You are on page 1of 33

Algebraic Inequalities in Mathematical

July 20, 2015
Abstract
This is a collection of recent algebraic inequalities proposed in math
www.hamsaze.com

1

Problems
1. (Azerbaijan JBMO TST 2015) With the conditions a, b, c ∈ R+ and a +
b + c = 1, prove that
7 + 2b 7 + 2c 7 + 2a
69
+
+

1+a
1+b
1+c
4
2. (Azerbaijan JBMO TST 2015) a, b, c ∈ R+ and a2 + b2 + c2 = 48. Prove
that
p
p
p
a2 2b3 + 16 + b2 2c3 + 16 + c2 2a3 + 16 ≤ 242
3. (Azerbaijan JBMO TST 2015) a, b, c ∈ R+ prove that
3
3
3
[(3a2 + 1)2 + 2(1 + )2 ][(3b2 + 1)2 + 2(1 + )2 ][(3c2 + 1)2 + 2(1 + )2 ] ≥ 483
b
c
a
4. (AKMO 2015) Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove
the following inequality:
a3 + b3 + c3 +

ab
bc
ca
9
+ 2
+ 2

a2 + b2
b + c2
c + a2
2

5. (Balkan MO 2015) If a, b and c are positive real numbers, prove that  

a3 b6 + b3 c6 + c3 a6 + 3a3 b3 c3 ≥ abc a3 b3 + b3 c3 + c3 a3 + a2 b2 c2 a3 + b3 + c3 .
6. (Bosnia Herzegovina TST 2015) Determine minimum value of the following expression:
a+1
b+1
c+1
+
+
a(a + 2) b(b + 2) c(c + 2)
for positive real numbers such that a + b + c ≤ 3
1

7. (China 2015) Let z1 , z2 , ..., zn be complex numbers satisfying |zi − 1| ≤ r
for some r ∈ (0, 1). Show that

n

.

n .

.

X .

.

X 1 .

.

.

.

.

zi .

· .

.

.

≥ n2 (1 − r2 ). .

.

.

zi .

Prove that Pn n+1 i=1 xi √ 1 ≤ Qn 2 n n! n( xi ) n i=1 10. a b c 11. b. (China TST 2015) Let x1 . a3 . b. · · · . (Junior Balkan 2015) Let a. n 22 32 (n + 1)2 2 2 . prove that  Pn j=1   Q j k=1 Pn j=1 ak aj  1j  n1   + 1 Qn ( i=1 ai ) n n+1  1j ≤ n Pn Qj j=1 k=1 ak 9.y. c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 3. 13. (Romania JBMO TST 2015) Let x. c > 0 such that a ≥ bc2 . (Romania JBMO TST 2015) Let a. (Kazakhstan 2015 ) Prove that   1 1 1 1 √ + + · · · + < n · 1 − . Find the minimum value of the expression A= 2 − a3 2 − b3 2 − c3 + + . Show that : y3 z3 3 x3 + + ≥ 3 2 3 2 3 2 z +x y x +y z y +z x 2 12. (China TST 2015) Let a1 . a2 . xn (n ≥ 2) be a non-decreasing monotonous sequence of positive numbers such that x1 . then 39 bc + a + 1 ca + b + 1 ab + c + 1 + + ≤ a2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 10 14. xnn is a non-increasing monotonous sequence . (Romania JBMO TST 2015) Prove that if a. x22 .z > 0 . i=1 i=1 8. · · · . Find the maximum value that the expression : E = abc(a − bc2 )(b − ca2 )(c − ab2 ) can acheive. b. an be positive real numbers. c > 0 and a + b + c = 1. b ≥ ca2 and c ≥ ab2 . x2 . For the integers n ≥ 2. · · · .

n+1 3 2n − 1 n 2 2n 22. + > + . Prove that x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x ≥ 2(x + y + z) − 3 and determine when equality holds. c satisfy the inequality √ 1 1 1 a+b+c = 3.. π 15. such that | cos x| + | cos ax| > sin x + sin ax for all x ∈ R? 18.  16. + . c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that at least one of a. (Baltic Way 2014) Positive real numbers a. b. c. 2 a3 + b b3 + c c3 + a 20. (Bosnia Herzegovina TST 2014) Let a.. (Benelux 2014) Find the smallest possible value of the expression         a+b+c b+c+d c+d+a d+a+b + + + d a b c in which a. (Balkan 2014) Let x.) 21. . b. Prove 1 1 1 3 +√ +√ ≤√ . (All-Russian MO 2014) Does there exist positive a ∈ R. Prove the following inequality: a3 + b3 + c3 + bc ca 9 ab + 2 + 2 ≥ a2 + b2 b + c2 c + a2 2 17. a) Determine value of 1 + ab 1 + bc 1 + bc 1 + ca 1 + ca 1 + ab · + · + · a−b b−c b−c c−a c−a a−b b) Determine value of 1 − ab 1 − bc 1 − bc 1 − ca 1 − ca 1 − ab · + · + · a−b b−c b−c c−a c−a a−b 3 . 19.. b. 2 1 1  1  1  cos2 (c) sin2 (c) a= . (Moldova TST 2015) Let c ∈ 0. (Here bxc denotes the biggest integer which is smaller than or equal to x. y and z be positive real numbers such that xy + yz + xz = 3xyz.b and c be distinct real numbers. and d vary over the set of positive integers. (Moldova TST 2015) Let a..b = sin(c) cos(c) √ . (Britain 2014) Prove that for n ≥ 2 the following inequality holds:     1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + . b is bigger than 11 2015.

(CentroAmerican 2014) Let a. . (n2 + 1)a2n−1 = (n − 1)2 a2n . . Show that the sum a1 1+a1 + a2 (1+a1 )(1+a2 ) + a3 (1+a1 )(1+a2 )(1+a3 ) is greater than or equal to + ··· + an (1+a1 )(1+a2 )···(1+an ) 2n −1 2n . . a2 . bxn c be a permutation of 1. y. 2. . . 26. Find the minimum of x2 + y 2 + z 2 + w2 + (x + y + z + w)2 28. . (China Northern MO 2014) Define a positive number sequence sequence {an } by a1 = 1. n. Find i=1 the smallest positive number λ such that for any real numbers sequence {xn } and all positive integers m . .we have m m 1 X 2 X m−i 2 x ≤ λ yi .suppose that {yn } n P 1 is a sequence such that: y1 = x1 . 24. Find the maximum and minimum of n−1 X bxi+1 − xi c i=1 (here bxc is the largest integer not greater than x). yn+1 = xn+1 − ( x2i ) 2 (n ≥ 1) . . . where n ≥ 2 is a given integer. z. . (Canada 2014) Let a1 . (China Girls Math Olympiad 2014) Let x1 . (China Northern MO 2014) Let x. (China TST 2014) For any real numbers sequence {xn } . . . w be real numbers such that x + 2y + 3z + 4w = 1. . c d a b 25. . x2 . and let bx1 c. Prove that 1 1 1 + 2 + ··· + 2 ≤ 1 + a21 a2 an s 1− 1 . b. c and d be real numbers such that no two of them are equal. Find the maximum possible value of b c d a + + + .c) Prove the following ineqaulity 1 + b2 c2 1 + c2 a2 3 1 + a2 b2 + + ≥ 2 2 2 (a − b) (b − c) (c − a) 2 When does quality holds? 23. c d a b + + + =4 b c d a and ac = bd. an be positive real numbers whose product is 1. a2n 27. bx2 c. xn be real numbers. . . m i=1 i i=1 4 .

Find the greatest constant λ(n) such that for any non-zero complex z1 . b2 + c2 c2 + a2 a 2 + b2 37. (ELMO Shortlist 2014) Let a. q satisfying abc = 1 and p ≥ q. 35. (ELMO Shortlist 2014) Given positive reals a. c be positive reals.we have n X |zk |2 ≥ λ(n) min {|zk+1 − zk |2 }. (China Western MO 2014) Let x. 34. (China TST 2014) Let n be a given integer which is greater than 1. b. zn . c be positive reals with a2014 + b2014 + c2014 + abc = 4. 30. c2013 a2013 b2013 36. f be positive real numbers. (ELMO Shortlist 2014) Let a. d. c. a b c 33. · · · . b.Find the minimum of |x − 1| |y − 1| + x+y+ y x . prove that    1 1 1 2 2 2 p a +b +c +q + + ≥ (p + q)(a + b + c). b. z2 . c be positive reals such that a + b + c = ab + bc + ca. (District Olympiad 2014) Prove that for any real numbers a and b the following inequality holds:   a2 + 1 b2 + 1 + 50 ≥ 2 (2a + 1) (3b + 1) 32. Prove that r r r a2 (bc + a2 ) b2 (ca + b2 ) c2 (ab + c2 ) + + ≥ a + b + c. Prove that (1 + xy + yz + zx)(1 + 3x3 + 3y 3 + 3z 3 ) ≥ 9(x + y)(y + z)(z + x) 5 !2 √ √ √ x 1+x y 1+y z 1+z √ + p + √ . y. b. c. (ELMO Shortlist 2014) Let a. Given that def + de + ef + f d = 4. p. (Korea 2014) Suppose x. 1≤k≤n k=1 where zn+1 = z1 . 4 4 4 3 + 9x2 3 + 9z 2 3 + 9y 2 . b.29. (ELMO Shortlist 2014) Let a. z are positive numbers such that x + y + z = 1. e. Prove that a2013 + b2013 − c b2013 + c2013 − a c2013 + a2013 − b + + ≥ a2012 +b2012 +c2012 . Prove that (a + b)ab−bc (b + c)bc−ca (c + a)ca−ab ≥ aca bab cbc . show that ((a + b)de + (b + c)ef + (c + a)f d)2 ≥ 12(abde + bcef + caf d). 31. y be positive real numbers .

.. (India Regional MO 2014) Let a. b be positive real numbers.. y. When does equality hold? 41. 1} such that the following holds: a1 x21 + a2 x22 + · · · + an x2n ≥ (a1 x1 + a2 x2 + · · · + an xn )2 39.Prove that (1 + a)8 + (1 + b)8 ≥ 128ab(a + b)2 43. .. x2 . xn+1 such that x1 x2 . .. xn be positive reals. . Prove that p x+y+z ≥ 3 2xyz. z be three non-negative real numbers such that x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2(xy + yz + zx). x2 . .. x3 . + n xn+1 46. x2014 be positive real numbers P2014 such that j=1 xj = 1. b. c > 0 satisfying a + b + c + ab + ac + bc = 3. (Harvard-MIT Mathematics Tournament 2014) Find the largest real number c such that 101 X x2i ≥ cM 2 i=1 whenever x1 . Show that there are numbers a1 . . (Iran 2014) Let x. (Iran TST 2014) if x. (Iran TST 2014) n is a natural number. (Iran 2014) For any a. . a2 . (France TST 2014) Let n be a positive integer and x1 .. .. 3 44. (IMO Training Camp 2014) Let a. b. c be positive real numbers such that 1 1 1 + + ≤ 1. .38. + xn+1 n ≥ n x1 + . z > 0 are postive real numbers such that x2 + y 2 + z 2 = x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x2 prove that ((x − y)(y − z)(z − x))2 ≤ 2((x2 − y 2 )2 + (y 2 − z 2 )2 + (z 2 − x2 )2 ) 6 . y. prove that 2 ≤ a + b + c + abc ≤ 3 45. . an ∈ {−1. . 1+a 1+b 1+c Prove that (1 + a2 )(1 + b2 )(1 + c2 ) ≥ 125. . .. . . x2 .. . . x101 . . Determine with proof the smallest constant K such that 2014 X x2j K ≥1 1 − xj j=1 42. .xn+1 = 1 prove that: √ √ √ √ n n x1 n + . (India Regional MO 2014) Let x1 . x101 are real numbers such that x1 + · · · + x101 = 0 and M is the median of x1 . for every positive real numbers x1 . 40.

These integers are not necessarily distinct. . j2 . . Prove that there exists an integer k with 1 ≤ k ≤ n such that n X |ai − ak | ≤ i=1 n X |bi − ak |. c with abc = 1 prove that 2 1 ≥ 3(a + b + c + 1) a 51. . x3 + y 3 + z 3 = 1 Find the minimum value of x4 + y 4 + z 4 52. find the maximum positive integer m for which the following inequality holds ai1 aj1 + ai2 aj2 + · · · + aim ajm ≤ 1 . (Korea 2014) Let x. . . i=1 54. 7 . z be the real numbers that satisfies the following. i2 . . c > 1. . b. (Macedonia 2014) Let a. 2. . jm . Prove: a2 b2 c2 3 √ √ √ ≥ + + 3 3 2 a + bc b + ca c + 3 ab And determine when equality holds. b. (Turkey JBMO TST 2014) Determine the smallest value of (a + 5)2 + (b − 2)2 + (c − 9)2 for all real numbers a. . c satisfying a + b + c = 1. . a1000 satisfying a1 +a2 +· · ·+ a1000 = 1. . a2 . b. y. . . c be real numbers such that a + b + c = 4 and a. (JBMO 2014) For positive real numbers 2  2   1 1 + b+ + c+ a+ b c a. (Mexico 2014) Let a. . . b. (Japan 2014) Suppose there exist 2m integers i1 . c be positive reals such that a + b + c = 3. (Japan MO Finals 2014) Find the maximum value of real number k such that a b c 1 + + ≥ 2 2 2 1 + 9bc + k(b − c) 1 + 9ca + k(c − a) 1 + 9ab + k(a − b) 2 holds for all non-negative real numbers a. . . For any non-negative real numbers a1 . . 2.47. (Mediterranean MO 2014) Let a1 . .014 48. . b. c satisfying a2 + b2 + c2 − ab − bc − ca = 3 50. . Prove that: 1 1 1 8 8 8 + + ≥ + + a−1 b−1 c−1 a+b b+c c+a 53. (x − y)2 + (y − z)2 + (z − x)2 = 8. bn be 2n real numbers. . an and b1 . 1000}. of values in {1. . 49. im and j1 . b.

8 . + xk < 3 3 58. b. b.. (Romania TST 2014) Determine the smallest real constant c such that n X k=1 2 k n X X 1   xj ≤c x2k k j=1  k=1 for all positive integers n and all positive real numbers x1 . then there 3 exists a positive integer 1 ≤ k ≤ n such that 2 1 ≤ x1 + x2 + . Prove that if xn ≤ . + xn = 1. b ∈ R+ such that a+b = 1. xn . (Moldova TST 2014) Consider n ≥ 2 positive numbers 0 < x1 ≤ x2 ≤ 2 . Let n ≥ 2 be a positive integer and let fn : R → R be defined by fn (x) = 2 x + xn . Determine the minimum value of E(a. 57. x. c) = X a3 + 5 a3 (b + c) 59. · · · . Show that a(1 − a)n2 + 2a2 n + a3 an + a2 < (f ◦ · · · ◦ f )(a) < n n (1 − a)2 n2 + a(2 − a)n + a2 (1 − a)n + a where there are n functions in the composition. and y are positive real numbers satisfying the inequalities 1 1 ≥ a+x 2 1 1 ≥ a+y 2 1 1 ≥ b+x 2 1 ≥ 1. 1). (Romania TST 2014) Let a be a real number in the open interval (0. b. 60.. ≤ xn .55.. b+y 56. (Moldova TST 2014) Let a. (Middle European MO 2014) Determine the lowest possible value of the expression 1 1 1 1 + + + a+x a+y b+x b+y where a. c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1.... such that x1 + x2 + . b) = 3 1 + 2a2 + 2 40 + 9b2 . (Moldova TST 2014) Let a. Find the minimum value of the following expression: p p E(a.

61. Find the value of : . (Romania TST 2014) Let n a positive integer and let f : [0. 1] → R an increasing function.

 .

n X .

2k − 1 .

.

.

max f .

xk − 0≤x1 ≤···≤xn ≤1 2n .

b. · · · . 3 63. x2 . xn be non-negative real numbers such that xi xj ≤ 4−|i−j| (1 ≤ i. x2 . 64. Prove that x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ≤ 5 . b. ≤ abc. Prove that n X i=1 n3 xi ≥ 2 . (Turkey JBMO TST 2014) Prove that for positive reals a. . (USAMO 2014) Let a. (Southeast MO 2014) Let x1 . d be real numbers such that b − d ≥ 5 and all zeros x1 . x3 . 2 a3 + 1 b3 + 1 c3 + 1 67.c such that a + b + c + abc = 4. Prove that   10a2 − 5a + 1 10b2 − 5b + 1 10c2 − 5c + 1 . xn be positive real numbers such that x1 + x2 + · · · + xn = 1 (n ≥ 2). (Tuymaada MO 2014 Positive numbers a. j ≤ n). b. 1 1 1 66. 3 xi+1 − xi+1 n −1 here xn+1 = x1 . c satisfy + + = 3. 65. c. · · · . (Turkey TST 2014) Prove that for all all non-negative real numbers a. min b2 − 5b + 10 c2 − 5c + 10 a2 − 5a + 10 68. x2 . b. (USAJMO 2014) Let a. and x4 of the polynomial P (x) = x4 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + d are real. k=1 62.b. c be real numbers greater than or equal to 1. c with a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 √ √ √ a + b + a + c + b + c ≥ 5abc + 2.     b c a 1 + + ab 1 + + bc ≥ 27 1 + + ca b c a holds. a b c Prove the inequality √ 1 1 1 3 +√ +√ ≤√ . 9 . Find the smallest value the product (x21 + 1)(x22 + 1)(x23 + 1)(x24 + 1) can take. (Southeast MO 2014) Let x1 .

(Canada 2013) Let x. 71. such that xyz = 1. b. x2 . z: x3 y3 z3 x+y+z + + ≥ . (Uzbekistan 2014) For all x. y. d be positive real numbers such that 2(a + b + c + d) ≥ abcd. y. y.Find with proof that x = 3 is the minimal value for which the following inequality holds : ax + bx + cx + dx ≥ 1 1 1 1 + + + a b c d 72. y. 75. xn be nonnegative real numbers of sum equal to 1. z be real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 21 (a) Determine the minimum possible value of x + y + z − xy − yz − zx and determine all triples (x. 73. Prove that a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ≥ abcd. . (Bosnia Herzegovina TST 2013) Let x1 . . b. b) min F4 . y2 + z2 z 2 + x2 x2 + y 2 2 74. (Albania TST 2013) Let a. y. (All-Russian MO 2014) Let a. prove that x2 y2 z2 + + ≥1 2 2 (x − 1) (y − 1) (z − 1)2 70. 10 . z are positive real numbers. (Baltic Way 2013) Prove that the following inequality holds for all positive real numbers x. c. z) for which this maximum is obtained. (Vietnam 2014) Find the maximum of P = x3 y 4 z 3 y 3 z 4 x3 z 3 x4 y 3 + + (x4 + y 4 )(xy + z 2 )3 (y 4 + z 4 )(yz + x2 )3 (z 4 + x4 )(zx + y 2 )3 where x.69. y. c) min F5 . (b) Determine the maximum possible value of x + y + z − xy − yz − zx and determine all triples (x. d be positive real numbers such that abcd = 1. z) for which this minimum is obtained. c. . Find: a) min F3 . Let Fn = x21 + x22 + · · · + x2n − 2(x1 x2 + x2 x3 + · · · + xn x1 ) . . z ∈ R\{1}.

77. . + an = 1. Let a1 . 2] and a1 + a2 + · · · + a2013 = 0 . . cm be non-negative real numbers such that i) a1 ≥ a2 ≥ . a2 . . . a2 . b2 . . . . + cm ≤ mk . . . n. . 79. . .76. bn be non-negative real numbers. c2 . all real numbers a and all positive real numbers d. . (China Northern MO 2013) If a1 . a2 . an . Find the maximum of c1 ak1 + c2 ak2 + . . . |z − (a + d)|} > td holds for all (not necessarily distinct) x. 2. 78. . . (China 2013) Find all positive real numbers t with the following property: there exists an infinite set X of real numbers such that the inequality max{|x − (a − d)|. . b1 . . Prove that ! !2 n−1  n n n Y 1 1X 2 1X n ai + bi ≥ (a2i + b2i ) n . (China TST 2013) Let n > 1 be an integer and let a0 . . . . x2 . a1 . . . an . (China Girls MO 2013) For any given positive numbers a1 . c1 . Definite Sk = i=0 ki ai for k = 0. (China TST 2013) Let k ≥ 2 be an integer and let a1 . . (China TST 2013) Let n and k be two integers which are greater than 1. . |y − a|. an be non Pk negative real numbers. . + cn akn . xn satisfying n X xi = 1 i=1 such that for any positive numbers y1 . . n n 45 k=0 k=0 81. y2 . prove that there exist positive numbers x1 . Prove that !2 n−1 n 1X 2 1 X 4 Sk − 2 Sk ≤ (Sn − S0 )2 . . n−1 n i=1 n i=1 i=1 11 . . . . y. 80. . . . a2013 ∈ [−2. yn with n X yi = 1 i=1 the inequality n n X 1X a i xi ≥ ai x + yi 2 i=1 i=1 i holds. find the maximum of a31 + a32 + · · · + a32013 . ii) For any integer m ∈ {1. ≥ an and a1 + a2 + . 1. . a2 . n}. . an . · · · . we have that c1 + c2 + . · · · . · · · . . z ∈ X. . .

b. · · · . . (ELMO Shortlist 2013) Prove that for all positive reals a. c be positive reals satisfying a + b + c = √ 7 c.. . (ELMO 2013) Let a1 . (District Olympiad 2013) Let n ∈ N∗ and a1 . 3 k=1 83. with |z| = 1. (ELMO 2013) Let a. not necessarily distinct.. and c obey Prove that p a2 + b2 + c2 ≤ 1 + 1 √ 3 abc +1 a2 +b2 +c2 ab+bc+ca = .. Prove that aa bb cc ≥ 1 √ 7 a+ √ 7 b+ 87. an ∈ R so a1 + a2 + . b. x2 . (∀) k ∈ {1. Let A denote the number of triples 1 ≤ i < j < k ≤ 9 for which ai + aj + ak ≥ 3m . a2 . (ELMO Shortlist 2013) Positive reals a. 2. Prove that a2013 + b2013 − c b2013 + c2013 − a c2013 + a2013 − b + + ≥ a2012 +b2012 +c2012 ... a9 be nine real numbers.. and the real numbers x1 .. Prove that X 1 18 + 2(ab + bc + ca) ≥ 15. b. 1 a+ 1 b +1 + 1 b+ 1 c +1 + 1 c+ 1 a +1 ≥ √ 3 3 abc + 88.. (ELMO Shortlist 2013) Let a. (District Olympiad 2013) Let a. c2013 a2013 b2013 12 .Prove that n X kxk xj ≤ 1≤k<j≤n n−1 X kxk . b. + ≤ + + .. 85. b. b ∈ C. c be positive reals such that a + b + c = 3. 2 |a − b| + |b − c| + |c − a| .. (China Western MO 2013) Let the integer n ≥ 2. + ak ≤ k. (ELMO Shortlist 2013) Let a.. Prove that |az + b¯ z | ≤ 1. (3 − c)(4 − c) cyc 90.. a2 .. + 1 2 n 1 2 n 84..82. c be positive reals with a2014 + b2014 + c2014 + abc = 4.. What is the minimum possible value of A? 86. 2 89. ab+bc+ca+1 . xn ∈ [0.Prove that a1 a2 an 1 1 1 + + . with average m. for every z ∈ C. n} . 1]. c. if and only if |a| + |b| ≤ 1. .

· · · . (ELMO Shortlist 2013) Let a. > xn > 0 with x1 + x2 + . x2 . . + xn < 1. . find the maximum value of X xi xj (i. . b. . . c be positive reals. (Korea 2013) For a positive integer n ≥ 2. b. 94. . i|j}. . 4 93. . an be nonnegative real numbers such that for all real numbers x1 > x2 > . Prove that .91. . Show that na1 + (n − 1)a2 + . a2 . + an ≤ n2 (n + 1)2 . 92. For nonnegative real numbers x1 . j)|1 ≤ i < j ≤ n. . c be positive real numbers such that ab + bc + ca = 1. xn with x1 + x2 + · · · + xn = 1. . the inequality n X ak x3k < 1 k=1 holds. (IMC 2013) Let z be a complex number with |z + 1| > 2. Prove that s√ s√ s√ √ √ √ 1 3 3 3 4 4 4 + 6 3b + + 6 3c + + 6 3a ≤ a b c abc When does inequality hold? 95. + (n − j + 1)aj + .j)∈T in terms of n. let a1 . define set T = {(i. (Federal Competition for Advanced students 2013) For a positive integer n. (Hong Kong 2013) Let a. and let r 3 2013 =P a2013 + b2013 + c2013 Prove that Y cyc 1 1 2a+b )(2P + a+2b ) 1 (2P + a+b+c )2 (2P + ! ≥ Y cyc 1 1 4a+b+c )(P + 3b+3c ) 1 1 3a+2b+c )(P + 3a+b+2c ) (P + (P + ! . .

3 .

.

z + 1 .

(Iran TST 2013) Let a. d. prove that: q a(a + b − √ q q √ √ ab) + b(a + c − ac) + c(b + c − bc) ≥ a + b + c 13 . b. e > 1. > 1 . 96. c be sides of a triangle such that a ≥ b ≥ c. c. (India Regional MO 2013) Given real numbers a. b. Prove that a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 + + + + ≥ 20 c−1 d−1 e−1 a−1 b−1 97.

(Kosovo 2013) Which number is bigger √ 2012 2012! or √ 2013 2013!? 107. an = a[ n ] a[ n ] 3 n 3 + . b. (Korea 2013) Let a. 103. c satisfying a + b + c = 1. b. Prove that a2 9 9 9 + 4 + 6 ≤ a6 + b6 + c6 + 6 4 6 6 2 +b +c a +b +c a + b2 + c4 14 . c are reals in [−2. Prove that X (a + b)3 cyc (2(a + b)(a2 + b2 )) 3 1 ≥ 12 105. 102. (Kazakhstan 2013) Consider the following sequence a1 = 1. b. 99.98. (Kosovo 2013) For all real numbers a prove that 3(a4 + a2 + 1) ≥ (a2 + a + 1)2 106. (Kazakhstan 2013) Find maximum value of |a2 − bc + 1| + |b2 − ac + 1| + |c2 − ba + 1| when a. 2]. y be real numbers such that ax + by = (a2 + b2 )x and cx + dy = 2y (cd)y/2 Prove that x < y. b. c > 0 and abc = 1. (JBMO 2013) Show that  a + 2b + 2 a+1  b + 2a + 2 b+1  ≥ 16 for all positive real numbers a and b such that ab ≥ 1. (Turkey JBMO TST 2013) Let a. (Macedonia 2013) Let a. + n Prove that ∀n ∈ N a[ n ] 2 2 + a2n < 2an 104. c > 0 such that ab + bc + ca = 3. d be real numbers greater than 1 and x. . 101. . (Turkey JBMO TST 2013) For all positive real numbers a. b. c. (Macedonia JBMO TST 2013) a. b. Prove that √ √ 1 1 √ 1 1 ( a + b + c )+ + + ≥ 3 2 1+a 1+b 1+c . prove that b4 + 5c4 c4 + 5a4 a4 + 5b4 + + ≥ 1 − ab − bc − ca a(a + 2b) b(b + 2c) c(c + 2a) 100. c be positive real numbers such that a4 + b4 + c4 = 3.

y. Find the minimum value of r + s − rs and r + s + rs 15 . c be positive real numbers such that a+b+c= 1 1 1 + 2 + 2. z. b. y. c. ci with i = 1. (a31 +b31 +c31 +1)(a32 +b32 +c32 +1)(a33 +b33 +c33 +1) ≥ 3 (a1 +b1 +c1 )(a2 +b2 +c2 )(a3 +b3 +c3 ) 4 113. Prove that  −1  −1 z+w w x+y 1  x z −1 y + + + + ≥ + z+w x+y 2 z x w y 111. (Mediterranean MO 2013) Let x. z be positive reals for which: X (xy)2 = 6xyz Prove that: Xr √ x ≥ 3 x + yz . d to be non negative real numbers satisfying ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd = 6. (Middle European MO 2013) Let a. (Moldova TST 2013) Prove that for any positive real numbers ai . c) for which equality holds. Prove that   1 1 1 5 (xy + yz + xz) + 2 + 2 > . z > 0. b. bi . (Philippines 2013) Let r and s be positive real numbers such that (r + s − rs)(r + s + rs) = rs . y. 2. 109.108. (Moldova TST 2013) Consider real numbers x. 3. (Middle European MO 2013) Let x. (Moldova TST 2013) For any positive real numbers x. z + w 6= 0. y. prove that z z(x + y) x(z + y) y(x + z) x y + + ≥ + + y z x y(y + z) z(x + z) x(x + y) 112. y. 110. b. and xy + zw ≥ 0. z. a2 b c Prove that 2(a + b + c) ≥ p 3 7a2 b + 1 + p 3 7b2 c + 1 + p 3 7c2 a + 1. x2 + y 2 x + z2 y + z2 2 114. (Olympic Revenge 2013) Let a. Find all triples (a. Prove that a2 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 ≥2 +1 b +1 c +1 d +1 115. w be nonzero real numbers such that x + y 6= 0. z such that x.

b)Let p1 . 1) so that c = ta + (1 − t) b si d = (1 − t) a + tb 119. (Poland 2013) Let k. + xn . a4 > 0 are numbers satisfying a2i + a2j + a2k ≥ 2(ai aj + aj ak + ak ai ) for every 1 ≤ i < j < k ≤ 4. . + x2 . + x2 . · · · . Prove that the following affirmations are equivalent: i) For every z ∈ C this inequality takes place : |z − a| + |z − b| ≥ |z − c| + |z − d| ii) There is t ∈ (0. . c. 122.m and n be three different positive integers. d be real positive numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 1 Prove that (1 − a)(1 − b)(1 − c)(1 − d) ≥ abcd 118.116. a2 . k m n 117. Prove that 1 1 1 + + . + < 10 p1 p2 pn 120. Show that:     1 1 1 π 1 1 1 min x1 .. (Southeast MO 2013) Let a. (Romania 2013) a)Prove that 1 1 1 + + .. pn be the prime numbers less than 2100 . c. · · · . + m < m 2 3 2 for any m ∈ N∗ ... . then a21 + a22 + a23 + a24 ≥ K(a1 a2 + a1 a3 + a1 a4 + a2 a3 + a2 a4 + a3 a4 ). (Rioplatense 2013) Let a. (Serbia 2013) Find the largest constant K ∈ R with the following property: if a1 . x1 xn−1 xn n+2 x1 xn−1 xn 121. p2 .. . b be real numbers such that the equation x3 − ax2 + bx − a = 0 has three positive real roots . (Romania 2013) To be considered the following complex and distinct a.. ≤ 2 cos ≤ max x1 .. b. a3 . d. (Romania TST 2013) Let n be a positive integer and let x1 . b. Prove that     1 1 1 k− m− n− ≤ kmn − (k + m + n). xn be positive real numbers.. Find the minimum of 2a3 − 3ab + 3a b+1 16 . + xn . .

c we have a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc ≥ M (ab2 + bc2 + ca2 − 3abc) 128. (Turkey Junior MO 2013) Let x. determine the least real number K satisfying z(xz + yz + y) ≤ K.123. ck ≥ 0(k = 1. (Southeast MO 2013) n ≥ 3 is a integer. If real numbers x. (Turkey 2013) Find the maximum value of M for which for all positive real numbers a. k=1 n X (k + γ)ck ≤ γ k=1 we always have n X (k + λ)ak bk ck ≤ λ k=1 Find the minimum of λ 124. y satisfy x2 + y 2 ≤ 25. k=1 n X (k + β)bk ≤ β. y. (Today’s Calculation of Integrals 2013) Let m. (Turkey TST 2013) For all real numbers x. . 1). . y. γ ∈ (0. then find the minimum value of z = x2 + y 2 − 2ax − 2by 126. α. z ≤ 2 and x2 + y 2 + z 2 + xyz = 4. b be real constants. (1) Prove the inequality as follows. b. .   29 1 1 61 ≤ lim 1 + 2 + · · · + 2 ≤ 18 n→∞ 2 n 36 125. y. z such that −2 ≤ x. For every ak . β.   3 1 1 ≤ lim 1 + 2 + · · · + 2 ≤ 2 2 n→∞ 2 n (3) Prove the inequality which is made precisely in comparison with the inequality in (2) as follows. n be positive integer such that 2 ≤ m < n. bk . z be real numbers satisfying x+y+z = 0 and x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 6. 2x + y ≤ 5. (Tokyo University Entrance Exam 2013) Let a. Find the maximum value of |(x − y)(y − z)(z − x)| 127. 1 1 1 1 n+1−m n+1−m < 2+ + ··· + + 2 < m(n + 1) m (m + 1)2 (n − 1)2 n n(m − 1) (2) Prove the inequality as follows. xy + y 2 + z 2 + 1 17 . n) with n X (k + α)ak ≤ α. 2. .

a2 . . y. . 134. 18 . . . n2 a1 + (n − 1)2 a2 + (n − 2)2 a3 + . . . a2 . an and k are such that a1 + · · · + an = 3k a21 + · · · + a2n = 3k 2 and a31 + · · · + a3n > 3k 3 + k Prove that the difference between some two of a1 . + 2an−1 + an < 0. . na1 + (n − 1)a2 + (n − 2)a3 + . . . (Uzbekistan 2013) Let real numbers a. a3 . + 22 an−1 + an > 0. . 2 2 2 x +y y +z z +x 2 130. (All-Russian MO 2012) The positive real numbers a1 . Prove that p p p 3 4 a2 + b2 + a3 + b3 + a4 + b4 ≤ 3a + b. . 135. . . b such that a ≥ b ≥ 0. z are positive real numbers and xyz = 1 then x3 y3 z3 3 + + ≥ . (Tuymaada 2013) For every positive real numbers a and b prove the inequality r √ 1 a2 + b2 2 2 ab ≤ + . . .129. Given any spooky sequence a1 . . . . (USAMTS 2013) An infinite sequence of real numbers a1 . is called spooky if a1 = 1 and for all integers n > 1. (Tuymaada 2013) Prove that if x. prove that 20133 a1 + 20123 a2 + 20113 a3 + · · · + 23 a2012 + a2013 < 12345. (Albania TST 2012) Find the greatest value of the expression 1 1 1 + + x2 − 4x + 9 y 2 − 4y + 9 z 2 − 4z + 9 where x. If 2 1 1 S = 2 + 1 + + y(y + 2 + ) x x x find (a)maxS (b) minS. an is greater than 1. 3 2 31 1 + a b 131. y. 133. 132. . a3 . z are nonnegative real numbers such that x + y + z = 1. (Uzbekistan 2013) Let x and y are real numbers such that x2 y 2 +2yx2 +1 = 0.

Prove that if the real numbers a1 . (All-Russian MO 2012) Any two of the real numbers a1 . a2 . Show that x2 + xy 2 + xyz 2 ≥ 4xyz − 4 142. . (Bosnia Herzegovina TST 2012) Prove for all positive real numbers a. . b. + xn = 1. a4 . Prove that 1 a1 a1 a2 a1 a2 · · · an−1 + + +· · ·+ ≤ 1. 1 + a1 (1 + a1 )(1 + a2 ) (1 + a1 )(1 + a2 )(1 + a3 ) (1 + a1 )(1 + a2 ) · · · (1 + an ) 144. . Prove that 1 ab + bc + ca + max{|a − b|. a2 . f (xj )} 1≤i<j≤n 19 . b > 0. (China Girls Math Olympiad 2012) Let a1 . + 2 + 2 ≥ 2 b +c c +a a +b 1+ 3 141. y and z be positive real numbers. |b − c|. b. y and z. 139. . a2 . For any reals x1 . then X 1≤i<j≤n n 1 ≤ n − ai aj 2 must hold. (APMO 2012) Let n be an integer greater than or equal to 2. |c − a|} ≤ 1 + (a + b + c)2 . . (CentroAmerican 2012) Let a. cyc for all positive real numbers x. . . (China 2012) Let f (x) = (x + a)(x + b) where a. 137. a3 . c. (Balkan 2012) Prove that X p (x + y) (z + x)(z + y) ≥ 4(xy + yz + zx). (Baltic Way 2012) Let a. such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 1: √ a3 b3 c3 3 √ . There exists some real number k satisfying a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 = 2k a21 + a22 + a23 + a24 + a25 = 2k 2 Prove that k 2 ≥ 25 3 . b. a5 differ by no less than 1. . c be real numbers that satisfy 1 a+c = 1 and ab + bc + ac > 0. find the maximum of X F = min {f (xi ). (Canada 2012) Let x. an satisfy a21 + a22 + · · · + a2n = n. 138. x2 . . . · · · . an be non-negative real numbers. 3 140. Show that a+b+c− 1 1 a+b + b+c + abc ≥4 ab + bc + ac 143. xn ≥ 0 satisfying x1 + x2 + .136. c be real numbers.

i = Qkb1 . Prove i=1 i=1 that n X |zi | ≤ n i=1 . y1 + y2 + y3 = 0. a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 10 Find the maximum possible value of ab + bc + cd + da 150. 2. (China TST 2012) Given two integers m. . Find the maximal value of the expression p p p |x − y| + |y − z| + |z − x|. 2 151. we have k k Y bci i < i=1 k Y bi . d be positive real numbers such that abcd = 4. . y2 . ck satisfying a1 ≤ bi ≤ 2ai . . b. . . . c ≥ 0. Let x = n1 xi . y1 . . z ∈ [0. Show that (a2 +2bc)2012 +(b2 +2ca)2012 +(c2 +2ab)2012 ≤ (a2 +b2 +c2 )2012 +2(ab+bc+ca)2012 20 . y = n1 yi and zi = xyi + yxi − xi yi . b. . c2 . (Czech-Polish-Slovak MAtch 2012) Let a. x2 . . . (ELMO Shortlist 2012) Let a. c be three positive real numbers such that a ≤ b ≤ c and a + b + c = 1. yi satisfy |xi | = |yi | = 1 for i = n n P P 1. x3 . 146. b2 . . r.145. 147. 1]. . Prove that √ a+c b+c a+b 3 6(b + c)2 √ +√ +√ ≤p . ( i=1 ) j=1 arij ) r ) s 148. y3 be nonzero real numbers satisfying x1 + x2 + x3 = 0. k and i=1 bci i < i=1 bi . b. a2 + c2 b2 + c2 a2 + b2 (a2 + b2 )(b2 + c2 )(c2 + a2 ) 152. bk . . (ELMO Shortlist 2012) Let a.find the maximal value of the expression Pn Pm r 1 ( j=1 ( i=1 asij ) s ) r f = Pm Pn s 1 . . n which are greater than 1. . ak such that for any nonnegative integers . Prove that x1 x2 + y1 y2 p (x21 + y12 )(x22 + y22 ) +p x2 x3 + y2 y3 (x22 + y22 )(x23 + y32 ) +p x3 x1 + y3 y1 (x23 + y32 )(x21 + y12 ) 3 ≥− .Q k 1. . (China 2012) Suppose that x. c. i=1 149. 2. Prove that there exist k pairwise distinct positive integers a1 . . . . For all aij ≥ 0 which are not all zeroes. (China TST 2012) Given an integer k ≥ 2. s are two given positive real numbers such that r < s. n. a2 . y. (china TST 2012) Complex numbers xi . (ELMO Shortlist 2012) Let x1 . c1 .

b.153. and let k be a positive integer greater than 3. c be distinct positive real numbers. Show that . (ELMO Shortlist 2012) Let a.

.

k+1 .

a (b − c) + bk+1 (c − a) + ck+1 (a − b) .

.

k+1 .

.

.

≥ 3(k − 1) (a + b + c) ak (b − c) + bk (c − a) + ck (a − b) and .

k+2 .

.

a (b − c) + bk+2 (c − a) + ck+2 (a − b) .

.

(k + 1)(k + 2) 2 2 2 .

.

≥ 3k(k − 1) (a + b + c ). .

(Federal competition for advanced students 2012) Determine the maximum value of m. ak (b − c) + bk (c − a) + ck (a − b) 154. such that the inequality (a2 + 4(b2 + c2 ))(b2 + 4(a2 + c2 ))(c2 + 4(a2 + b2 )) ≥ m .

.

.

.

.

.

holds for every a. c ∈ R \ {0} with . b.

a1 .

+ .

1b .

+ .

1c .

z be positive real numbers. ≤ 3. show that √ √ √ √ √ √ √ a a b b c c 3( a + b + c) ≤ + + . 1 2 k 157. . . (India Regional MO 2012) Let a and b be positive real numbers such that a + b = 1. 160. + ≤ nk .. and let a2 . (India Regional MO 2012) Let a. Prove that 2y 2 + yz 2x2 + xy 2z 2 + zx √ + + ≥1 √ √ 2 2 (z + xy + x) (x + yz + y)2 (y + zx + z) 156. c be positive real numbers such that abc(a + b + c) = 3. an be positive real numbers such that a2 a3 · · · an = 1. 158. y.. Prove that we have (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ≥ 8. (Finnish National High School Math Competition 2012) Let k. (Korea 2012) Let x. 0 < k < n. bc ca ab 21 . Also determine the case of equality. (IMO 2012) Let n ≥ 3 be an integer. b and c with ab + bc + ca = 1. a3 . b. Prove that k   X n j=1 j       n n n = + + . . n ∈ N. (Iran TST 2012) For positive reals a. . Prove that (1 + a2 )2 (1 + a3 )3 · · · (1 + an )n > nn . Prove that aa bb + ab ba ≤ 1 159. When does equality occur? 155.

(JBMO shortlist 2012) Let a . (Turkey JBMO TST 2012) Find the greatest real number M for which a2 + b2 + c2 + 3abc ≥ M (ab + bc + ca) for all non-negative real numbers a. 1].b. (JBMO shortlist 2012) Let a . g. f. prove the inequality: p (a + b + c)2 + ab + bc + ac ≥ 6 abc(a + b + c) 22 . f. k ≤ 9 and a. h. b.c be positive real numbers and a + b + c + 2 = abc. b c b a c a a b c When does equality hold? 162. h. 165. e. b. (Turkey JBMO TST 2012) Show that for all real numbers x. find the minimum value of the expression E = abc + def + ghk and prove that it is minimum. c. b. y satisfying x+y ≥0 (x2 + y 2 )3 ≥ 32(x3 + y 3 )(xy − x − y) 168. 167. c. c satisfying a + b + c = 4. b. c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 . c ∈ [0. d. b . (Macedonia JBMO TST 2012) Let a. g. (Moldova JBMO TST 2012) Let 1 ≤ a. Prove that : a2 b2 c2 a+b+c + + ≥ a2 + ab b2 + bc c2 + ca 2 164.161. (JBMO 2012) Let a. (JBMO shortlist 2012) Find the largest positive integer n for which the inequality √ a+b+c 5 n + abc ≤ abc + 1 2 √ holds true for all a. c be positive real numbers. Show that : 2 1 1 (ab + bc + ca) 1 + + ≤ a3 + bc b3 + ca c3 + ab 6 163. d. c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1 . Here we make the convention 1 abc = abc. Prove that a b c + + ≥ 2. e. b . b. (Moldova JBMO TST 2012) Let a. Prove that ! r r r √ 1−a 1−b 1−c a a c c b b + + + + + +6≥2 2 + + . k are different integers. c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 1. 169. b. b+1 c+1 a+1 166.

. d > 0 for which the following conditions: a) (a − c)(b − d) = −4 b) a+c 2 ≥ a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 a+b+c+d Find the minimum of expression a + c 171. . 2. Find the range of x2 y + xy 2 − x2 − 2xy − y 2 + x + y.. · · · .. b. 10} . a2 . 175. c. c are positive numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 2abc + 1. xn positive real numbers. · · · .+ x1n 172. Prove that p p p 9 + 16a2 + 9 + 16b2 + 9 + 16c2 ≥ 3 + 4(a + b + c) 178. Prove that: X X 1 1 ≤ 3 x + x x x x x (x + xi+1 ) i−1 i i+1 cyc i cyc i i+1 i 23 . (Korea 2012) Let {a1 ... xn prove inequality: 1 1 + ... b. c. (Kyrgyzstan 2012) Given positive real numbers a1 . (Korea 2012) a. . ..170. (Macedonia 2012) If a. + an = 1. − 1 ≥ (n2 − 1)n a21 a22 a2n 176. (Kazakhstan 2012) Let a. (Kyoto University Entry Examination 2012) When real numbers x. (Olympic Revenge 2012) Let x1 . d are positive real numbers such that abcd = 1 then prove that the following inequality holds 1 1 1 1 + + + ≤ 2. . a10 } = {1.. bc + cd + da − 1 ab + cd + da − 1 ab + bc + da − 1 ab + bc + cd − 1 When does inequality hold? 177. . Find the maximum value of (a − 2bc)(b − 2ca)(c − 2ab) 173. an with a1 +a2 + . Find the maximum value of 10 X (na2n − n2 an ) n=1 174. b and c be positive real numbers with abc = 1... a2 . y moves in the constraint with x2 + xy + y 2 = 6. Prove that      1 1 1 −1 − 1 . x2 . (Kazakhstan 2012) For a positive reals x1 ... + ≤ x1 + 1 xn + 1 1+ n 1 x1 n +.. b. (Middle European MO 2012) Let a. .

a + b] . x2 . where a. . (Romania TST 2012) Let k be a positive integer. 24 . + (xn−1 − xn )2 + (xn − x1 )2 183. (Romania 2012) Prove that if n ≥ 2 is a natural number and x1 . b) { √ x+y+z ab + √ | x. Find the maximum value of a3k−1 b + b3k−1 c + c3k−1 a + k 2 ak bk ck . z ∈ [a. + n−1 + n x1 + x2 x2 + x3 xn−1 + xn xn + x1  ≤ ≤ (x1 − x2 )2 + (x2 − x3 )2 + . . y and z be consecutive integers such that 1 1 1 1 + + > . b. c are non-negative reals such that a + b + c = 3k. 184. (Puerto rico TST 2012) Let x. xn are positive real numbers. . b. for any z ∈ C . (Romania 2012) Let a . y. (Regional competition for advanced students 2012) Prove that the inequality a + a3 − a4 − a6 < 1 holds for all real numbers a.179. x y z 45 Find the maximum value of x+y+z 181. y. (Pre-Vietnam MO 2012) For a. . |z| ≤ 1 . b and c be three complex numbers such that a + b + c = 0 and |a| = |b| = |c| = 1 . (Romania 2012) Let a. b]} = [2 ab. b] . b ∈ R with 0 < a < b . then:  4 x3 − x3n x3 − x33 x3 − x31 x31 − x32 + 2 + . 3 3 xyz 185. . . . Prove that: 3 ≤ |z − a| + |z − b| + |z − c| ≤ 4. 182. . c > 0 : abc = 1 prove that a3 + b3 + c3 + 6 ≥ (a + b + c)2 180. Prove that: a) √ x+y+z ab + √ ≤a+b 2 ab ≤ 3 3 xyz for x. z ∈ [a.

Prove that !1/p X h(n) ≥ n∈Z X f (n)p n∈Z !1/q X g(n)q . ∞) by h(n) = max{f (n − k)g(k) : k ∈ Z}.186. b. (TSTST 2012) Positive real numbers x. (Stanford Mathematics Tournament 2012) Find the minimum value of xy. (South East MO 2012) Let a. y. 188. z satisfy xyz + xy + yz + zx = x + y + z + 1. c. (Romania TST 2012) Let f. Find the maximal value of a+b−c+d and determine the values of a. c be positive real numbers satisfying a3 + b3 + c3 = a4 + b4 + c4 . xz + xy + yz = 4 and x. Show that a2 a b c + 3 + 3 ≥1 3 3 2 3 +b +c a +b +c a + b3 + c2 25 . (South East MO 2012) Find the least natural number n. Let p and q be two positive reals such that 1/p + 1/q = 1. z are real numbers 191. 3 1+x 1+y 1+z 3 192. c. ∞) be two functions such that f (n) = g(n) = 0 with the exception of finitely many integers n. g : Z → [0. such that the following inequality holds: r r r r n − 2011 n − 2012 3 n − 2013 3 n − 2011 − < − 2012 2011 2011 2013 189. (Stanford Mathematics Tournament 2012) Compute the minimum possible value of (x − 1)2 + (x − 2)2 + (x − 3)2 + (x − 4)2 + (x − 5)2 For real values x 190. Prove that s !  r r 5/8 1 x+y+z 1 + x2 1 + y2 1 + z2 + + ≤ . n∈Z 187. (Turkey Junior MO 2012) Let a. y. b. b. given that x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 7 . Define h : Z → [0. d when that maximum is attained. d be real numbers satisfying inequality a cos x + b cos 2x + c cos 3x + d cos 4x ≤ 1 holds for any real number x.

c be positive real numbers. http://www. Then prove that a3 b3 c3 (a + b + c)3 + + ≥ 2 2 2 1 + 9b ac 1 + 9c ab 1 + 9a bc 18 √ 198. prove that   √ 1 1 1 a + b + c + 3 ≥ 8abc + + a2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 195. y.artofproblemsolving. b.artofproblemsolving. (Uzbekistan 2012) Given a. .com/community/c6h1085432p4794923 6.com/community/c6h1084477p4786093 4.artofproblemsolving. a17 satisfying: 17 X i=1 a2i = 24. .artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1084465p4786027 3.com/community/c6h618127p3685292 26 . http://www. b.artofproblemsolving. http://www. (USAJMO 2012) Let a. Prove that a3 + 3b3 b3 + 3c3 c3 + 3a3 2 + + ≥ (a2 + b2 + c2 ) 5a + b 5b + c 5c + a 3 197. we have that xi .193. .com/community/c6h1090144p4842882 7. b and c positive real numbers with ab+bc+ca = 1. j. 17 X i=1 a3i + 17 X ai < c i=1 then for every i.artofproblemsolving. k such that 1 ≤ 1 < j < k ≤ 17. http://www. 2 Solutions 1. show that x(2x − y) y(2y − z) z(2z − x) + + ≥1 y(2z + x) z(2x + y) x(2y + z) 194. 2a2 + b2 + 3 2b2 + c2 + 3 2c2 + a2 + 3 2 196. xj . http://www. (Turkey 2012) For all positive real numbers x. http://www. xk are sides of a triangle. z. a2 . (Vietnam TST 2012) Prove that c = 10 24 is the largest constant such that if there exist positive numbers a1 . (Tuymaada 2012) Prove that for any real numbers a. c satisfying ab + bc + ca ≤ 1. .com/community/c6h1084414p4785586 2. (Turkey TST 2012) For all positive real numbers a. b.artofproblemsolving. http://www. c satisfying abc = 1 the following inequality holds 1 1 1 1 + + ≤ .com/community/c6h1072850p4671682 5.

artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h588854p3486360 23.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h599363p3557462 37. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h1089041p4831861 13.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1089033p4831839 12. http://www.artofproblemsolving.8. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h593713p3520937 32. http://www.com/community/c6h599362p3557460 33.com/community/c6h613430p3649217 20. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h1095599p4907181 14.com/community/c6h602123p3574651 27.com/community/c6h589037p3487565 24.com/community/c6h1064458p4619006 9.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h1072850p4671682 17.com/community/c6h599343p3557427 36.com/community/c6h582165p3440492 30.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h601901p3573611 28.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h598349p3550637 21.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h602250p3575520 26. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h586449p3469333 22.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h1069572p4645451 10.com/community/c6h599371p3557471 34.com/community/c6h602571p3577441 31.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h588115p3481492 19.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h620402p3706718 15.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h599372p3557472 35. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h587594p3478199 18.com/community/c6h580475p3427314 29. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h1106919p5018814 11. http://www.com/community/c6h581893p3438505 27 . http://www.com/community/c6h1072847p4671671 16.com/community/c6h593098p3516794 25.artofproblemsolving. http://www.

com/community/c5h587519p3477681 28 .com/community/c6h576463p3397493 49.com/community/c6h590573p3497489 47.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h594819p3529106 51.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h621879p3717794 60.com/community/c6h583202p3447545 58.com/community/c6h583204p3447551 59. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h616647p3673419 41.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h616665p3673483 42.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h597388p3545022 43. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h585289p3461585 46.com/community/c6h592838p3515104 54. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h604616p3590688 45.com/community/c6h599769p3560182 63. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h621845p3717626 52. http://www.com/community/c6h593544p3519929 39.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h571042p3354443 48.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h621896p3717848 62.com/community/c6h599929p3561160 64.com/community/c6h585184p3460713 53. http://www.com/community/c6h597516p3545812 67. http://www.com/community/c6h607042p3607066 56. http://www.com/community/c6h579002p3416647 57. http://www.artofproblemsolving.38. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h621884p3717806 61. http://www.com/community/c6h587736p3479162 44. http://www.com/community/c129h596746p3541015 40. http://www.com/community/c6h580320p3426170 66.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h614026p3653413 55.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h594596p3526776 50. http://www.com/community/c6h614163p3654326 65. http://www. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.

artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.68.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h548682p3181684 77. http://www.com/community/c5h587531p3477753 69.com/community/c6h549479p3187785 83.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h531375p3035419 29 .artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h525603p2976041 81.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h525027p2969643 80.com/community/c6h545070p3151938 90.com/community/c6h545071p3151939 92.com/community/c6h539383p3103199 93.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h526394p2984683 82.com/community/c6h569073p3338904 74. http://www.com/community/c6h539538p3104300 87.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h524790p2968082 85.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h569712p3344230 71.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h535100p3068370 75.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h539541p3104304 86.com/community/c6h590429p3496307 76. http://www.com/community/c6h545069p3151937 89. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h599343p3557427 91.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h524183p2962852 84.com/community/c7h548031p3176380 96.com/community/c6h545067p3151935 88.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h592765p3514528 70.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h567387p3324611 95. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h535703p3074752 72. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h535312p3070765 73.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h566972p3320651 97.com/community/c6h516104p2902650 78.com/community/c6h526260p2983427 94. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h551173p3199584 79. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.

com/community/c6h528515p3006896 108. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c7h518617p2920185 125.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h529936p3022835 114.com/community/c6h561922p3275975 105.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h536622p3082197 100.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h529929p3022792 113.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h589873p3493138 111. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h621906p3717903 121.com/community/c6h546272p3161497 123.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h523393p2955179 107. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h528744p3009475 122. http://www.com/community/c6h548154p3177403 124. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h564744p3301778 30 .artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h540149p3109661 102.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h525649p2976292 103.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h536624p3082202 101.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h524677p2967184 104. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h589868p3493131 110.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h603542p3583779 118.com/community/c6h529888p3022624 112.com/community/c6h564829p3302604 127. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h518184p2916452 115. http://www.com/community/c6h519272p2923775 116.98.com/community/c6h535756p3075149 99. http://www.com/community/c6h534767p3065715 117. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h527866p3000224 120.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h527865p3000222 119.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c4h523420p2955323 106.com/community/c6h522345p2944462 126. http://www.com/community/c6h538745p3097790 109.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.

com/community/c6h488342p2736375 31 .com/community/c6h471575p2640006 156.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h544756p3149358 131. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h481929p2699660 136.com/community/c6h508342p2855937 140.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h470502p2634653 148. http://www.com/community/c6h480359p2689923 141.com/community/c6h484712p2715929 143. http://www. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h486926p2728453 152.com/community/c6h472956p2648122 138.com/community/c6h534833p3066169 135.com/community/c6h478151p2677391 142. http://www.com/community/c6h535868p3076122 133.com/community/c6h527851p3000065 129.com/community/c6h529318p3016172 150. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h483098p2706843 155.com/community/c6h481890p2699426 137.com/community/c6h535869p3076127 134.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h471562p2639960 149. http://www.com/community/c6h486928p2728456 154. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h493227p2766512 144.128.com/community/c6h486929p2728457 153.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h486927p2728454 151. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h502330p2822569 146.com/community/c123h563814p3293988 132.com/community/c6h545390p3153978 130. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h477232p2672163 139. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h457944p2571078 145.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h469500p2628482 147.com/community/c6h532979p3049598 157.

http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h479953p2687057 187.com/community/c6h473928p2653838 177.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h494547p2775828 173. http://www.com/community/c6h495921p2784742 166.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h473478p2650926 184.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h479380p2684178 161.com/community/c6h480862p2693122 182.com/community/c6h473479p2650927 185.com/community/c6h482056p2700401 179. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h481624p2697895 167.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.158.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h509772p2865081 159. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h493081p2765684 170.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h481773p2698639 168. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h454023p2552015 180. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h473475p2650923 183.com/community/c6h532522p3045221 176.com/community/c6h623851p3734377 164.com/community/c6h494551p2775842 174. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h480480p2690898 172.com/community/c6h467886p2619744 169.com/community/c6h509811p2865298 160.com/community/c6h466336p2611546 175.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h479026p2682212 186.com/community/c6h544219p3144342 32 .artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h486174p2724119 162.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/community/c6h478833p2681337 171. http://www.com/community/c6h476867p2670258 181. http://www.com/community/c6h623849p3734374 163.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h498389p2800446 178.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h623854p3734384 165.

artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c6h489749p2745861 192. http://www.com/community/c6h508908p2859975 194.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h544221p3144356 189.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. http://www.com/community/c383h466137p2610562 191. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h475453p2662737 33 . http://www.188.com/community/c5h476722p2669114 197. http://www.artofproblemsolving. http://www. http://www. http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c383h465204p2605906 190.artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h471782p2641332 195.com/community/c6h512070p2875068 193.com/community/c6h490001p2747508 196.com/community/c6h481623p2697894 198.