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2011

2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
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currently
exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
maybe
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reproduced,ininany
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formor
orby
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means,without
withoutpermission
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publisher.

21. An air-filled
mm.
21.
air-filledrubber
rubber ball
ball has
diameterofof150
6 in.
If
If the
pressurewithin
withinit itisisincreased
increased until
until the
the balls
the
airair
pressure
mm,determine
determinethe
theaverage
average normal
diameter becomes
becomes 175
7 in.,
strain in the rubber.
rubber.
d0 == 150
6 in.mm
d == 175
7 in.mm
pd pd0 1757 -150
6 = 0.167 mm/mm
e 5 pd - pd
5
0
e = pd0
= 150 = 0.167 in./in.
pd0
6

Ans.

22.
22. A thin strip of rubber has an unstretched length of
15
If it is
aroundaround
a pipe having
outer diameter
375in.mm.
Ifstretched
it is stretched
a pipean
having
an outer
of
5 in., determine
the average
normal
strain innormal
the strip.
diameter
of 125 mm,
determine
the average
strain
in the strip.
L0 = 15 in.
L0 = 375 mm
L = p(5 in.)
L = p(125 mm)
L -LL
5p 15
375
L
0 0 125p
e5
=
== 0.0472 mm/mm
in.>in.
5=
15
375
LL00

Ans.

23. The rigid beam is supported by a pin at A and wires

BD and CE. If the load P on the beam causes the end C to
be displaced 10 mm downward, determine the normal strain
developed in wires CE and BD.

4m

LBD
LCE
=
3
7

3 (10)
= 4.286 mm
7
LCE
10
=
=
= 0.00250 mm>mm
L
4000

LBD =
eCE

eBD =

3m

2m

2m

Ans.

LBD
4.286
=
= 0.00107 mm>mm
L
4000

Ans.

7373

CH 02.indd 73

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2011
Pearson
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River,
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
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theycurrently
currently

2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
NJ.NJ.
All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
may
reproduced,
any
form
any
means,
without
permission
writing
from
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exist.
NoNo
portion
ofof
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material
may
bebe
reproduced,
inin
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oror
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inin
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*24. The two wires are connected together at A. If the

force P causes point A to be displaced horizontally 2 mm,
determine the normal strain developed in each wire.

C
300

LAC

eAC = eAB =

- LAC
LAC
301.734 - 300
=
= 0.00578 mm>mm
LAC
300

mm

30

Ans.

30

300

mm

25. The rigid beam is supported by a pin at A and wires

BD and CE. If the distributed load causes the end C to be
displaced 10 mm downward, determine the normal strain
developed in wires CE and BD.

E
D
2m

1.5 m
3m

2m
A

Since the vertical displacement of end C is small compared to the length of member
AC, the vertical displacement dB of point B, can be approximated by referring to the
similar triangle shown in Fig. a
dB
10
=
;
dB = 4 mm
2
5
The unstretched lengths of wires BD and CE are LBD = 1500 mm and
LCE = 2000 mm.
dB
4
Ans.
=
= 0.00267 mm>mm
A eavg B BD =
LBD
1500

A eavg B CE =

dC
10
=
= 0.005 mm>mm
LCE
2000

Ans.

7474

CH 02.indd 74

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2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently
exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
maybe
bereproduced,
reproduced,ininany
anyform
formor
orby
byany
anymeans,
means,without
withoutpermission
permissionininwriting
writingfrom
fromthe
thepublisher.
publisher.

26. Nylon strips are fused to glass plates. When

moderately heated the nylon will become soft while the
glass stays approximately rigid. Determine the average
shear strain in the nylon due to the load P when the
assembly deforms as indicated.

y
2 mm
P

3 mm
5 mm
3 mm
5 mm
3 mm

g = tan - 1 a

2
b = 11.31 = 0.197 rad
10

Ans.

27. If the
theunstretched
unstretched
length
the bowstring
is
27.
length
of theofbowstring
is 35.5 in.,
887.5 mm, determine
average
normal
strain
in when
the string
determine
the averagethe
normal
strain
in the
string
it is
when it is to
stretched
to theshown.
position shown.
stretched
the position
18 mm
in.
450

6 in.
150
mm
18 mm
in.
450

Geometry: Referring to Fig. a, the stretched length of the string is

4502 + 150
948.68in.
mm
62 2= =37.947
L = 2L = 2 218
Average Normal Strain:
eavg =

L - L0
37.947 -887.5
35.5
948.68
== 0.0689
=
0.0689mm/mm
in.>in.
L0
35.5
887.5

Ans.

450 mm

450 mm

150 mm

7575

CH 02.indd 75

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2011
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River,
Allrights
rightsreserved.
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2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
NJ.NJ.
All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
may
reproduced,
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form
any
means,
without
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writing
from
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exist.
NoNo
portion
ofof
this
material
may
bebe
reproduced,
inin
any
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oror
byby
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inin
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*28. Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists of a

rigid member CBD and a flexible cable AB. If a force is
applied to the end D of the member and causes it to rotate
by u = 0.3, determine the normal strain in the cable.
Originally the cable is unstretched.

u
D

P
300 mm

300 mm

= 501.255 mm

eAB =

AB - AB
501.255 - 500
=
AB
500

400 mm

Ans.

= 0.00251 mm>mm

29.

Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists

of a rigid member CBD and a flexible cable AB. If a force is
applied to the end D of the member and causes a normal
strain in the cable of 0.0035 mm>mm, determine the
displacement of point D. Originally the cable is unstretched.

u
D

P
300 mm

300 mm

AB = AB + eABAB

501.752 = 3002 + 4002 - 2(300)(400) cos a

a = 90.4185

400 mm

p
u = 90.4185 - 90 = 0.4185 =
180
D = 600(u) = 600(

p
)(0.4185) = 4.38 mm
180

Ans.

7676

CH 02.indd 76

11/29/10 10:20:56 AM

2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently
exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
maybe
bereproduced,
reproduced,ininany
anyform
formor
orby
byany
anymeans,
means,without
withoutpermission
permissionininwriting
writingfrom
fromthe
thepublisher.
publisher.

210. The corners B and D of the square plate are given

the displacements indicated. Determine the shear strains at
A and B.

y
A

16 mm
D

3 mm
3 mm 16 mm

16 mm

16 mm

f = tan - 1 a
a = tan - 1 a

13
b = 39.09 a
16
180

16
b = 50.91 a
13
180

By the definition of shear strain,

A gxy B A =
A gxy B B =

p
p
- 2f =
2
2

Ans.

p
p
- 2a =
- 2(0.8885) = - 0.206 rad
2
2

Ans.

7777

CH 02.indd 77

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2011
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
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currently

2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
NJ.NJ.
All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
may
reproduced,
any
form
any
means,
without
permission
writing
from
the
publisher.
exist.
NoNo
portion
ofof
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material
may
bebe
reproduced,
inin
any
form
oror
byby
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inin
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from
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publisher.

211. The corners B and D of the square plate are given

the displacements indicated. Determine the average normal
strains along side AB and diagonal DB.

y
A

16 mm
D

3 mm
3 mm 16 mm

16 mm

16 mm

Referring to Fig. a,
LAB = 2162 + 162 = 2512 mm

LAB = 2162 + 132 = 2425 mm

LBD = 16 + 16 = 32 mm

LBD = 13 + 13 = 26 mm
Thus,

A eavg B AB =

A eavg B BD =

LAB - LAB
2425 - 2512
=
= - 0.0889 mm>mm
LAB
2512
LBD - LBD
26 - 32
=
= - 0.1875 mm>mm
LBD
32

Ans.
Ans.

7878

CH 02.indd 78

11/29/10 10:20:57 AM

2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently
exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
maybe
bereproduced,
reproduced,ininany
anyform
formor
orby
byany
anymeans,
means,without
withoutpermission
permissionininwriting
writingfrom
fromthe
thepublisher.
publisher.

*212. The piece of rubber is originally rectangular.

Determine the average shear strain gxy at A if the corners B
and D are subjected to the displacements that cause the
rubber to distort as shown by the dashed lines.

y
3 mm

2
300
3
u2 = tan u2 =
400
u1 = tan u1 =

400 mm

gxy = u1 + u2

213.

The piece of rubber is originally rectangular and

subjected to the deformation shown by the dashed lines.
Determine the average normal strain along the diagonal

3 mm

w = tan

400 mm

3
b = 0.42971
a
400

-1

B
2 mm

f = tan

300 mm

Ans.

-1

2
a
b = 0.381966
300

300 mm

B
2 mm

a = 90 - 0.42971 - 0.381966 = 89.18832

DB = 2(400.01125)2 + (300.00667)2 - 2(400.01125)(300.00667) cos (89.18832)

DB = 496.6014 mm

DB = 2(300)2 + (400)2 = 500 mm

496.6014 - 500
= - 0.00680 mm>mm
500
400.01125 - 400
=
= 0.0281(10 - 3) mm>mm
400

eDB =

Ans.

Ans.

7979

CH 02.indd 79

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Education,
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River,
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
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theycurrently
currently

2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
NJ.NJ.
All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
may
reproduced,
any
form
any
means,
without
permission
writing
from
the
publisher.
exist.
NoNo
portion
ofof
this
material
may
bebe
reproduced,
inin
any
form
oror
byby
any
means,
without
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inin
writing
from
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publisher.

214.
5 in.
in.mm
long,
and
the
AB isis125
mmlong,
long,AC
ACisis 8200
long,
and
thering
ringatatA
A has
coordinates (0, 0). If a load P acts on the ring at A, the normal
AB becomes
becomes ePAB
0.02mm/mm,
in .>in ., and the normal
strain in AB
AB==0.02
in AC
AC becomes
becomeseAC
PAC= =0.035
0.035mm/mm.
in .>in . Determine the
strain in
coordinate position
position of
of the
thering
ringdue
dueto
tothe

y
B

60
60

1255mm
in.

200
8 in.mm

Average Normal Strain:

(0.02)(125)
= 127.5
= LAB + eAB LAB = 125
5 + +(0.02)(5)
= 5.10
in. mm
LAB

(0.035)(200)
= 207.0
= LAC + eACLAC = 8200
+ +(0.035)(8)
= 8.28
in. mm
LAC

Geometry:
2
2
2
4.3301
=.25
6.7268
in. mm
a = 28
a =2 -200
= 168.17
108

2
2
2 2
2
= 9.2268
+ 8.28
- 2(9.2268)(8.28)
cos u
5.10 12 27.52
= 230.67
+ 207.02
2(230.67)(207.0)

u = 33.317
u = 33.317
x
33.317
= 6.9191
in. mm
= 8.28
x9 = cos
207.0
cos 33.317
= 172.98
y
33.317
= 4.5480
in. mm
= 8.28
y9 = sin
207.0
sin 33.317
= 113.70
x = -(x
- a)
x = (x9
a)
Ans.

= -(6.9191
- 6.7268)
= =
- 0.192
=
(172.98
168.17)
4.81 in.
mm
y
- 4.3301)
= -(y
y = (y9
108.25)

Ans.

= -(4.5480
- 4.3301)
= =
(113.70
108.25)
= 0.218
5.45 in.
mm
230.67 mm
62.5 mm

108.25 mm
125 mm

127.5 mm
200 mm

207.0 mm

8080

CH 02.indd 80

11/29/10 10:20:59 AM

2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
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reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
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theycurrently
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exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
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bereproduced,
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formor
orby
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anymeans,
means,without
withoutpermission
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writingfrom
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publisher.

215.
215. Two bars are used to support a load P. When
in. long,
is 8AC
in. long,
and
thelong,
ring at
A
ABisis5 125
mmAC
long,
is 200
mm
and
has
(0,coordinates
is applied
theisring
at A, so
the coordinates
ring at A has
0). If a to
applied
to
that
it moves
to itthe
coordinate
position (0.25
in.,
the ring
at A, soitthat
moves
it to the coordinate
position
-0.73mm,
in.),18.25
determine
normal strain
in eachstrain
bar. in each
(6.25
mm),the
determine
the normal
bar.

y
B

60
60

in.
1255mm

8 in.mm
200

Geometry:
a = a =
= 168.17
1082.25
282200
- 24.3301
=2 6.7268
in. mm

LAB
(62.5 ++6.25
)2 +2 (+108
.25 + 18+.25
)2 2
= 2(2.5
0.25)
(4.3301
0.73)
A9B =
=
= 143.98
5.7591 mm
in.

2
2
168.17 6.-250.25)
)2 + (2108
25 + 18.25
= 205
.48 mm
L
+ .(4.3301
+ )0.73)
LA9C
AC == (2(6.7268

==205.48
8.2191mm
in.

Average Normal Strain:

eAB =
=
eAC =
=

LAB - LAB
LAB
5.7591 -125
5
143.98
mm/mm
== 0.152 in.>in.
5
125

Ans.

LAC - LAC
LAC
8.2191 -200
8
205.48
== 0.0274 in.>in.
mm/mm
8
200

Ans.
230.67 mm

62.5 mm

108.25 mm

108.25 mm
125 mm

200 mm
18.25 mm
62.5 mm

6.25 mm

8181

CH 02.indd 81

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2011
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.
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materialisisprotected
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2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
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All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
may
reproduced,
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form
any
means,
without
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exist.
NoNo
portion
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material
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oror
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*216. The square deforms into the position shown by the

dashed lines. Determine the average normal strain along
each diagonal, AB and CD. Side DB remains horizontal.

y
D

Geometry:

3 mm
B

53 mm

50 mm
91.5

= 79.5860 mm

C
50 mm

8 mm

= 70.8243 mm

Average Normal Strain:

eAB =
=
eCD =
=

AB - AB
AB
70.8243 - 70.7107
= 1.61 A 10 - 3 B mm>mm
70.7107

Ans.

CD - CD
CD

79.5860 - 70.7107
= 126 A 10 - 3 B mm>mm
70.7107

Ans.

217. The three cords are attached to the ring at B. When

a force is applied to the ring it moves it to point B , such
that the normal strain in AB is PAB and the normal strain in
CB is PCB. Provided these strains are small, determine the
normal strain in DB. Note that AB and CB remain
horizontal and vertical, respectively, due to the roller guides
at A and C.

2

LDB = L2cos2 u(1 + 2eAB + e2AB) + sin2 u(1 + 2eCB + e2CB)

Since eAB and eCB are small,
LDB = L21 + (2 eAB cos2 u + 2eCB sin2 u)
Use the binomial theorem,
LDB = L ( 1 +

1
(2 eAB cos2 u + 2eCB sin2 u))
2

Thus, eDB =

L

eDB = eAB cos2 u + eCB sin2 u

Ans.

8282

CH 02.indd 82

11/29/10 10:21:00 AM

2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
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reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
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exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
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bereproduced,
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orby
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anymeans,
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withoutpermission
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thepublisher.
publisher.

218. The piece of plastic is originally rectangular.

Determine the shear strain gxy at corners A and B if the
plastic distorts as shown by the dashed lines.

5 mm

2 mm
2 mm

4 mm

300 mm

D

2
a = c =
302
b = u =

400 mm

2 mm

3 mm

2
403

Shear Strain:
(gB)xy = a + b

Ans.

= -0.0116 rad = - 11.6 A 10 - 3 B rad

Ans.

(gA)xy = -(u + c)

219. The piece of plastic is originally rectangular.

Determine the shear strain gxy at corners D and C if the
plastic distorts as shown by the dashed lines.

5 mm

2 mm
2 mm

4 mm

300 mm

400 mm

2 mm

3 mm

Geometry: For small angles,

2
403
2
b = u =
302
Shear Strain:
a = c =

(gC)xy = -(a + b)
= -0.0116 rad = - 11.6 A 10 - 3 B rad

Ans.

Ans.

(gD)xy = u + c

8383

CH 02.indd 83

11/29/10 10:21:02 AM

2011
Pearson
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River,
Allrights
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2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
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All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
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form
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without
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NoNo
portion
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material
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oror
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*220. The piece of plastic is originally rectangular.

Determine the average normal strain that occurs along the
diagonals AC and DB.

5 mm

2 mm
2 mm

Geometry:
AC = DB = 24002 + 3002 = 500 mm

300 mm

400 mm

2 mm

AC - AC
500.8 - 500
=
AC
500

Ans.

Ans.

eDB =

A
3 mm

eAC =

4 mm

DB - DB
506.4 - 500
=
DB
500

221.

The force applied to the handle of the rigid lever

arm causes the arm to rotate clockwise through an angle of
3 about pin A. Determine the average normal strain
developed in the wire. Originally, the wire is unstretched.

600 mm

Geometry: Referring to Fig. a, the stretched length of LBD can be determined using
the consine law,
A

LBD = 2(0.6 cos 45)2 + (0.6 sin 45)2 - 2(0.6 cos 45)(0.6 sin 45) cos 93

45
B

= 0.6155 m

Average Normal Strain: The unstretched length of wire BD is LBD = 0.6 m. We

obtain
eavg =

LBD - LBD
0.6155 - 0.6
= 0.0258 m>m
=
LBD
0.6

Ans.

8484

CH 02.indd 84

11/29/10 10:21:03 AM

2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
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reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
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theycurrently
currently
exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
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reproduced,ininany
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formor
orby
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anymeans,
means,without
withoutpermission
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thepublisher.
publisher.

222. A square piece of material is deformed into the

dashed position. Determine the shear strain gxy at A.

y
15.18 mm
B

Shear Strain:
(gA)xy =

89.7
p
-
p
2
180

15.24 mm

15 mm

= 5.24 A 10 - 3 B rad

Ans.

89.7
A

223. A square piece of material is deformed into the

dashed parallelogram. Determine the average normal strain
that occurs along the diagonals AC and BD.

15 mm
15.18 mm

y
15.18 mm
B

15.24 mm

15 mm
89.7
A

15 mm
15.18 mm

Geometry:
AC = BD = 2152 + 152 = 21.2132 mm

= 21.5665 mm

= 21.4538 mm

Average Normal Strain:

eAC =

eBD

AC - AC
21.5665 - 21.2132
=
AC
21.2132

Ans.

= 0.01134 mm>mm = 11.3 A 10 - 3 B mm>mm

Ans.

BD - BD
21.4538 - 21.2132
=
=
BD
21.2132

8585

CH 02.indd 85

11/29/10 10:21:05 AM

2011
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently

2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
NJ.NJ.
All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
may
reproduced,
any
form
any
means,
without
permission
writing
from
the
publisher.
exist.
NoNo
portion
ofof
this
material
may
bebe
reproduced,
inin
any
form
oror
byby
any
means,
without
permission
inin
writing
from
the
publisher.

*224. A square piece of material is deformed into the

dashed position. Determine the shear strain gxy at C.

y
15.18 mm
B

15.24 mm

15 mm
89.7
A

(gC)xy =

15 mm
15.18 mm

p
89.7
-
p
2
180
= 5.24 A 10 - 3 B rad

Ans.

225.

The guy wire AB of a building frame is originally

unstretched. Due to an earthquake, the two columns of the
frame tilt u = 2. Determine the approximate normal strain
in the wire when the frame is in this position. Assume the
columns are rigid and rotate about their lower supports.

u 2

u 2

Geometry: The vertical displacement is negligible

xA

3m

2
= (1)
p = 0.03491 m
180

2
xB = (4)
p = 0.13963 m
180

1m

4m

x = 4 + xB - xA = 4.10472 m
AB = 232 + 4.104722 = 5.08416 m
AB = 232 + 42 = 5.00 m
Average Normal Strain:
eAB =
=

AB - AB
AB
5.08416 - 5
= 16.8 A 10 - 3 B m>m
5

Ans.

8686

CH 02.indd 86

11/29/10 10:21:06 AM

2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently
exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
maybe
bereproduced,
reproduced,ininany
anyform
formor
orby
byany
anymeans,
means,without
withoutpermission
permissionininwriting
writingfrom
fromthe
thepublisher.
publisher.

226. The material distorts into the dashed position

shown. Determine (a) the average normal strains along
sides AC and CD and the shear strain gxy at F, and (b) the
average normal strain along line BE.

y
15 mm
10 mm

25 mm
D

B
E
75 mm

90 mm

80 mm

Referring to Fig. a,
LBE = 2(90 - 75)2 + 802 = 26625 mm
LAC = 21002 + 152 = 210225 mm

LCD = 80 - 15 + 25 = 90 mm
f = tan-1

25
= 14.04
100
180

When the plate deforms, the vertical position of point B and E do not change.
LBB
15
=
;
LBB = 13.5 mm
90
100
LEE
25
=
;
75
100

LEE = 18.75 mm

LBE = 2(90 - 75)2 + (80 - 13.5 + 18.75)2 = 27492.5625 mm

Thus,

A eavg B AC =

A eavg B CD =
A eavg B BE =

LAC - LAC
210225 - 100
=
= 0.0112 mm>mm
LAC
100

Ans.

LCD - LCD
90 - 80
=
= 0.125 mm>mm
LCD
80

Ans.

LBE - LBE
27492.5625 - 26625
=
= 0.0635 mm>mm
LBE
26625

Ans.

Referring to Fig. a, the angle at corner F becomes larger than 90 after the plate
deforms. Thus, the shear strain is negative.
Ans.

8787

CH 02.indd 87

11/29/10 10:21:06 AM

2011
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently

2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
NJ.NJ.
All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
may
reproduced,
any
form
any
means,
without
permission
writing
from
the
publisher.
exist.
NoNo
portion
ofof
this
material
may
bebe
reproduced,
inin
any
form
oror
byby
any
means,
without
permission
inin
writing
from
the
publisher.

227. The material distorts into the dashed position

shown. Determine the average normal strain that occurs
along the diagonals AD and CF.

y
15 mm
10 mm

2

25 mm
D

C
B

2

75 mm

90 mm

LAD = 2(80 + 25) + 100 = 221025 mm

LCF = 2(80 - 15)2 + 1002 = 214225 mm

Thus,

A eavg B CF =

221025 - 216400
=
= 0.132 mm>mm
216400

LCF - LCF
214225 - 216400
=
= -0.0687 mm>mm
LCF
216400

80 mm

Ans.
Ans.

*228. The wire is subjected to a normal strain that is

2
defined by P = xe - x , where x is in millimeters. If the wire
has an initial length L, determine the increase in its length.

P xex

x
x
L

dL = e dx = x e-x dx
L =

L0

x e-x dx

L
1
1
1
2
2
= - c e-x d = - c e-L - d
2
2
2
0

1
2
[1 - e-L ]
2

Ans.

8888

CH 02.indd 88

11/29/10 10:21:07 AM

2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently
exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
maybe
bereproduced,
reproduced,ininany
anyform
formor
orby
byany
anymeans,
means,without
withoutpermission
permissionininwriting
writingfrom
fromthe
thepublisher.
publisher.

229.
m.If
If it is
229. The
Thecurved
curvedpipe
pipehas
hasan
anoriginal
2 ft.
heated nonuniformly, so that the normal strain along its length
is P = 0.05 cos u, determine the increase in length of the pipe.
e = 0.05 cos u
L =

L0

0.6
2 ftm

e dL
(0.6
du)
(0.05 cos u)(2
du)
9090

90
90

cos
u du
u] 0u]
0.100mft
= 0.1
0.03
cos
u du= =[0.1[sin
0.03[sin
] == 0.03
0
L0 0

230.

90

Ans.

du=====e
= 0.08
dL == 0.6
2 du
e = 0.08 sin
u sin u
L =
=

e dL

L0

90

2 ftm
0.6

(0.6du)
du)

= 0.048
0.16
L0 0

Ans.

231. The rubber band AB has an unstretched length of

If itit is
is fixed
fixed at B and attached
attached to
to the
the surface
surface at
at point
point A,
A9,
1 m.
ft. If
determine the average normal strain in the band. The surface
the function
functionyy = (x
meters.
is defined by the
(x22))m,
ft, where x is in feet.

y
y
x2

Geometry:
L =

L0

1m
ft

1 + a

dy 2
b dx
dx

However y = x2 then
L =
=

L0

u
90
90
sin
cos u]u]0 ==0.16
sinu ududu== 0.16[0.048[cos
0.048ft m

90
90

ft
1m

dy
= 2x
dx

ft
1m

1m
ft

21 + 4 x2 dx

1
1m
ft
C 2x21 + 4 x2 + ln A 2x + 21 + 4x2 B D 0
4

= 1.47894 ft
m

Average Normal Strain:

L - L0
1.47894 - 1
=
= 0.479 m/m
ft>ft
eavg =
L0
1

Ans.

8989

CH 02.indd 89

11/29/10 10:21:08 AM

2011
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently

2010
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Upper
River,
NJ.NJ.
All
This
exist.
portion
this
material
may
reproduced,
any
form
any
means,
without
permission
writing
from
the
publisher.
exist.
NoNo
portion
ofof
this
material
may
bebe
reproduced,
inin
any
form
oror
byby
any
means,
without
permission
inin
writing
from
the
publisher.

*232. The bar is originally 300 mm long when it is flat. If it

is subjected to a shear strain defined by gxy = 0.02x, where
x is in meters, determine the displacement y at the end of
its bottom edge. It is distorted into the shape shown, where
no elongation of the bar occurs in the x direction.

y
x

300 mm

Shear Strain:
dy
= tan gxy ;
dx

dy
= tan (0.02 x)
dx
L0

dy =

L0

300 mm

tan (0.02 x)dx

mm
y = -50[ln cos (0.02x)]|300
0

Ans.

= 2.03 mm

233. The fiber AB has a length L and orientation u. If its

ends A and B undergo very small displacements uA and vB ,
respectively, determine the normal strain in the fiber when
it is in position AB.

y
B
vB
B
L

Geometry:
2

uA A

u
x

LAB - L
eAB =
L
=

1 +

u2A + y2B
+
- 1
L
L2

1

eAB = B 1 +

R - 1
L

Using the binomial theorem:

eAB = 1 +

2uA cos u
1 2yB sin u

+ ... - 1
2
L
L

yB sin u
uA cos u
L
L

Ans.

9090

CH 02.indd 90

11/29/10 10:21:08 AM

2011
2010Pearson
PearsonEducation,
Education,Inc.,
Inc.,Upper
River,NJ.
NJ.All
Allrights
rightsreserved.
reserved.This
Thismaterial
materialisisprotected
protectedunder
lawsasasthey
theycurrently
currently
exist.
exist.No
Noportion
portionofofthis
thismaterial
materialmay
maybe
bereproduced,
reproduced,ininany
anyform
formor
orby
byany
anymeans,
means,without
withoutpermission
permissionininwriting
writingfrom
fromthe
thepublisher.
publisher.

234. If the normal strain is defined in reference to the

final length, that is,
Pn = lim a
p : p

s - s
b
s

instead of in reference to the original length, Eq. 22, show

that the difference in these strains is represented as a
second-order term, namely, Pn - Pn = PnPn .

eB =

S - S
S

=
eB - eA

S - S
S - S
S
S

S 2 - SS - SS + S2
SS
S 2 + S2 - 2SS
=
SS
=

(S - S)2
S - S
S - S
=

SS
S
S

= eA eB (Q.E.D)

9191

CH 02.indd 91

11/29/10 10:21:09 AM