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The use of Digital Signal Processing has always been a field of research in the Electronics
& Communication Engineering, and specially in the field of Speech & Audio Processing we can always see
much of the research work and showing promising result with the use of Fast Fourier Algorithm in the
relevant work. FFT is used in the process to analyze the response of speech in different filters using
windows. Windowing is used to minimize the effect leakage and reduce the noise level. Many different
windows have been proposed over time each with its own advantages & disadvantages relative to the
others. Some are more effective for specific type of signals, types such as random or sinusoidal. In the
following work we have represented the use of different types of windows to filter speech signal consisting
of speech data and noise. Windows restrict the leakage and obtain the amplitude and frequency spectrum
plot using Rectangular, Hamming & Hanning windows for Band pass filters.The result obtained shows
significant reduction in noise level in speech signal using Band pass filter. Furthermore, it can be seen that
the band pass filter in itself gives best result with Hamming window.

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OPEN

Journal

ACCESS

for Speech Signal

Amsal Subhan1, Monauwer Alam2

*(Department of ECE, Integral University, India)

ABSTRACT: The use of Digital Signal Processing has always been a field of research in the Electronics

& Communication Engineering, and specially in the field of Speech & Audio Processing we can always see

much of the research work and showing promising result with the use of Fast Fourier Algorithm in the

relevant work. FFT is used in the process to analyze the response of speech in different filters using

windows. Windowing is used to minimize the effect leakage and reduce the noise level. Many different

windows have been proposed over time each with its own advantages & disadvantages relative to the

others. Some are more effective for specific type of signals, types such as random or sinusoidal. In the

following work we have represented the use of different types of windows to filter speech signal consisting

of speech data and noise. Windows restrict the leakage and obtain the amplitude and frequency spectrum

plot using Rectangular, Hamming & Hanning windows for Band pass filters.The result obtained shows

significant reduction in noise level in speech signal using Band pass filter. Furthermore, it can be seen that

the band pass filter in itself gives best result with Hamming window.

I. INTRODUCTION

Digital signal processing (DSP) technology and its advancements have dramatically impacted our

modern society everywhere. Without DSP, we would not have digital/Internet audio or video; digital recording;

CD, DVD, and MP3 players; digital cameras; digital and cellular telephones; digital satellite and TV; or wire

and wireless networks. Medical instruments would be less efficient or unable to provide useful information for

precise diagnoses if there were no digital electrocardiography (ECG) analyzers or digital x- rays and medical

image systems. We would also live in many less efficient ways, since we would not be equipped with voice

recognition systems, speech synthesis systems, and image and video editing

systems. Without DSP, scientists, engineers, and technologists would have no powerful tools to analyze

and visualize data and perform their design, and so on. The analog signal process relies wholly on electrical and

electronic devices such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, operational amplifiers, and integrated circuits (ICs).

DSP systems, on the other hand, use software, digital processing, and algorithms; thus they have a great deal of

flexibility, less noise interference, and no signal distortion in various applications. A digital signal processing

technique has three basic blocks; an input block or signal (analog or digital), a system block (where processing is

done) and an output block (where the desired or processed signal can be viewed).[1]

IIR filters are sometimes unstable; non-zero pole exists in its transfer function, lower filter order than a

corresponding FIR filter, and usually has nonlinear phase property.[1]

Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filters are the first choice when the speed is paramount and phase nonlinearity is acceptable. IIR filters are computationally more efficient than FIR filters as they require fewer

coefficients due to the fact that they use feedback or poles. However feedback can result in the filter becoming

unstable if the coefficients deviate from their true values.[1] The general equation of an IIR filter can be

expressed as follows:

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H z

b0 b1 z 1 bN z N

1 a1 z 1 a M z M

N

z k

k 0

M

1 ak z k

k 1

The transfer function can be factorized to give:

z z1 z z 2 z z N Y z

H z k

z p1 z p2 z p N X z

Where: z1, z2 zN are the zeros,

p1, p2 pN are the poles.

FIR filters are inherently BIBO (bounded-input, bounded-output) stable, nonzero pole does not exist in

its transfer function, easy to implement and can be designed to have linear phase property.

An FIR filter is completely specified by the following input-output relationship:

...3

where bi represents FIR filter coefficients and K + 1 denotes the FIR filter length.

Applying the z-transform on both sides of above equation (3) leads to

.4

Factoring out X(z) on the right-hand side of equation (4) and then dividing X(z) on both sides, we have the

transfer function, which depicts the FIR filter, as

.5

We can conclude that

1. The transfer function in Equation (5) has a constant term, all the other terms each have a negative power of z,

and all the poles are at the origin on the z-plane. Hence, the stability of filter is guaranteed. Its impulse response

has only a finite number of terms.

2. The FIR filter operations involve only multiplying the filter inputs by their corresponding coefficients and

accumulating them; the implementation of this filter type in real time is straightforward.

From the FIR filter format, the design objective can be to obtain the FIR filter b i coefficients such that the

magnitude frequency response of the FIR filter H(z) will approximate the desired magnitude frequency response,

such as that of a lowpass, highpass, bandpass, or bandstop filter.[1]

FFT based measurements are subject to errors from an effect known as leakage. This effect occurs

when the FFT is computed from a block of data which is not periodic. To correct this problem appropriate

windowing functions must be applied. we must choose the appropriate window function for the specific

application. When windowing is not applied correctly, then errors may be introduced in the FFT amplitude,

frequency or overall shape of the spectrum.[4]

The basic filter types can be classified into four categories: lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandstop.

Each of them finds a specific application in digital signal processing. One of the objectives in applications may

involve the design of digital filters. In general, the filter is designed based on specifications primarily for the

passband, stopband, and transition band of the filter frequency response. The filter passband is the frequency

range with the amplitude gain of the filter response being approximately unity. The filter stopband is defined as

the frequency range over which the filter magnitude response is attenuated to eliminate the input signal whose

frequency components are within that range. The transition band denotes the frequency range between the

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passband and the stopband. The design specifications of the lowpass filter are illustrated in Figure (), where the

low-frequency components are passed through the filter while the high-frequency components are attenuated.[1]

A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low-frequency signals and attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals

with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency varies

depending on specific filter design. It is sometimes called a high-cut filter, or treble cut filter in audio

applications. A low-pass filter is the opposite of a high-pass filter. A band-pass filter is a combination of a lowpass and a high-pass.[1]

The high pass filter, remains high-frequency components and rejects low frequency components.

A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes high-frequency signals but attenuates (reduces

the amplitude of) signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency. The actual amount of attenuation for

each frequency varies from filter to filter. A high-pass filter is usually modeled as a linear time-invariant system.

It is sometimes called a low-cut filter or bass-cut filter. High-pass filters have many uses, such as blocking DC

from circuitry sensitive to non-zero average voltages or RF devices. They can also be used in conjunction with a

low-pass filter to make a band pass filter. The bandpass filter attenuates both low- and high-frequency

components while remaining the middle-frequency component. Finally, the bandstop (band reject or notch)

filter, rejects the middle-frequency components and accepts both the low- and the high-frequency component.[1]

IV. WINDOWING

Window technique implicates a function called window function. It is also known as tapering function.

It states that if some interval is chosen, it returns with finite non-zero value inside that interval and zero value

outside that interval. A major effect of windowing is that the discontinuities of the frequency response are

converted into transition bands between values on either side of the discontinuity.[4]

There are many window techniques available for designing the FIR filter and they are:

1. Hanning window

2. Hamming window

3. Blackman window

4.Rectangular

5. Bartlett window

6. Kaiser window

All the programmings are done on MATLAB and the results are obtained according to the sample speech signal

fed to the software.

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V. RESULT

Figure 4. Frequency responses of the designed band pass filter using rectangular window.

Above figure shows that the magnitude response of the band pass filter with hamming window has

many side lobes and does not completely cut-off the lower frequency components, thus allowing them to appear

in the side lobes, unlike the rectangular window which totally cut-off the side lobes.

Figure 5. Frequency responses of the designed band pass filter using hamming window.

Figure 6. Frequency responses of the designed bandpass filter using Hanning window.

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Figure 7. Amplitude spectra of the original speech and band pass filtered speech using rectangular window.

Above figure shows the amplitude spectrum of the band pass filter using the rectangular window. It can

be seen that the spectrum is more relevant in the audio frequency range of human hearing (1kHz-4kHz) and the

low frequency range signals are suppressed, but not completely which results in some noise and leakage.

We can see that the spectrum is completely flat in the non hearing range of humans and the noise and leakage is

absent unlike the band pass filter with rectangular window.

Figure 8. Amplitude spectra of the original speech and band pass filtered speech using Hamming window.

Figure 9. Plots of the original speech and band pass filtered speech using Rectangular window.

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Figure 10. Plots of the original speech and band pass filtered speech using Hamming window.

From the above figure we can see that the noise signal after passing through band-pass filter with

hamming window gives a sharp output free from any noise and leakage, unlike the band-pass filter with

rectangular window (figure 9) which passes noise and the output plot can be seen much like the input speech

signal with noise.

VI. CONCLUSION

From the above analysis we concluded that the band pass filter is more useful in speech filtration and

with the use of Hamming or Hanning window we can even eliminate the noise and leakage and can have pure

speech signal free from any noise and leakage as a Windowing function minimizes the effect of leakage to better

represent the frequency spectrum of the data. A window is shaped so that it is exactly zero at the beginning and

end of the data block and has some special shape in between. This function is then multiplied with the time data

block forcing the signal to be periodic. A special weighting factor must also be applied so that the correct FFT

signal amplitude level is recovered after the windowing.

For band-pass filters rectangular window allows some noise to pass through it but Hamming and

Hanning windows are quite useful in suppressing the noise signal and reducing leakage. Practical

implementation of ban-pass filter with Hamming window for hearing aid application can be done with some

more researches and modifications in the filter specification regarding speech signal.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

With all praises to the A lmighty and H is blessings I have finally completed this Thesis. I would

like to express my gratitude to Dr. M o n a u w e r A l a m , Associate Professor (Department of Electronics

& Communication) who has graciously provided me his valuable time whenever I required his

assistance. His counselling, supervision and suggestions were always encouraging and it motivated me to

complete the job at hand. He will always be regarded as a great mentor for me. I sincerely extend my thanks to

Prof. (Dr.) Syed Hasan Saeed Head of Department for approving my project work with great interest. I am also

thankful to the staff of the Electronics and Communications Engineering Department.

Finally the unwavering support from my loving family was an inspiration for me and I am extremely grateful

to them.

REFERENCES

[1] Li Tan, (2008) Digital Signal Processing: Fundamentals and Applications, 1 st Edition, Georgia, Academic Press.

[2] John W, Leis, (2011) Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB for Students and Researchers, First Edition. John W.

Leis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New Jersey.

[3] Ramirez, Robert W., "The FFT, Fundamentals and Concepts," Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1985.

[4] Application Note, ANO14, Understanding FFT Windows, LDS-Dactron, 2003.

[5] Chia-Feng Juang and Chin-Teng Lin, Noisy Speech Processing by Recurrently Adaptive Fuzzy Filters VOL. 9, NO.

1, February 2001.

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[6] Takayuki Arai, Nao Hodoshima, and Keiichi Yasu, Using Steady-State Suppression to Improve Speech Intelligibility

in Reverberant Environments for Elderly Listeners, VOL. 18, NO. 7, September 2010.

[7] http:\\www.mathworks.com.

[8] Wen-Rong Wu, Member, IEEE, and Po-Cheng Che, Sub-band Kalman Filtering for Speech Enhancement, VOL. 45,

NO. 8, August 1998.

[9] Ziemer, Rodger E., et. al., "Signals & Systems," Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1998.

[10] Christopher D. Salthouse and Rahul Sarpeshkar, A Practical Micro-power Programmable Band-pass Filter for Use in

Bionic Ears, VOL. 38, NO. 1,January 2003.

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