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A)Write shot note on:

1. collective bargaining
Collective bargaining is a type of negotiation used by
employees to work with their employers. During a collective bargaining period,
workers' representatives approach the employer and attempt to negotiate a
contract which both sides can agree with. Typical issues covered in a labor
contract are hours, wages, benefits, working conditions, and the rules of the
workplace. Once both sides have reached a contract that they find agreeable, it
is signed and kept in place for a set period of time, most commonly three years.
The final contract is called a collective bargaining agreement, to reflect the fact
that it is the result of a collective bargaining effort.

The roots of collective bargaining lie in the late nineteenth century,

when workers began to agitate for more rights in their places of employment.
Many skilled trades started using their skills as bargaining tools to force their
employers to meet their workplace needs. Other workers relied on sheer
numbers, creating general strikes to protest poor working conditions. Several
labor pioneers started to establish a collective bargaining system so that labor
negotiations could run more smoothly.

Typically, the employees are represented by a union. Collective bargaining

actually begins with joining a union, agreeing to abide by the rules of the union,
and electing union representatives. In general, experienced people from the
union will assist the employees with putting together a draft of a contract, and will
help them present their desires to the company. Numerous meetings between
representatives of employer and employees will be held until the two can agree
on a contract.
Collective bargaining is process of joint decision making and
basically represents a democratic way of life in industry. It is the process of negotiation
between firm’s and workers’ representatives for the purpose of establishing mutually
agreeable conditi ons of employment. It is a technique adopted by two parties to reach an
understanding acceptable to both through the process of discussion and negotiation.

ILO has defined collective bargaining as, negotiation about working conditions and terms of
employm ent between an employer and a group of employees or one or more employee,
organization with a view to reaching an agreement wherein the terms serve as a code of
defining the rights and obligations of each party in their employment/ industrial relations with
one another.

Collective bargaining involves discussions and negotiations between two groups as to the terms
and conditions of employment. It is called ‘collective’ because both the employer and the
employee act as a group rather than as individuals. It is known as ‘bargaining’ because the
method of reaching an agreement involves proposals and counter proposals, offers and counter
offers and other negotiations.

Thus collective bargaining:

• is a collective process in which representatives of both the management and employees


• is a continuous process which aims at establishing stable relationships between the

parties involved.

• not only involves the bargaining agreement, but also involves the implementation of
such an agreement.

• attempts in achieving discipline in the industry

• is a flexible approach, as the parties involved have to adopt a flexible attitude towards

A number of theories – from the fields of industrial relations,
economics, political science, history and sociology– have attempted to
define and explain collective bargaining.
Collective bargaining consists of a type of negotiation between organized workers or
employees and their employer or employers - usually to determine wages, hours, rules,
and working conditions.

Collective bargaining operates at

three levels:
1. National level
2. Sector or industry level
3. Company/enterprise level

Economy-wide (national) bargaining is a bipartite or tripartite form of negotiation between

union confederations, central employer associations and government agencies. It aims at
providing a floor for lower-level bargaining on the terms of employment, often taking into
account macroeconomic goals.

Sectoral bargaining, which aims at the standardization of the terms of employment in one
industry, includes a range of

bargaining patterns. Bargaining may be either broadly or narrowly defined in terms of the
industrial activities covered and may be either split up according to territorial subunits or
conducted nationally.

The third bargaining level involves the company and/or establishment. As a supplementary type
of bargaining, it emphasizes the point that bargaining levels need not be mutually exclusive.

some advantages and disadvantages

of collective bargaining in higher
education. Advantages discussed include: efficiency, equality of power, legal
force, impasse resolution, communication, understanding the institution, resolution of
individual problems, definition of policy, rights guarantee, faculty compensation, self-
determination, administrative evaluation, younger faculty, minorities, institutional loyalty,
educational policy, competitive power, consistency of service, strengthening collegiality, and
increased executive authority. Some disadvantages include increased costs, loss of flexibility,
inappropriateness of job actions, increased bureaucracy, unfavorable power shifts, increased
adversary relationships, increased demands on faculty, diminished university autonomy, resort
to exaggeration and emotions, loss of student representation, standardized pay, funding
problems, loss of some diversity, involuntary contributions, loss of traditional faculty rights,
loss of self-determination, loss of self-governance, loss of full participation of faculty, and

A) 2. Trade union
trade union (British English) or labor
union is an organization of workers who have
(American English)

banded together to achieve common goals such as better working

conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with
the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file[1] members)
and negotiates labor contracts (collective bargaining) with
employers. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules,
complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion
of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreements
negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the rank and file
members and the employer and in some cases on other non-
member workers.

Over the last three hundred years, many trade unions have developed
into a number of forms, influenced by differing political abjectives and
activities of trade unions vary, but may include:

• Provision of benefits to members: Early trade unions, like Friendly Societies,

often provided a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill
health, old age and funeral expenses. In many developed countries, these
functions have been assumed by the state; however, the provision of professional
training, legal advice and representation for members is still an important benefit
of trade union membership.
• Collective bargaining: Where trade unions are able to operate openly and are
recognized by employers, they may negotiate with employers over wages and
working conditions.
• Industrial action: Trade unions may enforce strikes or resistance to lockouts in
furtherance of particular goals.
• Political activity: Trade unions may promote legislation favorable to the interests
of their members or workers as a whole. To this end they may pursue campaigns,
undertake lobbying, or financially support individual candidates or parties (such
as the Labour Party in Britain) for public office.

[edit] History
The origins of unions' existence can be traced from the eighteenth
century, where the rapid expansion of industrial society drew women,
children, rural workers, and immigrants to the work force in numbers
and in new roles. This pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labor
spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings,[2]
and would later be an important arena for the development of trade
unions. Trade unions as such were endorsed by the Catholic Church
towards the end of the 19th Century. Pope Leo XIII in his 'Magna Carta':
Rerum Novarum, spoke against the atrocities workers faced and
demanded that workers should be granted certain rights and safety
regulations. [3]

Main article: Opposition to trade unions
Trade unions have been accused of benefiting insider workers, those
having secure jobs, at the cost of outsider workers, consumers of the
goods or services produced, and the shareholders of the unionized
business. Those who are likely to be disadvantaged most from
unionization are the unemployed, those at risk of unemployment, or
workers who are unable to get the job they want in a particular line of
. The finding was that in the event of the union offering assistance to
the plaintiff it would be in violation of the union’s duty to protect the
tenure of the accused member and the judgment still sets the
precedent for cases of this kind that union members who make
complaints to the employer of racist or sexist harassment against
member(s) of the same union cannot obtain union advice or
assistance; this applies irrespective of the merit of the complaint.[33]

Trade unions in India

The Indian workforce consists of 430 million workers, growing 2% annually. The Indian labor
markets consist of three sectors:

1. The rural workers, who constitute about 60 per cent of the workforce.

2. Organized sector, which employs 8 per cent of workforce, and

3. The urban informal sector (which includes the growing software industry and other services,
not included in the formal sector) which constitutes the rest 32 per cent of the workforce.

At present there are twelve Central Trade Union

Organizations in India:
1. All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)

2. Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)

3. Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU)

4. Hind Mazdoor Kisan Panchayat (HMKP)

5. Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS)

6. Indian Federation of Free Trade Unions (IFFTU)

7. Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC)

8. National Front of Indian Trade Unions (NFITU)

9. National Labor Organization (NLO)

10. Trade Unions Co-ordination Centre (TUCC)

11. United Trade Union Congress (UTUC) and

12. United Trade Union Congress - Lenin Sarani (UTUC - LS)

5. b) what are the

perfomance appraisal
methods ? Explain .

The various methods and techniques used for Performance

appraisal can be categorized as the following traditional and

.Performance appraisal methods

include 11 methods / types as follows:
1. Critical incident method

The critical incidents for performance appraisal is a method in which

the manager writes down positive and negative performance behavior
of employees throughout the performance period

2. Weighted checklist

This method describe a performance appraisal method where rater

familiar with the jobs being evaluated prepared a large list of
descriptive statements about effective and ineffective behavior on jobs

3. Paired comparison analysis

Paired comparison analysis is a good way of weighing up the relative

importance of options.
A range of plausible options is listed. Each option is compared against
each of the other options. The results are tallied and the option with
the highest score is the preferred option.
4. Graphic rating scales

The Rating Scale is a form on which the manager simply checks off the
employee’s level of performance.
This is the oldest and most widely method used for performance

5. Essay Evaluation

This method asked managers / supervisors to describe strengths and

weaknesses of an employee’s behavior. Essay evaluation is a non-
quantitative technique
This method usually use with the graphic rating scale method.

6. Behaviorally anchored rating scales

This method used to describe a performance rating that focused on

specific behaviors or sets as indicators of effective or ineffective
It is a combination of the rating scale and critical incident techniques of
employee performance evaluation.

7. Performance ranking method

Ranking is a performance appraisal method that is used to evaluate

employee performance from best to worst.
Manager will compare an employee to another employee, rather than
comparing each one to a standard measurement.

8. Management By Objectives (MBO)

MBO is a process in which managers / employees set objectives for the

employee, periodically evaluate the performance, and reward
according to the result.
MBO focuses attention on what must be accomplished (goals) rather
than how it is to be accomplished (methods)

9. 360 degree performance appraisal

360 Degree Feedback is a system or process in which employees

receive confidential, anonymous feedback from the people who work
around them.

10.Forced ranking (forced distribution)

Forced ranking is a method of performance appraisal to rank employee
but in order of forced distribution.
For example, the distribution requested with 10 or 20 percent in the
top category, 70 or 80 percent in the middle, and 10 percent in the

11. Behavioral Observation Scales

Behavioral Observation Scales is frequency rating of critical incidents

that worker has performed.

are performance
appraisals still
beneficial and

There are various ways of conducting

performance appraisals, and ideas
change over time as to what are the
most effective appraisals methods and
systems. Some people advocate
traditional appraisals and forms; others
prefer 360-degree-type appraisals;
others suggest using little more than a
blank sheet of paper.

In fact performance appraisals of all

types are effective if they are
conducted properly, and better still if
the appraisal process is clearly
explained to, agreed by, the people

Managers need guidance, training

and encouragement in how to
conduct appraisals properly Look
out especially for the warning signs of
'negative cascaded attitudes'
towards appraisals. director who holds
the same view. As with anything, where
people need help doing the right thing,
help them.

, performance appraisals that are

administered without training,
without explanation or
consultation, and conducted poorly
will be counter-productive and are a
waste of everyone's time.

Well-prepared and well-conducted

performance appraisals provide
unique opportunities to help
appraisees and managers improve
and develop, and thereby also the
organisations for whom they work.

Methods of Performance Appraisal

The performance appraisal methods may be classified into three categories, as shown in
Figure below.