d T d thi you build up a tree structure on the left side of the user interface

The numbering of the nodes also shows the sequence in which they are processed (from top to bottom). The first node is the root node.
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SAP Smart Forms •Page P •Window •Text •Graphic p •Template •Table •Command •Loop •Alternative •Folder •Complex Section •Program Lines

Nodes in Smart Forms

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SAP Smart Forms Output A O t t Areas
Node type Description Page Window

Node Types - 1

Possible direct successors A page of the form. Direct successors of this node can Window, graphic, be placed directly on the page. address Output area on a page. There are main windows and All except window and subwindows. page nodes

Elementary nodes (without successors)
Node type Description Text Graphic Address You use this node to print any texts ( p y (and table contents), except addresses. ), p You use this node to position graphics in the form. To include background graphics, use node type Page . You use this node to include an address. The system reads the address data directly from the database tables and formats them for print output output.

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SAP Smart Forms

Node Types - 2
Description Possible Directly Inferior Nodes

Table output ab e
Icon Node Type

Template

You use this node to print a table with fixed layout You use this node to print a table with dynamic layout

All except window, page, table, and template nodes Directly inferior nodes are automatically the three nodes Header , Main Area and Footer . As their directly inferior nodes nodes, loop nodes, folder nodes, or table nodes are allowed. Table cell As with the template node

Table

Table line Table cell

You use this node to print a table line in a table or template You use this node to print a table cell of a table line according to the line type

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SAP Smart Forms

Node Types - 3
Possible direct successors

Flow Control
Node type Command Description Executes special commands (next page, (no successor) paragraph numbering, printer control) Processes successor node repeatedly. Branches depending on condition. All except window and page nodes Direct successors are automatically the nodes TRUE and FALSE. The direct successors of these are all nodes except window and page nodes.

Loop Alternative

Other Nodes
Node type N d t Folder Description D i ti Possible di t P ibl direct successors All except window and page nodes All except window and page nodes (no successors) Combines successor nodes to logical groups Complex section Combines all attributes of the node types template, table, loop, folder Program lines Executes ABAP program code (for example, conversion routines).

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SAP Smart Forms •Form Painter F P i t •Table Painter •PC Editor •Navigation Tree

Tools in Smart Forms

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SAP Smart Forms

Form Painter

•Used t d i the layout of the Smart Form U d to design th l t f th S tF •Used to create and change the size of the windows •Add graphical images

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SAP Smart Forms

Table Painter

•Drawing rows and columns D i d l •Inserting , cutting ,copying and deleting lines •Deleting cells •Splitting cells •Selecting table patterns •Changing cell size and moving cell separator lines

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SAP Smart Forms

Table Painter

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SAP Smart Forms

PC Editor

•Enter delete, select cut and copy texts Enter, delete select, cut, •Assign paragraph and character formats •Include, change, and delete fields

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SAP Smart Forms

Inserting Addresses

In many applications, addresses are administered using the Business Address applications Services (BAS). The addresses are stored in the database tables of the central address administration and identified by the application via a number. Procedure 1.Create a node of type Address in the navigation tree of the Form Builder. 2.Create the address node as directly inferior node of the page node or use the context menu in the layout of the Form Painter. You can then position the address anywhere on the page. 3.Enter a unique name for the node and a description 4.Determine th address t 4D t i the dd type on th G the General Att ib t t b l Attributes tab. For organization addresses you must specify only an address number. For any other address types, you must specify a p yp , y p y person number and an address number. To do this, use the search help. In the box Additional Address Specifications you can maintain other attributes to specify how you want to display the address.

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SAP Smart Forms

Inserting Addresses - Illustration

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SAP Smart Forms

Including Fields in the PC Editor

You include fields (your own fi ld and system fi ld ) t di l variable d t i th Y i l d fi ld ( fields d t fields) to display i bl data in the form. The field serves as placeholder. When the system displays the form, it replaces the field with the value that was assigned to it during processing. Prerequisites If you use your own fields, you must have defined them either as global data or as parameters in the form interface. The text node into which you want to include a field must exist exist. Process: 1.Include field ( ) to include a defined field into the text 2.A dialog window appears. Enter the field name in a line. Make sure that the field name is enclosed in ampersands ('&').

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SAP Smart Forms
Description Field Name
&SFSY-DATE& &SFSY-TIME& &SFSY-PAGE& &SFSY-FORMPAGES&

System Fields

Displays the date. You determine the display format in the user master record. Displays the time of day in the form HH:MM:SS. Inserts the number of the current print page into the text. You determine the format of the page number (for example Arabic numeric) in the page node example, Arabic, node. Displays the total number of pages for the currently processed form. This allows you to include texts such as ‘Page x of y’ into your output. Contains the total page number of all forms in the currently processed print request. Contains the name of the current window (string in the Window field) Contains the name of the current page (string in the Page field) Smart Forms sets this flag ( SFSY-XSF = 'X' ), if you want to print the form in XSF format or HTML format On the Conditions tab of a node, you can use this field to suppress format. node output that is intended only for these output formats (for example, pushbuttons). Queries whether the original is printed or which number the copy has. COPYCOUNT = 1 : orginal, COPYCOUNT = 2 : first copy; COPYCOUNT = 3: second copy, and so on. Queries whether the original is printed or which number the copy has. COPYCOUNT = 0 : orginal, COPYCOUNT = 1 : first copy; COPYCOUNT = 2 : second copy, and so on. Return value that you can query in program lines nodes. This enables you to react dynamically to error situations during output. Up to now, this field can be used only for include texts and text modules: •SFSY-SUBRC = 0 :Text module or include text found and printed T t d l i l d t tf d d i t d •SFSY-SUBRC = 4 :Text module or include text not found Logon name of the user who prints the form.

&SFSY-JOBPAGES& &SFSY-WINDOWNAME& &SFSY-PAGENAME& &SFSY-XSF&

&SFSY-COPYCOUNT& &SFSY-COPYCOUNT0& SFSY-SUBRC

SFSY-USERNAME

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SAP Smart Forms

Tabular Data Layout

You can use the following node types for tabular data layout: •The template node. Templates are static because the number of columns and lines are determined before the actual output. •The table node. Tables are dynamic because the table size depends on the amount of data selected at runtime. To specify the layout of both node types, use line types. Line Types: You use the line type to describe the following attributes of a table line: •The width of the table line •The number and width of individual cells within the table line A major difference between line types of templates and line types of tables lies in the height: •line types of templates all have the same height, •while SAP Smart Forms determines the height of table lines dynamically (depending on the output in the table).
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SAP Smart Forms

Style Builder

Use Transaction Code SMARTSTYLES to maintain paragraph and character formats. A Smart Style contains •Header data containing the default values of a Smart Style •Paragraph formats including indents and spacing, font attributes, tabs, and outline and numbering •Character formats including effects (superscript, subscript), Character bar-code and font attributes •Colors and underlines for a paragraph or character format •Preview

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SAP Smart Forms

Style Builder

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SAP Smart Forms

Driver Program

REPORT ZSALES_PRINT NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING. ZSALES PRINT HEADING DATA FLAG(1). DATA: FORM_NAME(30) VALUE 'ZSALES_PRINT'. ( ) DATA: FM_NAME TYPE RS38L_FNAM. PARAMETERS: VBELN LIKE VBAK-VBELN OBLIGATORY, KUNNR LIKE VBAK KUNNR OBLIGATORY VBAK-KUNNR OBLIGATORY. DATA: BEGIN OF ZITAB OCCURS 0. INCLUDE STRUCTURE VBAP. DATA: END OF ZITAB. DATA ZITAB1 LIKE ZITAB OCCURS 0 WITH HEADER LINE. DATA: SVBELN TYPE DDSHRETVAL. DDSHRETVAL TABLES: VBAK, VBAP. START-OF-SELECTION. SELECT SINGLE * FROM VBAK WHERE VBELN = VBELN AND KUNNR = KUNNR.
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SAP Smart Forms

Driver Program

SELECT * FROM VBAP INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE ZITAB WHERE VBELN = VBAK-VBELN . CALL FUNCTION 'SSF_FUNCTION_MODULE_NAME' EXPORTING FORMNAME = FORM_NAME IMPORTING FM_NAME FM NAME = FM NAME FM_NAME. CALL FUNCTION FM_NAME EXPORTING VBELN = VBELN KUNNR = KUNNR FLAG = FLAG TABLES ZITAB = ZITAB ZITAB1 = ZITAB1.

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SAP Smart Forms

Example Forms Available in Standard SAP R/3 SF_EXAMPLE_01 Simple example; invoice with table output of flight booking for one customer SF_EXAMPLE_02 Similar to SF_EXAMPLE_01 but with subtotals SF_EXAMPLE_03 SF EXAMPLE 03 Similar to SF_EXAMPLE_02, whereby several customers are selected in the application program; the form is called for each customer and a all form outputs are included in an output request

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SAP Smart Forms

Frequently Asked questions

Forcing a page break within table loop Create a loop around the table. Put a Command node before the table in the loop that forces a NEWPAGE on whatever condition you want. Then only loop through a subset of the internal table (based on the conditions in the Command node) of the elements in the Table node. Font style and Font size Goto Transaction SMARTSTYLES. There you can create Paragraph formats etc just like in sapscript. Then in your window under OUTPUT OPTIONS you include this SMARTSTYLE and use the Paragraph and character formats. Line in Smartform Either you ca use a window t at ta es up t e width o you page a d o y has a height o 1 t e can do that takes the dt of your and only as e g t of mm. Then you put a frame around it (in window output options). Thus you have drawn a box but it looks like a line. Or you can just draw "__" across the page and play with the fonts so that it joins each UNDER_SCORE.

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SAP Smart Forms

Frequently Asked questions

Difference between 'forminterface' and 'global definitions' in global settings of smart forms The Difference is as follows. Form Interface is where you declare what must be passed in and out of the smartform (in from the print program to the smartform and out from the smartform to the print program). Global definitions is where you declare data to be used within the smartform on a global scope ie: anything you declare here can be used in any other node in the form form.

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Sap Script

SAP Script

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Sap Script
INTRODUCTION SAP Script is the SAP System's own text-processing system.Also called as Word processing tool of SAP. SAP Script is tightly integrated into the SAP System Note: Entering and formatting text in SAP script is a little bit different than traditional text-processing programs on a PC. p gp g The main difference: the text that you enter is not in its final format. SAP script applies your formatting to text only when a document is printed, print-previewed, or displayed on-line in the SAP System

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Sap Script
How does a SAP Script work ? Every Script has a driver / print program attached or calling it. In case you are creating an entirely new script ,you also need to create you the driver program. This program can be executed directly or attached to attached to certain events viz. Creation of Purchase Order , Sales Order , Hiring an Employee. Standard SAP scripts can be modified by copying them in the customer p y py g name space and making the required chnages.

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Sap Script
Components of a SAP Scripts 1. Standard Text This is like a normal document.You can create letters , articles bascially y any static text. This can be created from transaction SO10. 2. Layout Set This also called as Form created from Transaction SE71. 3. Print P 3 P i t Program This program retrieves desired data from the database , calls the Form, supplies data to the Form and finally closes the Layout Set ( Form ).

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Sap Script
Supplies S li data Driver Program Layout set Gets printed

Defines

Forms Sap Script

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Sap Script
Name House name Postal Code City
WINDOW

Name House name Postal Code City

Page window Particular area in the page where the window is printed out o t

Page

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SAP Script : Standard Text

Transaction SO10
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SAP Script : Standard Text

After creating a Standard Text assign it a Style.

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SAP Script : Standard Text

If you want text in your standard text to appear as per attributes of character string , you need to enclose the text <character string>TEXT</>.

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SAP Script : Layout Set

OBJECTS OF LAYOUT SET • Header • Paragraph and Character format • Windows and Text Elements • Pages • Page Windows g

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SAP Script : Header

Header data is found both in style and layout set maintenance. In style maintenance, it is used primarily to present information designed to make it easier for the end user to select a style. The h d d t i l Th header data in layout set maintenance, on the other hand, is used for t t i t th th h d i df information and control purposes.

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SAP Script : Header

HEADER INFORMATION GLOBAL DATA
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SAP Script : Paragraph

In I SAP Script, paragraphs are formatted using formats and their S i t h f tt d i f t d th i corresponding attributes. Word processing is simplified by the use of different paragraph attribute groups: • Standard • Font • Tabs • Outline

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SAP Script : Paragraph

Paragraph Format
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SAP Script : Character Format

Character formats y paragraph g p • Allow you to format entire blocks of text within a p •Which will override the paragraph format •Character formats are defined in character strings Eg: <B1> &VBDKA-TDNAME& ,, &VBDKA-TFGEU&</>

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SAP Script : Windows and Text Elements

WINDOWS We can combine information contained in a document into certain groups and make each group appear on the printed page in an individual area. SAP Scripts calls such a group a window • To refer a window via program each window must have a unique name • W can assign text to each windows via text elements We i t tt h i d i t t l t TEXT ELEMENTS Text elements can be defined in layout set maintenance for each window. The text elements are accessed by name by a print program, formatted, and output in the respective window. The /E in the tag column is used to identify the text as a text element

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SAP Script : Windows

Windows are defined in layout set maintenance. They represent areas Wi d d fi d i l t t i t Th t which are positioned on pages -- as page windows -- and in which text is later output. At least one window must be defined for each layout set. If not a text cannot be formatted by SAP Script. not, Script The following window types can be used: • main • variable • constant

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SAP Script : Windows

WINDOWS

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SAP Script : Windows

MAIN Main window in which continuous text is output. The text in the main window can extend over several pages. If the text fills one page, output continues in the window of the next and subsequent pages, as long as MAIN has been defined for these pages. VAR Window with variable contents. The text can vary on each page in which the window is positioned. Variable windows are formatted for each page. CONST Window with constant contents which is only formatted once.

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SAP Script : Pages

At least o e page must be de ed for e e y layout set You must a so t east one ust defined o every ayout set. ou ust also designate a "first" page in the layout set header. Otherwise text formatting is not possible.

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SAP Script : Pages

PAGES

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SAP Script : Page Windows

When Wh you define page windows, the window names are linked to page d fi i d th i d li k d t names. To do this, you need to specify the position and size of the window on the assigned page. Width of the main window must be the same on all pages.

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SAP Script : Page Windows Sap Script

PAGE WINDOWS

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Sap Script

COMPONENTS OF SCRIPT • Text Elements • Style • Layout set

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SAP Script : Text Elements

The text elements are related to a window . The i t Th print program calls the respective text elements of the window ll th ti t t l t f th i d TYPES OF TEXT ELEMENTS •TEXT ELEMENTS WITH OUT NAMES TEXT •TEXT ELEMENTS WITH NAME

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SAP Script : Text Elements

NAMED TEXT ELEMENTS • We recognize named text elements by paragraph format /E • The name can be up to 40 characters • The different windows can have same named text elements • To out put named text elements we have to call the function module WRITE_FORM

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SAP Script : Style

A style de es t e set o pa ag ap a d c a acte formats t at a e sty e defines the of paragraph and character o ats that are available for formatting a document. If a style is selected, then it provides the character and paragraph formats for your document. Any formats defined in the layout set selected for a document are then ignored.

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SAP Script : Layout Set

• Layout sets are used to control the page layout and also the text formatting in your documents. • If a document is formatted for output to the screen or to a printer, then a layout set must be specified for it. l t t tb ifi d f it • If no other layout set is specified for a document, then the SYSTEM layout set is assigned to the document by default. default

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SAP Script : Layout Set

LAYOUT SET CONTROL OPEN_FORM CLOSE_FORM - Initializes the SAP script composer and opens the specified layout set p y - Closes the layout set ( if close_form is missing in the program nothing will be printed)

WRITE_FORM , WRITE_FORM_LINES, CONTROL_FORM - To output data( this can be used as many times between OPEN_FORM and CLOSE_FORM) PAGE CONTROL IN LAYOUT SETS •STATIC DEFINITION- Specify the starting page in header and for each page specify the subsequent page •DYNAMIC DEFINITION - Specify START PAGE when you call START_FORM START FORM

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SAP Script : Symbols

SYMBOLS Symbols are constants that can be inserted in a document. They save the user unnecessary work when replacing sections of text, phrases, etc. k h l i ti ft t h t Possible symbol types are: • System symbols y y • Standard symbols • Program symbols • Text symbols.

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SAP Script : Symbols

THE SYNTAX OF SYMBOLS • The delimiter & must be used both immediately before and after the symbol. symbol •The name of a symbol may not contain spaces. • A SAP Script editor line break should not occur between the symbol delimiters. • If additional formatting options are required, these should be enclosed in round brackets and inserted immediately after the symbol name. • The code letters identifying these options must be given in capitals.

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SAP Script : Symbols

S S SYSTEM SYMBOLS S O S SAP script provides values for the system symbols Example &date& &time& &month& &year& &uline& &vline& &page& STANDARD SYMBOLS • • • • • Standard St d d symbols are defined in the TTDTG table. b l d fi d i th t bl This table contains both the name of each symbol and its value. The value, which is language-dependent, can contain up to 60 chars. This table is delivered complete with standard entries supplied by SAP SAP. It may be extended with customer-specific symbols

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Symbols
PROGRAM SYMBOL SAP Script cannot read this data out of the SAP database itself, but has to call on another program t d thi The data are then copied into work ll th to do this. Th d t th i di t k areas declared using TABLES. If SAP Script is now called from this program in order to format a text, it can copy the data out of these work areas. areas Symbols which obtain their values from this kind of data area are called program symbols. Note • The value of a program symbol is limited up to a maximum of 255 chars. p g y p • The name of a program symbol consists of the table name and the field name separated by a hyphen.

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SAP Script : Symbols

TEXT SYMBOLS S O S All symbols which do not correspond to one of the three types of symbol described above are text symbols. You define the value of a text symbol yourself in the text module. There are two ways of doing this: • U th menu entries in the text editor Use the t i i th t t dit • Use the control command DEFINE for e g e.g /: DEFINE &mysymbol& = ‘XXXX’ / &mysymbol& /: DEFINE &mysymbol& = ‘YYYY’ YYYY / &mysymbol&
would print XXXX YYYY
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Control Commands
Control Command is a type of SAP script command which are used to control output formatting. The Syntax of Control Commands • The paragraph format /: must be entered in the format column to identify a control. • You enter the command itself in the text line. • A control command, together with any parameters it requires, may not occupy more than a single line • A maximum of one control command may appear in each line

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Control Commands

SYNTAX OF CONTROL COMMANDS • In tag column, indicate control commands with paragraph format /: • Enter complete control commands and necessary parameters on one line • Enter only one control command per line • Editor formatting does not affect lines with control commands

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Control Commands
SOME IMPORTANT CONTROL COMMANDS: /: NEW-PAGE /: PROTECT & /: ENDPROTECT

/: SET DATE MASK = 'date_mask’ /: SET TIME MASK = 'time_mask’ /: / RESET paragraph_format h f t /: INCLUDE name [OBJECT o] [ID i] [LANGUAGE l ] [PARAGRAPH p] [NEW-PARAGRAPH np]

(Cont…..
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Control Commands

/: TOP : /: ENDTOP /: BOTTOM : /: ENDBOTTOM /: IF condition : /: ENDIF

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Control Commands
SET DATE MASK command The formatting for date fields can be defined with the SAPscript SET DATE MASK command. Executing this command causes all subsequent date fields to be output using the specified formatting. formatting Syntax /: SET DATE MASK = 'date mask' date_mask The following templates may be used in the date mask: For day y : DD / DDD / DDDD For month : MM / MMM / MMMM For year : YY / YYYY

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Control Commands
SET TIME MASK command You can use the SAPscript SET TIME MASK command to format time fields in a way that differs from the standard setting. Executing this command causes all subsequent time fields to be output using the specified formatting. Syntax: /: SET TIME MASK = 'time_mask' The following templates may be used in the time mask: g p y HH hours (two digits) MM minutes (two digits) SS seconds (two digits)

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Control Commands
BOXES, LINES BOXES LINES, SHADING: BOX, POSITION, SIZE BOX POSITION The BOX, POSITION and SIZE commands for drawing boxes, lines and shadowing can be used for specifying that within a layout set particular windows or passages of text within a window are to be output in a frame or with shadowing. Syntax 1. /: BOX [XPOS] [YPOS] [WIDTH] [HEIGHT] [FRAME] [INTENSITY] 2. /: POSITION [XORIGIN] [YORIGIN] [WINDOW] [PAGE] 3. /: SIZE [WIDTH] [HEIGHT] [WINDOW] [PAGE]

.

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Control Commands
ADDRESS The command formats an address according to the postal standards of the destination country defined in the parameter COUNTRY sap scripts calls function module ADDRESS_INTO_PRINTFORM to format the address /: ADDRESS[DELIVERY] [ [ ] [PARAGRAPH a] [ ] [PRIORITY p] [LINES l] [ ] /: TITLE title /: NAME name1[,name 2[,name 3[,name 4]]] /:STREET street /:POBOX po box[CODE zip code] /:CITY town1[,town 2] /:REGION region /:COUNTRY / COUNTRY country t /: FROMCOUNTRY from country /: ENDADDRESS

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Control Commands
BOTTOM /ENDBOTTOM /:BOTTOM The text lines bet een the t o commands are o tp t at the bottom of te t between two output MAIN window /:ENDBOTTOM /:DEFINE &symbolname& = ‘value’ Text symbol receive their value through an explicit assignment. This assignment can be done interactively in the editor via include-symbolsg y text. The assigned value may have a maximum of 60 characters

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Incorporating Graphics

For e.g Company Logo 1. .bmp / .jpg file has to be converted to .tiff file 2. Upload the file as text module using ABAP/4 report “RSTXLDMC” specify BMON or BCOL 3. System generates a suggested name for the text 3 S t t t d f th t t e.g ZHEX-MACRO-LOGO Use ID “ST” and logon language. 4. 4 Include ZHEX-MACRO-LOGO object Text ID ST in the Layout ZHEX MACRO LOGO Layout.

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Example of Print Program
Calling an Script from a program created in SE38 REPORT ZSCRIPT . TABLES: SPFLI. DATA: I_SPFLI LIKE SPFLI OCCURS 0 WITH HEADER LINE I SPFLI LINE. SELECT * FROM SPFLI INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE I_SPFLI. CALL FUNCTION 'OPEN_FORM' EXPORTING FORM = 'ZTEST11'. CALL FUNCTION 'WRITE_FORM' EXPORTING ELEMENT = 'HEADER_ITEM' * FUNCTION = 'SET' TYPE = 'BODY' WINDOW = 'MAIN'. (Contd….. Next Page) (Contd Ne t
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Example of Print Program
CALL FUNCTION 'WRITE_FORM' EXPORTING ELEMENT = 'ADDRESS_LIST' * FUNCTION = 'SET' TYPE = 'BODY' BODY WINDOW = 'WINDOW1'. LOOP AT I_SPFLI. CALL FUNCTION 'WRITE_FORM' EXPORTING ELEMENT = 'LINE_ITEM' * FUNCTION = 'SET' TYPE = 'BODY' WINDOW = 'MAIN' 'MAIN'. ENDLOOP. CALL FUNCTION 'CLOSE_FORM'.

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Example of Print Program

Output of the program
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Example

Details of Layout Set Header Data
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Example

Pages
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Example

Windows
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Example

Page Windows
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Example

Main Window Details
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Formatting Options
Offset - specifying an offset of ‘n’ , n left most characters are not displayed. E.g Eg &symbol& &s mbol& ---> 1234576789 > &symbol+3& ----> 456789 Output Length p g &symbol(3)& ----> 123 &symbol(7)& ----> 1234567 Time Mask &Time& Normally 10:08:12 (hh) : (mm): (ss) /: Set Time Mask = ‘HH:MM’ &Time& = 10:08 /: Set Time Mask = ‘HH hours MM minutes’ &Time& = 10 hours 08 minutes &Time(Z)& = 10 hours 8 minutes

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Example
Date Mask / /: Set Date Mask = ‘DDMMYY’ ate as &Date& = 01 05 01 /: Set Date Mask = ‘MMMM DD,YYYY’ &Date& = May 01,2001 Fill Character Leading spaces in a value can be replaced with a fill character. The ‘F’ option is used and character to be filled is specified. p p E.g &KNA1-UMSAT& = 700.00 &KNA1-UMSAT(F*)& = **700.00 Space Compression &symbol(C)& It has a effect of replacing each string of space characters with a single space and shifting the words to left as necessary to close up gaps. Also Leading spaces are completely removed. Omitting Leading Zeros &symbol(Z)& &Day& = 01 &DAY(Z)& = 1
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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

SAP Business Workflow: Introduction

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WfMC

WfMC : The Workflow Management Coalition is the globally recognized body for the advancement of workflow management technology and its use in industry.

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Definition of Workflow

According to WfMC , Workflow is defined as the automation of a business process , in whole or part , during which documents , information or tasks are passed from one participant to another for action , according to a set of procedural rules.

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When i W kfl Wh is Workflow needed ? d d
It is particularly beneficial • when different people are involved in different parts of the process • when the users need to be reminded of what they need to do • when the duration of the process is critical and deadlines have to be met By automating the process, you free the users from having to know what to do when. Work items are sent to the th participants notifying them of what they have to do, ti i t tif i th f h t th h t d and a single click on the notification calls the correct transaction and navigates to the relevant screen.

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How does it work ? H d k
• When the workflow runs it creates work items which are like e-mails, e mails but o they have the advantage that they contain the intelligence needed to execute the relevant task with the correct data when the operational user executes them, o they provide their own functionality so that the operational user has access to everything that is useful to improve the flow of the process, o they disappear on their own when they have been executed by someone else or made obsolete. These work items can be received in the R/3 business workplace, MS Outlook (or any other MAPI compatible client), Lotus Notes, or work item notifications can be distributed by e-mail.
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Purpose of SAP Business Workflow
• SAP Business Workflow can be used to define business processes that are not yet mapped in the R/3 System. These may be simple release or approval procedures, or more complex business processes such as creating a material master and the associated coordination of the g departments involved. SAP Business Workflow is particularly suitable for situations in which work processes have to be run through repeatedly or situations in which repeatedly, the business process requires the involvement of a large number of agents in a specific sequence. SAP provides several workflows that map predefined business processes . These workflows do not require much implementation

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Integration
• SAP Business Workflow uses the existing transactions g and functions of the R/3 System and does not change the functions. You can combine the existing functions of the R/3 System to form new business processes with SAP Business Workflow. The workflow system takes over control of the business processes.

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Technical Principles
• The definition and execution of Workflow can be divided into four main areas. Business Workplace Workflow Builder Tasks Business Object Repository (BOR)

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Technical Principles

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Technical Principles
• • BUSINESS WORKPLACE o Work items are displayed to the user for execution in their SAP Inbox WORKFLOW BUILDER o W kfl d fi iti Workflow definitions are defined which are made up of steps that control d fi d hi h d f t th t t l the workflow or the tasks to be executed . This linking is defined in Workflow Builder . TASKS o Tasks describe elementary business activities . They always refer to the method of the object . Tasks can be background tasks or dialog tasks . OBJECTS AND OBJECT TYPE o Object type describes the data with which you want to work in workflow , e.g. MATERIAL . Each Object type has methods in which activities are g defined which can be executed with data e.g. creation of material .

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General Procedure Model
• With SAP Business Workflow, you can map business processes in the R/3 System and process them (several times if required) under the control of the workflow system A workflow management s stem can process and monitor orkflo system structured processes that: Contain a sequence of activities Reoccur in the same or similar forms Involve several people or groups of people Require a lot of coordination

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General Procedure Model
• Process Flow Objects and Object Type
o You identify all objects involved in your business process. y j y p o You check whether the relevant object types with their methods, attributes and events are defined in the Business Object Repository. If you find an object type whose definition meets your requirements, you can use it without making any modifications. If you find an object type whose definition does not quite meet your requirements, you extend its definition. If you d not fi d a suitable object type, you define your own object do find i bl bj d fi bj type.

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General Procedure Model
• Process Flow Tasks
o You identify the tasks involved in your business process. o Y establish which object method is to be executed for the task You t bli h hi h bj t th d i t b t d f th t k

Rules for Agent Determination
o You identify possible agent rules in your business process . o You use these rules when agents are to be found using specific, business, functionally-oriented criteria.

Events
o You define the events used to initiate and control the Workflow.

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General Procedure Model
• Process Flow Workflow
o To describe a business process , create a workflow template . o The tasks defined are to be included in the workflow template .

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Demo Example
• Process Flow
o An employee enters a notification of absence (leave request) in the R/3 System by filling out the relevant input template. o The direct superior of the employee is responsible for approving or rejecting the notification of absence. The R/3 System determines the direct superior automatically on the basis of the organizational plan maintained. i ti l l i t i d o If the request is approved the creator is notified by mail: o If the request is not approved, the creator is informed and can decide whether to withdraw the notification of absence or revise it. If the superior has given reasons for the rejection in an attachment, the creator can take these into consideration.

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Demo Example
• Process Flow
o If the creator revises the request, it is submitted to the superior for approval again. The applicant can also add an attachment, which can then be accessed b th superior. hi h th b d by the i o This cycle is repeated until either the superior approves the leave request or the creator withdraws it. o The applicant can find out the current processing status at any time by looking in their workflow outbox.

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Demo Example

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Roles in Workflow
• Process Cons ltant Consultant
Person within the system of workflow roles who analyses the existing business processes, identifies those that are suitable for SAP Business Workflow and maps them onto a business process model. The process consultant is also responsible for the maintenance of the organizational plan required for the workflow. Roles to be assigned
SAP_BC_SRV_USER SAP BC SRV USER SAP_BC_BMT_WFM_PROCESS

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Roles in Workflow
• Workflo Developer Workflow De eloper
Person within the system of workflow roles who implements the workflow based on the business process model developed by the process consultant and using the SAP Business Workflow definition tools

.

Roles to be assigned
SAP_BC_BMT_WFM_DEVELOPER

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Roles in Workflow
• Workflo System Administrator Workflow S stem
Person within the system of workflow roles who is responsible for the technical maintenance of the development environment and the runtime behavior after automatic Customizing. Roles to be assigned
SAP_BC_ENDUSER SAP_BC_SRV_USER SAP_BC_BMT_WFM_ADMIN SAP BC BMT WFM ADMIN

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Roles in Workflow
• Workflo Agent Workflow
Person within the system of workflow roles who appears as an end user in productive workflows workflows. The workflow agent starts workflows and processes work items. Their work area is the Business Workplace. Roles to be assigned
SAP_BC_SRV_USER

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Roles in Workflow
• Process Controller
Person within the system of workflow roles who evaluates the workflow from a business perspective at runtime, and is responsible for suggesting improvements. g Roles to be assigned
SAP_BC_SRV_USER

SAP_BC_BMT_WFM_CONTROLLER

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Business Object Builder

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Business Object Builder
USE :
You Y use the B i h Business Object Builder to create , display or change Obj B ild di l h object types . The path is Tools Business Workflow Development Definition T l D fi i i Tools W kfl Builder Workflow B ild The transaction code is SWO1

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Business Object Builder
OBJECT TYPES : • • Object Type is the description of data (objects) in the system created at definition time in the Business Object Builder The examples are : Documents (invoices, purchase requisitions, job applications, and so on) o Master data (customer, material, vendor, and so on) o Transaction data (order, q ( , quotation, and so on) , ) o

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Business Object Builder
• Object types are described and implemented by specifying the following components: o o o o o o Basic data Key fields Attributes Attrib tes Methods with parameters, result and exceptions Events with parameters Implementation program

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Business Object Builder
• INTEGRATION :
o If you want to display or change a defined object type in the Business Object Builder, you must know its ID, name or description o If you do not know the object type precisely or if you are not sure whether there is an appropriate object type, you can find an object type via its position in the component hierarchy or via its relationships to other object types . In this case Business Object Repository Browser is used .

• FEATURES :
o Various functions such as check, test, generate or where-used list are available.

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Business Object Builder
MAINTENANCE OF OBJECT TYPES : USE
The maintenance of object types encompasses the functions of the j yp p Business Object Builder for creating, displaying and changing object types.

You need these functions if you want to: y
o Look at and analyze the definition and implementation of a particular object type o Create a new object type or change an existing object type j yp g g j yp o Change the release status of an object type

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Business Object Builder
MAINTENANCE OF OBJECT TYPES : • INTEGRATION :
o If required you can get an overview of the existing object types required, including their relationships using the Business Object Repository Browser. The Business Object Repository Browser is called from the Business Object Builder. j

• FEATURES
o You create a new object type with initially just its basic data. This assigns the appropriate position in the Business Object Repository to the object type

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Business Object Builder
CREATING OBJECT TYPES :
• There are two ways of creating a new object type: You create a completely new object type p y j yp You create an object type as a subtype of an existing object type, which inherits the components of the existing object type automatically. y

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PROCEDURE :
1. Choose Tools Business Workflow Development Definition tools Business Object Builder. This displays the screen Business Object Builder: Initial Screen. 2. Select Create. 3. The C 3 Th Create Object Type di l box appears. Obj T dialog b 4. Edit the fields Object type, Object name, Name and Description. When doing so, bear in mind the general naming conventions for object types. Leave the field Supertype blank. 5. Enter the name of a new program for the implementation of the object type. type Bear in mind the naming conventions in your application. application 6. Specify the code letter of your application (usually Y or Z).

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Business Object Builder
GENERAL NAMING CONVENTION FOR OBJECT TYPES : • Object name The object name is specified when the object type is created. The object name has 20 characters and should be in English regardless of the user language. To make the object name easier to read, upper and lower cases should be used Object type name o The object type name is a short, language-dependent text with 20 characters, which can be used on screens or in lists to identify y the object type. The object type name is entered when the object type is created. It can be changed at any time in the basic data g y o

o

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Business Object Builder
GENERAL NAMING CONVENTION FOR OBJECT TYPES : • Object type description o The bj t type d Th object t description is an explanatory, languagei ti i l t l dependent text with 80 characters, which can be used in lists of object types or for brief documentation. The d Th description is entered when the object type is created. It can i ti i t d h th bj t t i t d be changed at any time in the basic data

o

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Business Object Builder
RULES FOR NAMING OBJECT TYPE COMPONENTS : • • The following naming rules apply to each object type component's ID, name and description: ID
o The ID of an object type component must be unique. An ID already allocated to a key field, for example, can no longer be used as an ID for an attribute, a method or an event. attribute event The ID of a object type component has an identifying character. It has a maximum of 20 characters, and should be in English and comprehensible semantically. The ID begins with a letter, which is followed by letters, digits and underscores. Upper/lower cases are not significant for identification since only upper case is used. Upper case only can therefore be changed easily into upper/lower case. Upper/lower case always improves legibility even /l U /l l i l ibilit within a word.
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o

o

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Business Object Builder
RULES FOR NAMING OBJECT TYPE COMPONENTS : • ID
o The ID of an object type component should not repeat the ID of the object type or the object name. The object type ID precedes the object type component ID i a li t The object type ID and object type t t in list. Th bj t t d bj t t component ID are separated with a period

Examples of object type component IDs of th object t E l f bj t t t ID f the bj t type Material are:
Key field : Attribute : Method : Event : Material.Material Material.Industry Material.Display Material.Created

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Business Object Builder
RULES FOR NAMING OBJECT TYPE COMPONENTS : • • Name
o o This is a short, language-dependent text with a length of 20 characters The description is an explanatory, language-dependent text with a length of 80 characters, which can be used in lists of components or for brief documentation The ID must be an English noun g The ID must be an English noun

Description

• •

Key fields
o o

Attributes

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Business Object Builder
EDITING THE BASIC DATA OF AN OBJECT TYPE :
o The basic data contains both changeable, general information about the object type and information generated automatically by the system Select . The takes you to the screen Object Type <object type>: Edit Basic Data. The object type information displayed above the tab pages cannot be changed. On the tab page General, edit the name and the description of the object type. Assign the object type to the data model if required, in order to define it as a business object. object If the object type corresponds to an SAP organizational entity, select Organizational type. Edit the default method and the default attribute on the tab page Defaults

Procedure
o o

o

o o

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Business Object Builder
PROCESSING OBJECT TYPES : • Check
o To check that the implementation program with the attribute and method accesses is syntactically correct and complete with regard to the object type definition, select . To change the release status of the object type, choose Object type Ch t Change release status to .... l t t t To change the release status of an object type component, proceed as follows:
o o o Open the object type in change mode. Select the object type component. Choose Edit ® Change release status Object type component

Change release status
o o

....

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Business Object Builder
RELEASE STATUSES : • • g j yp j yp The following release statuses exist for object types and object type components: Modeled
• You cannot call modeled object types/object type components at runtime. Implemented object types/object type components are either in the test phase or are only used internally. You can call and test them at runtime. Implementation may not yet be stable. Released object types/object type components are released for use. You can call them at runtime. Any enhancements made by SAP to released object types and object type components are upwardl d bj t t d bj t t t d compatible
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Implemented

Released R l d

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• To generate an object type and make it available for the runtime system, select .

Test/Execute
• • • • To test whether the implementation of the methods and attributes of the object type was successful, select Test. j y j yp , j g If objects already exist for the object type, select an object for testing the instancedependent attributes and methods. This displays the screen for testing an object type. If no objects exist yet for the object type, only the attributes and methods that are defined as instance-independent are offered for testing . To test the attributes and methods that operate on an object as well, select Create instance. You are then asked to enter the key fields of an object of the type to be executed in order to specify it. A screen with the attributes of the object and their current values is displayed. You execute the methods on this object by double-clicking on the appropriate line.

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINITION OF OBJECT TYPE COMPONENTS :
o You need object type components to work with an object type. A newly created object type only has the object type components that is inherits from the standard interface, which is supported by every object type To set up the object type for your tasks, you define key fields, attributes, methods and events

o

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
PROCESS FLOW : • To define an object type, you do not have to edit all object type components. You should follow the sequence below:
• • • • • You check whether any object type components required are already contained in interfaces and implement them. them You define the key fields. You create the necessary attributes. You Y create the necessary methods, f which you can d fi h h d for hi h define method parameters and exceptions. You create the necessary events, for which you can create additional event parameters. ddi i l
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Business Object Builder
MAINTENANCE OF OBJECT TYPE COMPONENTS : • • Editing an object type component
• • • Position the cursor on an object type component and select j yp p Position the cursor on the object type component name with a blue background and select . You can now process the newly-created object type component directly Redefining an object type component inherited from the supertype allows you to process it. Position the cursor on the object type component and select . A redefined object type component loses its red background

Creating an object type component

Redefining an object type component

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Business Object Builder
MAINTENANCE OF OBJECT TYPE COMPONENTS : • Deleting and renaming individual object type components
• Position the cursor on the object type component to be j yp p processed. To delete it, select . To rename it, select

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERFACES : o o o o You use this function to define the interfaces that your object type supports SAP supplies interfaces that y can use when defining y pp you g your own object types Using interfaces standardizes the definition of the object type components. p Using an interface guarantees that the object type fully supports the methods (with all parameters and all exceptions), attributes and events in the interface All objects types support the standard interface. This contains the interfaces Check existence and Display You can add other interfaces to your object type

o o o
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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
INTERFACE AGGREGATE : o o o o The aggregate type is used to specify functional relationships between object types There is no inheritance The attribute Aggregate contains the reference to this aggregate type You do not have to implement anything in the program of the object type

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
INTERFACE EXTENDED APPROVAL : • • Result of this method The method XApproval has one result with four possible values. The values are specified using the fixed values for the domain SWF_XAPPRE :
• • • • 0 (object approved) 1 (object proposed for approval) 3 (object proposed for rejection) 4 (object rejected)

In the implementation of this method, the container element RESULT of the method container must be assigned one of the four values at the end

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
INTERFACE APPROVAL : • • • The interface Approval is used to offer a method for the object type, which can be used in an approval task. The implementation of this method is always incomplete and not p y p adapted to the current conditions of the object type RESULTS OF THIS METHOD :
– The method Approval has one result with two possible values. These are specified using the fixed values for the domain SWF_APPRES : – 0 (object approved) – 4 (object rejected) In the implementation of this method, the container element RESULT of the method container must be assigned one of the two values at the end

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
INTERFACE CREATE :
• Used for creating an object for the object type • • Three exceptions are defined in the interface Create for the method Create You must implement these exceptions at the appropriate points in the program. Use the macro following macro instruction: EXIT_RETURN <Code> <Variable1> <Variable2> <Variable3> <Variable4> As the <Code>, enter the exception’s 4-digit number specified when the exception was defined. The variables (maximum of four) are derived from the definition of the message that is linked to the exception

EXCEPTIONS FOR THIS METHOD :

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
INTERFACE DISPLAY :
The interface Display contains the method Display for displaying an object The th d Di l i i l Th method Display is implemented for the interface in such a manner t d f th i t f i h that the key field values of the object are displayed as standard It is also entered as default method in the basic data

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
INTERFACE EDIT : • • To offer a method for editing an object for your object type Exceptions for the method
• The exception Object does not exist is defined for the method Edit under the number 0001 in the interface Edit. You must implement this exception at the appropriate point in the program. U th macro f ll i macro instruction: Use the following i t ti
» EXIT_RETURN 0001 SPACE SPACE SPACE SPACE

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
INTERFACE FIND :
With this method you can use the inherited source code unchanged. The source code is not entered in the program of your object type, but only in the program of the interface Find, from which it is inherited The system sets up an object reference in the inherited implementation of the method Find. To do this, the system generates a dialog box with input fields for the key fields of the object The Th system also checks within the implementation whether the key t l h k ithi th i l t ti h th th k fields entered actually identify an existing object So that the method Find really does only return objects that exist, you must also define and implement the method ExistenceCheck (interface Check existence) for the object type

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
INTERFACE FIND : • Exceptions for the method
• • • Two exceptions are defined for the method Find : Exception 0001: Object does not exist Exception 1017: Cancellation by user

The exceptions are implemented in the program of the interface Find

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
STANDARD INTERFACE :
All object types support the standard interface and hence inherit the attribute ObjectType and the interfaces Display and Check existence These contain the methods Display and ExistenceCheck The attribute ObjectType returns the type of an object

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINING KEY FIELDS : • • • Objects are always identified using one or more key fields The identifying key of an object is made up of all the key fields of the object type Procedure
• • • Position the cursor on the component name Key fields (blue background). Select Answer YES to the question Create with ABAP Dictionary field proposals? The Create with Data Dictionary Field Proposals dialog box appears Enter the table from which you want to reference the fields, and select the fields that are the key fields of your object type

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINITION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : • • • • You must define attributes for an object type when you want to query particular properties, statuses or values at runtime Attributes can be used to formulate conditions in the workflow definition At runtime, the attribute values are read or calculated, and can also be used to control the workflow Object type attributes can return data in the following formats:
• • • • Value of ABAP Dictionary field Object reference Value calculated at runtime Object status in status management

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINITION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : • Attributes h Att ib t have various sources of information i fi f ti VIRTUAL
Attribute for which a read procedure always has to be implemented, since no field content in the database corresponds to this attribute. A virtual attribute can return the value of an ABAP Dictionary field or an object reference

DATABASE FIELD
When this type of attribute is defined, reference is made to a database field as the source of the required information. An attribute whose source is a database field can either return the database field contents or an object reference

OBJECT STATUS
Attribute whose value is an object status

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINITION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR AN OBJECT TYPE :
o Relationships between two object types are described using attributes, which return their information as object references to the other object type In the field Inverse attribute, enter the attribute of the other object type, which contains the object reference to this object type You can use macros to access the attribute

o o

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINITION OF METHODS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : • • With a method you define a function with which you can edit, create, search for or delete an object of this object type The methods refer to ABAP functions (transactions, function (transactions modules, dialog modules, and so on) and make them available to the workflow system Features – You can also define the following data for each method:
Import p p parameters ( (for synchronous and asynchronous y y methods) A result (only for synchronous methods) Export parameters (only for synchronous methods) Exceptions (only for synchronous methods)
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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINITION OF METHODS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : • SYNCHRONOUS METHODS : – Method that assumes process control for the duration of its execution and reports back to the calling component (in this case the work item manager) after its execution Terminating events can be defined for a single-step task described with a synchronous object method A synchronous method can return the following data to the workflow: – Return parameters – One result – Exceptions

– –

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DEFINITION OF METHODS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : • ASYNCHRONOUS METHODS : – Method that does not report back directly to the calling component (in this case the work item manager) after its execution It does not return any result, any parameters or any exceptions At least one terminating event must be defined for a singlestep task described with an asynchronous object method An asynchronous method must enter its results itself. Import itself parameters can be passed to it only

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DEFINITION OF METHODS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : • RESULT – – A specific parameter of a synchronous method for returning the essential result of this method The possible values of this result can be defined in a fixed value domain or a check table so that they are known in the workflow definition and can be taken into account A method can only ever have one result, but it can have any number of return parameters as well A method does not necessarily have to have a result

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DEFINITION OF METHODS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : • EXCEPTIONS – Object type component: Error which may occur during method execution and indicates whether a method was successful Exception categories: – Application and system error – Temporary error Temporary errors can occur when system resources are not available il bl

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• • DEFINITION OF METHODS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : PROCEDURE – – To create methods for an object type, position the cursor on the name Methods (blue background), and select background) If the new method is based on a function module, you should answer the question with YES . You are then supported by a wizard in the definition of the method GENERAL TAB
– DIALOG : If you do not set the indicator Dialog on the tab page General the method is executed in the background at General, runtime SYNCHRONOUS RESULT SU INSTANACE DEPENDENT
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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• • DEFINITION OF METHODS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : PROCEDURE RESULT TYPE TAB • Define the reference to ABAP Dictionary – ABAP TAB • You enter the function to be executed when the method is called on the tab page A A ABAP e.g if the transaction has to be called by the method then Checkbox “Transaction” is to be selected and the transaction code to be entered in the NAME –

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• • DEFINITION OF METHOD PARAMETERS : You define method parameters for a method under the following circumstances: When the method requires other input values apart from the object reference, which are not requested in dialog. – When the method returns parameters apart from the object reference Integration – – – The following data type references exist for method parameters: ABAP Dictionary reference Object type reference j yp –

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DEFINITION OF METHOD EXCEPTIONS :
• You Yo define e ceptions for a method when you want to "p blici e" error exceptions hen o ant "publicize" situations in a standardized manner in order to give the caller of the method the opportunity to react to the error situations To define T d fi exceptions f a method, position the cursor on the method and ti for th d iti th th th d d select Exceptions. The existing exceptions for the method are displayed and you select to create a new exception. Give th Gi the exception an identifying number in the dialog box Add ti id tif i b i th di l b Exceptions, which is used to address it in the implementation program. The following number ranges apply:
» » » »
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0001-1000: Exceptions defined f i t f 0001 1000 E ti d fi d for interfaces 1001-7999: Application-specific exceptions, reserved for SAP development 8000-8999: Exceptions triggered by the object manager p gg y j g 9000-9999: Customer-defined exceptions, reserved for customers
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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINITION OF METHOD EXCEPTIONS : • Exceptions are classified according to error types.
• Temporary error: This error type indicates that certain system , resources are not available at the moment, and that it is advisable to call the method again at a later point in time. Temporary errors can also occur if the method is temporarily locked by another user for processing. Application error: This error type is caused within the application called in the method. A table that cannot be maintained or a document that does not exist are typical application errors. System error: This error type shows incorrect configuration of the object manager or an inconsistency between object type definition and method call. Missing mandatory method parameters when calling a method are an example of a system error.
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DEFINITION OF EVENTS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE : • • You define events for an object type, if a status change in an object of this type is to be published across the system You use an event in a workflow under the following circumstances:
• • • • • • In a workflow or task definition as a triggering event The workflow or task is started when the event is triggered. In a task definition as a terminating event The task is terminated when the event is triggered. In a workflow definition for steps of the types Event creator and Wait for event. The event is triggered (event creator) or the workflow is continued when the event is triggered (wait for event). event)

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DEFINITION OF EVENTS FOR AN OBJECT TYPE :
o The event is not normally triggered in the implementation program, but instead by an event creation. You can use the function modules SWE_EVENT_CREATE or SAP_WAPI_CREATE_EVENT to trigger an event t An event is published without the creating application being informed as to whether a receiver reacts to this event. The system enters potential receivers in a linkage table, which is evaluated by the event manager Every event has an event container that contains data about the context of its creation. The data is passed to the task or workflow via a binding

o

o

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DEFINITION OF EVENT PARAMETERS : • • You define event parameters to supplement the system event parameters EVENT PARAMETERS : – – – Runtime-specific information from the event creation context Event parameters are defined as elements of the event container and are passed to the event receivers via binding The following event parameters are automatically contained in the event container:
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The reference to the object whose change of state is described by the event. The user name of the party who triggered the event creation.
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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
DEFINITION OF EVENT PARAMETERS : • The event parameters are displayed as event container elements and you use them in binding definitions between the event container and the task or workflow container There are two different types of data type reference for event parameters: • • ABAP Dictionary reference Object type reference

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
PROGRAMMING IN THE IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM : o The information specified about the object type components is only of a descriptive nature. Attribute accesses and method calls are programmed in the implementation program of the object type This program is called and executed by the system at runtime. During object type definition you select Program to go to the g j yp y g g ABAP Editor You go directly to the lines in the implementation program that contain the relevant source text for the selected method or attribute Parts of the source text can be generated automatically to help implementation p

o o o

o

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PROGRAMMING IN THE IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM : • The source text is generated based on the specifications you made when defining the object type and the object type components, and inserted into the implementation p g p program MANUAL POSTPROCESSING You need to check the program as automatic program generation only provide templates i i CHANGES AFTER PROGRAM GENERATION – – Changes made to object type components do not g j yp p automatically change the program So all subsequent changes have to be made manually –

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
PROGRAMMING IN THE IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM : • Only in the following cases the source code gets automatically changed in the implementation program
• • • • Deletion of methods Deletion of virtual attributes Renaming of methods Renaming of virtual attributes Macro instructions for processing containers and accessing objects are used i th i l bj t d in the implementation program t ti The macro instructions are available if the macro <OBJECT> has been included into the implementation program

INCLUDING MACRO INSTRUCTIONS
• •

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PROGRAMMING IN THE IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM : • • The macro instructions for processing the container can also be used outside the implementation program The macro instructions for accessing objects attributes and objects, methods can only be used within the implementation program

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• MACRO INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROCESSING A CONTAINER These macro instructions can be used in following programs : • Implementation programs of object types • Function modules for event creation • Function modules for role resolution Processing a container instance includes: • A Accessing the value of a container element i f i • Entering a value for a container element

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• • The include file <CNTN01> must have been included into the program in order to use these macros The container must be declared and initialized with the following macro instructions: SWC_CONTAINER <Container>. "Declaration SWC_CREATE_CONTAINER <Container>. "Initialization You can assign the content of a field to a container element or write the content of a container into a field This content can be multiline, that is, in the form of an internal table The content of a field can be an elementary data type, a structure o a or an object reference e e e ce –

• • •

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• ACTIVITIES : Deleting a container element SWC_DELETE_ELEMENT <Container> <ContainerElement>. Copying a container element SWC_COPY_ELEMENT <SourceContainer> <SourceElement> <TargetContainer> <TargetElement>. <TargetElement> Writing a field value SWC_SET_ELEMENT <Container> <ContainerElement> <Value>. <Value> Reading a field value SWC_GET_ELEMENT <Container> <ContainerElement> <FieldVariable>. C i El Fi ldV i bl
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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• ACTIVITIES :
• • Writing a multiline field value – SWC_SET_TABLE <Container> <ContainerElement> <Value>. Reading a multiline field value – S C G SWC_GET_TABLE <Container> <ContainerElement> A C i C i l <TableVariable>. Writing an object reference – DATA <Object> TYPE SWC_OBJECT. j SWC_CREATE_OBJECT <Object> <ObjectType> <ObjectKey>. SWC_SET_ELEMENT <Container> <ContainerElement> <Object>. Reading an object reference – DATA <Object> TYPE SWC OBJECT SWC_OBJECT. SWC_GET_ELEMENT <Container> <ContainerElement> <Object>. SWC_GET_OBJECT_KEY <Object> <ObjectKey>. SWC_GET_OBJECT_TYPE <Object> <ObjectType>.

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• ACTIVITIES :
• Writing a multiline object reference – DATA <ObjectList> TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0. DATA <Object> TYPE SWC_OBJECT. SWC_CREATE_OBJECT <Object> <ObjectType> <ObjectKey>. APPEND <Object> TO <ObjectList>. ... SWC_SET_TABLE <Container> <ContainerElement> <ObjectList>. Reading a multiline object reference – DATA <ObjectList> TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0. SWC_GET_TABLE <Container> <ContainerElement> <ObjectList>.

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• MACRO INSTRUCTIONS FOR ACCESSING OBJECTS , ATTRIBUTES AND METHODS
• • • You can use these macros for simplifying access to Business Object Repository objects The include file <OBJECT> must be incorporated into the program in order to use these macros You must declare variables in which an object reference is to be t d ith the following instruction: b stored with th f ll i i t ti » DATA : <Object> TYPE SWC_OBJECT.

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• GENERAL MACROS
• • • • • • SWC_CREATE_OBJECT <Object> <ObjectType> <ObjectKey>. SWC_REFRESH_OBJECT <Object>. SWC_GET_OBJECT_TYPE <Object> <ObjectType>. SWC_GET_OBJECT_KEY <Object> <ObjectType>. SWC_CALL_METHOD <Object> <Method> <Container>. SWC_GET_PROPERTY <Object> <Attribute> <AttributeValue>. SWC_GET_TABLE_PROPERTY <Obj t> <Att ib t > SWC GET TABLE PROPERTY <Object> <Attribute> <AttributeValue>.

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• EXECUTING MACROS ON OWN OBJECT
• All the macros in the section General macros can also be executed directly on the object itself in the implementation program To do this, you replace <Object> with SELF in the macro calls e.g. » SWC_GET_PROPERTY SELF <Attribute> <AttributeValue>. <Att ib t V l > .

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• SETTING AN OBJECT KEY
• • • When implementing methods with which an object is created, the object key must be set This typically applies to the methods Create and Find SWC_SET_OBJECTKEY <ObjectKey>. W Within the implementation program, you can raise the e pe e o p og , c se e exceptions defined for a method EXIT_RETURN <Exception> <Var1> <Var2> <Var3> <Var4>.

RAISING EXCEPTIONS
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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• DATA DECLARATION FOR VARIABLES USED
• The system automatically creates an area for the data declaration for key fields, attributes and method parameters in the implementation program This area is between the two macro instructions BEGIN_DATA OBJECT and END_DATA OBJECT at the beginning of the source text The data structure of the object key is between the macro instructions BEGIN OF KEY and END OF KEY and is created automatically by the system The method parameters and attributes are then declared p Since the system obtains the information about the names of the variables and the field references directly from the definition of the individual object type components, you cannot make any changes h k h here

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• DATA DECLARATION FOR VARIABLES USED
BEGIN_DATA OBJECT. " Do not change.. DATA is generated * only private members may be inserted into structure private DATA: " begin of private, " to declare private attributes remove comments and " insert private attributes here ... " end of private, BEGIN OF KEY, MATERIAL LIKE MARA-MATNR, END OF KEY, PURCHASEREQUISITION TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0, PURCHASEORDER TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0, PURCHASINGINFO TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0, PURCHOUTLINEAGREEMT TYPE SWC OBJECT OCCURS 0, SWC_OBJECT 0 DOCUMENT TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0, COSTESTIMATE TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0, PIECEOFEQUIPMENT TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0, _MAKT LIKE MAKT, _MARA LIKE MARA. END_DATA OBJECT. " Do not change.. DATA is generated Satyam SAP PMG SAP PMG Delivering Solution Excellence and Innovation

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• PROGRAMMING ASYNCHRONOUS METHODS
• • • • It is programmed between the macro instructions BEGIN_METHOD <Method> and END_METHOD The unique ID of the object is available in the structure of the key fields under the variable OBJECT-KEY An asynchronous method can be implemented with a transaction. Th t t ti The transaction i called in the program with the ti is ll d i th ith th ABAP command CALL TRANSACTION

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• PROGRAMMING SYNCHRONOUS METHODS
• • • It is programmed between the macro instructions BEGIN_METHOD <Method> and END_METHOD The unique ID of the object is available in the structure of the key fields under the variable OBJECT-KEY A synchronous method can be implemented with a function module. The function module is called with the ABAP command CALL FUNCTION in the program In the case of synchronous methods, a result and/or the export parameters can be returned to the caller if you pass the result to the container CONTAINER within the method implementation The result is always put into the container element RESULT. The result is available in the task container in the container element _WI_RESULT l t WI RESULT

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• PROGRAMMING EXCEPTIONS
• You implement exceptions within a method, that is within the macro instructions BEGIN_METHOD <Method> and END_METHOD , using the macro instruction EXIT_RETURN EXIT_RETURN <Code> <Variable1> <Variable2> <Variable3> <Variable4>. You must declare <Code> with the type SWOTINVOKECODE EXIT_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND EXIT_CANCELLED EXIT_NOT_IMPLEMENTED EXIT_PARAMETER_NOT_FOUND

• •

STANDARD EXCEPTIONS
• • • •

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Business Object Builder
EXTENDING AND ADAPTING OBJECT TYPES
• • • You can extend an object type to add more object type j yp j yp components not in the standard version This ensures that productive workflows and tasks remain executable in the same manner with the original object type Process Flow You cannot change the object types supplied by SAP. If you want to use one of these object types, but would like to make specific extensions or adaptations in certain areas, you proceed areas as follows:
» You create a new object type as a subtype of the object type that you want to extend. For further information, refer to Creating Subtypes. The new object type inherits the components and their implementation from the supertype. supertype You modify and add to this object type. You can redefine existing attributes and methods and create new object type components. For further information, refer to Maintenance of an Object Type Component. You make this object type into a delegation type of the supertype. For further supertype information, refer to Defining Delegation Types.

»

»

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• EXTENDING AND ADAPTING OBJECT TYPES DELEGATION TYPE
» Object type whose definition is considered at runtime instead of the definition of another object type, although this other object type is specified in all definition components (for example task and workflow definition, linkage tables). In all definition tools you can still refer to the original object type, but the system uses the definition of the delegation type for every access. The delegation type must always be a subtype of the object type it is to replace. The delegation type can have different or additional methods, attributes and events. A delegation type is always defined for an object type on a systemwide and cross-client basis

»

»

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• EXTENDING AND ADAPTING OBJECT TYPES DELEGATION TYPE
» Object type whose definition is considered at runtime instead of the definition of another object type, although this other object type is specified in all definition components (for example task and workflow definition, linkage tables). In all definition tools you can still refer to the original object type, but the system uses the definition of the delegation type for every access. The delegation type must always be a subtype of the object type it is to replace. The delegation type can have different or additional methods, attributes and events. A delegation type is always defined for an object type on a systemwide and cross-client basis

»

»

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• EXTENDING AND ADAPTING OBJECT TYPES
• DEFINING DELEGATION TYPES
Defining a customer-specific delegation type across the system
» » » » » » » Choose Settings Delegation System-wide. You are on the screen Display View "Customizing Object Types": Details. Customizing Types : Details Select . Select New entries. The screen New Entries: Details of Added Entries is displayed. Enter the ID of the object type f which you want to d fi a d l E h f h bj for hi h define delegation i type. in the field Object type. Enter the name of a person responsible. Enter the ID of the subtype for the object type in the field Delegation type

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Business Object Builder B i Obj B ild
• EXTENDING AND ADAPTING OBJECT TYPES
• DEFINING DELEGATION TYPES
Defining a customer-specific delegation type for a specific frontend

»

»

»

On the screen Business Object Builder: Initial Screen, enter the ID of an object type as a frontend-specific delegation type in the field Object/interface type. You can only specify a frontend-specific delegation for an object type if you checked "GUI specific" beforehand for GUI-specific this object type when maintaining system-wide delegation. Choose Settings Delegation Frontend.

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Tasks and Task Groups

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Tasks T k
• DEFINITION OF TASK o You use a Task to define an activity that can be executed within a workflow definition or independently (as a single step). This activity can be an SAP System transaction. o You have to create new tasks as standard tasks .

CREATING A TASK
– Choose Tools Business Workflow Tasks/Task Groups Create. Select the relevant task type. elevant Development Definition Tools

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Tasks T k
• SINGLE STEP TASK
– – – – – – – – Maintain names, work item text, object type and method Maintain agent assignment Maintain elements in task container Maintain triggering events Maintain terminating events Maintain default rules Maintain description and notification texts Maintain additional data Tab page Basic data Additional data Agent assignment Maintain Container Tab page Triggering events Tab page Terminating events Tab page Default rules Tab page Description Additional data Selection criteria...Additional data Classification Change Tab page SAPphone.

Maintain SAPphone properties

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Tasks T k
• MULTI STEP TASK
– – – – – – Maintain names, work item text, object type and method Maintain agent assignment Maintain elements in task container Maintain triggering events Maintain description and notification texts Maintain additional data Tab page Basic data Additional data Agent assignment Maintain Container Tab page Triggering events Tab page Description Additional data Selection criteria...Additional data Classification Change Tab page SAPphone.

Maintain SAPphone properties

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Tasks

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CONTAINER
• The elements of a container are described with ID, data type reference and other properties

Types of Container
Method Container Event Container Rule Container Task Container Workflow Container

Usually containers are already defined. These containers hold standard container elements defined by the workflow system

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BINDING
• Values can be assigned to container elements in different ways.
Value assignment using a binding from another container according to a binding definition carried out previously. Value i V l assignment directly to a container instance in the program of an di l i i i h f application. Value assignment with an initial value determined at definition time when the container instance is created.

At definition time you create binding definitions for the workflow. This involves specifying the assignment rules for how data is exchanged p y g g g between two containers. At runtime these binding definitions are executed making workflow execution possible

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BINDING

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BINDING
• Binding Definition from Task Container
• You define the bindings from the task container in the following two places. – In the definition of a task

»
» »

There are binding definitions to the:
Method container (for import parameters of method) Rule container (for definition of default rules)

In the step definition in the Workflow Builder
» The binding definition to the workflow container.

Binding Definitions to Workflow Container
• You define the bindings from the workflow container within the g Workflow Builder. There are binding definitions to the:
» » » Task container (activity, user decision, document from template, send mail, form step) Event E ent container (event creator) (e ent Rule container (for definition of responsible agents and recipients)
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BINDING
• Binding Definition from Method Container
You define the binding from the method container to the task container (for export parameters of the method with synchronous methods) during definition of a task.

Binding Definition from the Rule Container
You make the binding definition from the rule container to the workflow container during the definition of a step.

Binding Definition from Event Container
You define the bindings from the event container in the following three places. » In the definition of a task for the binding definition to the task container (for triggering or terminating events of the task). task) » In the Workflow Builder in the basic data of a workflow for the binding definition to the workflow container (for triggering events of the workflow). » I the Workflow B ild i th d fi iti of a wait step for the In th W kfl Builder in the definition f it t f th binding definition to the workflow container.

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Workflow Builder

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WORKFLOW BUILDER
• This is the main WebFlow Engine tool for creating, displaying, and processing workflow d fi iti i kfl definitions. You can test workflow definitions and Y t t kfl d fi iti d generate operable versions. • p g p p The Workflow Builder provides a graphical and an alphanumeric modeling view and also a tree display of the workflow definition • You can only use the graphical modeling view if you are working with the SAPGUI for Windows If you call the Workflow Builder using a Windows. different SAP GUI, the alphanumeric modeling view is displayed automatically

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WORKFLOW BUILDER

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WORKFLOW BUILDER
Workflow
Here you can insert new steps into the workflow definition and process existing ones. Double-clicking on a step calls the associated step definition.

Overview
The overview graphic is displayed here. The part of the workflow graphic displayed in the screen area Workflow is marked with a green rectangle. Changing the size or position of the rectangle changes the display in the screen area Workflow Workflow.

Step types
All step types that you can use in the workflow are displayed here if you are in change mode. You can insert a new step using Drag&Drop.

Objects
This screen area contains the following:

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WORKFLOW BUILDER
»
»

Workflow container
All workflow container elements are displayed here. You can also define new here container elements and generate a where-used list here. In the options in the Workflow Builder, you can choose not to display the workflow system elements here.

»
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My workflows and tasks
Tasks and workflows that are displayed can be inserted into your workflow definition as activities by double-clicking. The binding between the task container and the workflow container as well as the other container elements required is generated automatically by the workflow system as far as possible. You can also go directly to the relevant definition. You define which workflows and tasks are displayed here yourself. For more information, see Business Workflow Explorer.

»
»

Document templates
All the workflow's document templates that can be used in steps of the type document from template are displayed here. You can use a where-used list to determine the steps in which a document template is used used.

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»

Workflow Wizards
All Workflow Wizards that you can use in the definition of your workflow are displayed here.

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Teamworking T ki
Here you can search for steps by selected criteria. The result is displayed graphically in the workflow area.

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WORKFLOW BUILDER
»
»

Workflows of this definition
Your Workflow Outbox is displayed here which displays all running workflows here, for this definition.

Navigation
» The workflow steps are displayed here according to the workflow definition display. You can go directly to the relevant step definition from the list. All messages generated in where used lists and workflow tests where-used are displayed here. Double-clicking on a message takes you to the relevant step definition. This displayed which workflow is loaded in which definition, the status of the respective workflow, and the version number of this workflow in the original system

Messages
»

Information
»

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WORKFLOW BUILDER
CALLING THE WORKFLOW BUILDER
Direct Start
Tools Business Workflow tools Workflow Builder . Development Definition

Start from T k D fi iti St t f Task Definition
» If you start the Workflow Builder from a screen for processing or displaying a multistep task, choose Workflow Builder on the tab page Basic Data. The active version of the workflow definition is loaded. If there is no active version, the version with the highest version number is loaded. To call another version of the workflow definition, choose Goto Workflow Builder Choose version in the task definition. This takes you to a dialog box in which you can choose a version of the workflow definition.

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Activities
• At runtime, an activity is represented with a work item of one of the following types:
» » » Dialog work item if the activity references a task with dialog. Background work item if the activity references a task processed by the system without dialog. Workflow work item if the activity represents a workflow.

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Mail Transmission • You use this step type to send a mail to different recipients. You define the text and subject of the mail when defining the step. You Y can use variables i th t t which are fill d from the task i bl in the text, hi h filled f th t k container at runtime. • This step type replaces the wizard Include "Send mail". • The system creates a task automatically which sends the mail automatically, mail. The text to be sent is stored with the task. The system creates the variables used within the step definition in the task container and defines a binding from the workflow container to the task container for them

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Form Steps
This step type enables you to display or process the data in a container element of the workflow container. The container element must refer to a structure whose fields are used in the form. A form can be generated automatically by the workflow system. You can process the form generated to adapt it to suit your individual requirements The maintenance of a form step is spread across several tab pages. You can process it properties on them, such as: its ti th h » Data for deadline monitoring » Outcomes » Responsible agents p g At runtime, a form step is represented by a dialog work item

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of User Decision • In a user decision, the recipients receive the task description together with the possible decision options during execution. You can use a user d i i in the following situations: decision i th f ll i it ti
» » » » Only one of several possible alternatives can be processed in the workflow from a business point of view at execution time. A decision about the progression of the workflow must be made p g in dialog with a user. An instruction (= user decision with only one decision option) is required to continue the workflow. For approval and release steps possibly in connection with a steps, secondary method (the latter is possible without the application having to cater for these functions).

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Documents from a Template p • You use this step type to create documents of various PC applications and process them within the workflow. The work item recipient creates the document based on a document template, which can also contain container elements of the workflow hi h l i i l f h kfl container • The maintenance is spread across several tab pages. You can process properties on them, such as: them
» » » Template selection Responsible agents Deadline monitoring g

At runtime, this step is represented by a dialog work item in the Workflow Inbox of its recipients.

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Conditions • You use a condition in a workflow definition if:
» » At execution time, only one of two possible alternatives can be processed during the workflow, from a business point of view. The workflow system can make a decision based on the contents of the workflow container without user interaction

The system inserts a step of the type condition into the workflow definition. definition The system adds a branch to the workflow definition for each outcome. To ensure the consistency of the block structure, all branches created are brought together before the next step of the workflow definition

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Multiple Conditions p • You use a multiple condition in a workflow definition if:
» » » At execution time, only one of several possible alternatives can be processed during the workflow, from a business point of view. The workflow system can make a decision based on the contents of the workflow container. The decision can be formulated based on a comparison between an expression from workflow container and a finite amount of p comparison values (constants, expressions). The system inserts a step of the type condition into the workflow definition. The system adds a branch to the workflow definition for each outcome. To ensure the consistency of the block structure, all branches created are brought together before the next step of the workflow definition

»

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Event Creators • Use an event creator if you want to publish an event from a workflow. This event can be used as follows:
– – To start other workflows or tasks. For this, the event must be entered as a triggering event for the relevant workflow or task. » As a terminating event of a task. » For internal communication and synchronization

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Wait Steps • The following shows possible uses of a wait step in a workflow definition:
» » To suspend the entire execution of the workflow until a defined d h i i f h kfl il d fi d event has occurred. To wait for an event in a parallel processing branch, which renders processing in the other branches unnecessary

At runtime, a wait step is represented by a wait step work item

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Container Operations • You use a container operation to change a container element of the workflow container at runtime kfl i i Maintenance of Process Controls • You Y use this step type to complete or cancel other work i hi l l h k items of f the current workflow or the workflow itself at runtime

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Until Loops p • You use an UNTIL loop in a workflow definition if:
» At execution time with one of two possible alternatives, the workflow is to "jump back" to process sections of the workflow definition d fi i i again. i The workflow system can make a decision based on the contents of the workflow container

»

Maintenance of While Loops • You use the WHILE loop in a workflow definition if:
» At execution time, only one of several possible alternatives can be processed in the workflow from a business point of view, and then the comparison is to be performed again. h h i i b f d i The workflow system can make a decision based on the contents of the workflow container. The decision can be formulated based on a comparison between p an expression from workflow container and a finite amount of comparison values (constants, expressions).
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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

WORKFLOW BUILDER
Maintenance of Forks • You use a fork in a workflow definition when the business process can be continued by several users at the same time. You can also configure th f k i such a manner th t not all branches have to be fi the fork in h that t ll b h h t b processed .

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

Events in Workflow

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EVENTS
An event is created from any application program and published system-wide. Any number of receivers can react to the event Events that you want to use must be defined as components of an object type. Events are published without the creating application knowing whether a receiver reacts to them. The event manager checks whether there are active linkages for the published event

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

EVENTS
• An event can be used as follows in SAP Business Workflow:
• As a triggering event of a task or a workflow.
– When the event occurs, the task or workflow is started as a response. When the event occurs, the task is terminated as a response.

• •

As a terminating event of a task.

In workflow definition steps of the types event creator and wait for event

If you use events only within SAP Business Workflow, the linkages required are created automatically by the workflow system. You can edit existing linkages .

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EVENTS
• EVENT CREATION
• Events can be created in following ways :
• • • • • • • Function Module like SWE_EVENT_CREATE Change Documents : Events are created when change documents are written General Status Management : Events creation at status changes Message Control LIS : Event creation when an exception situation occurs Business Transaction Events HR Master Data : Event creation when HR Master data changes

You can used ‘Wizard’ for Event Creation

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EVENTS
• EVENT CONTAINER
• • The Th event container contains the event parameters as container t t i t i th t t t i elements. If you define triggering events or terminating events for a task, you can specify the binding from the event container to the task container. If you define triggering events for a workflow, you can specify the binding from the event container to the workflow container You define a binding from the workflow container to the event container in the definition of an event creator. You define a binding from the event container to the workflow container in the definition of a wait step. i i h d fi i i f i The event container contains workflow system elements as standard. You can add more container elements to the event container within object type definition in the Business Object Builder
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• • • •

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EVENTS
• USING LINKAGES
• • A linkage defines the assignment of events to the event receivers interested in them The potential receiver of an event must define the linkage. This p g can be done using function modules provided or a maintenance transaction The workflow system in the form of the event manager evaluates all the events created. In doing this, the event manager carries out ll h d I d i hi h i the following steps:

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

EVENTS

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS: SAP Business Workflow

EVENTS
• Receiver Type Function Module
• You Y can enter a receiver type function module for the linkage to t i t f ti d l f th li k t determine a receiver type at runtime . The interface of the receiver type function module is described in the documentation for the function module SWE_TEMPLATE_RECTYPE_FB . This _ _ _ function module can be used as a template and is stored in the function group SWE_TEMPLATE . You can enter a check function module for the linkage to decide whether the receiver function module should actually be called. The data in the event container can be used for this A receiver function module must be entered for each linkage, which executes the actual reaction to the event

Check Function Module

Receiver F R i Function Module ti M d l

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