22 views

Uploaded by IJMER

The dynamics of two ecologically independent species which are being harvested with
variable effort have been discussed. The dynamics of effort is considered separately. The local and global
dynamics of the system is studied. The existence of Hopf bifurcation with respect to the total cost of fishing
is investigated. The co-existence of species in the form of stable equilibrium point and limit cycle is
possible. The quasi-periodic behavior is also possible for some choices of parameters. An expression for
Optimum population level has been obtained.

- ROSS Preliminary Comprehensive Strategy
- Www.ccsuniversity.ac.in New Common-syllabus Zoology
- Ecological Models
- Chaos in Ecology
- FAQ on the book: S. A. Ostroumov. Biological Effects of Surfactants. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52630072
- Ecological and Environmental Sciences
- Student Ecology Unit Plan
- Presentation Ethics Law Mahanun MBA ATC Ipoh
- Environment and Ecology
- aidan hudson literature based plan
- Concepts and Results in Chaotic Dynamics, A Short Course (Theoretical and Mathematical Physics) (Pierre Collet, Jean Pierre Eckmann) 3540347054
- Dynamic Stability of Slender Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns With General Supports, 2019 (Youqin Huang)
- lesson 3
- Effect of Modal Parameters on Both Delay-Independent and Global Stability of Turning Process
- Stability analysis and stabilization of stochastic linear impulsive, switched and sampled-data systems under dwell-time constraints✩
- ECOLOGY Handouts November 2016
- 21 in 2.1
- hardt_TwoFaces
- Mellard Et Al 2019 Ecology
- 0611

You are on page 1of 9

OPEN

Journal

ACCESS

Rate with the Optimum Harvest Policy

Brahampal Singh; and Professor Sunita Gakkhar*;

Department of Mathematics, J.V.JAIN College Saharanpur (UP) 247001; India;

*Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of TechnologyRoorkee, Roorkee 247667, India

ABSTRACT: The dynamics of two ecologically independent species which are being harvested with

variable effort have been discussed. The dynamics of effort is considered separately. The local and global

dynamics of the system is studied. The existence of Hopf bifurcation with respect to the total cost of fishing

is investigated. The co-existence of species in the form of stable equilibrium point and limit cycle is

possible. The quasi-periodic behavior is also possible for some choices of parameters. An expression for

Optimum population level has been obtained.

I. INTRODUCTION

Exploitation of biological resources as practiced in fishery, and forestry has strong impact on dynamic

evolution of biological population. The over exploitation of resources may lead to extinction of species which

adversely affects the ecosystem. However, reasonable and controlled harvesting is beneficial from economical

and ecological point of view. The research on harvesting in predator-prey systems has been of interest to

economists, ecologists and natural resource management for some time now.

The optimal management of renewable resources has been extensively studied by many authors [1, 2,

3, 7, 8, 12]. The mathematical aspects of management of renewable resources have been discussed by [10]. He

had investigated the optimum harvesting of logistically growing species. The problem of combined harvesting

of two ecologically independent species has been studied [10, 13]. The effects of harvesting on the dynamics of

interacting species have been studied Measterton-Gibbons [14], Chaudhuri et.al. [6-9] with constant harvesting,

the prey predator model is found to have interesting dynamical behavior including stability, Hopf bifurcation

and limit cycle [4, 5, 11, 15].

The multi species food web models have found to have rich dynamical behavior [16, 18]. S Kumar et.

al. [17] have investigated the harvesting of predator species predating over two preys.

In this paper the dynamics of two ecologically independent species which are being harvested have been

discussed when the dynamics of effort is considered separately.

Consider two independent biological species with densities X 1 and X 2 with logistic growth. The

Mathematical model of two harvesting prey species with effort rate is given by the following system of ordinary

differential equations:

X

dX 1

A1q1 X 1E

r1 X 1 1 1

X 1 f1 ( X 1, X 2 , E )

dT

K1 1 B1 X 1 B2 X 2

X

dX 2

A2 q2 EX 2

r2 X 2 1 2

X 2 f 2 ( X 1, X 2 , E )

dT

K 2 1 B1 X 1 B2 X 2

(1)

p q A X p2 q2 A2 X 2

dE

E h( X 1 , X 2 ) C Ek 1 1 1 1

C Ef3 ( X1 , X 2 )

dT

1 B1 X 1 B2 X 2

The logistic growth is considered for the two preys. The model does not consider any direct

competition between the two populations. The constants

only positive values. The effort E is applied to harvest both the species and C is total cost of fishing. The

| IJMER | ISSN: 22496645 |

www.ijmer.com

The Dynamics of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate with The Optimum Harvest Policy

harvesting is proportional to the product of effort E and the fish population density

coefficients

qi

X i .The

catch-ability

are assumed to be different for the two species. In the model, the third equation considers the

p 1 and p2 are the price of the per unit prey species. The last equation of

(1) implies that the rate of increase of the effort is proportional to the rate of net economic revenue. The constant

k is the proportionality constant.

Let the constant M 0 is the reference value of E . Introduce the following dimensionless transformations:

t rT

1 , yi X i K i (i 1, 2), x E M 0 , w1 A1q1E0 r1 , w2 B1 K1 , w3 B2 K 2

w4 r2 r1 , w5 A2q2 M r1 0 , w6 kK1 M 0 , w7 kK 2 M 0 ;

The dimensionless nonlinear system is obtained as:

dy1

w1 x

y1 1 y1

y1 f1 ( y1 , y2 , x)

dt

1 w2 y1 w3 y2

dy2

w5 x

y2 (1 y2 ) w4

y2 f 2 ( y1 , y2 , x)

dt

1 w2 y1 w3 y2

(2)

p w w y p2 w5 w7 y2

dx

x 1 1 6 1

C xf3 ( y1 , y2 )

dt

1 w2 y1 w3 y2

Since 0 yi 1; i 1, 2 , the underlying non-linear model (2) is bounded and has a unique solution.

There are at most seven possible equilibrium points of the nonlinear harvesting model:

E5 0, y2* , x* ,

E6 y1* , y2* , x* .

*

C w1 p1w6 (1 w2 )

Theorem 3.2 The equilibrium point

C w5 p2 w7 (1 w3 )

(3)

(4)

y*i 1; i 1,2 .

Theorem 3.3 The positive non-zero equilibrium E 6 of nonlinear harvesting model (2) exists provided the

following conditions are satisfied:

C w1 p1w6 w2 ; C w5 p2 w7 w3

(5)

( w5 w1w4 )( w7 p2 w5 Cw3 ) Cw1w4

y1*

w5 ( w7 p2 w5 Cw3 ) w1w4 ( w1 p1w6 Cw2 )

Cw5 - ( w5 - w1w4 )( w1 p1w6 - Cw2 )

y2*

w5 ( w7 p2 w5 - Cw3 ) w1w4 ( w1 p1w6 - Cw2 )

| IJMER | ISSN: 22496645 |

www.ijmer.com

The Dynamics of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate with The Optimum Harvest Policy

It may further be observed that conditions (3) and (4) imply (5), that is if E4 y1 ,0, x

*

and

E5 0, y2* , x* exists then E 6 will also exists. However, the existence of E 6 is possible irrespective of

IV. STABILITY ANALYSIS

The variational matrix about the point

1 0

J 0 0 w4

0 0

E 0 is given by

0

0

-C

From the above variational matrix, it is seen that there are two unstable manifolds along both X , Y axis and

one stable manifold along Z axis. Therefore the point E 0 is a saddle point, that is, at very small densities of

species the effort decreases and tends to zero, while for small efforts the densities of harvesting species will start

increasing,

The variational matrices about the axial point

-1 0

J1 0 w4

0 0

-1/(1 w2 )

w1 p1w6

-C

1 w2

1 0

and J 2 0 -w4

0 0

wpw

( 5 2 7 - C)

1 w3

From the matrix J1 , it is seen that there exists a stable manifold along X axis and an unstable manifolds along

Z axis. Stable manifold along Y axis exists provided w1 p1w6 C (1 w2 ) 0 . Observe that this condition

*

. The point E

is a saddle point.

Similarly, from the matrix J 2 , it is seen that there exists a stable manifold along Y axis and an unstable

The variational matrix about the point

.The point E

is a saddle point.

E3 1,1,0 is given by

1 0

J 3 0 w4

a31 a32

w1 (1 w2 w3 )

w5 (1 w2 w3 )

w1 p1w6 w5 p2 w7

C

(1 w2 w3 )

Thus, the equilibrium point E3 1,1,0 is stable provided the following condition is satisfied:

w1 p1w6 w5 p2w7

C 0

(1 w2 w3 )

(6)

www.ijmer.com

The Dynamics of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate with The Optimum Harvest Policy

*

(7)

*

is given by

J 4 a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a23

w1w2 x*

w1w3 y1* x*

w1 y1*

*

a

;

a11 y1 1

,

,

12

13

* 2

*

* 2

(1

w

y

)

(1

w

y

)

(1

w

y

)

2 1

2 1

2 1

w5 x

a21 a23 a33 0

a22 w4 ,

(1 w2 y1* )

x* w7 w5 p2 y1* w2 w7 w5 p2 w3w1w6 p1

x*w1w6 p1

a31

;

a32

;

(1 w2 y1* ) 2

(1 w2 y1* )2

The equilibrium point E 4 is locally stable if the following conditions are satisfied:

w1 x* w2 (1- y1* ) 2 ; and

y1* (w1 - w5 ) w5 ;

(w2 -1)

Similarly, the stability conditions for the equilibrium E5 are stated in the theorem 4.2. Its proof is omitted.

*

(8)

The following theorem gives the conditions for the locally stability of the nonzero positive equilibrium

point E6 y1 , y2 , x

*

*

is locally asymptotically

x* w2 (1- y1* ) 2 ;

(9)

w4 w x w3 w5 (1- y )

2 *

1

* 2

1

(10)

(11)

(12)

2 * *

1

1

*

2 1

*

2

* 2

1

Thus, the positive non-zero biological feasible equilibrium E 6 is locally asymptotically stable if the conditions

given by (9-12) are satisfied.

The following theorem gives the conditions for the global stability of the nonzero positive equilibrium point.

Theorem 4.4 Let the local stability conditions given by (9-12) hold. The positive non-zero biological feasible

equilibrium E6 y1 , y2 , x

*

www.ijmer.com

The Dynamics of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate with The Optimum Harvest Policy

w1 ( w7 w5 p2 - w3C )

0

w5 ( w1w6 p1 - w2C )

(13)

V.

p w w y p2w5w7 y2

p( x, y1, y2 ) x 1 1 6 1

C

1 w2 y1 w3 y2

The present value J of a continuous time stream of revenues is given by the expression

p w w y p2 w5w7 y2

- t

J p( x, y1, y2 ) e dt x( 1 1 6 1

C ) e- t dt

1

w

y

w

y

2 1

3 2

0

0

(14)

p w w y p2 w5w7 y2

G( y1, y2 , x, t ) x 1 1 6 1

C e t

1 w2 y1 w3 y2

Here is the instantaneous annual rate of discount.

Using classical Euler necessary conditions to maximize the positive nonzero equilibrium such that

G d G

G d G

G d G

0;

0;

0.

y1 dt y1

y2 dt y 2

x dt x

On solving the first equation, we get

G d G

t

0 1 2 y1 p1w6e 0; or

y1 dt y1

1 2 y1 e t 0

(15)

& p1w6 0

w4 (1 2 y2 ) e t 0

Ce

& p2 w5 0

(17)

0 for t , then

1 2 y1 .

(16)

(18)

w4 (1 2 y2 )

C 0

(19)

(20)

y1 w4 y2 (1 w4 ) / 2.

(21)

1 2 y1 c1.

(22)

w4 (1 2 y2 ) c2

(23)

www.ijmer.com

The Dynamics of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate with The Optimum Harvest Policy

C0

(24)

y1 w4 y2 (1 w4 ) 2.

(25)

Hence the optimum line (21) and (25) are same in the both cases. Therefore the optimum equilibrium will be the

intersection of line (25) and first isocline of (2).

The characteristic equation of the above variational matrix about E 6 is obtained as [6]. By the RouthHurwitz criterion, the positive nonzero equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable under the conditions

(9-12).

The Hopf bifurcation occurs at C C where the value of a0 a1 - a2 becomes zero. Substituting a0 a1 a2

*

3 a0 2 a1 a0 a1 0 ( 2 a1 )( a0 ) 0 .

This gives purely imaginary roots and one real root:

1 a0

2,3 i a 1

(26)

Transversality condition: - Let the characteristic equation be such that it contains a pair of purely imaginary

roots

1 1' i'2

( - 1 )(( - 1 )( - c 1 ) 0 .

or

3 ( 2 1 c1 ) 2 (

'

2 1 c1)

'

(27)

c 1 0

a 1 ( a 0 2 1 ) a 2 2 1 ( 2 1 a 0 ) 2

'

Differentiating

(30)

'

with

respect

'

to

bifurcation

(28)

parameter C ,

setting C C , and

*

rescaling

that

'

1

C C

(a 0

a a

a 1

a1 0 2)

C

C C

0

2

2(a 0 a 1 )

(29)

Thus the transversality condition is satisfied. So there exists a family of periodic solutions bifurcating from E 6 in

the neighborhood of C that is, C (C , C ).

*

VII.

NUMERICAL SIMULATION

As the solution of the system is bounded, the long time behavior of the solution is obtained as limit

cycle, limit point attractor, quasi-periodic. For global dynamic behavior, numerical simulations of the

underlying non-linear system are carried out. Consider the biological feasible set of parameters as

The sign change from positive to negative for the expression

a0 a1 - a2

(30)

parameter C are varied. The existence of hopf bifurcation is observed in the neighborhood of C 0.14 .

The variational matrix at the hopf bifurcation point C 0.14 is given by

-0.1725

J1 0.1390

0.0755

0.1967

-0.0848

0.0972

-0.3617

-0.3406

0

www.ijmer.com

The Dynamics of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate with The Optimum Harvest Policy

The eigenvalues of the matrix J1 are obtained as 0.2989, 0.0208 + 0.2443i, 0.0208 - 0.2443i .

From the eigenvalues the Hopf bifurcation is evident is evident in the neighborhood of C 0.14 .

The value of the expression

0.0030 0 at C =0.156.

(0.42973, 0.36954, 0.59802)

a0 a1 - a2

is

for the data set (30) at

C 0.156 , starting with two different initial conditions. In other words, the nontrivial equilibrium point

(0.42973, 0.36954, 0.59802) is stable giving the persistence of the system for the given set of

parameters. Fig 1(b) shows the time series for the data set (30) at C 0.156 .

Figure 2 (a) shows the phase space trajectories and their time series for the data set (30) at C 0.14 . Figure 2

(b) shows the long time behavior in phase space trajectories and their time series for the same data set (30)

at C 0.14 .

The

-0.0057 0,

solution

is

quasi

periodic.

The

value

of

the

expression

a0 a1 - a2

at C 0.14

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1: For the data set (34); (a) 3D behavior (b) time series

Fig. 2 (a).

www.ijmer.com

is

The Dynamics of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate with The Optimum Harvest Policy

However, for C 0.11 , there exists a limit cycle for the same set of data. As is evident from the Fig 3. The

value of the expression

a0 a1 - a2

is

-0.0077 0 , at C 0.11 .

VIII.

CONCLUSIONS

In this model, separate dynamics of harvesting effort is considered. The local and global persistence of

the harvested preys has been analyzed. The optimum population level is investigated. The existence of hopf

bifurcation with respect to total cost of fishing is observed.

REFERENCES

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

Asep K.Supriatona, Hugh P.Possingham, Optimal harvesting for a predator-prey metapopulation, Bulletin of

Mathematical Biology 60:49-65 (1998).

B. Dubey, Peeyush Chandra and Prawal Sinha, A model for fishery resource with reserve area, Nonlinear Analysis:

Real World Applications 4( 4):625-637 (2003).

Berg Hugo A.van den, Yuri N. Kiselev, S.A.L.M.Kooijman, Orlov Michael V., Optimal allocation between nutrient

uptake and growth in a microbial trichome, Journal of Mathematical Biology 37:28-48 (1998).

Brauer, F., Soudack, A.C., Stability regions and transition phenomena for harvested predator-prey systems, J.Math.

Biol.7:319-337 (1979).

Brauer, F., Soudack, A.C., Stability regions in predator-prey systems with constant- rate prey harvesting, J.Math.

Biol.8:55-71 (1979).

www.ijmer.com

The Dynamics of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate with The Optimum Harvest Policy

[6].

[7].

[8].

[9].

[10].

[11].

[12].

[13].

[14].

[15].

[16].

[17].

[18].

[19].

Brahampal Singh; The Global Stability of Two Harvesting Species with variable Effort Rate; International Journal of

Education and Science Research Review (ISSN 2348-6457, impact factor 1.24) page no-226-230; Volume-1, Issue-2

, April- 2014.

Chaudhuri, K.S., A bioeconomic model of harvesting of a multispecies fishery, Ecol.Model.32:267-279(1986).

Chaudhuri, K.S., Dynamic optimization of combined harvesting of two-species fishery, Ecol.Model.41:17-25(1988).

Chaudhuri, K.S., Saha Ray, S., Bionomic exploitation of a Lotka-Volterra prey-predator system,

Bull.Cal.Math.Soc.83:175-186 (1991).

Chaudhuri, K.S., Saha Ray, S., On the combined harvesting of a prey -predator system. J. Biol. syst. 4 (3): 373-389

(1996).

Colin W.Clark, Mathematical bioeconomics: The optimal management of renewable resources, John Wiley & Sons,

USA (1976).

Dai, G., Tang, M., Coexistence region and global dynamics of a harvested predator-prey system, SIAM J.Appl,

Math.58:193-210 (1998).

Meng Fan, Ke Wang, Optimal harvesting policy for single population with periodic coefficients, Mathematical

Bioscience 152:165-177 (1998).

Mesterton-Gibbons, M., On the optimal policy for the combined harvesting of independent species, Nat.Res.model.

2:107-132 (1987).

Mesterton-Gibbons, M., On the optimal policy for the combined harvesting of predator and prey,

Nat.Res.model.3:63-90 (1988).

Nguyen Phong chau, Destabilising effect of periodic harvest on population dynamics, Ecological Modeling 127:1-9

(2000).

S. Gakkhar, R. K. Naji, On a food web consisting of a specialist and a generalist predator, Journal of biological

Systems 11(4): 365-376 (2003).

S.Kumar, S.K.Srivastava, P.Chingakham, Hopf bifurcation and stability analysis in a harvested one-predator-twoprey model, Applied Mathematics and Computation 129:107-118 (2002).

Y.Takeuchi, Global Dynamical Properties of Lotka-Voltera Systems, World Scientific (1996).

www.ijmer.com

- ROSS Preliminary Comprehensive StrategyUploaded byROSSgfl
- Www.ccsuniversity.ac.in New Common-syllabus ZoologyUploaded byYougesh Kumar
- Ecological ModelsUploaded byKezziaAuroraAmanda
- Chaos in EcologyUploaded bysgtb3
- FAQ on the book: S. A. Ostroumov. Biological Effects of Surfactants. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52630072Uploaded bySergei Ostroumov
- Ecological and Environmental SciencesUploaded byRobert Cristian
- Student Ecology Unit PlanUploaded byJoaquin
- Presentation Ethics Law Mahanun MBA ATC IpohUploaded byhalilihassan
- Environment and EcologyUploaded byBencherqui Yassine
- aidan hudson literature based planUploaded byapi-352290609
- Concepts and Results in Chaotic Dynamics, A Short Course (Theoretical and Mathematical Physics) (Pierre Collet, Jean Pierre Eckmann) 3540347054Uploaded byBartolome Antonio Pereira
- Dynamic Stability of Slender Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns With General Supports, 2019 (Youqin Huang)Uploaded byPhan Đào Hoàng Hiệp
- lesson 3Uploaded byapi-469633900
- Effect of Modal Parameters on Both Delay-Independent and Global Stability of Turning ProcessUploaded byChigozie Francolins Uzoh
- Stability analysis and stabilization of stochastic linear impulsive, switched and sampled-data systems under dwell-time constraints✩Uploaded byximo
- ECOLOGY Handouts November 2016Uploaded byEljunem Felix
- 21 in 2.1Uploaded byammar_harb
- hardt_TwoFacesUploaded bylaura_mclean_15
- Mellard Et Al 2019 EcologyUploaded byPepgp
- 0611Uploaded byMoch Fachroe Dean
- thrun rachel paUploaded byapi-236119409
- Introducción a la Ecología y BiotecnologíaUploaded byFrancisco Mosquera
- Environmental Impact Statement SystemUploaded bywenroe bajada
- b026p179Uploaded byRega Permana
- The Nonadiabatic CSTRUploaded byRama
- Ramesh War 2013Uploaded byFarMs
- 2018 Study Guide EcologyUploaded byIlma A.
- HANDOUT AUploaded byShoaib Tahir
- SeminarUploaded bynaderjsa
- Adaptive Fuzzy-Neural Control Utilizing Sliding Mode Based Learning Algorithm for Robot ManipulatorUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O

- Biorthogonal Nonuniform Multiwavelet Packets associated with nonuniform multiresolution analysis with multiplicity DUploaded byIJMER
- HISTORIOGRAPHY AND CASTE OPPRESSIONUploaded byIJMER
- Assessment of Steganography using Image Edges for Enhancement in SecurityUploaded byIJMER
- Survey on Data Mining and its Area of ApplicationUploaded byIJMER
- “„X‟ Chromosomal Miner”Uploaded byIJMER
- An Efficient Algorithm based on Modularity OptimizationUploaded byIJMER
- The Combining Approach of Svms with Ant Colony Networks: An Application of Network Intrusion DetectionUploaded byIJMER
- Thermodynamic Analysis of Cooled Blade Gas Turbine Cycle With Inlet FoggingUploaded byIJMER
- Synthesis and Characterization of Partial Blended Green Polymer ElectrolytesUploaded byIJMER
- Magneto hydrodynamic Rayleigh Problem with Hall Effect and Rotation in the Presence of Heat TransferUploaded byIJMER
- Converting Daily Solar Radiation Tabulated Data with Different Sky Conditions into Analytical Expression using Fourier Series TechniqueUploaded byIJMER
- Effect of Stirrer Parameter of Stir casting on Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Silicon Carbide CompositeUploaded byIJMER
- Stabilization of Waste Soil at Karur Dump Yard by using Polypropylene FiberUploaded byIJMER
- Understanding the Behavior of Band-Pass Filter with Windows for Speech SignalUploaded byIJMER
- A Study on Corrosion Inhibitor of Mild-Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Using Cashew WasteUploaded byIJMER
- Liquefaction Susceptibility Evaluation of Hyderabad SoilUploaded byIJMER
- An Use of Fuzzy Logic for Development and Analysis of Rainfall – Runoff ModelUploaded byIJMER
- SPACE BALL 2D GAMEUploaded byIJMER
- A Modified PSO Based Solution Approach for Economic Ordered Quantity Problem with Deteriorating Inventory, Time Dependent Demand Considering Quadratic and Segmented Cost FunctionUploaded byIJMER
- Mhd Flow of A Non-Newtonian Fluid Through A Circular TubeUploaded byIJMER
- Improved Aodv Routing In Wireless Sensor Networks Using Shortest Path Routing.Uploaded byIJMER
- Heuristics for Routing and Spectrum Allocation in Elastic Optical Path NetworksUploaded byIJMER
- Effects of Heat, Mass Transfer and Viscous Dissipation on Unsteady Flow past an Oscillating Infinite Vertical Plate with Variable Temperature through Porous MediumUploaded byIJMER
- Combined PWM Technique for Asymmetric Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel InverterUploaded byIJMER
- “Analysis of mechanical properties of carbon fiber polymer Composite materials used as orthopaedic implants”.Uploaded byIJMER
- The Reality of Application of Total Quality Management at Irbid National University from the Perspective of AcademiciansUploaded byIJMER
- Biokinetic Study of Fish Processing Industrial Effluent Treatment in FBBRUploaded byIJMER
- Increasing efficiency of wireless sensor network using decentralized approachUploaded byIJMER
- Data Mining For Fraud DetectionUploaded byIJMER

- Quantum Theory, The Church-Turing Principle and the Universal Quantum ComputerUploaded byAndy Ho
- Judge Only One Name Said MchaaliaUploaded bysfofoby
- chp10-ThermalRectifiers-ThermoelctricsUploaded byolivares67
- Laser Dynamics - T. Erneux, P. Glorieux (Cambridge, 2010) BBSUploaded bySerban Cristina
- vanGelder-reading.pdfUploaded byIkechukwu Octavian Asomugha
- AdimurMultidisciplinary design optimization ty~newUploaded byAlan Kottommannil Thomson
- 0472084720_ChaosUploaded bycha0s666
- 1607.00111Uploaded byYash Nora
- Nonlinear Identification Biomedical SignalsUploaded byjmorlier
- Computed Torque Control of Under-ActuatedUploaded byTamás Nagy
- Chaos in Electronics (Part 2)Uploaded bySnoopyDoopy
- Extended Essay Draft 1Uploaded byEli Mueller
- Sliding mode control design based on Ackermann's formula.pdfUploaded byChau Mai
- Michael R. Guevara- Chaos in ElectrophysiologyUploaded byLuammm
- Msg 00305Uploaded byNazeeh Abdulrhman Albokary
- Lecture 1.pdfUploaded byfmsarwar
- Dynamic Modelling of Gas Turbines Identification Simulation Condition Monitoring and Optimal ControlUploaded byAnonymous rsGzBBiqk
- Phase SpaceUploaded byAjay Singh
- (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences 423) Vladimir L. Kharitonov (Auth.), Rifat Sipahi, Tomáš Vyhlídal, Silviu-Iulian Niculescu, Pierdomenico Pepe (Eds.)-Time Delay Systems_ Methods, AppUploaded byFidel Silassie
- Dimensions and Entropies in Chaotic SystemsUploaded byTiago Pereira Neves
- Stability AnalysisUploaded bywareeshasabika
- Syllabus NET 2017Uploaded bySHOBHIT DUBEY
- sb3-hw13Uploaded byRichard Liu
- Wiberg-StateSpaceLinearSystems_text.pdfUploaded byVishnu SreeKumar
- DEPAZG515 Computational Fluid Dynamics - HandoutUploaded bySunil Nair
- ADVANCED SPECTRAL METHODS FOR CLIMATIC TIME SERIESUploaded byJames Young
- Ibrahim 2001Uploaded byAnonymous b5e3wqzLEJ
- 10.1.1.110Uploaded bykhaled1512
- Thom. Structural Stability, Catastrophe Theory, And Applied Mathematics. the John Von NeumannUploaded byMikhail Iampolski
- The Hindmarsh-Rose Neuron Model Bifurcation Analysis and Piecewise-linear ApproximationsUploaded byCarolina CH