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E-notes for an introduction to materials course at university

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**FACE-CENTRED CUBIC (FCC) CRYSTAL STRUCTURE:
**

In the face-centred cubic (FCC) crystal structure, atoms are located at all

corner and face-centred positions. The atoms touch across a face

diagonal. The FCC structure is found in some common metals such as

gold, silver, aluminium and copper. The cube length a and the atomic

radius R are related through:

a=

4R

=2 √ 2 R

√2

**The coordination number is 12.
**

The atomics packing factor (APF) is 0.74 – this is the maximum packing

possible for spheres having the same radius. (insert diagram here ; insert

calculation and 2-D for APF calculation)

Metals typically have relatively large atomic packing factors to maximise

the shielding provided by the sea of delocalised electrons.

**BODY-CENTRED CUBIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURE:
**

In the body-centred cubic (BCC) crystal structure, atoms are located at

corner and cell centre positions. Centre and corner atoms touch one

another along cube diagonals. Chromium, tungsten, iron (alpha), as well

as several other metals exhibit a BCC structure. The cube length a and the

atomic radius R are related through:

a=

4R

√3

**The coordination number is 8.
**

The atomics packing factor (APF) is 0.74 – this is the maximum packing

possible for spheres having the same radius. (insert diagram here ; insert

calculation and 2-D for APF calculation)

Metals typically have relatively large atomic packing factors to maximise

the shielding provided by the sea of delocalised electrons.

remains as long as the stress is applied. Elastic strain is defined as fully recoverable strain resulting from an applied stress. Stiffness also depends upon geometry. it usually . When a material is stretched in one direction. In this case. The strain is ‘‘elastic’’ if it develops instantaneously (i. The Young's modulus (E) describes tensile elasticity.e.. is defined as the force per unit area Strain.Lecture 2 – Mechanical Properties of Materials Read pages 234 – 236 on ‘Terminology for Mechanical Properties’ in the 4th ed. is defined as the change in length per unit length True stress uses ‘instantaneous’ area True strain uses the integral of the reciprocal of the length Tension Test: In a tensile test. the strain rate (e dot) is controlled because mechanical properties of many materials vary with the strain rate. Conversely. in general. in general. it returns to its original shape after the force or stress is removed). Strain rate is the rate of change in strain (deformation) of a material with respect to time. the strain occurs as soon as the force is applied). if the material is compressed rather than stretched. It is often referred to simply as the elastic modulus or modulus of elasticity. A stiff material has a high modulus of elasticity and maintains its size and shape even under an elastic load. Askeland book!!! Stress. Poisson's ratio is the negative ratio of transverse to axial strain. it usually tends to contract in the other two directions perpendicular to the direction of stretching. it is defined as the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain.e. and disappears as soon as the force is withdrawn. the material does not go back to its original shape. Permanent or plastic deformation in a material is known as the plastic strain. Stiffness is a qualitative measure of the elastic deformation produced in a material. A material subjected to an elastic strain does not show any permanent deformation (i. or the tendency of an object to deform along an axis when opposing forces are applied along that axis. when the stress is removed..

use proof strength (or offset yield strength) in place of yield strength in such cases. Design an appropriate rod. i. with a Young’s modulus of 68.0 MPa is to withstand an applied force of 200 kN. Determine the magnitude of the load require to produce a 2. . and so the yield strength is not well defined.8m long but must deform elastically no more than 6mm when the force is applied. the maximum allowable stress on the rod is limited to 170 MPa. the amount of thinning undergone by the specimen during a tensile test).e. and it will usually absorb more energy than a brittle material. To assure sufficient safety.3MPa) An aluminium rod.e. (i. (Ans: 71. We.e. The rod must be at least 3. Fabricators of engineering components (metallic and polymers) want a ductile material in order to form complicated shapes without breaking the material in the process. The Poisson’s ratio is about 0. %EL. %RA. non-recoverable deformation) and the proportional limit (stress above which the stress and strain relationship is no longer linear) are quite close and cannot be determined precisely.3 for metals. therefore. the engineering strain at the point of fracture in a tensile test) or the % reduction in area. The proportional limit is defined as the level of stress above which the relationship between stress and strain in not linear. Examples include ceramics and glasses.5x10-3 mm change in diameter if the deformation is entirely elastic. Ductility measures the amount of plastic deformation that a material can withstand before fracture. It can either be quantified by % elongation. Ductility depends on temperature and strain rate. Ductility is important because a ductile material will show obvious deformation before fracture (this acts as a warning that the applied stress is too high).tends to expand in the directions transverse to the direction of compression. (i. A tensile stress is to be applied along the long axis of a cylindrical brass rod of Young’s modulus 97 MPa and diameter of 10mm. Difference between elastic limit and proportional limit? The critical stress value needed to initiate plastic deformation is defined as the elastic limit of the material. permanent. (Ans: the cross sectional area of the rod must be at least 1820mm2) Brittle materials fail without significant plastic strain (plastic deformation). In most materials the elastic limit (minimum stress required to initiate plastic deformation.

Toughness – a qualitative measure of the impact properties of a material. whereas ductility commonly increases. Necking begins at the ultimate tensile stress in an engineering stress-strain curve. Furthermore. Toughness refers to the ability of a material to absorb energy before fracturing. For structural applications we often do not require true stress and true strain.The proof strength is determined by drawing a line parallel to the linear region on the stress-strain plot. the material deforms. a significant difference develops between the two curves only when necking begins But when necking begins. tensile strength. Necking – local deformation in a tensile specimen. A tough material resists failure by impact. so the stress is increasing up to the fracture. True stress continues to increase after necking because. The tensile strength is the stress at which necking begins in ductile materials. particularly if the material contains a crack or flaw. .002 or 0. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is the maximum recorded tensile stress on the engineering stress-strain curve. This line is offset from the linear region by a specific value of strain (usually 0. The stress value corresponding to the intersection of this line and the engineering stressstrain curve is defined as the proof strength.2%). Mechanical properties of materials depend on temperature (Figure 6-11). When we exceed the yield strength. In many ductile materials deformation does nor uniform. The component would fail because it can no longer support the applied stress. the area decreases even more. and modulus of elasticity usually decrease at higher temperatures. The area under a stress strain curve is a measure of toughness. one region deforms more than others and a large local decrease in the cross-sectional area occurs. At some point. The region where this localised deformation occurs is called a neck. A material with a high toughness will have a better resistance to sudden fracture. This is because beyond maximum load the distribution of strain along gage length is not uniform. our component is grossly deformed and no longer satisfies its intended use. although the load required decreases. since the cross-sectional area in the necked region decreases (less force required for smaller area to cause same deformation). The stress in a tensile test (calculated using the original area A0) decreases once necking occurs. Yield strength.

. by virtue of lack of ductility. energy per unit volume of material). often. This is demonstrated in Figure 6. Hence. It is the area under the stress-strain curve up to the point of fracture. in which the stress–strain curves are plotted for both material types. ductile materials are tougher than brittle ones.Specimen geometry as well as the manner of load application are important in toughness determinations. For a material to be tough.e. even though the brittle material has higher yield and tensile strengths. For the static (low strain rate) situation.13.. notch toughness is assessed by using an impact test. it must display both strength and ductility. it has a lower toughness than the ductile one. toughness may be ascertained from the results of a tensile stress–strain test. For dynamic (high strain rate) loading conditions and when a notch (or point of stress concentration) is present. The units for toughness are the same as for resilience (i. Furthermore. fracture toughness is a property indicative of a material’s resistance to fracture when a crack is present.

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