.
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INTEGRAL CALCULUS FOR BEGINNERS .
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CAMBRIDGE MACMILLAN AND AND NEW YORK 1896 All rights reserved CO. M. FORMERLY FELLOW OF SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE.A. .INTEGRAL CALCULUS FOR BEGINNERS WITH AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BY JOSEPH EDWAEDS.
. Reprinted 1891. 1894 GLASGOW : . PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO.First Edition. 1892. reprinted 1896. 1893. With additions and corrections. 1890.
THE present volume is intended to form a sound introduction to a study of the Integral Calculus. as also the principal methods of Rectification and Quadrature. It will be found. such as the general to be employed in obtaining Centroid. Like its companion.PREFACE. suitable for a student beginning the subject. that the ordinary pro cesses of integration are fully treated. Some indication is also afforded to the student of other useful applications of the Integral Calculus. does not therefore aim at completeness. or the value of a As the Moment method position of a of Inertia. however. but rather it at the omission of all portions of the subject which are usually regarded as best left for a later reading. and the calculation of the volumes and surfaces of solids of revolution. the 'Differential! Calculus for Beginners. seems undesirable that the path of a student in Applied Mathematics should be blocked by a want it of acquaintance with the methods of solving M298720 .
and at the same time that his course should be stopped for a sysstudy of the subject in some complete and exhaustive treatise. A considerable number of these examples should be worked by the student so that the several methods explained " " in the bookwork may be firmly fixed in the mind before attacking the somewhat harder sets at the ends of the chapters.PREFACE. The examples scattered throughout the text have been carefully made or selected to illustrate the articles which they immediately follow. Up to the solution of the general Linear Differential Equation with Constant Coefficients. the subject has been treated as fully as is consistent with the scope of the present work. a brief account has been tematic added of the ordinary methods of solution of the more elementary forms occurring. and the sources to which I am indebted for them are usually indicated. A large proportion of these examples have been actually set in examinations. and the elementary parts of Rigid Dynamics. though few present any considerable difficulty. and call for greater originality and ingenuity. leading up to and including all such kinds as the student meet with in his Dynamics reading of a Particle. of is likely to Analytical Statics. vi elementary Differential Equations. These are generally of a more miscellaneous character. .
My thanks are due to several friends who have me valuable suggestions with regard to the desirable scope and plan of the work.PREFACE. October. My vii acknowledgments are due in some degree to many of the modern writers on the the works of subjects treated of. which the more advanced student may consult with great advantage. . kindly sent JOSEPH EDWARDS. and to ProTreatises fessor Greenhill's interesting Chapter on the Integral of Bertrand Calculus. 1894. but more especially to the and Todhunter.
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Volume 4 10 of Revolution. .. OF SUBSTITUTION. PAGES 1 3 2326 2628 III... INTEGRAL CALCULUS. ... NOTATION.. ... 29 32 33 36 Additional Standard Results... . Table of Results. The Hyperbolic Functions.. CHAPTER 14 19 20 21 22 . CHAPTER I.. APPLICATIONS.. ... METHOD 9 13 STANDARD FORMS. 3741 . II. n l Integration of x x~ . Determination of an Area. Method of Changing the Variable. .CONTENTS... CHAPTER GENERAL METHOD. Fundamental Theorem. Integration from the Definition.. SUMMATION.. General Laws obeyed by the Integrating Symbol. Nomenclature and Notation...
Powers of Tangents or Cotangents. where Reduction Formulae for / Reduction Formulae for / . .. a + cos x /rfv . .. f^L Integration of 6568 .... Standard Cases. .. . 75 76 77 78 7983 etc. dx. . ... . PAGES 4347 4849 5052 Geometrical Proof. . REDUCTION FORMULAE. . Integration "by Parts" of a Product. J \/K Powers and Products of Sines and Cosines. CHAPTER IV. I i ain^x cos^x dx.. PARTIAL FRACTIONS... Powers of Secants or Cosecants... CHAPTER VI. INTEGRATION BY PARTS. . . 96 102 ... cos^a: 7T Evaluation of X = a + bxn x m ~ l Xp sii\ n xdx... CHAPTER V. m Integration of x l XP. .CONTENTS.. SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS. 8789 90 93 94 95 IT r j"z / dx. General Fraction with Rational 55 57 Numerator and De 5861 nominator. . o 6974 CHAPTER VII.. .. . .. .. sin^a.. Extension of the Rule.. .
CHAPTER 139 140 143 144 149 150 X. QUADRATURE.... ..CONTENTS........ PAGES 109117 118 119 120 124 125 127 128 129 IX. Integration of x / ^).f J X. CHAPTER 177 XI... Surfaces of Revolution. .. .. SURFACES AND VOLUMES OF SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION....''.... CHAPTER . . RECTIFICATION... 183184 185187 . 153 157 158160 161163 164165 Curvature and the Areas of Pedals... General Propositions and Geometrical Illustrations..... Differentiation under an Integral Sign.. Volumes of Revolution..... ... .... .. .. Polars. ... Y 9 ... of . Area of a Closed Curve. Cartesian Formula..... Area between a Curve. .... Rules for CurveTracing.. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS... two Radii '.......... CHAPTER xi VIII... Arc of Pedal Curve.. 166167 168175 Corresponding Areas.. Some Elementary Definite Integrals..... Intrinsic Equation.. . Sectorial Areas........ . Integration of some Special Fractional Forms. 176 Evolute.... .... . 135137 13S Modification for a Closed Curve.. Arc of an Evolute.. Other Expressions... i\f .. Formulae for Rectification and Illustrative Examples.. . .. .. ...... .
211214 215 Linear Equations. Surface Integrals.. One Letter Absent. . Genesis of a Differential Equation. 239 240 241242 . Polar Element. . .CONTENTS... Polar Formulae. One Letter Absent. Centroids . . ... . Theorems of Pappus.... etc. Clairaut's 227229 230233 Form. . CHAPTER 188 PAGES 191 192 XII. EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE SECOND ORDER. CHAPTER XIII. .... Cartesian Element.. CHAPTER 216 219 221 226 XIV. Linear Equations.. of a Term. xii . EQUATIONS.... General Linear Equation. MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS. ... CHAPTER XV. Centroids. SECONDORDER ELEMENTS OF AREA.. 195 198 199 201 202203 204 207 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. . . 235 236 237238 Removal Exact Differential Equations.. EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST ORDER. Surface Integrals. Moments of Inertia.. EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST ORDER (Continued}... Revolution of a Sectorial Area. Variables Separable. Homogeneous Equations. .. .
Magdalen. 266269 270 271 272277 278308 Answers. Emanuel. CHAPTER ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORIES. The Complementary Function. (e) (j8) and King's. and Sidney Sussex. = Clare. Catharine's.. Further Illustrative Examples. . the references are abbreviated as follows : (a) = St. = Clare. CHAPTER xiii XVI.. Trinity Hall. . PAGES General Form of Solution. Corpus Christi. ABBREVIATION. (7) (d) = Jesus. Caius. Christ's. Emanuel. Caius. LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS. Orthogonal Trajectories..CONTENTS. MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS. Pembroke.. = Jesus. To indicate the sources from which many of the examples are derived. in cases where a group of colleges have held an examination in common. Queen's.. The Particular Integral. Christ's. 243244 245 251 252263 Equation Reducible to Linear Form with Constant 264265 Coefficients.. and King's. Peter's. and St. An . and Sidney Sussex. XVII.. Some Important Dynamical Equations.
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the determination of moments of inertia. The Integral Calculus is the outcome of an endeavour to obtain some general method of finding the area of the plane space bounded by given curved lines. etc. We then have to form some method of obtaining the limit of the sum of all these elements when each is ultimately infinitesimally small and their area number infinitely increased. the areas of surfaces of given shape and the volumes bounded by them. summation E. is A <E . c. the positions of Centroids. SUMMATION. APPLICATIONS. Use and Aim of the Integral Calculus. NOTATION. it may be applied to other problems such as the finding of the length of a curved line.INTEGRAL CALCULUS CHAPTER I. In the problem of the determination of such an it is necessary to suppose this space divided up into a very large number of very small elements. It will be found that when once such a method of discovered. i. 1.
. 1 1 LA. Q^Qv and Then b a = ?i/L Also if the abscissae of y (f)(x) be the equation of the curve. and the ccaxis.0. all 2. Let each of these be supposed J2 2 2 etc. except when otherwise stated. supposed rectangular. etc. and all logarithms supposed Napierian. LM Let be divided into n equal small parts. . be Summed. Now the sum of these n rectangles falls short of the area sought by the sum of the n small figures. 2 Throughout the book coordinate axes will be all angles will be supposed measured in circular measure. 1. and let a and 6 be QiQz. Determination of an Area. the ordinates > A . ^(a+K). Notation. P P AQ . the ordinates AL and A and B. Form of Series to Suppose it is required to find the area of the portion bounded by a given curve AB. etc. QiPp Q v Q2 . of space BM L 0. . 2 Q3 etc. = $2^2* e ^ c ' through the several points L.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. P .. Fig. are of lengths <j>(a). ^(a+2A).0. Let their extremities be respectively A. LQ V eacn f length A. 1? 2 and complete the rectangles V PjQg. defined by of its Cartesian equation. P P .0. etc.
customary also upon taking the limit to replace the Regarding increment h symbol S by the more convenient sign limit of the above summation when h is I .h or where S or 2 denotes the sum between the limits indicated. a+rh as may be a variable x.iM is h and is ultimately an infinitesimal of the first order.e." " " " a is called the lower or inferior limit. SUMMATION. say Their sum is then less than the area of this strip.NOTATION. Hence the area required is the limit when h is zero (and therefore n infinite) of the sum of the series of n terms The sum may be denoted by a+rh = bh S a+rh=bh <>(a + rJi. a and read as "the integral of <j)(x) with regard to x = a and x = b" [or of (f>(x)dx] between the limits x " or more shortly from a to b. for the breadth Q n ." " " " b is called the upper or superior limit. and the length P MB is supposed finite. in the limit less than an infinitesimal of the first order. i. 3 . and the diminished indefinitely is then written f I 6 <f)(x)dx." The sum of the n + l terms. differs from the above series merely in the addition of . APPLICATIONS. position upon the longest strip.4 to slide parallel to the o>axis into a corresponding n _^Qn _iMB. the infinitesimal It is written as to or dx.
the term h(f>(a+nh) or A0(6) which vanishes when the limit is taken. This summation may sometimes be effected by elementary means.e\ This & & 1 [By Diff. .ea)^=e* .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. for Beginners. Calculate Here we have / e*dx.] r=nl /bxdx we have to find Now and Lt 2 r= (+rA)A. to evaluate Lth==Qh[e a + e a+h + e a+ + b = a + nh. where . =Lth ^h^p\ea =Lth ^(eb . 1. X Calc. Hence the limit of this series may also be written f 6 I <t>(x)dx. where 2(a + rh)h = in the limit becomes 2 6 1 /a $x we indefinitely diminished of 22' have to obtain the limit when h is . Art. a Integration from the Definition. : Cb Ex. 15. . as we now proceed to illustrate 3.
r a b J a Ex.NOTATION. APPLICATIONS. . > b+h a ah &' and when h diminishes without limit. Prove ab initio that sin # ofo? = cos a .* . SUMMATION. l. form 5 . each of these becomes II a Thus b' f*JL2 /&==*. to n terms]A. 2/ sin  * This expression = cosf a  cos < J a + (2n  1)  2JJ sinj 2 smwhich when A is indefinitely small ultimately takes the cos a cos b.Jsin n2. .cos 6. 4. /& We now are [sin to find the limit of a + sin(a + k) + sin(a + 2A) + sinf \ a+n .
provided it be of finite magnitude. whatever y may be.to be y therefore apply the Binomial whatever be the value of m+l. / / sir sinh xdx cosh b cosh a. Prove by summation that 2. EXAMPLES. The Limit of % 1 y and since less than unity. indefinitely large. the limit of the h[a m+ (a sum . .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. we next + h} m + (a + 2h)m +. fy v>/  I\m+l I m+1 not being zero. 3. . /b cos OdO = sin 6 m Integration of x As a further example 4. For the expression may be written [Lemma. _ yin + 1 2 is m + 1 when A is m Ay indefinitely diminished. and / Theorem h to is to be ultimately zero we expand ( we may +l ^\7?l 1 JJ . a 6 n h= i 7 made is propose to consider of the series where and n sin a. may consider .
for Beginners. . Art. .. fe[a w+ (a + /t) w+ (a + 2h)m + . this ..] m+I In the result put i/ success! vely = a. a+2h. 7 Thus the expression (See Dif. 13.) "becomes x(a convergent series) y when A is indefinitely diminished. and we get l am + ~ l _ T ( _ r. SUMMATION. + (a + n^l or Lt h=Q h[am + (a + A) m + (a m+1 ' In accordance with the notation of Art.NOTATION. Gale. a+h.a + (n l)h.(a + n^ h(a+nUi) m or adding numerators for a new numerator and denominators for a new denominator.etc. be written may ' 6 xmdx= 7 b m+1 2. 1 _ . APPLICATIONS..
for all When 6 =1 is zero for and a = 0. according as when m+1 m + l=0 is will Ex. oo case by in the limit. which differs and m+1 is positive or negative. 1. order. 8 The a and letters b may represent any finite quantities what xm does not become ever. the #axis. . is the same thing. o = oo or This theorem may if m + 1 be negative.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. or The . be discussed later. i. ultimately the theorem be comes xm dx= 7 if m+1 be positive. it necessary in the proof to suppose h an infinitesimal of higher it has been assumed that in the limit V the values given to y. provided infinite x=a between and When is a is taken as exceedingly small and ultimately zero. Find the area of the portion of the parabola 7/ 2 =4a# bounded by the curve.e. Lst n= oo from the former by therefore also positive or negative. and the ordinate xc. be written also r according as or. limit M4' 1 is The n ?.
Let us divide the length c into n equal portions of which th is the (r+l) and erect ordinates NP. 4.NM i. [By Art. and its density varies from n * *" mass is therefore intermediate between zero densitv m (7+la\ \ The volume . Then if NM PR . length of 1 n ) . Let a be the length of the rod. Its of the (r+l)th element from the end w. APPLICATIONS. be drawn parallel to when n is infinite of the Lt^PN. o> its sectional area supposed Ex. SUMMATION. MQ. the area required NM.NOTATION. Find the mass of a rod whose density varies as the power of the distance from one end. =f extreme ordinate arid abscissa 2. is ( ) coa** 1  and **  to .] or where nh = c. Now Area =f of the rectangle of which the of the area are adjacent sides. sum of such rectangles as is the limit PM (Art.e. with Divide the rod into n elementary portions each of uniform. 2).
trace in their revolution circular discs of equal thickness. 2. PEP . as the ccaxis.. may be conelementary rectangles . the The be described exactly as in Art. and The several of volumes <jrA L 2 LQ19 etc. becomes ra+1 5. annular portions formed by the revolution of the portions P^R^P^ 2 3 3 etc.. Determination of a Volume of Revolution. 10 Thus the mass of the whole rod lies between and and in the limit. . Let it be required to find the volume formed by the revolution of a given curve AB about an axis in its own plane which it does not cut. 3. Taking the axis of revolution figure may Fig. .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. when n increases indefinitely. P AQ V Pfy^ 2 Qz> etc. AR^^ nrP^ Q&.
line P Let the portion required be that formed by the revolution of the area APN^ bounded by the parabola and an ordinate PN. SUMMATION. when h is the sum of the series be written Cb 7r\ is infinite). APPLICATIONS. 11 sidered made to slide parallel to the #axis into a corresponding position upon the disc of greatest radius. in the limit less than an infinitesimal of the first order.e. and the length NB is supposed finite. of Cb or T 2 y dx. Hence the volume required zero (and therefore or as it may n the limit. Find the volume generated.r bounded by the # = c revolves about the axis. say that formed by the revolution of the figure PniQniNB. Ex. 1. Their sum is therefore less than this disc. i. for the breadth Qn \N is h. and is ultimately an infinitesimal of the first order.NOTATION. The portion of the parabola y 2 = 4a. .
according to Article 4.(0)^] and the whole volume is . 12 Then dividing as before into elementary circular laminae.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Dividing as before into elementary circular laminae axes coincide with the #axis. 4. the volume is twice / Try^dx. Fig. 4. 2 Ex.] [Art. we have re 4a:r /cy^dx xdx / [Art. is 2 equal to 5[a*.x*)dx or whose . 2. a a Now which. = 2a?rc 2. 5.] AN 2 ' =J [Or if cylinder of radius PA and height AN.] Find the volume of the prolate spheroid formed by the revolution of the ellipse =l ~+^2 * about the #axis. 7 expressed as a series [c Volume = 4a?r I x dx o r .
NOTATION, SUMMATION, APPLICATIONS.
[or
if
desirable
we may
13
obtain the same result without using
the sign of integration, as
EXAMPLES.
Find the area bounded by the curve
the ordinates #=a, #=&.
1.
y
^^ the #axis, and
2. If the area in Question 1 revolve round the ,#axis find the
volume of the solid formed.
3. Find by the method of Art. 2, the area of the triangle
formed by the line y=x tan 0, the #axis and the line x = a.
Find also the volume of the cone formed when this triangle
revolves about the #axis.
4. Find the volume of the reelshaped solid formed by the
revolution about the yaxis of that part of the parabola
cut off by the latusrectum.
5. Find the volume of the sphere formed
the circle x2 +y 2 = a 2 about the .raxis.
y^^ax
by the revolution
of
6. Find the areas of the figures bounded by each of the
also the
following curves, the #axis, and the ordinate x = h
volume formed by the revolution of each area about the #axis
;
:
Find the mass
(a)
7/3
(8)
aty
= a *a
which the density at
each point varies as the distance from the centre.
8. Find the mass of the prolate spheroid formed by the
revolution of the ellipse ^ 2 /a 2 f^/ 2 /6 2 = l about the #axis, supposing the density at each point to be //x,
7.
of a circular disc of
CHAPTEE
II
GENEEAL METHOD. STANDAED FOEMS.
6. Before proceeding further with
applications of
the Integral Calculus, we shall establish a general
theorem which will in many cases enable us to infer
the result of the operation indicated by
n
I
<p(x)dx
a
without having recourse to the usually tedious, and
often difficult, process of Algebraic or Trigonometrical
Summation.
PROP. Let </)(x) be any function of x which is
and continuous between given finite values a
and b of the variable x let a be < 6, and suppose the
difference b
a to be divided into n portions each
equal h, so that b a = nh. It is required to find the
limit of ike sum of the series
7.
finite
;

ft[0O) + <p(a + h) + 4>(a + 2h)+... + 0(6 h) + 0(6)],
when h is diminished indefinitely, and therefore
increased without limit.
[It may at once be seen that this limit
be the greatest term the sum is
is finite,
 a)<t>(a + rh) + h<$>(a +
for
if
n
<$>(a+rh)
GENERAL METHOD. STANDARD FORMS.
which is finite, since by hypothesis
x intermediate between b and a.]
is finite four all
<(#)
Let \fs(x) be another function of x such
its differential coefficient, i.e. such that
15
values of
that
<j)(x)
is
We shall then prove that
Lth ^[<fa)+^a+h)+^
By
definition
and therefore
^a)*
a
=
where a :
is a quantity whose limit
diminishes indefinitely thus
is
zero
when h
;
=\/s(a+
h(j)(a)
7i)
+ha
t/r(a)
lt
Similarly
h<f>(a
etc.,
=
Ih) \[s(a + nil)
\
where the quantities a 2 a 3 ..., a n are all, like a v
quantities whose limits are zero when h diminishes
,
,
indefinitely.
By
addition,
h[<f>(a)
+ 0(a + h) + <f>(a
Let a be the greatest of the quantities a v a 2
then
Afoi+ag+^.+On]
is
<nha,
and therefore vanishes in the
limit.
i.e.
<(&
Thus
,
. . .
a)a,
,
an
,
INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
16
The term
is in the limit zero; hence if we
added to the lefthand member of
may then be stated that
fc</>(6)
desire, it may be
this result, and it
.e.
1
This result
notation
</)(x)dx
\[s(b)
= \ls(b)
frequently denoted
is
\fs(a)
\ls(a).
by the
.
p\/r(a3)
J
this result it appears that when the form of
the function ^fs(x) (of which </>(x) is the differential
coefficient) is obtained, the process of algebraic or
From
rb
trigonometric summation to obtain
avoided.
The
letters b
I
<j)(x)dx
may
be
a
and a are supposed in the above work
We shall now extend our
to denote finite quantities.
notation so as to
let
I
express the limit
<f>(x)dx
when
a
b
becomes
infinitely large of
I
^(6)
= Lt b=x
(j)(x)dx
I
^js(a), i.e.
<j)(x)dx.
a
a
(j)(x)dx
we
shall be understood
to
fb
\I,(a)]
Ex.
Hence
1.
if
The
or
Lta=00
coefficient of
differential
^
fb
\

<f>(x)dx.
is
m
plainly x
m
<$>(x)=x we have
df(x):L^ '
m+l
and
/
J
x
m+1 m + \
m+l
.
GENERAL METHOD. STANDARD FORMS.
Ex.
The quantity whose
Hence
2.
known
cos
Ex.
x dx = sin
The quantity whose
Hence
3.
Ex.
differential coefficient is cos
a?
is
to be sin x.
6
itself e
17
x
.
sin a.
b
differential coefficient
is
e* is
4.
EXAMPLES.
Write down the values of
rl
1.
X CiX)
/Vdr,
2.
2i,
/b
a
,2
X Cf/JCm
/Vcfo?,
3.
o.
I
I
X
4.
cfo,
d/X^
1
ir
it
rA
cos
/2
x dx,
6.
/
r4
sec 2^; dx^
7.
/
\
o
ia
8.
Geometrical Illustration of Proof.
The proof
of the above theorem may be interpreted geometrically thus
Let
be a portion of a curve of which the ordinate is finite
and continuous at all points between A and B, as also the
tangent of the angle which the tangent to the curve makes
with the a?axis.
Let the abscissae of A and
be a and b respectively. Draw
ordinates A N, BM.
Let the portion
be divided into n equal portions each
of length h.
Erect ordinates at each of these points of division
cutting the curve in P, Q, R, ..., etc. Draw the successive
tangents AP^ PQi, QRi, etc., and the lines
:
AB
B
NM
AP ,PQ QR ,...,
2
parallel
to
the
y = ^r(x\ and
then
let
<f>(a\ <$>(a
E.
I.
C.
,raxis,
and
2J
let
2
the equation of the curve be
V^') = <M>
<$>(a + Zh\ etc., are respectively
tanP.JPj, taii^Pft, etc.,
+ h\
B
INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
18
and
h), ...,
Now
it is
P P,
clear that the algebraic
2
2
are respectively the lengths
,
R R,
2
is
...,
sum
of
MBNA,
i.e.
Hence
s,
u
M
L
Fig.
x
6.
Now
the portion within square brackets may be shewn to
For if
for instance be the
diminish indefinitely with h.
etc., the sum
greatest of the several quantities PjP,
R^
Q^
[P1 P+Q 1 Q+...]
But
if
the abscissa of
Q
is
<nR R,
1
be called
#,
and
(x)
[Diff.
R^R =
so that
and
which
(6
is

=
"(x 4 <9A)
i.e.
<(ba)}~.
then
+ ^"(x + Qh\
Calc. for Beginners, Art. 185.]
(x
+ Oh),
a)
an infinitesimal in general of the
first order.
Interrogative Character of the Integral Cal culus. STANDARD FORMS. Z^= A^(6) = 0.GENERAL METHOD. the quantity b has been assumed to have any value whatever provided it be finite. having given y = \f^(x) tained. we may therefore replace it by x and write the result of the proposition of Art 7 as fx I <j)(x)dx = \ls(x) .e. by addition. 7 shews that if we can reverse this operation and obtain the form of ^(x) when \l/(x) is given we shall be able to perform the operation fb I t cf)(x)dx i. by merely taking the function \fr(x\ substituting and a alternately for x and subtracting the result from the former thus obtaining b latter . ) fb I \l/(x)dx. Further. We shall therefore confine our attention for the next few chapters to the problem of reversing the operations of the differential calculus. we have. methods have been there explained of obtaining the form of the function \[s'(x) in the equation how ) The proposition of Art. In the differential calculus the student has learnt to differentiate a function of any assigned character with regard to the independent variable conIn other words. 19 Thus Lth=0 or Z Also since 9.
When the lower limit a is not specified and we are merely enquiring the form of the (at present) unknown function \fr(x). . <f>(x) between limits a and fx I <j)(x)dx or where the upper limit is a "corrected" integral. Nomenclature. 12. the notation used is the limits being omitted. whose differential coefficient is the known function $(#). 20 10.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. The nomenclature of these expressions is as follows : b r (p(x)dx is or called the "definite" integral of b . <f>(x)dx \{s(x) left or \[s(a) undetermined is called ^(x) without any specified limits and regarded merely as the reversal of an operation of the differential " " calculus is called an "indefinite" or unconnected integral. + Accordingly . 11. we might This constant is write however not usually written clown. It will be obvious that if <p(x) is the differential coefficient of ^]s(x\ it is also the differential coefficient of \lr(x) C where C is any constant whatever for the differential coefficient of any constant is zero. Addition of a Constant.
Vl the differential coefficient of either of these exYet it is not to be inferred that pressions. STANDARD FORMS. 1 sin' ^ or is cos~%. Inverse Notation. for }*/Ix 2 is . for is cos' 1 ^. Agreeably with the accepted notation for the inverse Trigonometrical and inverse Hyperbolic functions. occasionally useful to employ this notation. Different will . sin" 1 ^^ But what is really true by a constant. in processes of indefinite integration for frequently give results of different form 13. dx = sin dx= cos^ ~ l x 2 2 the arbitrary constants being different. J/s/la. that sin" 1^ and cos" 1 ^ differ so that or 1 f 7 Vla . 21 but will be understood to exist in all "cases of definite integration though not expressed. we might express the equation or and j5^) it is = ^). instance I dx .GENERAL METHOD. . 14.
General Laws satisfied by the Integrating Symbol \dx. of integration is commutative for if u. . Tj u^+l^^+l^^r and therefore (omitting constants) JurZ#+ (3) i. 15. is distributive. 22 which very well expresses the interrogative character of the operation we are conducting. we have d so that (omitting du .cfef The operation \wdx = l with regard to constants. v. establishes the theorem. The operation of integration w be any functions of x.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. any constant of integration) au = or which \av dx 9 a\vdx=\avdx.(fi(x)dx + any arbitrary constant. (1) It will be plain from the meaning of the symbols that s but that (2) is <j>(x) ly. and a be any constant. (I'll For if j = v.
1) Thus the rule for the integration of any constant power of x is. . TTn'^e down the integrals of 1. differentiation of  n +^1 _ d x _ dx n + n+l Hence Art. we  obtain nrfll l (as has been already seen in Art. Increase the index by unity and divide by the index so increased. ^"Jf c 1 "4^4 . STANDARD FORMS. x O ^"J #" 1 } b a O. For example.GENERAL METHOD. x~^ = x T4 } EXAMPLES. 999 ^7 #1000 . /nA r X X = ~'' 5 X } x= 11 Q if r . several elementary special forms of functions. 7. 23 We now proceed to a detailed consideration of 16. 4 and in Ex. By xn Integration of 17.
[Diff. Taking the limit when n + l=0. and as tively C for Beginners. may be deduced as a limiting Supplying the arbitrary constant. Thus 20. portion A.   takes the form log x.] arbitrary we may suppose that it contains a negainfinite portion together with another arbitrary is 7i ~\~ J. Art. A . n+ l and is still an arbitrary constant. 24 The Case of x~\ 18. Jx This therefore forms an apparent exception to the general rule f ^n+l n dx = \x 19. however. remembered that x~ l or x coefficient of log x. In the same as in the integration of x n way we have 1 and = (n + V)a(ax + b)n + 6) = ^log(a% &v . 15. Calc. we have n /x dx = n+l A = C+ where + C= ~ I n+l case. The result.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Lt n== i {xndx = log x + A. Thus It will be ential is the differ fl \dx = logx.
It may log (denominator). We may next remark n+l coefficients of x) (a+x) 2 xY (a that since the differential and of log $(x) are respectively [<f>(x)] and n we have {[<t>(x)] <t>'(x)dx = and The second of these results especially be put into words thus any fraction of which the numerator coefficient of the denominator is use. a\x bx (a#) 2> n* (a a+x ax* x+a x d 21. : is of great the integral of is the differential .GENERAL METHOD. J*Ja* + x* etc. For example. 2 x 3. (n+l)a and 'r I Jax + b we fFor convenience printed as 25 r. a+x ' x a? a x. a x_ a+x 1 ax? 1 .] EXAMPLES. a 1. ax. IA n 7 (oo5 and therefore f/ \(ax+o) dx = / y + &)n+1 ' . Jax + b' I = \og(ax + b\ 6V a shall . I f find 1 jdx Jax + b o. STANDARD FORMS. Write down the integrals of of a+x. Jja +x* dx often as 2 .
Sill x dx X a?^ I J = log sin #. It will now be perceived that the operations of the Integral Calculus are of a tentative nature. . = /co\. and that success in integration depends upon a knowledge of the results of differentiating the simple functions.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. and the proofs of these results lie in differentiating the right hand members of the several results. practically the same list as that already learnt for differentiation.xdx . of ~. The list will be gradually extended and a supplementary list given later. = log cos x = log sec x cosx EXAMPLES. (a ~\~ Ct 22. It is therefore necessary to learn the table It is of standard forms which is now appended.# dx *" / J = /tan . PRELIMINARY TABLE OF RESULTS TO BE COMMITTED TO MEMORY. Write down the integrals n x e .
X tUj (e 1 x U/^ dx cos x dx 27 . STANDARD FORMS.GENERAL METHOD. r.
as x For x and a being supposed instance.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. integral could The student should therefore have no difficulty in remembering in which cases the factor  is a to be prefixed. J integration d~" \ must be X of dimensions 1. i is / va of zero 1 X" There could therefore be no . Write down the tions indefinite integrals of the following func : ' 2. Each of these functions decreases increases through the first quadrant .prefixed to the ina C dx is of dimensions 1. cos . . them. cot cos s# sin #. * 2 3. Hence the result of 2 Again / 2 dimensions. tegral. #e + e* ' cos^f . linear. their differential coefficients are therefore negative. EXAMPLES. 28 The reason is obvious. \/^i* . Also it is a further help to observe the dimensions of each side. 2 4. not be tan" 1 . V +^snr^/ \sin^7 log sin x ^sec. x + tan x.(which is a Thus the of zero dimensions).1^.
dx du r dx .CHAPTER III. METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION. V=f(x). Change of the Independent Variable. by the formula 25.= du_= dz dz dx dz Vj~r But whence u= I J j. dz 9 . the formula will be To prove this. V being any Or if we function of write x. it is only necessary to write u = \Vdx\ then =F. The independent variable may be changed from x to z by the change x = F(z).
is we write Let then and if the limits for a.r We next consider the case when the integration a definite one between specified limits. after putting tan~ 1^t =0. / dx 1 and the Then n integral becomes * dz 26. writing the it equation j^=F'(z) as dx = F'(z)dz] the formula will then be reproduced by replacing dx of the left hand side by F'(z)dz. we have .s. The result obtained above. In using the formula after choosing the form of the transformation x = F(z\ is usual to make use of differentials. when x = F(z) is 27. i  *=d* and I+x* l+. and x by F(z).INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 30 Thus to integrate 1 dx. let tan~ #=. Thus may in the preceding example. be a and b.
. x = a. we have e. f{F(z)}=j^. . Now when and when Also z = F~ \a) 31 . / /. = 0.{F(z)}. when # = 1. and whence so that the result of integrating f{F(z)}F'(z) with regard to z between limits F~\a) and F~\b) is identical with that of integrating f(x) with regard to x between the limits a and 6. Let ^ cosfjxdx I J z Evaluate 3 =2.Aos x^dx. J N /a? Let xz^^ and therefore dx=Zzdz ^x Ex. cos2. 22(^2=2 . / J and therefore 3xPdx=dz 2 . Put ^?=tan / ^ cos z dz = 2 smz . cos x*dx .METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION. we have 0=. Evaluate /  cos \Txdx. T 4 . 2. x = b. z = F~ \b}. = llcoszdz = ^smz=^ sin x\ then dx=sec 2 0d6 when # = 0.1. Ex.
.1 dx. Evaluate /" 6.e. (Put ^=0 2).dx = ir \J\+* P *? sec sec# { = fsec Ex. 32 ir :. (Pat log x = Evaluate \=.tan1 = t > 2 L Ji o The indefinite integral is tan~V. a^sin I* J e x lf#6 (Put a*=z). e Integrate x cose x . EXAMPLES. _x [i. da? /* J 8.sec = V2 . j 4 e fsec B tan { dx f ex ' Let 6^ = ^. When #=0. fT^=. 0=1.. . Evaluate dx  (Put a* (Put x\=z). Hence dB = 2 o dx = dz. \ Tsech^^]. (Put a 4 ^+1=4 Q 5.1. v + b tanh x. Evaluate [ 9. Evaluate / J 2V^(1+^)  1 2W# . Evaluate x dB = sec .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. then 3=e.dx (Put x*=z\ " 4 1+^ J acos# +  reintegrate l Evaluate f ^ ^=4 (Put .4.cos(log x) x 2. 1. Evaluate / 7. and when # = rtan'/V= ten. dx.
E. 33 NOTE ON THE HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. x. i. & e * ex ~ the exponential functions ex +e~ x 2 2 e~ x PTP e?+e*' are respectively written cosh tanh#. Elementary Properties. Definitions. cosine.l e~ x sinho? t&rihx =cosh 2 sinh x cosh x = 2 : AM ^ . 29. By analogy with the exponential values of the _ _ __ sine. have tanh x = coth x = .. etc.iJ.METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION. For purposes of integration it is desirable that the student shall be familiar with the definitions and fundamental properties of the direct and inverse hyperbolic functions. c = sinh2#. c. C/  ~ X V CJLJ. tangent. 28. We clearly etc. ^ = ^ ^ with many other results analogous to the formulae of Trigonometry. common .
Similarly. sign. 34 30. Inverse Forms.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. and ey whence y = log and we shall take this expression (x *Jx l /# 2 1 as l Again. . 32. Put x = smh y = then t and &=x Thus y = log(x and we with a positive shall take this expression viz. putting i&nh. with a positive viz. as sinh" 1 ^. Let us search for the meaning of the inverse function sinh" 1^.x x = tanh y = e2 and therefore y.. log (& + >v/l + # 2 ) 31. putting cosh~ 1 x x and cosh y == = y. x x = 4" log S^ 1  05 sign. whence tanh l we have  y=1 1). we have ty+ey JL e*y = x*Jx*l..
synonymous with ^ log 34. = sinh u. \Qf l we have " e u = + tan . . . . 2t/ . C "" Cfc The Gudermannian.METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION.. if u sin Hanh u = tan ~ x sinh u.synonymous with " tanh l 35 X  log" Ct"^~X synonymous with J log . Further.x 1  . and coth" 1. synonymous with log cosh" 1 . u = log tan( r + ^ ). X JL We . seen u it. Again. Hence gd u = cos ~ 1 sech 35. sinh" x = J log r.. the function cos^sechu of u and written is called the Guder mannian ^=c If sin a and x sech 2 u = tanh \/l tan x = tanh u . . coth Similarly 33. ~ l shall thus consider .
.^ o?.. results : (a) / etc. J 7. 36 whence x c u l tan.e! u x u = gd u. / sinh sm J 3.rc^= coth#. xdx = cosh x. establish the following . Writing sg x for sin gd x. 2 tan tan a. sinh logtan(j+)=gd^ the inverse Gudermannian of x. cosh% 6. : /cosh#cfo?=sinh#.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. . EXAMPLES. 5. 4. = and ^TTT =2 0_ e ~2~ : Hence Thus ~4^ ^ = tan ~ 1 l e 2 . /cosech 2.r = sech x. Establish the following results 1. / J 2 (sech A'dr=taiihtf. 2.= .
d$.. a . ri a sinh u J Fa sinh Integrals of then is . a = logx + \/x . We might have established the results thus f dx =.. 7 . sin' 1 * a 2 an aid to the memory. Let To integrate *A 2 tf 2 = a sin dx = a cos a? 1 . =cosh 1^ a . .METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION. a have u du = f 11^ laK =u = cosh~ 1 . 37 .* and Integrals of 36.. viz. = leZu = t6 = sinh" J putting a? = a cosh u. bimilarly . we / a Jx/x 2 = a2 I J  39. dx F . : I )*Jx*+a^ dx = a cosh u du and Hence W^ + 2 Similarly 2 dx f ! tt \/x 2 + az = a cosh u. then To find t 38. resemble that for the integral and the analogy is Va * I . In the inverse hyperbolic forms these results 37. Jx/^ 2 = log ^ *  = smh . . 2 f of log e coefficient 2 a? a . X 4 The differential z . put oj = a sinh it. 1l . 2 ^.
cf^ = acosh0 2 2 1 + sinh = cosh z. then since we have I J^^dx = a 2 \ cosh 2 z dz = a sinh . a cosh "z + ^ .  or 40. . 38 {+/tf^dx = and 0+ ia sin 6 a cos ..INTEGRAL CALCULUS. cc . sin a To integrate Let then ^ = a sinh z... . 1 2 2smhx  . Va ..
. 2 1 = sinh 0. dx = a sinh z dz then then since cosh% . 40.. ! log42. . 41. .METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION. 2 2 Jsif^cPdx = a sinh dz J j = Ja sinh z \ or 2 . C62? a cosh a2 a ^. h J log(tan a? ^ _snce_ + &1 2 cos 2 # J log^ n .] tan x sec 05 or   . If we put tan# = . + sec ^). 39 To integrate x Let a cosh z. and therefore we have __ [by Art.
smx . Let tan ^ = z 2t . . x and Integrals of cosec I We sec ydy = log tan (T + 9) sec xdx = log tan ( r+s) or & ~* x have now the ADDITIONAL STANDARD FORMS.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 40 43. Jx/^+o f x+\/x*+a? a dx . Then and Hence 44. x = = + y. z 2 cosec In this example xdx\ = log z = log tan ^.x JTP^l +/x =1 2 x 2 dx = 2 4 a 2 die = 2 a2 dx = \\/a I g 1 g f l+Jx i 2 G 2 a  . let 2* dx = dy. . f dx . 2tan Thus I sec x. taking the logarithmic differential 1 n 9 x x7 dz ^dx = ^ 2 z or dx dz .
1 sin2^' 1 tanV 3sin^ a sin ^7+ 6 cos x cosec#cfo?=logtan . 7. I cosec x dx = log Isecsccfo tan^. ^' 10.by expressing cosec x as ^j Find \SQexdx by putting sin x=z. 5. x x 4. Write down the integrals of 3. =log tanf ^ EXAMPLES. cosec 2#. cosec(a#+&). 8.METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION. Deduce / / 11. .
15.] . PETER'S COLL. ^7.. etc..INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Show 13. the log being repeated r times. 1882. Prove [ST. Integrate that / / sec x dx = cosh 1 tflogtf' when r l x represents log log log ... 42 12.
45. and Vr( a. lujdx = wu J dx or 1 I f \ du vj. " Integration u . j dx 7 If u = <f>(x) and above rule may \<}>(x)\ls(x)dx= / the so that ^.dx. INTEGEATION BY PARTS. if the integral be not at once obtainable. be written $(x)\ \\ls(x)dx\ or interchanging 0'(oO J^H[aj)da5Jcte. ^=jT/r(#)cfe. 7 vj~ dx. )> ^(35) ' I J^(oj)^(a?)dte=^(aj) <f>(x)dx j^'(^) \dx. d (uv} .CHAPTER IV. say ^(x).+v. to connect the integral \<t>(x)\ls(x)dx .dx + follows that dv t . it is possible when the integral of either one is known. Since it " by Parts of a Product = dv du t uv = u^. : J0(a?)efcB Thus in integrating the product of two functions.=\{s(x).
e. unity. Thus / log xdx / 1 . The rule may be put into words thus of the product <j>(x)\{s(x) Integral 1st function x Integral of 2nd 46. Co. important to connect it is x Int. 44 with a new integral which may be more 0'(#) lx/r(#)cfo \ dx easily integrable than the original product./"l. 1. This may be done if x be chosen as the function $(x\ since in the second integral <$(x\ i. of 1st of 2nd]. occurs in place of x.n ' x J sin 9^7 n sin ' If cosn&N "~~~~\ nx n n\ I / cos nx 47. x cos nx.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Unity may be taken as one of the factors to aid an integration. log x dx = x log x / x =x log x I \dx (log x)dx .5 J . Then Thus by the rule (x vxnxd**. : = the Ex.*!*?. if xcosnxdx with possible j another integral in which the factor x has been removed. Here Integral of Integrate [Diff.
48. aJ . aP +bQ = eaxsin bx. ax cos bx dx = cos bx+l e^sin bx dx P and / we have ax e ax Q stand . if / e / e and whence sin bx dx = sin bx~\ e^cos bx dx. respectively for $m bx dx and / e ax cos bx dx. and therefore. 1.INTEGRA TION B T PARTS. bP+aQ=eftxco8bx n nr ct ax P=e > sin bx b cos bx = a 2 +or?2 and / w+v (a 2 +6 2 Y )~ e ax cos ( bx \ tan" 1  ). The operation of integrating repeated several times. n sin and n finally. Thus f /  # 2 sin nx n ? #29cos nx dx J f / 2# J 45 by parts may be  nx 7 dx. If one of the subsidiary integrals returns into the original form this fact may be utilized to infer the result of the integration. Hence / f J $ J x^ nx dx =****n _ _^ COS *\ nL n #2 sin nx ~ Zx cos nx 2 sin nx T9 7^ I * 49. Ex. mt.
A/o2^2 [Note this step. 61.] % a2 sin~ l . Ex. Gale. And this is otherwise sm /j^. the integration. for Beginners.INTEGRAL CALCUL US. sm x cos ^. For obvious. 3 Integrate Here e e* x I J v a2 2. . which 2 Integrate \/a 2. 2 3 sin% cos 3# = 3x = (1 _(2e 3a: to the cos x  cos 4#)cos x parts. 39. transposing and dividing by which agrees with the result of Art. 4. x l by the rule of integration by _ . multiply by a factor r and diminish the angle by tan" Ex. Art. c i CL whence. 46 The student will observe that we should obtain by putting n= these results are the same that I in the formulae ^)>& t^<^(^+^)' ss < i [Diff. J > > a must divide out again the _ ^= r to if differentiate Va2 + 6 2 and 1 by tan" .\ g fag game as to / pnsi^ rx j increase the angle inverse operation. Ex.] 1 factor is Va2 +6 2 .
sin^ sin qx sin r^?. PQ be any arc of a curve referred to rectangular axes Ox. Hence.1 )l V 3/J 4/ ^34 V 3\/2 . 55. and of Q (x v y^). 3. 4. for Beginners. putting EXAMPLES.: [Compare Ex. Show 9. / . ^ sin x sin 2# sin 3^.INTEGRA TION B Y PAR TS.] p. ax 50. n= l in the result. Gale. Q.area area PNMQ = f . ^n (log^) 2 e^sin^costf. Diff. OQ . xe . ^ COS07. *x sin 2^p c?^ 1 ^sin^^.J_ cos(3^^^cosf5^tan. Integrate by parts x z 1. OP . Oy. by Ex. be the ordinates and the V 1 abscissae of the points P. \ Geometrical Illustration. .rect. Let PN. e 7. x e?) x cosh #. / that Isin" 1 ^^. e^siiA cos 3# dx = cos \ f j x 1 tan~ r j . 2 ^?COS^7. x^e*. . #2logtf. Calculate 8. e*sin x cos ^ cos 2#. and let the coordinates of be (XQ y Q ). Integrate 2. : 5. Then plainly Let P PN QM QM area But PNMQ = rect. ^nlog^7. 16. /^sin" 1 ^^. ^?COS2 x sin x cos #. 6. I 47 ^ 1.
48 INTEGRAL CALCULUS. o o J . I cv\ Thus ri y M. N. and area PN^M^Q = x dy.
sin7i# m(m  . I. m= . D 1) for the cases m >S n v___ 771(971 cos me n . viz. C.cosnx and Cm = n Thus when the four integrals = l are found. integrating by parts. _ . we have at once may readily Sm and Cm .INTEGRA TION B Y PARTS.. and n I sin ^ nxdx= J E. Integrals of the 51. I #mcos nx dx. m~ cos nx and(7m = Thus and Om = = cosnx ____ +m^ . Reduction formulae for such integrals as the above be found. so that the equation above may 49 be written and thus the rule of integration by parts is '* established geometrically. I Form a^sin nx dx. Denote them respectively by Then.l.
Vufv^dx =u'v 2 \u v^dx. u(n  u with \uvdx \vtf'v I parts. I u^'v^dx. If u and v be functions of x and dashes denote differentiations and suffixes integrations with respect to x we may prove the following extension of the rule for integration \ where by uvdx = uvl u^ n ~ 1^ u'v written for is TI 1 =uvl \u\dx. for rf Vuf'Vzdx. Vn _ 1 dx = u( n ~ Vv n . Parts. I 2 dx =u"vz u'"v Bdx = ufv^ etc. 50 xv GT = f I cos at. l) dashes.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. = etc. 7 = nx dx t \ sinrac 7 = nx dx T^CC x eosnx . = Ice o\ ~ = sin \x cos .I vf^Vndx. . by successive applications of Extension of the Rule for Integration by 52. sinnx \ ^ = ax J all others can be deduced the above formulae.
^?3 sin #.. EXAMPLES. ... If 1.INTEGRA TION B Y PARTS. mxm a \x m e axdx. ^sinh^. effected. "Write 1. sin bx dx.r2 sin a. the integrals of ^coshtf. ^sin^o?^. down x*e*. Hence adding and subtracting alternately 1 Ex. ct/ . ^4 sin x cos x. Evaluate / ^3 sin 2^. 2. 3. obtain J 51 tand>=. / x^co^xdx^ I *0 53. For remembering n where r= va + 6 2 2 and * u'"v4 +. may be at once Ja3 n e aa. we immediately this rule to l a2 It will be at once seen that the integrals 2. u v dx = uvl we apply u'v 2 + u"vs (xmea*dx=xm Ex. cos bx dx. / #msin nx dx of the last article may be and / ^ m cos nx dx treated in this way. The determination of the integrals l# n e aa.
Prove /r=n ^Vto^ito^iy^j^^ ^ . Similarly L^a*cos i x dx = eP*{P cos bx+Q sin bx}. sm^^=^ 2'^e sm('.TT) =etc. 1. 1.? V4 \ / 6 . 2~VsinCr. . Since Integrate ix^smxdx. 2" Vsinf . (5) (sfaitr^xdx.. Ex.r . Integrate (a) ~ femai lxdx.r ^J.3^ 2~Vsin^ 3 a: .INTEGRAL CALCULUS.. 2.sin 30 .. 2 a. (d) (e) /" \ '(/) /"cos 1 ^. 52 we have I xne axsm bx dx = J e ax sin r (bx d>) e axsin (bx ^ r2 ^^~ r3 n\ e ax {P sin or bx Q cos where X 3. Ex. ..COS Q= xn n sin xn ~ l ^ sin 20 + n(n 1) 30 xn ~^ ^.77 . \e*smxdx S^e^sinf we have f^3 e .^ .rjQ ^s EXAMPLES. (c) Ixv&Pxdx.
INTEGRA TION B Y PARTS.
2.
Integrate (a) [
(&)
x sm " 1
fdx.
(c)
/^5^&'.
(d)
/sin 1
'
r pin tan  l x
tan  l x
~
53
dx.
dx.
(c)
/ptn
J
**
dx.
4.
5.
../*..
(b)
I
xefsm^x dx.
(c)
I
cosh ax sin bx dx,
/
Integrate
J
Integrate
7.
Integrate
8.
Integrate
9.
Integrate (d)
log
/cos
10.
11.
j
i
Prove that
Integrate
(a) \x
(e)
(/)
I
^ 2 2*sin
/
cos
/
/
u
c?
(a
dx.
\dx.
 sin' 1 ^ dx.
x
201og(l+tan
0)dO.
^^
1cos^
/"
2.
b log
j
J*4^.
(&)
T
r
..
.
e(suix + cosx)ax.
6.
i /\
...
I
Integrate (a)
2
v
2
7
dx=u
TKJPOS) 1892<]
[a, 1892.]
c?v
sin% + 26
v
du
C
d^u
i
+ vdx.
sin x cos
/
x + c cos 2^)e*^
[a,
1883.]
INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
54
12.
Show
where the
that
if
u be a
rational integral function of x,
within the brackets
series
is
necessarily finite.
[TRIN. COLL., 1881.]
u
13. If
I
e
ax
cos bxdx, v
2
and that
14.
(a
I
e
ax
sm bx dx, prove
that
+ &2 )0*2 + v2 = era
*.
)
Prove that

m+L
m+1
Also that
2
3
where
15.
I
(m+1)
(ir^! ?
^"
1
stands for log x.
Prove that
(i.)
{e^w
J
ax
)&2 le ^
+^""j
J
a?+ri
2
n '2
2
bxdx.
b'
[BERTEAND.]
16.
Evaluate
/
x* log(l
iT5
 x^dx, and deduce
that
+ 277 + 3T9 +  == 9""3 10ge2
'
[a,
1889.]
CHAPTER
V.
RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONAL FORMS,
PARTIAL FRACTIONS.
ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONAL FORMS.
54.
Integration of
or


and
\
^
a?
Either of these forms should be
Thus
Fractions.
a2
x2
=
___a
2aj\x
1,
= slog
&
2a
f
Ja 2
^
a;
=
2
a# 4 a
a^
;


*
9
2
(x<a\
thrown into Partial
_
x+a
F=
L
1
a
i^"l
.1
coth" 1
aJ
!f(J+_J_Yfo
a x/
2aJ\a4a)
= ^1
2a
,
losr
to
a+oj
a a;
F
l,i
T^l
=tanh" La
aj
1
.
INTEGRAL CALCULUS,
56
(
Compare the forms
of the results in square brackets
1
.
with the result before tabulated for =
viz.,
dx
C
= 1 tan' 1 x\
o
!~n
a/
Jcr+or a
)
55.
Integration of
Let
fH
a
J
=1
f
6
2
dx
dx
f.
aJ
c
a^a
AV_
\
"
2J
^2a/
4a 2
dx
or
2
we take the former or the latter arrangement ac2
cording as b is > or < 4ac.
Thus
>
if 6 2
or
If b 2
7
<
_
.
coth" 1
;
4>ae,
I=
or
4ac,
/

tan
"
l
cot
.
~
These expressions differ at most by constants, but in
any given case a real form should be chosen.
RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONAL FORMS. 57
56. Integrals of expressions of the
*
form
px + q
can be obtained at once by the following transformation
pb
px + q
_p
(2ax+b)
~~
the integral of the
first
2a
,
part being
^
Za log (ax
2
+bx+ c),
and that of the second part being obtained by the
last
article.
[The beginner should notice
how
the above form
is
It is essential that the numerator of the
Jirst fraction shall be the differential coefficient of the
denominator, and that all the #'s of the numerator
obtained.
are thereby exhausted.]
T?
'
= J log(^2 + 4*7 + 5)  2 tan57.
Although the expression px + q
form
1
^+
may
2).
be thrown
into the
by inspection, we might proceed thus
Let
pa?+gsX(2oaj+6)+/i,
where X and /x are constants to be determined.
:
by comparing
coefficients,
giving
X=
and
=
pb

Then
INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
58
EXAMPLES.
Integrate
1.
xdx
f
.
4.
.
5.
2
f
^ a^
/7/y.
//y>
x* + 2x+l
3.
58.
^t
/
1
fo+ 1 )^
c^
I \2
f/v
/"
/
J
JflLZ^p.
x2 +?
6.
General Fraction with Rational Numerator
and Denominator.
Expressions of the form A~4, where f(x) and
9w
</>(#)
are rational integral algebraic functions of x, can be
integrated by resolution into Partial Fractions.
The method of putting such an expression into
Partial Fractions has been discussed in the Differential
Calculus for Beginners, Art. 66. When the numerator
is of lower degree than the denominator the result
consists of the sum of several such terms as
A
A
Ax+B
Ax+B
and
And when
the numerator is of as high or higher
than
the
denominator we may divide out until
degree
the numerator of the remaining fraction is of lower
The terms of the quotient can in that case
degree.
be integrated at once and the remaining fraction may
be put into Partial Fractions as indicated above.
A
Now any partial fraction of the form
at once into
Any
A log (x  a).
fraction of the
.
i
1
integrates
A
form
rl

x
^~*
A
(xa) r
^
a)
~v
integrates into
by Gale. (7=f. 2.has been g4 ax*+bx+e form 59 dis And when any 2 2 r [(x repeated quadratic factor such as occurs in <j>(x) giving rise to partial + a) +b ] fractions such as YT~+ \2 7>2ir i #) ~rfr [_(# we may integrate such J a fraction by the substitution x + a = b tan Art.1. _ y a?+pa + q 1 ^(ca^cb^xc^ab^ac^xa: and the integral is a' + ]g 1 . _^=1 J__l^li=i_L_i__?^. i_ 7 ' . Diff.. Let Then Thus . (ab)(ac) Ex. 83.dx. J(^l A(x* + 4) + whence and L _ Integrate ^1=1 ^+ <?)(# J5=^. 67 or Art. (x+a+ib) then be integrated and the result reduced to real form aid of De Moivre's Theorem. as in Art.  ^+? J[ (xa)(xb}(xc) _ a2 +pa+q _ (bc)(ba)~^b (xa)(xb)(xc)~(ab)(ac)xa c*+pc + q dx. Any . 56.1) = x. . by aid of But it is frequently better to factorize (x+a)2 +b 2 into its imaginary conjugate factors x a\ib and tb. 63.+7 r . 6. for Beginners.RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONAL FORMS. fraction of the cussed in Art.a). ggg log(^7 ^ . Ex. 59. ^r\ir which may r^r^. ~2 . and obtain conjugate pairs of partial frac/~\ S~\ + x+a  T) tions of the form T) I  . Integrate We have *2+ .
= Aj/ fraction becomes 3 Dividing out until y Hence the \ dx. Let a? 1 is Integrate = 1 +y .4.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. + 2y fraction 1311111 and therefore ^2 1 and the integral Ex. integral 3. then "We now divide out by . is Integrate ^ / x Put Hence the l is = ?/. 60 and the Ex. a factor of the remainder.
I)3 ^1) and the integral 3(^ I! i ~ \(x) x+1 3 Thus ll5y = ll.5(^1) 5(^l)2 5#2 plainly 1 48 A7 61 8(^7 . p. 61. To shorten the work we until y 4 is a factor of the remainder.1)4 (^3 + 1) l+# 2(^7 L 5 is 3 .2 ijj (a? .RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONAL FORMS.1) 2 1 1 +1 6 (2a?l)3 ^2 . of the Diff. use detached coefficients t : 2+3+3+ 1 ) 1+2+1 l + f+f+ J (  iii j+t+ + f i ffi f++f +tf +if + f A ttAA 551 e Now 2 11 5j/5y and by Rule 2.1)4 ^ 4(tf . Gale. 1 and 3 ^. for Beginners.
) (iv) / > "^ 2. Evaluate 3.) (vi.) v J^+l (iv.) w' 2 ^+ \ T~\* 1 a) ^ + b)~\ V11 V ?T7 \7 ~f~ "a *&) (viii. \' : . v ( xd* J^+^ + l . 62 EXAMPLES. f J (^2 +a dx ^ 2+62 y (iii)' f J Integrate (i.) r /"(^ "t cto.) f A4 ^2 +l J^ [' 1 a?2 do?. (v. 1. 2  (iii. Integrate with regard to x the following expressions v11 *' (iii. Integrate W (i) 4.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.).
Obtain the value c o 9. Integrate /. v xdx . cos x dx Investigate Show ^2 + 1)3 that r. Integrate J~. 63 5.RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONAL FORMS. 10. _f^ fa o * . ~3.J~* (VI. Evaluate 8. . dx x dx (vii.) x \ \ / d^t? ~ /T t \o/i j f ^ j ~t o\' 7 : \ V*'"^*^ (viii.) (iiL > ^ (^&T4) W ^<**> () ( V x A */\ ~(~& i i\/ (x*+ lX^4)' 6.) '' (#l) 2 (#2 J + iy /Vtan~^(9 and P\/c 7.
64 11.] .] of the infinite series can be expressed in the form and hence prove that [OXFORD. Prove that dx [+* J (x* a+b 2?r _2?r ~~ ax+ 2X^2 bx + b'2 ) V3 ab(d> [COLLEGES 12. 1891. 1887. Show that the sum 7.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
and the real form of the integral is therefore (Art. x/ac . 36) + = cosh ~ * 2 ^ Vo ac . is positive we may If may +&\ .CHAPTER VI. When a y= a Positive. is > or < 7^ Va smh ~ 1 . x/J 2 according as 6 is greater or less than ac.___^_^== I 2 write this integral as a which we R = ax where 2 b z Qp i ac _If __ I dx . C.^= dx =_. Integration of Case I.. a arrange as . 62 . T ax + b . ax b 1 or * 2 according as & E. SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS._.. f doc 60. T. aJ 7/ +2bx+c. . i. . dx If ______.
+ 1. 61. I . \/aR x T 1  x/aJi 7 \/a \/ac ? b2 which forms therefore may be taken when a is positive and b 2 is greater or less than ac respectively. ~l z = sinh ~l ~ z = cosh ~ l ax + b ax + b 7 \/z . =. ^ the constant T= log *J a Also since cosh and sinh 1 and v6 = cosh ~ l . " . sinh " = 17^ cosh . 66 In either case the integral logarithmic form be written in the may _ ~T= log (ax + b + *Ja*Jax 2 + 2bx+c). II. 1  2 ~ ac being omitted. . b2 \/ac 1 = . sinh . Case a Negative. Then our 1 r ZJ or or 7=: sin 2 +2bx+c integral dx a be negative may be written . 7=.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. l \/z 2 2 1. If in the integral dx f ' . V^ . / )*Jax write a= A.
' \/23 the integral = i= log(4# + 3 + 2 V2 V2^ 2 + 3# + 4) V2 ing the constant log ).i#. for 2J' Also since we have cos ~ l z = sin ~ 1 2 x/l . .SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS. 7 write this cfo? = . is ^ 1. Integrate We may I . a positive._. . ac. /ac^P' and the Ex. cos~ V& when ^R R = ax + 2 ac \/b* It thus appears s that z / ! $ 7? negative. v/UJSIl \/2 i.. .e. 1 \/23 .1 ax+ b ^ n.smh. v/2 p=. real form to be chosen in each case. 67 or omitting a constant .
Integrate 4. dx 2. either by inspection coefficients we obtain by equating . Integrate dx .* 2#2 /" J 62. \/41 \/2 also be expressed as F=> ^cos V2 */41 EXAMPLES. 68 Ex. ===== may x/a^ . Integrate ^ dx { JV^ + 2a? + 3 { J dx 2. Integrate ( J This integral may be written dx I and therefore = sin" ^^ 1 is which may . >Ja + Zbx+cx*dx /\/a + 2&# Functions of the be integrated by or \ may first cyPdx Form putting (c positive). 3. Integrate which. 1. 57. A/2. Ax+B ex/ . (c positive). 2 +26^+c Ax+B into the iorm be done as in Art.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.3.
let cos .SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS. The integral of the first fraction 69 is A and that of the second has been discussed in Articles 60.'. Sine or Cosine with Positive 63. 61. Hence fsin^+^cfo = ((Ic 2 ) dc __ . dc.37 +3 x+b POWERS AND PRODUCTS OF SINES AND COSINES. Integrate  2. Odd Integral Index. EXAMPLES. smxdx= x = c. Any odd positive power of a sine or cosine can be integrated immediately thus : To integrate I sin 2n+1# dx.
of p the ever the other be. put cos#=c. n being integral. form Similarly.sin therefore Hence / cos% sin 5^? dx / c4 (l cos 5 ^7 ~5~' 2 2 c ) 9J dc cos 7^. or q odd. any product admits of immediate integration by the same method whenever either p or q is a positive odd integer. and xdx= dc. For . __ tan^ +6 a5 I 2 4 n ~ l dt . Thus = )  ^ 8 a5 p+i Irf 4.n ~*(j . 70 = Similarly. and therefore sec2^ dx = dt and let p+^ } p+q= 2n. and therefore cosxdx=ds. For put tan x = t.example. . what64. When expression sin*to cos% admits of immediate integration in terms of tan x or cot x. putting since s. 1 / \7l. the 65. to integrate / sin 5# cos 4# dx. we have I cos* n+l x dx = s 2 ) n ds (1 nn L_ ' > I Product of form sin^ cos?#.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. cos 9^? ^f~ "T"' /^ sin 5 ^ cos 3# dx we proceed thus = I : 2 sin^(l sin x)d (sin x) is a negative even integer.
Similarly. or positive integral powers of sines and cosines. and then each term may be integrated at once. an x= x thus : 5 tan~ #  the result being the same as before.. d<9 = ftan~*0rftan0 f tan~%= . o 2 ^ 6 J taii \. for Any any product of f \ J cos 7 = nx dx siunx n cosnx ifsin nx dx= 7 and J n . Ex. /sec" (9 cosec" 66.SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS. then 71 cosec 2 ^ dx dc. f I  1 /T . and \&DPxco&xdx=  a result the same as the former arranged in the opposite order. we put if cot x = c. 2. can be expressed by trigonometrical means in a series of sines or cosines of multiples of the angle.f cot*0. Ex. Use of Multiple Angles. 1. positive integral power of a sine or cosine. Integrate f?^<fo?. J This may sura be written and the It result may / therefore is also be integrated in terms of tan CcosPx sPx r^dx = 6 J sin ^? . .
Integrate Let cos x + c sin x =y I8m9xdx. Sin 2.2?)a? x ^ which presents the result in different form. 1 ._ cos x c/Lx =: .sin 2 = sin = sin x 67. has already been shown that when the index odd no such transformation is necessary. y 2i sin nx y n y n Thus = 2 cos 8^. Ex. X f /tUU^^ /^^2^^r^. 2.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Ex. 4. 3. thus in the second example sm x 3 . 72 r i J} x x.27 / / cos% dx= / _ / j= / ( <** 4 + J cos 2# + J cos 4dc)dx 1 %x + J sin 2# + g ^ sin Ax. . Ex. The method we are now discussing will therefore be of more especial value for the case of sin^cos ?#.112 cos 2^+70.16 cos 6# + 56 cos4o?. then 2 cos x = 2t sin x =y w . where neither p nor q are odd. . It is / cos # dx / (1 .
5. sin 8.. cos . _J 2^ then 8 cos sin 6^cos 2 . etc.#=y = 2 cos 8# OQ 8O sin6^ + 28 J cos 4#+ 8 cos 2^. number being formed at once as the sum of the one immediately above it and the preceding one.. Thus in forming the 7th row we have each 0+1 = 1. NOTE. . It is convenient for such examples to remember that the several sets of Binomial Coefficients may be quickly reproduced in the following scheme : 1 1 1 121 1331 14641 1 5 10 10 5 1 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1 etc. 5 + 10 = 15. Put 8 L_ Integrate / and ^= .8 cos 6# + 28 cos 4# . 10 + 10=20. . + 4 cos 6^ 4 cos kx 10. = l(cos 8x . 4 cos 2^7 +5 V.56 cos 2# + 35). 1 + 5=6.SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS.?? Thus 73 2 j f K irsiii8#  j and \$n$xdx= 2i J Ex.#+t sin . o sin 6a7 cos 2^ o?^. 6^+8 cos'8# 7 sin4#  Kc 56 sin2^? 4 Q * "1 +35# . whence 68.
. Show ir ir r ft / sin^ctr. Integrate 3. 1+2141 + 2 + 1.# cos .) si 3# dx=\ cos 2# ..$ cos 4# + ^\ cos 6#. by l + in which the several coefficients are a.20+ 15 . The coefficients here are formed thus : 10=1. / ^0 *0 / 7. 46=2.# sin Show / N (i. and the last row are the coefficients required. Integrate 4.5.6 + 1.r. that f I 7 = sm wia? cos w^ a^7 . the work appearing would be before.*/ + occurring above we only need the coefficients of (1 t) (l + t) all the work appearing will be are 1 . 4 2 Similarly if the coefficients in (1 +0 (1 O were required. etc. a + 6.t) G(l + 1)* coefficients of (1 are 15+ 9. coefficients of (1 . etc. each row of figures being formed according to the same law as The student will discover the reason of this by per2 3 forming the actual multiplication of a+fo + cZ +cfa +. 6. . 6 + c.6 + 15 . 1+3 + 2231. 1. that sin x sin 2. 1+4 + 6 + 4 + 1. Evaluate 5. 14+ 4+ 410 + 4+44 + 1. / r cos 5^?c?^.t) Q G 2 and coefficients of (1/) 6 (1 + are . 2. 64 = 2.5 + 95 + 1. Integrate doing those with odd indices in two ways.. cos(m+?iV v ! ^ cos(m ). c+c?. 72V y . 41=3. 2 Integrate sin 2.INTEGRAL CALGUL US. 74 / and in multiplying out such a product as (y 1\ 6 /  ) 1 (. EXAMPLES.
.) Isirfimxdx and Ico^mxdx^ and by independent integration. Thus I sec 2# dx = tan x. sin / 7 [ / n)x sin( ) J 2(mn) cos mx cos 75 ) 2(  7 = sin(w dx ) ft. eta = etc. 1 sec 4# dx =1(1+ ta. mx sin nx dx = sin(m .. .) ' /.2? J %). 65. . INTEGRAL POWERS OF A SECANT OR COSECANT.) verify the results and (iii.) /* . x (11. 69. ^ 2m7i) Deduce from (ii. v (in. + cot x)d cot x 2 x =.n x)d tan x SQCQX dx f I 2 f 4 =1(1 + 2 tan%c + tan #) d tan x = tan x+2 r  ~ . Even positive integral powers of a secant or cosecant come under the head discussed in Art.. and generally where Similarly dx = cosec 4^ (i^ = (1 = cot cosec 2^ cot x..SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS...
Thus cosec n# dx cose. 3. sec 5#. etc. sec7 cc. .~ s>5 . dx where c W C. />2nfl .. . Odd positive integral powers of a secant or cosecant can be integrated thus : By we have differentiation at once d and (n + l)cosec n+2& n cosec 7l o? = x cosecna 7(cot doc whence w+2 ^j dx (n + 1 ) sec = tan x sec n# +^ I se and (ti +1 xdx =~coix cosecnx + n f Thus as and sec I we may / = log x dx tanf^ + ^ cosec # c?x = log tan^ by successively putting formulae. in the above V sec 3^ = J tan x sec3#+f tan ^7 sec x + f log tanf +etc. V .. .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. = J tan x sec x + ^ log tan / sec 3# dx / sec 5^? da7= J tan # sec 3^+ 1 / I \ infer at once the integrals of cosec 3aj. cosec 5#. 5. 70. n = I. ). 76 and generally 2w+2aj ^3 = cc = cot x. sec 3#. . . .c n+2 ) f + ^ etc.
tan ?l / tan 3#cfo?= /  .SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS. postpone till that chapter the consideration of the integration of such an expression as sin^cos^ except for such cases as have been already considered. may integral power of a tangent or cotangent be readily integrated.l)dx x. ~2 tannx dx = tan n For l)dx x(sec?x = Itann . and the student 71. is INTEGRAL POWER OF TANGENT OR COTANGENT. Such formulae as formulae. cosine) secant. tan ^. tan x(sec 2x. tan #. and a positive power of a cosine or sine is a negative power of a secant or cosecant it will appear that we are now able to integrate any integral positive or negative power of a sine. We 72.2a3c?tan# idM. I tan%c dx = (sec 3 4 2 # f. Since a positive power of a secant or cosecant a negative power of a cosine or sine. J l)dx = tan x 5 integrate tan #. A 77 " " are called REDUCTION will meet with many others in Chapter VII. or cosecant. Thus we have 2 ltan w etc. . Any 73. #cfe.n ~l x n ^1 And since and we may I tan # cfc == log sec #.
^= 2 I (cosec ^ 1 )dx = cot x # . t _ tan^^ Similarly I coi nx dx = cot n ^~ 711 cot 71 = whilst and icot^^aj cot 2 ^ ~2 1 r f n2 #CfcE.sin 2 j. cot 3# cot 4#. and therefore we may thus integrate cot 5 ^.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. etc. 74. as s 2  . . COt J = log sin x. 3 Hence any integral power of a tangent or cotangent admits of immediate integration. Integration of f dx \ a+bcosx We may write a + b cos x . 78 [ f 2 3 By continuing this process we _ shall evidently obtain 2^3 2?il + (l)w ~ and tan+^=^^ 1 tan # + (l) nff. etc.
79 (a or (fa Thus = 2 AgUj 6 or (1) CASE I.SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS.6 i /a+6 tan ? . g+ b 2 . or 2J Since we may write this as 1 1 =5 COS ^ b. If a > b this becomes tan a.
INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Ib +a 17 1 Ib > lo g /6 2 we may may a . 33 this +a V6^~ tan 2 v6 + a + \/b . since Art. A f*na sv* bcosx Vf^ By by a. (2) in place of the form (1) we have UjiAj J + fti _1_ in this case n a A b IT. 80 1 or COS" CASE II.~ . 54 J. nX tan 2 ^ +a ^b+a 2 rjr> a tan ^ . +a vb 2 2 tanh x ' \J~b Art. or. * 7 + bcosx writing the integral in the form (K dian. If a < b. be written tanh~ ~l : z = cosh ~1 further exhibit the result as b 1 :cosh~ L^ b 3 1 1 or 2' 1 still a tan = .
dx Ex. 75. dx bcosx a+ er or = cosh < b.a) _ 12 1 $. a+bcosx Jl? These forms are all equivalent.SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS. but one of the real forms is to be chosen when the formula is used. b/ \ and therefore the proper form once be written less down of the integral can at in each of the cases a greater or than ^/5*+c*.4 sin x dx f [ J 1 13 + 5 coe(# .5 2 or  i/2 . The be im r a+ b cos x + c sin x may integral of mediately deduced. We 81 therefore have b. (where tana = ^) :a) /13 2 . I.'T a\ .e. for b cosasfc smx = \/b 2 {c 2 tan~V cos(x ). x i. 13 4 = in 3 cos x H. C.
a + 26 tan . 7 may be easily deduced by putting f then J dx o sin x a + j. The dx  f integral I .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. down in both also independently + 26 sin  cos . 82 76. and therefore its value the cases a^b. may treated. . integral then becomes 2 and two cases 77. arise as before. Ja + 6sm# . dx f dx be similarly .  dv f =B IJ o cos y a + ^ be written may Of course it may be investigated by first writing a + b sin x as + a(cos  2 cos 2 or The ^( sin 2 j .+ a tan2 ^ J. The integral x I .
) f J I . a + b tail x . 7 sm#cos# Integrate (i. Vtan# ax.cosh ~ a + b cosh x 78. z r. .. /) 9' which further reduces to 7===.x lb  which further reduces to 3 and if b < a the integral 2 *~ + a cosh # a + fccosha' . EXAMPLES.) (ii. 1 83 . ifb> a ) 2 this = a. J (a sin = r x + o cos xy9 .SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS. Integrate / J 8ecxdx Integrate (i. .6 A___ is . 2. 1. T ( . ^ tanh V^a+o 4. . la b. Similarly the integrals of 1 and of a + bsinhx may a + bcoshx + csmhx be easily obtained. 7272 62 'a 2 * tanh " .) 3.
. Integrate (i.) and r" . cos +shl fcos201og COS0S1TL0 ^ fa.T' (viii) \ (1 .) (iii. Integrate Integrate Integrate Interate f ^/ dk ____ C?Jt' V a(^ ..77 . with certain limitations on the values of the that.b) + V 6(^ .a) f <** J f 7 I +^ fsm^ J sm2^ . a 5.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.r r ' f } ( Ou27 / * \ cos a 3(ls  v ) ^'''^ J cos a + COS.) (ii. 9. J 1+cosx ^^ 2 siii 2 <9 +6 2 cos 2 ^' . SC &^% 2^2 4. (vii. 84 Prove 4.(3 and integrate / ____ v (x a)(/3 x)dx. 10.cos a? + sin r J + cos x prove o 6. 8. v J (') / \ U11 '' dx C >} .) 7. constants involved =L=  /"%= J J(ax)(x(3) P . Integrate .
19. [****"****&. VI + sin x sec ^ Integrate / J 1 14.f^fl_f_. Integrate . + cosec x /. Integrate f^ V cos ~ CQS ^ * f A /_ ' (9(1 + cos 6>)(2 + cos 6>) f 23. Vsin 2(9 18. dx. Integrate 12.SUNDRY STANDARD METHODS.. " Integrate sin ^? (sin + cos f ^ 25. Integrate / J 13. ^' fVr^ 1 + sin x Evaluate / o 16. 2 sin a? mgcoeg 6y 85 . 1 f J . v a + b tan 2# Integrate J 15. sm x _dx. Integrate log tan ^7 J 17. Integrate Integrate fcot03cot30 J 20. Integrate 24. Integrate ~ / J Wo? /" 7 J (x si 21. 11. Integrate . Integrate 22.
sin 4^7 J sin + [THIN.. 28. Integrate sin" 1 I J 27. Integrate  l+x2 ? J \ Integrate ( J sin ^.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.] . . 2# sin sin&r dx. 26. COLL. 5 ' X and prove that [*3^dx. J{^^dx. 1892.
REDUCTION FORMULAE.CHAPTER VII. and whose integrals are not directly obtainable. relations 80. REDUCTION FORMULAE. functions occur whose integrals are not to one or other of the standard reducible immediately forms. 79. For instance the . however. sucft integrals may be linearly connected by some algebraic formula with the integral of another expression. In some cases. The student be inferred. which being a standard form the integral of I(a 2 + # 2 )^cfc may Such connecting algebraical Reduction Formulae. are called will realise that several reduction methods have already been used. and this latter J(a itself in terms of 2 J(a + ar)^cfe. Many For instance it will be 2 shown that (a +# 2 )^fe can 2 be expressed in terms of + # 2 )^fe. which itself may be either immediately integrable or at any rate easier to integrate than the original function.
n ~ l dx bnx f and J is s ~ l s . r and and 8 being integers s positive. and to give a ready method for the reproduction of some of the more important. Consider the case 777/ when is a positive integer. 88 of Integration by parts of Chapter IV. II. and each term is integrable. 70. the expression s (z a)~ n+ ' .'.. the binomial in series. /v Next suppose p fractional = . this expression directly integrable by expanding the integrating each term. I. When is is binomial and a negative integer. and It is proposed to consider the formulae of Art. If p be a positive expands into a finite integer. dz zs r bn) \x and when = sz ~l a positive integer. such formulae more fully in the present chapter.  On X stands .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. In several cases the integration can be performed directly. method A the integration of x m lX* where for anything of the form a+bxn 81. III. X = a + bxn = z Let .
r 777 n \. r TD IV. integer.is S integral. integral becomes . an integer. we is H proceed thus : .REDUCTION FORMULAE. Three cases therefore admit of integration immediately or by simple substitution. (1) p a positive (2) integer. or negative. this is integrable when m\ is either a positive or a negative integer by the substitution b ax~ n =zs That is. 1. the expression is + integrable when . If may 89 an integer positive or negative. 58). Let so that Then the %x*dx= 2zdz. and n =an integer. and the integration then be proceeded with (Art. rn _  rn and by cases II. Integrate (^(c Here m=6. and III. positive. may may be put into partial fractions. [p an 777 (3) Ex. n = 3.
90 Ex. 82. 2.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. and n +p is an integerc ' / Let 3. partial fractions. 70). Here The Integrate m= n = 3. however. Reduction formulae for \xm ~\a Leta + 6x H = ^C.lX? +l dx. integral is / x*(a? p=b + x^dx. If.IXPdx. and the connection is complete. Re arrange this as a linear function of the expressions whose integrals are to be connected. then \x m ~ l X^dx can be connected with any of the following six integrals x m \X P  \ 1^ xmn. m+n Xm+n according to the following rule Let P= indices of x X+1 JTya+1 and : ~1 : where A and JUL are the smaller X respectively in the two expressions whose integrals are to be connected. . z be put the process of putting the expression into partial fractions will be avoided and the final integration may be quickly effected (Art. then XT and the integral becomes 9 * which might be put into = sec 6. . Find dP p. Integrate. xm  n .
etc.. l etc. Ex. nect / (# 2 As Thus. [^X'dx****.REDUCTION FORMULAE. m+pn m+pnj or J The advantage of this reduction is that the index of p is lowered and by the usually troublesome factor successive applications of the same formula we may ultimately reduce the integral to one which has been previously worked. to find 2. for instance. and this con again with this last is a standard form.lA'*dx ."] x m ^Xp ~l dx. P=xmXp Let l 91 (x^ X\lx with . we ((a?+arfdx with will connect (( P=x Let [Note the preparatory step which might be performed mentally = (n + I)(x + arf na\x* + arf ~ 2 [which is now "rearranged as a linear function. txm Connect 1.apn Hence I etc. P=(m +pn) ftf. X Ex. = Then dx [Note the rearrangement "as a linear function.(ar*X**dx..+ 22?. or which can be easily obtained. etc. l(& + cFydx we may + cfifdx. the reduction is used twice. this with integral + aPfdX) and / (x 2 ."\ \ .
[^x^^axx^dx.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. m~l x with *J%axx*dx y f with m (x ~\2ax*fdx. Calculate the value of We shall positive integer. 3.4 Ex.xm ^(2a  . m l% mJf Let ^(Zax?dx P=^m+1?(2a^) 1r m endeavour to connect >JZaxx'*dx (x i. according to the rule. then Hence m+ (m + 2) fx ^(2a .xfdx being a . and 1) I(x 2 + a?fdxna? /"( n+I Putting ?i =5 and ft = 3. 92 P=(n + Integrating. (( J and Then 3i 6.xfdx ^ + (2m + l)a m fx ~\2a .e.
2ral .REDUCTION FORMULAE.. xm *J?Ltix o _ ra . Apply the rule stated in Art. a 93 . when # = 2a.cos 20)rf0 m 1). m+1 Now to find IQ m+ 1 or I 2m3 ' fj^ax an d ^l^ax x^ m z _ etc.   2m 3 a3/ 2ml . / J 2. put x=a(\ dx = a sin Then J.. ( 0.3 r_ (2m + l)! +2? (m+2)(m + l).3 2 m!(m + 2)! EXAMPLES. 82 to obtain the following reduction formulae (when + bxn) X=a 1.T(l . +2 xm*j%ax  /la. Also Hence 7= Hence / fVsinW^. .. we have O = TT. 3 5 ' m m ' 3 "*4 x^dx. m+2 Jo o and x*dX) m be a positive integer. we have $=0.. when #=0. m 2m 1 ' "mT2 2 a sin cos 0). : .
j This expression may be connected with any of the following six integrals : I sin^ "2 # cos?# dx. Obtain the integrals of m = l. P = sinX+1 #cosAA+1 & where X and ^ are the smaller indices of since and cos# respectively in the two expressions whose integrals are to be connected.INTEGRAL CALCULUS 94 (. m=2. / xm^(^Lax A similar rule may be given I for the cases when the limits 2a. by the following  sin^+ 2 ^ cos^ *x dx.^ 3. ~ sinpx cos 9 ^x dx. for a reduction formula siu p x cos qx dx.  n / Integrate out 7. Reduction formulae for for x^dx their numerical values sin^a? co&x dx. m = 3. and and of integration are 83. ( J (a**X*dx . Put Find T.. J 4. the . \ si \ si ' \ I sin^ 2 x cosv +2x dx. ^ ^P {x+ mm] = xm J 6. rule. ax and rearrange as a linear function of expressions whose integrals are to be connected.
^ cos%^ =  (q f l)si ^)sin^ cosPx rearrangement as a linear function of sin^cos^ and . The present method is useful in the case where p and q are both even integers. Connect the integrals Ex. / sin^ + 2# cos~ 2# dx. / Let P=s =(p = (p [Note the last l)sm p ~ 2x cos g ^(l I )sin^~ two 2 # cos 9# lines of * . It will where either EXAMPLES. / sm p+2x cosq. 64. Integrate and the connection 95 is effected. 2.v dx. 2 sin #) ( p h sin^~ 2^7 cos%]. . 67]. Hence P= / ( pI ) / siii^~ 2 ^7 sin. I sm px 4. /*sin^ 5. Connect the integral fsin*4?cos?#ei? with 1. / siii^ cos~ 23? dx. 3. however.REDUCTION FORMULAE. cos 9^ dx ( p+ 8m *~^X cosq+l* p+q q) I si + zi (* P + qJ be remembered. that in the case p or q is an odd integer the complete integration can be effected immediately [Arts.
vanishes when ?& is an when x = 0.. 71 = . ~2 #cos. 96 6. fsin^^ _ Prove that cousin. and also when x = J. 7. J this formula to integrate sin%. 84. sin 6#. x sm n~ l xcosx n . I 1 n J 5 "~'ii^V"g 3 4 Iff J 2j .INTEGRAL CALCULUS.E according to the rule. n \sm J n integer not less than if 71 x su nx dx . I J Let f^. sin 8^. sin If ^ cos & 2.*. we have = 711 ^ . then dP .* Employ n Establish a formula of reduction for 8. 4 Integrate sin To calculate the integrals V 2" 5^n = f smn #? aa? and (7n Connect I / fl I J sin n^c P = sinn ~ 3 dx with I sinn = (n f lsin n ^a^= J Hence since l )sin n ~2 dx. 712 71 3 ^ 71 5 7i ^ 4 * a >w be even this ultimately comes to Til Ti3 r ~ z n xdx. cos w# dx.
TJ 9 Z< "P <S / I .REDUCTION FORMULAE. I.. other considerations. /.  E*111 I 3J cos \ 2" I x r =1 o we have $n = Ti1 7i3 1 In a similar way it 4 2'" 5* may 2 3* be seen that I "cos n xclx has o precisely the same value as the above integral in each This may be shown too from case.. Ti1 7i3 that is If n n 2 n we be odd fj il/ ^^ TT 422' similarly get 1 L ll/ . in forming such a sequence minates with (3 under 2) and no factor .<. G it ter . easily stopping at (2 under 1). Thus the first of these examples is (10 under 9) x (8 under 7) x (6 under 5). [The student should notice that these are written down most by beginning with the denominator.v Q ^^ O A. These formulae are useful to write down quickly any integral of the above form. Ufl n 71 and 3 1 '" since sin I 97 <r * * * 2 xdx = 5 dm w w U**/j rl w .is written. We then have the ordinary sequence of natural numbers written backwards. ^. n even. C. n odd. and writing a factor . etc. But when the denominator is odd.] first 35 E.
/(2m. (2ml)(2m3) /(v ) 2r </v ^/^ /(O. less p . ./(2m2. and If p 2^1)= =2m. and q odd =277 ~ 2m 1 = etc.l j and = 2n. and be not p than 2 GASP: I. . then since p + qJ and q be positive integers. 2^1) 6e 6^67^ ' 1.. 2) = \ 9 /i 7/1 ^i 1 2ft = m 3). 98 85. If > 6e ei>e7i = 2m. To investigate a formula r2 for si Let this integral be denoted by f(p.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. and # afeo even 3 v 2 1 TT Thus CASE II. q) tanP^^ p+q J we if have..
.and g odd (2m2)(2m4) ^ 27i2)(2m + 27i4/ v =2n 2 ^_i ) 1..3...2 A( 2^2)(2m + 2w4). L 2w Jo 2 Expression in a single rule.. (2m2)(2m4).5. These four formulae may be expressed under one 86. 2w  1) = Tsin J (9 cos 2 "^ dO = f . Ifpbeodd =2m l. by putting J* ( sin*<9 cos0 for dO = I = / r si o so that f(p.RED UCTION FORMULA E.. = e tc. CASE IV.( This may also be deduced at once from Case II. p =2m odd be 1 99 and q even = 2n.(2^ + 2) } 7T and /(I. obtain similarly 1. CASE we If III. rule as follows : Let r(n + l) be a function defined by the relations .5^f] . q)=f(q> p). I.
2F(2) .5. 100 These relations will be found to sufficiently define n{. r /l\ V2/' d9 .. For instance. .2. called a 4 3r(3) = 5 . .ir(l) = 5! V) =F(f )= S PXiHf T(6) =5F(5)= This function is .1 is either an integer or of the form 2k + 1 T(n + 1) where ' 2 k being a positive integer. ^ ^(2n+l\_2nl 1 \~~2~) 2 2n3 2n5 l ' 2 2~ 2 so that /y 7T 2 and sothat Hence in Case I. but we properties further here. 2nI 2.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.3.. I f r(f )= i  f fr( .3. . .4. 5 4F(4) = 5 = 5. .4. TT which occur in the foregoing cases of I sin^0 cos?0 o may be expressed at once in terms of this function. The products 1. ) Gamma do not propose to enter into its function..4.3.6 2u . ..
__f f ' j V^TT j" f f * i ^/?T _ 5?T 2. 7T f and that the the sum This ^ ?9 of the 1 +1 +l occurring in the denominator #41 ^ and the is in the numerator.7 .. It will be noticed therefore that in every case have the same we result..6. we 101 evidently have the same result. In Case III.5.f~~2 15 ' .REDUCTION FORMULAE. a very convenient formula for evaluating quickly integrals of the above form. viz. In Case II. In Case IV.3.4.2. is IT Thus r f \in6 s cos 8 dO = * .
EXAMPLES. . 79 761 6'Xsm6'=^ and Similarly. 6 (sin = 6>cosW6> 2 [sin^(lsin J J ^^. 102 87. that when either p or q or both of them are odd integers. or if the limits of integration be other than and ^. For instance. the expression sinP$cos?# is directly integrable without a reduction formula at all. however. 83 or proceed as in Art. tt we must either use the reduction formula of Art. COS 5 <9 COS 7 6n . cos 2 6>(l 2 cos 2 <9+cos 4 6>)dcos "i COS  3 3 +2Q <9.! Jr 4"*^*s But when p and q are both even and the indefinite integral required. Write down 1. observe (as it has been pointed out previously).jo.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. The student should. the values of 67.
/ T ' J Deduce the formulae r(ii)r(zl) V 2 V y 7 result f 7 J sm of Art. rT sin4 #<w. cos 4 ^ dO. 6 9 fsiu fsitfO cos 5 dO. 1. fsin 7 fsitfO cos 2 d0 cos3 <9 dO.REDUCTION FORMULAE. Prove that (a) I / (b) cos 2w < ^ = 1 tan ^^t </> cos n c/> + M . Evaluate rf sin 5 ^cos 2 / ^^. 84 for / x dx from the ( of Art. Em+n J Bm+nl Write down the cos fsitfO indefinite integrals of dO. 103 prove the formulae (1} I = sm 2m Ocos 2n 6d0 f (2) 2 sin J 4._. / sm 2 6 / J J __ /3" 7T 7T 7T /^ 6. I?L_?. EXAMPLES. 86.~\ \ 2iii / Jf cos 2 . / 7.
(y) J *^*+a)*r. . where n is a and evaluate [OXFORD. 6. /2p+l and obtain the value 7. \f OjCll ITlrT +7 [MATH. Investigate a formula of reduction for and by means 2 271+2 show that of this integral 27i + 4 2.. 7i and complete the inJOHN'S COLL. 1881.] positive integers..6 27i 271 . Investigate a formula of reduction applicable to when m and n are tegration 3._J_ 271 + 8 adinf 2..27i ~~3.27i + Sum l' also the series 1 1 1 I m I .] 4.. 4. Find reduction formulae x(a + bx) (a) prove for P *dx.4. . of ( S)  Find a reduction formula for positive integer. 104 2. _1_ > + 5 2. TRIPOS.4 1 I t 1.5 1 .3 2. 5.4 + 6 2. [ST. 2^ + 3 2 271+1 1.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. = 7. if ra=5.3. Prove that 2n+l / (rf *.6 271 . 1889.] ..4. GAME. 6.7. /*(* [COLLEGES> I e ax cos n CAMR] x dx. 1879.
are the binomial coefficients. [COL1KGES Jcos % 189o.2m 4~3. 7.6 . 1885..] . CAMB.4. Show that 1 V ' 1 \ wi / 2/3 n2fifJ) [TEIN. 1886.3. [COLLEGES a..(2wl) TT ~2. formula of reduction for a* 8in"*<fe.. . / Deduce from the #w sin x dx latter a and / e ax sin n x dx. +^ /b (^ l)(n2) n( rc ^^ 2 n+1 In > " \f 1) (2rolX2ft3).(27i+l)l where a1} a 2 13. 2.5. = rT / si o prove that ^l and deduce un =   sv + rCf 1/ 3). 1889..6.7.5 . 5..] mx cosm# dx = r+where [ST.. that an integer. TRIPOS... 1878.. Show 2 TO / cos . 1 05 Find formulae of reduction for 8..] 10. Prove that 7 * 1 12.] 11.. COLL.] Tt un If 9.RED UCTION FORMULAE.4... 4 sn^ ~~ mm ~T72 m is JOHN'S.3 TT ' 8' [MATH.2m _1. .. sn^ ~" .(2m + l) Find a formula of reduction for f~=L1 Show 1 ' 2* that ^ v'^ 3..
i 2 . 1889. If m + n be IT T 2 n+1 [BKRTRAND. ?i (when m is a positive cos m# sin integer) of 2mx dx. 1 2 [COLLEGES.] if = Im. and show that cos m^7 sin 7^^.] . prove that /m? w = /rm w I  cos%^7  = [BERTRAM] cosw# cos nx dx. Prove that r'2cosnx / cos nx dx= J 19./ n. n I cos m# sin nx da:.1 . . 106 14. prove that / co   mn. 1887.+ ^J1 If 16. /I prove that Hence ^m ' w = . 15.] /If o 18.+ m(ml) 2 m*n .] even. m^ ^^ 2 2 d cos f m x\ T v . m cos x cos nx + m/m _i (m + n)Im) n = 92 / ? n _i ? 9i\ 93 [if ^l^(2 +i+i + . Show that m being a positive integer.m + n m m+ find the value w 1 dx\ _i M _I. Prove that [OXFORD. 1882. [7. I ) cEr\oos9u./^m2.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
1890.. less (n 2 l)(a 2 s o 2) . Un = sinm^ {.  ^ = . 107 Evaluate the integral c [COLLEGES. show that 71).  show that A=  where Show  n being 26. J(a + 6cos^) from a formula ^ n prove that of reduction of the can be calculated form A Un + B Un ! + (7f7w _ = sin w+ 2 and determine the constants A. (n 25.] o 23._: =. 1886. 2) are either both odd or both even integers. sinW<r a+ 6 cos o? ^ JOHN'S COLL. If + J5 M 3) a = b2 (le Prove that f terms when n  I* that . If n= u m)  I m is not where fLJlfl&pj less smo? than ft. n~ 2 x sin nx dx =  I Til* [OXFORD. 1889. 20.] 22. If cos m# cos / nx dx be denoted by/(m. J 27. a2 1 J e 2 [ST.m(m .l)u m .] . 7^ show that .= 0.w+1 . Prove that n be a if ft I cos positive integer greater than unity. and TTC.7i2n 1 I 16 (i_ e2) than unity. Find a reduction formula for the integral in nx. 1885. 1891. [OXFORD.] can ^ e integrated in finite m is an integer. /"sin ^  / J 24. B. [js. X+ 6 cos #).] / TT V TT 21. 2)u m) n + m?um) n _ 2 l)(n un = If un = . ^7n C.REDUCTION FORMULAE.n .
108 28. JOHN'S.l)"n uMvn+ idx + (. Establish tann x dx.l)n {dx (u^vndx. Find a reduction formula for C xmdx [ft 30. Find a reduction formula for the integral xm dx ' n ' [OXFORD.] (log#) 29. the following formula for double integration by u and v being functions of x> and dashes denoting entiation and suffixes integrations with respect to x parts.] 31. 1889.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.] X=a Z&=/n [ST. differ : / / u + (.l)n  1 nu^ n 1 hn+ i + (.] . dx n (a+&cos# + csin#) . Prove that if 1891. 1888. I [a. 1889. Find reduction formulae for \CLJ (Q\ I f J 32.
Y linear. 89. all cases for which X and Y are both linear functions of x.. INTEGRALS OF FORM 88. . X and substitution Y both is : dx Let fe linear. CASE The best I. X If and Y be both quadratic the integration can be performed. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. but the process is more troublesome. of expressions of the form dx can be readily effected in I. Y quadratic. X linear. II. The integration f dx \^ . III. X quadratic.CHAPTER VIII.
= at/. is any X and . we have %dy and . . being one of ._ . which. and are eacfe linear. viz. Integrate /= ae 2 _^ 7 + bc . ax + b = (y 2 and e) C and / becomes 21 jay ^ 2 the standard forms Jy Ex. f J (x Let then Thus yl y+lj 90. 110 Putting cdx . the integration of T\f] 'IT I ^ ^ when will suffice ^(cc) rational integral algebraic function of x. The same l(fi( for *Jy=y substitution. F Ex.2.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. we nave . is + b. Integrate /== f Writing J^ >/^ + 2=7/. A2 . immediately integrable..r = 2 ?/ .
CASE II.(. Thus 91. and by logarithmic differentiation. Ill L ==& + 24/32/ + 16 so that (by common division). The proper Put X linear. / to the known .ft) +/ Hence the integral has been reduced form /= : which has been already discussed.. adx dy ax + b y ex 2 + ex +/= .MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. F quadratic. t/ we have. substitution is : X=\ y Let Putting ax + b =  .6 Y + a 2 \/ /  (a\ .
<j)(x) algebraic function of we being any rational integral For by common division x.. . then /= __=_ #+1 an d y __ i+%y i+i2 2 V JI* now appear 92. We Eaf and one of the class f M dx. .. <b(x) in the torm can express . Af Axn +Bxn ~ l + M +Z the being the quotient and thus have reduced the process to the integration of a number of terms of the class remainder. ./ Let #+l=yi. It will form that any expression of the f J( can be integrated..INTEGRAL CALCULUS. latter has been discussed in the last article. and integrals of the former class may be obtained by the The reduction formula ^(^_^/)4_2rl TO 2r rlf e c v ' r c v . 112 Ex. /= Integrate f .
C. is left J By xr f where F(r) stands for *=x + 2 +  Now and to integrate  x / we put #+!=_ and get Thus 93. X  quadratic. +/Y=y. dx T f /= Let I J Putting and ax2 4&^ + c reduces I. of this /= Integrate dx. +l (x+l)*/x *2 +3*+5 division + ex+f as an exercise. edx E. CASE III. . (ax 2 j + bx + c) V *Jex+f= y. F : 7 to the form c +/ . The proper substitution Put is linear.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. 113 I J The proof Ex. \Jcx* f ^ 2 + 3 +5 ^ 2 ^.
at once integrable. 114 and I becomes Now j 4 . may as and each term . /= Putting \/^ + l=y. rules. It is also evident that the may _ be made for the integration of expressions of the form __ dx> *() f J where <p(x) is (ax 2 + bx + c)\/ex +f \ the form and algebraic rational. and v^ + 1 _ 2 divisi n ' be expressed . we have 7====2e?y. integral when ^/ex + fis put equal /j/2nj_ "^ \ / .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. p f e)Ay* 2 dy n can be thrown into partial fractions i as and each fraction is by foregoing integrable same substitution 94./ 2n2_i to y y> t _i_ 2 and the rules for partial 7 ' Integrate is for reduces to which by fractions. >L  Ex.
115 EXAMPLES. (<f>x) rational.* Ex. Integrate the following expressions X and F both CASE IV. beyond the scope of say. Integrate 1= f Putting y ~dx dy (a 2 * The student may refer to Greenhill's "Chapter on the Integral Calculus" for a general discussion of the method. We do not propose to discuss in general terms the method of integration of expressions of the form f where X and integral and F are ^) a dx both quadratic and algebraic. as it is We may the present volume. : quadratic. that the proper substitution for such cases is : A/y = ^' anc^ ^e student will glean the method to be adopted from the following examples. . 95.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. 1. however.
 Ex./ 2 are given by x = \ and #2 = 0. Integrate /= /  J (2x 2x2 1 ~~ dy _ __ 2 2^ 2^+1) \/3^ 2^ + 1 3^1 2# 1 The maximum and minimum values yj 2 and yf of . and are respectively 2 and 1. . ?/ must be not greater than 2 and not less than 1.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. . so that for real values of #. . 116 Thus /becomes (a W 2 Also so that and Thus / reduces further If a> 6. . 2. to we may arrange / as i / V^TP . .
37+1 2 )(2a7 x(xl) ~ 1 Thus 2 '=/(.2. 4.== = cosh" + 2 cos" ^1 1 ?/ . 2. 1 N /2 EXAMPLES. 6. Integrate 1. _4 /3^ 2  \2^ .2ar+l J Now /2# .MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. 3. 5. 117 Now yif=^y"='2^ and 2 ttfm^lg Thus / becomes _ r(&g 3 .
then integrable. 'sin(a 6)sin(a c) .)"+  _ (Oj +6 x sin x + c[Cos x) n ~ and the first and third fractions may be reduced by a reduction formula [Ex. VII. 25. +f ina. a). It is easy to show that sin a? Isin^r sin c\ a . while the second is immediately integrable. B. 118 CT Fractions of form 96. Ch. 97. + CCOSa. G are constants A + Ca^a. This fraction can be thrown into the form A (a x + b^siu x + cfos x) x) (Oj + ^sin x + where A. Similar remarks apply to fractions of the form a + b sinh x + c cosh x n (a x + 6 1 sinh # + qcosh x) a + b sinh x + c cosh x ai + frisinh x + Cjcosh #' 99. and each term is ~ 1 1 c 1 cos so chosen that Bc^ + Cb^b. Similarly the expression a + b sin x\.]. 98.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Some ' Special Forms.c cos x may be arranged as (a +6^+0 cos . a l + Pi sin ^ + CfiOSX .
. . 8. any homogeneous function f(x. / 6)sm(a tan : x a 7r .. (a 2 an ) __ . Math. (a . 1872..MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. x i lo^ v 6 sm(o3 c) a). r r /. . 7 v . 119 sin 2. (ar aw ) ^ a2 ^ _a r ar being omitted in the denominator (the factor a r of the above coefficient). y of 1 dimensions. .^ and r 7 . r c) /  o)sm(x sin 2 a  1\ .. .. (a x  ) . 1/ M / ^7 f J 57   .egCoj .. .a3) . * Proc. 6)sm(# a)sin(^ c) sin 2 a 1 __ r)\nY\( ^^ ^^i rt ^^ /^ U lollll (t/ I/ I E51111 Iv 1 whence f I sin r. 1) (* . For by the ordinary rules of partial fractions f(t. . . 1) (a x . r . . * to cos 9) a2 ) a n )' sin(0 . Lond. . ax ^ (a2 ^Xag which may be written ^r((a r a 1 )(ar a2 ) a3 ) . Soc. . 2 c) _ _ _ _ More generally Hermite has shown integrate any expression of the form 100. y) is how of #. T\. /(sin a 1 )sin(0 sin($ Ti /Y tv^ dx sin (a where ^^ . (t . Ssina sm(a and QTTn ollll / ..Oj)(t .a^ /(a. .a x 2) . 6)sm(a S sin 2 ^ r^p a)sm(x sin(^ 7* \ . / cC< # c?a? .
logtan J''ii \ sm(a r an) t/ctjj. cos 6) a 2) sin(0 a 1 )sin(0 sin($ a 2 = tana 2 .: 2 EXAMPLES. cos 2a ^ x 3a a D. . . /(sin a r cos a r) .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. this etc. 120 = tan$. ./ or. . 101. .. 102. sin(a r a r) a n ) sin($ Thus W: /(sin 0. ^ .# sin 2 a)' GENERAL PROPOSITIONS. page 111. a1 = tana 1 Putting theorem becomes /(sin 0. There are certain general propositions on integration which are almost self evident from the definition of integration or from the geometrical Thus meaning. an ) . The if <f>( x ) he the differ result being ultimately See Hobson's Trigonometry.) ^ ^ism(a %) r _ 7 . . sin #(sin 2.. . r= isin(a r OL) . cos a.. Integrate sm ^ 4 cos ^^7 cos cos 2# cos K 3# cos cos cos a sin 2^7 sin 2a sn ^7 sn a cos a cos x cos O. . I f (j)(x)dx= J for each ~~ equal to \^(^) \H C is ential coefficient of * \fs(x). cos 9) " x ~ /(sin 7 .
x = c. x = b respectThen the above equation expresses the obvious ively. Let the curve drawn be 2/ = 0(#0> anc^ ^ e ^ ^ne or " NJP^ N^P^ be cc = a. b For with the same notation as before the left hand side is \/r(6) T// and the right hand side is [ . III. Let us illustrate this fact geometrically. dinates N^^ fact that + area Area 104.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. /& 103. [ <j)(x)dx a = [ $(x)dx. 121 independent of x it is plainly immaterial whether x or z is used in the process of obtaining the indefinite integral. II. 1 <p(x)dx a For if \[s(x) = /& pc <f)(x)dx a + (j c be the indefinite integral of <p(x) the left and which side is \{s(b) the right side is \^(c) is the same thing.
and O'X as our positive direction of the Xaxis. dy. O'Q as our Faxis. o Geometrically this expresses the obvious fact that. and a curve PQ.x)dx y.) o = I <{>(a x)dx (by I). . IV. we may if we like take our origin at 0'. I (f>(a y)dy a o = fV2/X2/ (by in. an ordinate O'Q. For if f we put I f x=a x = a. if Hence = dx = we have and </>(x)dx <p(x)dx= 0(a . axes. y = 0. 9. 122 105. in estimating the area 00' between the y and x QP O' Fig.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
VI. y = a. rpa <j)(x')dx = <j>(x}dx + p2 \ and if we put 2a x = y. We leave the obvious geometrical interpretation to the student. II. ooo o pa pa fa 0(#)cfo=l 0(^)cZa. . when /2tt Thus 0(a)c/x = pO 0(2a . x = 2a. 107. a?)= <p(x). V. we have and when x = a. For by pa pa <f>(x)dx=\ (f)(x)dx+\ (j)(2a x)dx. Plainly this proposition if 0(a?) becomes p2a I and if <p(x) be such that <f>(x)dx = 2\pa<f)(x)dx.y)dy a a = f a I <f>(2a x)dx. y = Q. 123 00 p2a 106. be such that ^>(2a p2a ^)cZ^ = 0.+ <t>(2a x)dx.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. dx = <%.
For the second quadrant sines are merely repetitions of the first quadrant sines in the reverse order. 108. = cos 2n+1 (?r = cos 2n (7r x\ = 0. VII. and TT is double that between and .#).INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 124 Thus sin"^^ sm"(7r . thus : To add up all terms of the form smnxdx at equal between and TT is to add up all such terms from intervals to and to double. . Similar geometrical illustrations will apply to other cases. the corresponding ordinates and the #axis are all equal. If <>ti /net pa <j)(x)dx=n\ \ <j For. I = 71 r'(t>(x)dx= /a 1 I <p(x)dx. drawing the curve y = <j>(x). it is clear that it an infinite series of repetitions of the part = lying between the ordinates OP (x 0) and JV^Pj (x = a} and the areas bounded by the successive portions of the curve. Or geometrin y = $m x being symmetrical about the ordinate cally. since smnx dx = 2 / and and cos 2n+1 # since cos 2n# rir I COS 2 'l + 1 37(jfo7 / sinw ^7 dx . the curve #= the whole area between ^. '0 We may put such a proposition into words. consists of Thus and f <{>(x)dx= jwa I ^>(x)aa. x\ *o r cos 2w# dx = %\ftcos2n and ^7 / dx. f )dx = etc.
for instance. SOME ELEMENTARY DEFINITE INTEGRALS.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES.. the value of the definite integral <j)(x)dx can at once be inferred. 10. 125 Thus. 1. We have seen that whenever the indefinite integration l^>(#)cfe can be performed. 109. 2" f xdx=%o sin Fsm \ >. In many cases.. the value of the definite integral can be inferred without performing the indefinite integration. however. We propose to give a few elementary illustrations. j \276u? =4 A J J TBin n#aa?*4A%nI  7 2n3 / 2?^ J I .= TT a A a .2 2 IT . Evaluate = /= {*( J Writing we have and vers~ . 2 O Fig. Ex. 2ra. and even when it cannot be performed.
log sin zdz I f . Let / log sin # ofo?. #=#. down to ? or 3 according as n is l 22E.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. ir Ex. even or odd... log cos y dy = rl 2/= Hence log cos # c& rf logsm^<ir+ / / \ / j log cos xdx o /I o /f o log sin ^ cos # c?^ (log sin 2% log IT r "j Put i 2x=z. /= Evaluate 2. then then Io8 8inte<fo o?^7 / = ^dz Iogsin2^^=^/ . 126 Hence 1=  Hence /= f\2ay ~3/ 2 f (TT  o Putting ?/ and we obtain = a(lcos0). /=?a n+1 f'sm n+1 0d0 = 7ran+i . 2 dx then /= and / dy .
sin xdx \ J Evaluate 1= \ log cos # cfo? = .. . we have 6 If r e x=l we put /= have Hence we also ^dy = / ^'a? havee / J \x y. 27= /^ log 2. 3. r~% /? log Ex. " / ^= dx.log . Evaluate 1 I Put ^=tan(9. 127 . 2t 2i ^ / o Expanding the logarithm. . 1=1 log(tan0+cot0X0 o /2 o (log sin ^ 4 log cos $)6 IT .MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. 4. Thus 2i /=logl.2 /log sin dO = Tr log 2. 6 "o Ex.
And if z. by Taylor's theorem. a u + Su = Then f 0(o3. Suppose the function to be integrated to be <p(x.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Sc is indefinitely . and vanishes in the limit when diminished. 6 For u= let f \ <f>(x. c)dx. Then will and independent of c. & which. 128 110. Differentiation under an Integral Sign. Thus in the limit ^ = a ' 'dx. be the greatest value of which be capable. Suppose also that the limits a and b of the integration are finite quantities. c) containing a quantity c which is independent of x. &  r 0(a?. J a. say.
is case in which the limits a and b also somewhat beyond the scope of the present 112.) An^xi + ar)*^ (vi. This proposition new Thus f L= =dx = * tan. C. + a> 0). 129 The 111. c. Obtain the following integrals (i. r#. by differentiating n Also.) J (ii.) J (iii.+ be used to deduce may when one has been performed.1 (23a?+ *?)"*<&. 1. contain c volume. T. f J JI p times with regard to . differentiating this latter we c.) E. integrations (vii.1 \l2=2 Vc + a (x+cyJxa we have. : (v.) f(i+*)V*fo. we obtain 2 obtain J (c times with regard to Similarly. many since J /.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. to a. differentiating (^ ^ a) c)(^ * c +a n times with regard r o?^? I 2^+1 (^+c)^ +1 (^a) 2 EXAMPLES.
] x dx (l+tfX 2 +^)(3 + #) [OXFORD. sin 6>Vacos 2 ^ Find the values ^ J (cos /" \ Prove + 67iii 2 ST J HN '  S > 1889.cos f / )^^+^ JOHN'S.) (a 2 + 6 2 . (x . . + a\Jcos(a..L (xp)(ax? + Zbx + cy* \^ Olll 2 (ap 2bpcft .acf [TRINITY. ND 2J ] series Nft . 1888.2 + ^72) 2 ** f J o 7. JOHN'S.v 3 N  _L . Evaluate the following definite integrals W (i \ f J l ^2 /a(a o / ^ UL '\ Prove that 8.] that. [SMITH'S PRIZE. Integrate (i. 1888. 1 (x2 + a2 UL * 3.^2 )(^2 . 130 2.+B)coa(a: a)\/cos(^ + ^)cos(^ + 'v} y C% } 1890] with certain limitations on the values of the constants involved. : l ^' [ST.] .1888. r pf p etu.6 2 )' [ST.p)(b 2 . 1888..]  [0x^.] [TRINITY.] <9+V of fi)(cos x + cos y ) cLx I J cotfx 4.INTEGRA L CA LCUL US. d. . n being the coefficients of the expansion and n having any real value positive or negative. (1 + a) 2 . 1888. I~ sin x dx x + cos a)V(cos x 4. Prove that \(cQ$x} ndx may be expressed by the j\r ^.^2 )v/(a 2 . Show that f 2 /y.] 6. 1876. 188G 5.
^ ooon [ST. 1888.) 12. C. Prove that 13. 2 + cos x dx * (ii. JOHN'S.) sin x log sin / JOHN'S. 1882. S..5.) 10. J [8. 1888. / e~ T sin [ST.) J . / J r f s (iii. J Vs .] < 1. ^"Tf Prove that (i. J o HF (ii. Evaluate (i. 0. 1890.) be if c [OXFOBD. o (iii. Evaluate ft (i. 188.] . 9. f 8in^ (ii.. Prove that CQ&nxdx / is equal to zero o according as n is odd or even. S.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. If S denote the sum of the infinite series P rOV6that 11.) 131  4 + 5 sin x [I. 14.) k y tan a? log sin a? o?^?. Find a reduction formula for f^f.] . 1839.] x dx.] [I.
If . C. Prove f^an^^ # (i.1 1 ''* a 22.] g o z2) =a a3 + 3 " 3.] etc. 1890.] [I.. Prove 18. Evaluate dx f (i..) J sec 37+ cos J a2 4 [POISSON. [OXFORD.7 ctf + ..] . [A 1888.). HALL. S.6 i 1.5 &5   3. f 2Sfc = 1 17. Prove that ? (i..2 a being supposed greater than unity. \* $(x)dx= [TRIN. C. *"" 6 Prove that b remains finite when x ^ f^ ~^W ca?) vanishes.] o 16. 1883. Prove that _T < .] F $(x)dx.) [I. 1887. [MATH.5. C J ^6) provided [ST. Prove that IT 2r~% / /7A <^" being supposed 20. 1891.) [OXFORD.. S.] 19.] 1.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.] cos 2. TRIPOS. 23. 1878. 132 15. 2 1 o 1 Q2 1*34 1 2 1 2 i 1 o2 ^> PL2 & x. Prove that 21. 1889. 1886. JOHN'S.
+ \/4?i2 2 2 + J*/2ri*<n? [CLARE. 1882. 1892... 26. If and theorem geometrically. 1884. 2 etc. JOHN'S. sin 2/ 2n + sin 2K 2n + sin2fc 2n +.] 29.. 133 Prove that r a + <(2aa?)}cfci7. 1886. 28..] n n * *_+ \/6rc3. Show that qpj \ qp qp : ' / n+ I n+2 n n x n+3 (iiL)_J_ + \/2?il 2 n + ri [a. Show that the limit when n is infinite of i i is Apply /*+*. f(x)=f(a+x\ show that illustrate geometrically.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND EXAMPLES. Determine by integration the limiting value of the of the following series when n is indefinitely great sums 24. e^a this result to find the limit of ('+ [CLARE.] . and illus 27. etc. (iv) n i (. $(x)dx= /""{<##) * trate the 25. +sin !. 1886.] K beinsr an J [S T. 2K Show n that the limit when n is increased indefinitely of n2 3n '2n 2* [COLLEGES.] integer.
Find the limiting value 31. 134 n 30. . of the Tith part ~ n+n n+1 n + 2 n + 3 n when n J "V and show that it is to the limiting value of the ?ith root of the product of the same quantities as 3e 8.INTEGRAL CALCUL US. If na is always equal to unity and n is show that the limiting value of the product indefinitely great. 1886. [OXFORD. Find the limiting value when n of the sum of the n of (n\} /n is infinite quantities ' Ti~ J T~ is infinite. [OXFOKD. where e is the base of the Napierian logarithms. 1883.] .] : 32.
1. As we shall in many cases have to form some rough idea of the shape of the curve under discussion. finding surfaces and volumes of solids of revolution. are transcribed for convenience of reference. A curve. etc. we may refer the student to the author's larger Treatise on the Differential Calculus. however. the areas bounded by such lines.CHAPTER IX. Rules for the Tracing of a Curve. and will in most cases . / EECTIFICATION. order to properly assign the limits of integration. glance will suffice to detect symmetry in a . ETC. suffice for 115. in 114. In the course of the next four chapters we propose to illustrate the foregoing method of obtaining the limit of a summation by application of the process of integration to the problems of finding the lengths of curved lines. for a full discussion of the rules of procedure. The following rules. 113. present requirements: I For Cartesian Equations. Chapter XII.
136 no odd powers of y occur. If we can solve the equation for one of the variables.g. Find y^. .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. hyperbola xy If the curve be not symmetrical with regard to either axis. and where it vanishes or becomes indx' finite. pendicular to the #axis. give the tangent or tangents at the origin. Notice whether the curve passes through the also the coordinate the where it crosses origin points (c) . or. axes Find the asymptotes . consider whether any obvious transformation of coordinates could make it so. 3.. Thus y 2 = 4<ax is symmetrical about the ccaxis. 2. i.g. if on changing the signs of x and y. the 2 = a or the cubic x 3 +y 3 = 3ax. 6. it will be frequently found that radicals occur in the solution.. and that the range of admissible values of x which give real values for y is thereby limited. there is symmetry in opposite quadrants.. The existence of loops upon a curve is frequently detected thus. . any points whose coordinates present themselves as obviously satisfying the equation to the axes. . (6) If all the powers of both x and y which occur be even. the equation of the curve remains unchanged. Similarly for symmetry about the ^/axis. say y. x. 4. in terms of the other. If the curve pass through the origin equate to These terms will zero the terms of lowest degree. e. e. first. find where the tangent is parallel or per5. the curve is symmetrical with respect to the axis of x. the oblique ones. the ellipse (a) If ^2+ y*_~ 62 a Again. those parallel to the next.e. in fact curve. the curve is symmetrical about both axes.
rectilinear or circular. We Gale. such as 6 2. Examine whether the curve has any asymptotes. 3. e. following 1. is much 137 simplified when reduced 116.g. initial line. of 9.RECTIFICATION. ETC. ^. add a list of the most common. Any formula expressing the differential coefficient of s proved in the differential calculus gives rise at once by integration to a formula in the integral calculus for finding s. if r = asijm9. (The references are to the author's Diff. It is For Polar Curves. for Beginners. If such exist they should be ascertained. In each case the limits of integration are the values of the independent variable corresponding to . it is clear that r must lie in magnitude between the limits and a. It will frequently be obvious from the equation of the curve that the values of r or 9 are confined between certain limits. Examine whether there be symmetry about the This will be so when a change of sign of 9 leaves the equation unaltered. e. advisable to follow some such routine II.. RECTIFICATION. in the carclioide r = a(l cos$). and table of corresponding values satisfy the curve for chosen values form a and 9 which positive as the : = 0. Sometimes the equation to the polar form. of r If possible. 117. O . Consider both 9..} 118. etc. 7. The process of finding the length of an arc of a curve between two specified points is called rectification.g. 4. and the curve lie wholly within the circle r = a. JP negative values of f o .
Formula in he Formula in the Diff. For Polar Equation of form P. y= . 100.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. ds P. and the limits are #=0 and x%a. For case when curvi *=/(*/) ds _ dt Idy l(dx\* is M(di)+(Tt rdr Pp. P. 148. 103. Hence . 103. For Polar Equation of form P. Reference. For Cartesian Equa tions of form P. add illustrative examples given as For use when Peda Equation is given For use when Tan Pola gential Equation is given : Ex. Calc. Calc. 98. 1. For Cartesian Equa tions of form P. 103. Observations. Int. We 119. 138 the two points which terminate the arc whose length is sought. 98. yi= . Find the length of the arc of the parabola x L =kay extending from the vertex to one extremity of the latusrectum. dr 105.
2 2 2 2 0rf0 and varies . 11. ETC. T Find the perimeter of the cardioide r = a(l cos 0). The from Hence c\irve is to TT symmetrical about the initial line. are= 2 fVa (l cos 0) +a sin = 2a. 139 Ex. 2. y= Hence 7/ V . . / 7 = A/. Fig.RECTIFICATION. Obtain the same result by taking y as the independent variable. /.B 4 7T_ = Ex. for the upper half. and the limits are (Put and and y = a. 3.
2 . arc = Here f  s of any arc ^ Formula 120. that the perimeter of an ellipse of small eccen tricity e exceeds same given by by of its length that of a circle area. ^ is major axis.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Find the length whose equation isp = Here ^ r 2 J ^ at the beginning and end for Closed Curve. Find the length of the arc of the equiangular spiral the points at which the radii vectores are 4.A p = a(\ I . the origin being within the curve. it may be observed that the length of the whole contour is \~ dj)~~] jy disappears Show Ex. 5. = and \^ 2 are the values of of the arc respectively.e sin ^ with the the angle which p makes ). [7. of the involute of a circle. when I pd\fs. p = rsina between and r2 . In using the formula in the case of a closed oval. for the portion the limits are taken. 140 Ex. o / 2i Hence I . where =r VV2 r2sin 2 a Ex.e*sui*\ls.i^sin ^ .] Here where Hence having the 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 p = c^cos ^ + 6 sin ^ = a (l .=4a{lA \^\\ f} (very approximately) . 1889.
32 / = ( \lo _ \irae* 3'2 / = . ).. Show is s = that in the epicycloid for which b y=(a + 6)sin sin = a 5 beiijg 26 222 measured from the point at which 0=7rb/a. Find by integration the length of the arc of the circle = a2 intercepted between the points where cos a and xa .circumf o I \ e4 . between the points for which 5. . as far as terms involving e4 . 4(# . 1. ETC. 2. The radius (r) of a circle of the same area is 141 given by vZ^ab^a^lerf. s oc x*. 3..RECTIFICATION. . 4. Circumf. *. Show that the length of the arc of the cycloid.r=a(0 + sin 0) y = a(lcos<9)J ^ 0=0 and 0=2^. Show that in the catenary y = c cosh .2a) 3 = 27a# 2 show that the length of the curve from its cusp (# = 2a) to the point where it meets the parabola is 2a(3v3 1). of circle]. if 5 be . viz. / and its circumference = 27ra( . n When &=. show that measured from a cusp which 4r+y*a*j lies on the and that 3 yaxis. .the length of arc from the vertex (where #=0) to any point s is given by x = c smh . 2ira t>4 4 ' 64 [circ. e 2 1 4 \ circle . i c v In the evolute of a parabola. ellipse = o .. EXAMPLES.
] that the length of the arc of the hyperbola xy = a? x=b and x=c is equal to the arc of the 4 2 2 4 (a +r ) = aV between the limits r=b. 2t Apply the formula s=_ 8. aem0 $. = a6.'] are 10. Times. Educ.) r (iv.) r = asin 2 . . > Show that in the parabola T =1+0080. C. the peri any arc of the curves r = acos0. Two is r=a(l f cos radii vectores OP.) (ii.} 0). (i.] .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. [OXFORD.] Show between the limits curve 14.^ ' =:__^_ and d>Y sin^w* hence show that the arc intercepted between the_yertex and the extremity of the latus rectum is a{\/2flog(l +\/2)}. r=c. (c of the curve 12.. Find the whole length of the loop of the curve 2 3ay =x(xa) 13. (iii. 1888. 11. 142 Show that in the may be expressed 6. as . + \pdty to rectify the cardioide [TRINITY. [OXFORD. whose equation 9. Show be found in that the length of an arc of the curve finite terms in the cases when * integer.) of ellipse # = a cos r = j/ = 6sin^. 1889. 1882. [ASPARAGUS. meter Find the length 7. OQ of the curve drawn equally inclined to the initial line prove that the length of the intercepted arc is act. 2 i. 1888. where a is the circular measure of the angle POQ. [I. m =xm+n can + * is an *m y or n Find the length of the arc between two consecutive cusps 2 a 2 )p 2 = c 2(r 2 a 2 ). S.
12. has been shown (Diff. ETC.. Length of the Arc of an 143 E volute. i. Gale. for Beg. two points of a curve is equal to the length of the corresponding arc of the evolute . then (Fig. 12) .e.. AH . 121.RECTIFICATION. 157) that the difference between the radii of curvature at It Fig. if ah be the arc of the evolute of the portion of the original curve. Art.e. (at A) /> (at H).
in the above manner for the parabola y 2 = kax that the of the part of the evolute intercepted within the parabola length Show is4a(3\/3l). /3. p. between s. . 13) a.for Beg. A'. if Find the length Ex. and the angle between the tangents at the extremities of the arc is called the Intrinsic Equation of the curve..INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 144 and the e volute be regarded as a rigid curve. viz. /3' arc a/2 = /o(at [for rad. A. the length of the arc of a given curve. be the centres of curvature corresponding to the extremities of the axes. of ellipse Thus the length = 5)p(at A) = ~ ^. Calc. The arc a/3 of the evolute corresponds to the arc AB of the curve. 153. the curve. B. 122. Diff. and a be unwound from it. of the entire perimeter of the evolute EXAMPLE. Let of the evolute of the ellipse. Intrinsic Equation. being kept tight."]. B' respectively. of curv. 3. Ex. measured from a given fixed point on The relation Fig. 14. and we have (Fig. then the string points of the unwinding string describe a system of parallel curves one of which is the original curve AH. a'.
c I. and the length of the arc to be measured from the origin. Intrinsic Equation 145 from the Cartesian. To obtain the 123. Then tan ^ =/(). required relation between s and ^ . sa^r. tan^ = dx ^ For as T and dx P. > r c in . and x eliminated between this result and equation (1). Suppose the #axis to be a tangent at the origin.RECTIFICATION. trinsic equation is s = c tan ^. the will be obtained. and a the radius of the circle. c. Intrinsic equation of a circle. also s=\ *Jl + [f'(x)~] (1) 2 dx (2) If s be determined by integration from (2). Let the equation of the curve be given as y=f(x). 1. Ex. = \/ 1 K = smh 2<>x i /. ETC. we have and therefore Ex. the 2. In the case of the catenary y + c = ccosh. If i/r be the angle between the initial tangent at A and the tangent at the point P.
......INTEGRAL CALCUL US. Find the intrinsic equation of the cardioide r=a(l cos Here and 0)...... (2) If s be found by integration from (4). Fig. / >. 146 and therefore s = c sinh ... . Take the initial line parallel to the tangent at the Then with the point from which the arc is measured. c the constant of integration being chosen so that x and together.. (1) .. the equation to the curve.. and 0.. the required relation between s and \fs will be found.. usual notation we have T =/(0).... i/r a sin 2 .... Intrinsic Equation from the Polar.. Ex............. s 124.... ^ = 0+0... s vanish whence To obtain the = c tan \js. 16.. <f> eliminated by means of equations (2) and (3)..
and 2 If or we determine C so 5 that = 4a( s 1 = when 9 = 0. r\ 4a cos . Also a sin . the arc AP is 4a cos . the intrinsic equation sought. 147 Hence and Fig. 17.RECTIFICATION. we cos^ have J. We may notice that if A be the vertex. .+ C. ETC.
5 sin  = 4ot sin if s T/T is 2 * 2 + sin 2 * = 2a cos . p p the and P: \j/ the angle the radii of curvature at OA produced. . Let s' be the length of the arc of the evolute measured from some fixed point A to any other point Q. we have tan of the Curve dy = ^_^ ^ = ^ ax j (t) is given as .. ^ . If then. Let s=f(\f/) be the equation of the given curve..... we shall obtain the required relation between Ex. between the result and equation (1) t be eliminated.... 2 he measured from the origin where Z=0.. the equation required...INTEGRAL CALCULUS.. (1) By means of equation (2) s may be found by integration in terms of t. Intrinsic Equation of the Evolute.. Let and P be the points on the original curve corresponding to the points A.. and the with makes QP tangent angle the tangent PT makes with the tangent at 0. Q on the evolute. .N d)'(t) .. 148 When the Equation 125. In the cycloid ya(\ cos t\ * mt = tan tan ^ = we have . . 1+costf = ax/(l + cos0 ^ dt Also whence 5=4a Hence 126.. s and ^...
Hence the intrinsic equation of its evolute is and ' . \ equation of the catenary intrinsic is s=ctsm\Ir (Art. Then *// = 149 and ^r. Intrinsic Equation of an Involute. and = whence Ex. With the same AQ we have the equation s'=f(\}/). = c sec 2 or an involute tan "fy i/r and T/r=0 s = c tan 2^. is + A)d^r = c log sec + A^r + constant T/T and if s be so measured that s by . 18. The \Is \//. 5=0 when ^=0. ds or * O T Fig. ETC. . if the curve 127. 123). be given figure.RECTIFICATION. . the evolute The = radius of =c p= p is s = c(sec intrinsic equation of s= I (c  2v// curvature at the vertex y 1 ). we have = c log(sec T .
we may regard p. j The limits for the upper half of the curve are x = Hence the whole perimeter of the pedal 1 =8a. Here.cos a * 2 2 2 2a cos *dx = 4a sin + C. . 19. to find the length of any arc with regard to a point on the circum Fig. 2[4asin2 Jo L and X = TT. Hence arc of pedal = / J = / 2 A/a 2 cos 4 . Hence the length of the pedal curve may be calculated by the formula Ex. if 2a be the diameter.e. Length of Arc of Pedal Curve. 150 128.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. % as the current polar coordinates of a point on the pedal curve. Apply the above method of the pedal of a circle ference (i. a cardioide).+ a 2 sin 2 . and ^ the angle it makes with the initial line. we have from the figure * 2 p = OP cos = 2ctcos *. If p be the perpendicular from the origin upon the tangent to any curve.
Find the length of 2. is an Prove axis of 1/10. i/r Interpret the expressions 5. Find the length of the complete cycloid given any arc f u\a x)=aP. =2^ is In a certain curve show that 5=ee\/2 + a .] given closed curve.] 7.] y=a a cos 0. 1888. Show that the length of the arc of that part of the cardioide r = a(l + cos 0). 1890. ellipse is 1 foot in length. Find the curve for which the length of the arc measured from the origin varies as the square root of the ordinate. 10. by 1 3. its and its circumference to be 3*1337 feet [TRINITY. 1883. is equal to 4a. of the curve 1. which lies on the side of the line 4r=3asec remote from the pole. Find the length of an arc of the sin 2 r _a cos 9.RECTIFICATION. [a. ETC. Jw 6. Show 4.1).] 8. ff Find the length of any arc of the curve Show bola 3a3/ 2 11. cissoid 6> that the intrinsic equation of the semicubical para9s = 4a(sec3Vr . 151 EXAMPLES. 1888. The major ^/^eccentricity nearly. that the intrinsic equation of the parabola s is = a tan ^ sec ^r + a log(tan + sec ^). JOHN'S. [OXFORD. wherein the line integrals are taken rou id the perimeter of a [ST.
INTEGRAL CALCULUS. tion Show is s 14. JOHN'S. +/"(#) + n x s yj). (#2 . Trace the curve y 2 = (a g 3/2) is #) log 2 . ^ 1883 j o 20. 1881 and 1891. 18. is Show that the length of an arc of the curve s =/(<9) given by 13. Prove that the length of the nth pedal of a loop of the curve rm =amsinmO is mnm+1 . od/ y=logcoth ^. 1881. JOHN'S. ! sinn X^ and find the length of that part of the evolute which corresponds to the loop. Zi that the whole length of the limagon r=acos is equal to that of an ellipse whose semiaxes are equal in length to the maximum and minimum radii vectores of the limacon. 152 12. Show has for that the curve whose pedal equation its intrinsic equation s is p 2 =r2 a? = a. [ST. Show 19. [TRINITY.] 16. that in the curve = a gd~ Show C.m (smmO) a(mn+I) m dO. Show that the length of a loop of the curve [ST. Show that the arcs of an equiangular spiral measured from the pole to the different points of its intersection with another equiangular spiral having the same pole but a different angle will form a series in geometrical progression. 1884. y = alogsec a l the intrinsic equa \ff. 17.] .] Find the length of an arc of an equiangular spiral (p = rsma) measured from the pole. that the length of the arc of the curve between the points (xl9 15.
y = d] and the yaxis is abscissae [y = c. 130. It has been already shown in Art. 129. if the area desired be bounded by two given curves [y = <p(%) and 2/ = \^(^)] and two given ordinates \x a and x = 6]. the area bounded by any curve. and that the expression for the area is 9 1 In the same two given ydx way or (x)dx. The process ETC. Again. of finding the area bounded by any portion of a curve is termed quadrature. any pair of ordinates [x = a and x = b] and the axis of x may be considered as the limit of the sum of an infinite number of inscribed rectangles.CHAPTER X. QUADRATURE. it will be clear by similar reasoning that this area may be also considered as the limit of the sum of a series of rectangles constructed . Areas. Cartesians. 2 that the area bounded by any curved line [y = <f>(x)]. fxdy.
The circle and the parabola touch at the origin and cut again at (a.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Ex. Ex. J Fig. So the limits of integration are from #=0 to The area sought is therefore xa. 20. Find the area above the #axis included between the curves y 2 = %ax x 2 and y 2 = ax. 2a a2 ? ^ or . d =a and c=0 and . 4 2 giving irab for the area of the whole ellipse. a f ? . Find the area bounded by the ordinates x=c. a). area will accordingly be PQ dx Li% x=a or fj>(0) for the . 1. 2.x2 ~ .\fs(x)]dx.  the b fa^Sr J 2a For a quadrant of the ellipse we must put the above expression becomes . 154 The expression as indicated in the figure. Here area= ellipse xd and the  2 + ^2 = 1.
Hence for the loop the limits of integration are to a. Now. is >a or (3) It has an asymptote #+a=0.7 (5) It crosses the #axis where x a^ and at this point f. 21. (1) of the loop of the curve (2) of the portion bounded by the curve and its asymptote.is dx infinite. (6) The shape of the curve is therefore that shown in the figure (Fig. ETC. real part exists for points at which x (1) It is (2) No <a. Find the area 3. Fig. and the tangents there are y x " . and then double the result so as to include the portion below the . Ex. putting x=a(\ 155 cos 0\ 21 TT 6 _ira 2 2~~4~' and / J J~axdx = *Ja\ Lf Jo Thus the area required is a?( j = fa2 . Here To trace this curve we observe : symmetrical about the ^7axis.QUADRATURE. 22). J. (4) It goes through the origin.
a+x Fig. 22. put J a ~p x * x=a cos Then and dx ftfJEfcfcl\ Va+x J J =a and area of 2 r / } I) a sin c?$. and double as before. To integrate a~x I xJ dx. 1cos 2 ^ the . 156 For the portion between the curve and the asymptote a to 0. dx. For the loop we therefore have limits are a+x for the portion between the curve and the asymptote.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. In x\l > /O _ /v.
*a+x where so that 8 is a positive small angle. Is then the result for the area bounded by the curve and the asymptote rigorously true ? To examine this more closely let us integrate between limits a + e and 0. In Art. ETC.] . This integral 4 which approaches indefinitely when 8 is made close to the 2 is 4 former result to diminish without limit. r x J?E*dx=  >a+# J_ a cos J 1 Bd9 fl^ "^gain 2 > lcos # [The meaning of the negative sign + sign before the radical in 157 is this y=#/v/^_ * a+x : we In choosing the are tracing the portion of the curve below the #axis on the left of the origin and above the axis on the right of the origin. so as to exclude the infinite ordinate at the point x a. Hence y being negative between the limits referred to. Again.QUADRATURE. where e is some small positive quantity. it is to be expected that we should obtain a negative value Thus the whole area required for the expression is [It must also be observed in this example that the greatest ordinate is an infinite one. 2 it was assumed that every ordinate was finite. we have as before [<c J A/fEfdfc.
OQ. 7. by drawing with PN P^ PNP . x=b. . to xb. Find the area of the loop of the curve y*x + (x + af(x + 2a) = 0. Draw radii vectores 131. Find the areas of the portions into which the ellipse X2la2 +y 2 /b 2 = l 5. the area to be found is bounded by a curve r=f(6) and two radii vectores drawn from the origin in given directions. PQ and the radii vectores OP. Sectorial Areas. .. and the #=ccosh. the specified ordinates in the following cases (a) to x=h. Obtain the area bounded by a parabola and its latus rectum. etc. as shown in the Let the area to be found be bounded by the arc figure. is the area required. we divide the area into elementary sectors with the same small angle 89. OP^N^ OP2 N%.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Then the successive circular arcs centre PN. x= a x=a 3.. may be made to so as to occupy new positions on the rotate about 19 . 1 V 2 2 etc. Find the whole area included between the curve X2y2 =a2(y 2 and x2) its asymptotes. is divided by the line y=c.. 158 EXAMPLES. When OP OP2 OPn i at equal angular intervals. Find the area between the curve y (a+x)=(a xf and its asymptote. to 4. Obtain the areas bounded by the curve. : Obtain the area bounded by the curves y 2 =4ax.. P ^P . it may be at once seen that the limit of the sum of the circular sectors OPN. 2 6. For the remaining elements V P^N^P^ 2 2 3 etc. 2. 1.. Folars. ^7axis. #2 =4ay.
O Fig. Hence the area is 0=0 to 2 i. 1. ETC. Their sum is plainly less than this sector and in the limit when the angle of the sector is indefinitely diminished its area also diminishes without limit provided the radius vector OQ remains finite. the summation being conducted for such values of 9 as lie between 6 = xOP and = xOP n i. Ox being the initial line. i. .e. The area of a circular sector 2 J(radius) X circular meas.. Here the radius vector sweeps over the angular interval from . or Ex. 23. Thus the area required is of angle of sector. = l?LZr 2 S(). this will be expressed as if xOP = a. . xOQ in the limit.e.QUADRATURE. 159 greatest sector say OPn iQ as indicated in the figure. Obtain the area of the semicircle bounded by r = acos and the initial line. ^radius)*. In the notation of the integral calculus and xOQ = /3..
to 0). If s ((9=a to 6*=^). be the length of the curve r=tanh between the 2 = origin and $ 27r. show that A = a(s air). 9. total area of the three loops is Fig. One loop of r = a shift ft One loop of r=asin2ft coia bounded by the radii vectores 5.. 2. [OXFOKD. EXAMPLES. One loop of r= a sin 4ft 4. r vanishes. Obtain the area of a loop of the curve This curve will be found to consist of three equal loops as indicated in the figure (Fig. The portion of r=ae^ 9=13 and 0=/3 + y (y being less than 2?r). 7. and A the area between the same points. 8. 24. 1888. Find the areas bounded by = 2cos 2 + 6 2sin 2 ft 3. area of loop = 1 for these are two successive values ^ fWn 2 30 dO = ~ f\l cos 60)d9 4 3~~ 12' 2 The therefore!^. r2 2. 24). 160 ra sin 3ft Ex. 6. which . The proper limits for making the integration extend over the first loop are of for 0=0 and 6 = . ] .INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 1. cos to ^=)8). Any sector of 7^0=^ Any Any sector of r0&a (0=a The sector of r(9 = a (9=a cardioide r = a(l 10. = fi).
y + Sy) those of an adjacent point Q. 25. (r + Sr 6 + $0) be the corresponding Also we shall suppose that in polar coordinates. y) be the Cartesian coordinates of any point P on a closed curve (x + Sx. the curve from P to Q along the travelling along . y) travels once ^M^ = (fo) we write the above expression as ^\x z dv. where x is to be expressed in terms of v and the limits of integration so chosen that the current point (x. 161 132. that the Fig. another expression for the area of a closed is f Wxdyydx). tan 6 and becomes infinite when 6 is a right angle care must be taken not to integrate through the value oo . y) travels As v is really once completely round the curve. infinitesimal arc PQ the direction of rotation of the radius vector OP is counterclockwise (i. 133. the limits being such that the point completely round the curve.e. i. E.QUADRATURE. area is left hand to a person Then the element on the direction). Let (x. Let (r. . ETC. may If we put y = i so that (x. Area of a Closed Curve. L . c. ir 2 (S$ = AOPQ = $(xSy Hence curve travelling in this ySx). 9).
Now. no longer represents the sum of the areas of the several . taken round the whole perimeter.y 2/& 2 =l. however the curve cross itself.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. =irab. 162 Ex. the expression ydx). If the origin lie without the curve. ellipse Putting y = vx. These portions are however ultimately removed from the whole integral when the point P the curve. in the first quadrant v varies from area of quadrant =? and therefore area of ellipse to oo . 26. If ^ (xdy I . travels over the 135. 134. as the current point travels round we obtain triangular elements such as OP 1 Q V including portions of space such as OP2 Q 2 shown in the figure which lie outside P Fig. element P 2 Q 2 for the triangular element OP 2 Q2 is reckoned negatively as 9 is decreasing and S6 is negative. Find by this method the area of the #2/a 2 +. we have =* f and JV ^L= L2 f* between properly chosen limits. Hence .
of the odd To obtain the absolute area of such a curve we must therefore obtain that of each loop separately and then add the results. and 4 P 2. other expressions may be deduced for the Many area of a plane curve. 2 1 2 in integrating for the whole curve obtain the difference of the two loops. 163 OP radii vectores P Q 3. if the curve cuts itself more than this integral gives the difference of the loops and the sum of the even loops. X. ETC. loops. Similarly. and to ascertain the number of such loops. Q3 . . For draw two contiguous the curve again at OQl cutting Q2 . and we . OP OP OP Now OP Q 1 OP Q +OP3 Q3 OP4 Q 4 = quadl. P 4 Then in travelling continuously through the complete perimeter we obtain positive elements. 27.QUADRATURE. . P^P^quadL P2 Q 2 P3 Q 3 . sum once. or proved independently. Other Expressions for an Area. and negative elements such as OPiQi and 3 Q3 and such as Q Q 2 2 4 4 respectively. 136. therefore Fig. Of course in curves with several equal loops it is sufficient to find the area of any one.
since P 5 137. thus : ds is the angle between the tangent and the <f> radius vector) (where TangentialPolar Form. AOPQ = OF. = ds = P + d*p Again. be an element Ss of a plane curve. .INTEGRAL CALCULUS.PQ. culus this is [This In the notation of the Integral Cal may be at once deduced (V 2 d0 = ir^ds from  = \r sin rW. by other systems PQ is OF and the perpendicular from the pole on the chord PQ. ^ we have area = \ \p ds = J . 164 specially defined If adapted to the cases when the curve of coordinates.and any sectorial area = the summation being conducted along the whole bounding arc. Fig. 28.
co**0)dO = 67ra 2 ^o . 113. and this ^= / f 9a 2 sin 2 . becomes IT = 3a 2 f (9 sin 2 ^ . Cale. 23. a formula suitable for use is equation 138. the cardioide) may be expressed as p= Fig. 29. Hence when the curve is dosed we have area = ^ Ex. the curve is closed this expression admits of When some simplification. the equation of the onecusped epicycloid (i. For and in integrating round the whole perimeter the first term disappears. Closed Curve. ETC. Hence its tween limits Putting ^ whole area=^ i/r = = 3$.e. p. for Beginners.QUADRATURE. Diff.' a 2 cos 2 ^ \d^ taken be and doubled. By Ex. when 165 the TangentialPolar given.. .
for curves given by their pedal equations. two and the evolute. spiral dr = i />2 y2 s i / rcosa r J Area included between a curve. 1. its involute. and the or circle. sectorial area =f 140. radii of curvature In this case we take as our element of area the elementary triangle contained by two contiguous radii of curvature and the infinitesimal arc ds of the curve. Pedal Equation. Again. 31) . and a tangent . Hence any  p=r sin a. 166 139. The area between a to the circle is (Fig.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. we have A = ip ds = i p dr = }p sec In the equiangular Ex. p\ is 2 /o <S\^.e. To first order infinitesimals this area = Ex. t p.
31. Find the area of the twocusped epicycloid [Limits \jf = to "^=7r for one quadrant. 2.] Obtain the same result by means of its pedal equation 7.] . 32) o T x as forming an r Fig.QUADRATURE. 1. 2. EXAMPLES. The tractrix is a curve such that the portion of its tangent between the point of contact and the ^7axis is of constant length c. Taking two adjacent tangents and the axis of elemental triangle (Fig. The area between the tractrix and its asymptote is found in a similar manner. ETC. 32. = 2a for one to r quadrant.2 [Limits r=a = ^2 + 1^2. 167 Ex. Fig.
Find the area of the pedal of a circle with regard to a point on the circumference (the cardioide). 131). S\fs will be the angle between the perpendiculars on two contiguous tangents. we have for Hence. Find the area between the epicycloid s = AsmB^s. 4. Hence =^ / . its AREAS OF PEDALS. Art.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 5. and any two radii of curvature. 2 expressed as Jp c^/r (compare Art. Ex. and any two radii of curvature. _p=/(Vr ) be the tangentialpolar equation (Diff. Fig. 141. Find the area between the catenary s = c tan ^. Area of Pedal Curve. and the area of the pedal may be If Gale. for Beginners. the radius of curvature at the vertex. 33. calling the tangential polar equation of the circle OF YOA^. 130) of a given curve. its evolute. Here if be the perpendicular on the tangent at P. it is geometrically obvious that OP bisects the angle AOY. 168 3. and OA the diameter ( = 2a). and any other radius of curvature. Find the area between the equiangular spiral sAe^y evolute. its evolute.
35. 169 limits are to be taken as and TT. t OF o Fig. and the result to be doubled so as to include the lower portion of the pedal. Let be a fixed point. Let > F (=^ 1 1) the per Then the areas . J pendicular from P upon the tangent. ETC. 34. where the Thus ^l=4a a f *cos*fe^ = 4a 2 2 J o . P be any other fixed point. Let p \js be the polar coordinates of the foot of a perpendicular upon any tangent to a given curve.QUADRATURE. 2 f 4222 J o Fig. 142. Locus of Origins of Pedals of given Area.
section. and we thus obtain Call them a. 170 2 ijV taken between P and of the pedals with respectively as origins are 2 and cfyr j[ft L <% Call these areas and be the polar Let 6 r. 6. r. . 2A = 2A + 2gx + 2fy + ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 then P move in such a manner that A l is constant. and x y their Cartesian equivalents. q.. l If its locus 143. 9 P ~~ T cos($ Pi is definite A P A and p certain 2^/ cos \[s p sin \fs d\fs is described si si \/r d\fs. 2A. It is a Hence must be a conic it known result in inequalities that will be obvious that if p. < . 2/. . 20. l respectively coordinates of with regard to 0. 2 Ip sin \/r d\[s. y sin \l/fd\^ ^ d\/r + 2a32/ sin y Hence \fs x cos i/r 2x \p cos Vp^d"^ + x* Now limits. Character of Conic.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. stand for . Then 2 A = l = known a = \p^d\fr + 2 Jp I 2 2/ cos 1 t/r) x cos ifs =p function of \(p cos 2 i/r c?i/r 1 i/r. I between such limits that the whole pedal will be definite constants..
o Hence the conic becomes i..e. ax+hy+g = 0*\ hx+by+f=0j A Hence and is independent of the magnitude of v these several will for different values of conicloci l all be concentric. cos3/i. sin A.. shall and nh indefinitely small 2 I . 2/z. and that the point P is within it. shall call this centre 1 A We 144. ETC.. and p v q v r v . The point 2 having been found. o ab>h 2 .. 171 2 !// finite c?^ > / 1 = ^. cos \fsd\[sX sin I cosnh. Closed Oval. The linear terms origin from 145. at the point ^ /2  I p sin \fsd\fs. say.QUADRATURE.. sin made etc. sin\/r cosi/r cZx/^J . and the limits of integration are Thus a= p2* cos 2 ^ d\js = = p2ir TT I Then 2?r. eos2h. cos/^. Hence our conic section is in general an Moreover the position of its centre is given by ellipse. . let us to 2. we oo i. for have in the limit when h is . Next suppose that our original curve is a oval curve. transfer our of the conic .e. a circle whose centre ^ is p27T I 7TJ pcosi/rcZ^.. sin 2 \/r d\{t =b o o and closed h= cos \/r sin i/r d^/r = 0. 7TJ Connexion of Areas.
the distance of P 146. 2 is a point such that the integrals \pcos\fsd\fs and \psiu\^d\[^ both vanish. Find the area of the pedal of a regard to any point within the circle at a distance centre (a limagon). Ai=ica*+ . constant values of A v i. with from the circle c . the integrals \pcos\fsd\fs and \psui\fsd\fs when the integration is performed for the oval (opposite elements of the integration complete both vanish cancelling). The area of this conic is * Thus (Smith's Conic Sections. In any oval which has a centre the point 2 is plainly at that centre. Position of the Point 2 for Centric Oval. Art.e. ^7T For the particular case of tion of the conic becomes whence 2 closed oval the equa J. for when the centre is taken as origin. 171). */ab TT = IH s . n = 7ra2 . 147.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 172 Thus will thereby be removed.Ex. 1. 1 h"" . A d. and is 2 whose pole II be the area of the pedal for any other if we have 2A 1 = 211 + ax2 + 2hxy + by* in the general case. Here and Hence A = n+^. 1 P lies f o r where r is the radius of the circle on which from 2. any \ I? (area or conic).
3. [MATH TBIpos>187a] the given internal point . 190. =( Ex. Now in integrate between limits < < ^ the cardioide (Fig. 2 c+ .2 Vcos 2 + b%m*0)dO = (a2 + /* 2 <9 ^1 Hence ). < the angle and pl p c cos <. Ex. The area of the pedal of the cardioide r=a(l cos 0) taken with respect to an internal point on the axis at a distance c from the pole is (5sLet be the pole. Calc. 2 [Dif.. ETC. p. p and p l P and ^A l =2A l .] . Now in order that p may sweep out the whole pedal we must = and = and double. PT on any tangent from Y$P and OPc then OF and the two perpendiculars 2 P respectively . 173 Find the area of the pedal of an 2. 36) p= OQ sin Y QO = OQ sin^xOQ.QUADRATURE. 36. 2c'). any point at distance c from the centre. to In this case II is ellipse with regard the area of the pedal with regard to the centre . 2clp cos < cfc + / Fig.
?rac T" ' Origin for Pedal of Minimum Area. 2a cos 3 2 cos / </> d(f> ' = 4a x 3 fl / cos% cos 3. JJJ. + ysm\}s) d\fs is necessarily <2 can never be less than II. 174 = itf0 = r For 2 Hence  {*(W or  *=f.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.s o?2 o = 12# rf / cos% . 23 /3  so A* . = 24a2 Tcos^ <fe. it is clear that A l ^ + y sin \Jsfd\ls.2c i 2 J Sir 24 = 2 Finally 4a**^*J> J 1 ^ 642 2 6 3 _?ra Al 8~ mi A 148.3 cos)<iz [4 6422 Also 2 fc cos 2 42 2 ^^^ 222 d>cta=3. . Hence / p cos <j> d<j> =2 . it appears that When 2 A = 211 + (05 l cos J Hence as the term \(x cos\fs positive. f2 is taken as origin. .
Pedal of an Evolute of a Closed Oval. 175 2 is therefore the origin for which the corresponding pedal curve has a minimum area.QUADRATURE.irab = ?(a .b) 2 2 . ETC. Find the area of the pedal of the evolute of an with regard to the centre. The above article shows that area of pedal of evolute = area of pedal of ellipse . This also admits of elementary geometrical proof. The formula in Art. ellipse of ellipse . 138 for the area of any closed oval proved is area of Hence = oval + J jp */' jft ) 2 J which plainly expresses that the area of any pedal of an oval curve is equal to the area of the oval itself together with the area of the pedal of the evolute (for ry is the radius vector of the pedal of the evolute). Ex. 149.(a 2 + b ) .area .
Hence the area of any portion bounded by the two curves and a pair of tangents to the original curve may be expressed as and is the same as the corresponding portion of the area of the pedal of the evolute. and a pair of Tangents. 176 150. Q be two contiguous points on a given curve. Corresponding Points and Areas. Let f(x. 7.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. QY' and the chord YY' the first is to order of infinitesimals Fig. 151. Area bounded by a Curve. Its area (A^) . Let P. F' the corresponding points of the pedal of any origin 0. 2/) = be any closed curve. 38. its Pedal. Then since (with the usual notation) PF=vjr the elementary triangle bounded by two contiguous tangents PY.
177 expressed by the lineintegral \ydx taken round is the complete contour. ny) = 0. r T\ . And we have l whence f(x t = it y) = \y dx = \ = nrjm appears that the area of any closed curve mn times that of f(inx. ri the central pedal of an ellipse. of the curve mx = ^ Let then the corresponding curve or in polars r2 (mV + n^f = a V + Wif2 ) ny = ij. to find the area of the ellipse r b traces out the circle area of ellipse =~ x area of circle r Ex. is = ^2 cos 2 + m . 1. Apply method this ** a the corresponding point and +. 2 sin 2 0. is 152. symmetrical about both axes. Find the area 2.* ~ 1 =. c. Ex. this second point will trace out the curve /(w nrj) = whose area (J. ETC. If the coordinates of the current point (x. y = nrj. 9 ) is expressed by the lineintegral I dg taken round rj its contour. i. y) be connected with those of a second point ( rj) by the relations x = mg.QUADRATURE. M . E.
3. 1881. 1887 x\ and prove that is a as 5 to By means of the triangle show that they area is and 1890.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 5.] [I.. 6.?/ 3 (2ct y\ and prove that equal to that of the circle whose radius is a.] its area is 4. 1882.. #.] of the curve 2 a?y = a2x 2 x*.] asymptote. Find the area between y 2 = 8. 2. S. . 7. Find the whole area [I. Trace the curve cfiy* = x b (Za to that of the circle whose radius 4.. Trace the curve a 2# 2 =.. its of the integral / y dx taken round formed by the intersecting etc. a x be the angle the tangent makes with the axis of show that the area of an oval curve is y cos "fy ds the integration being taken all or q: / x sin ^r ds. round the perimeter. C. S. C.] the contour lines enclose the area [Sir. 1876. [I. Find the whole area C. of the curve [CLARE. If ty and /r its PKIZE. 178 Hence the area of the first curve = mn x area of second EXAMPLES. 1. S. 1892. Find the area of the loop of the curve <L ay =x\ax).
etc. and the curves whose equations are x2 +y 2 =c 2 y 2 + 4x 2 = 4c 2 [I. and the vertex. *= . 1888. ab' S is the sectorial area A OP. 1888. . 1891. 19. Find by integration the area lying on the same side of the axis of x as the positive part of the axis of y and which 14. 1885. = tan a aj where a is a variable parameter. measured from the initial . S. C.. 18. 9 contained by the lines y 2 = 4o#. 10. 1889. TRIPOS.] has its perimeter equal that its area is nearly. x2 +y 2 = Zax. Express the area both when x is the independent variable and when y is the independent variable. C. hyperbola x /a 2 y 2/b 2 = 1. 179 (iii.] 13.] Find the curvilinear area enclosed between the parabola 2 y = kax and its evolute. [PETKRHOUSE. 1883. 1882.) } a Find the areas bounded by a a +y2 = 4a 2 . [a.] Find the area common to the ellipses #2 + 2# 2 = 2c2 2#2 +/ = 2c 2 [OXFORD. x = a. S. P PQR [OXFOED. ab' where 16.] 12. Prove that the area of the locus of intersections of tangents at right angles for the curve + y7 = af is jTra2 [MATH. x=y + 2a. TRIPOS. 1881. 9. The parabola y 2 =ax [H..] cuts the hyperbola a? 2 y 2 =2a 2 at the points P. QUADRATURE.. . Find the areas of the curves = l. parabola again in R. If A is 2 the centre. Find the area of the curvilineal triangle 11. 17.] 20. Show 4 (l^e ) [MATH. and' the tangent at to the hyperbola cuts the .??2+y 2 = 2ay. . An ellipse of small eccentricity to that of a circle of radius ?ra 2 a. Show that the area of the pedal of an ellipse with regard to its centre is one half of the area of the director circle. Prove that if s be the arc of the curve ^ .ETC. P any point on the prove that .] is 15. Find the two portions of area bounded by the straight line y = c. . .
1888. S. S.4 2 21. [I. 1890. then the curve curve. [I. + ^3).. Find the area of the loop of the curve .. 27. 1879. r=aOe be 22. = 2rf. 9. Find the area of the curve 23. Prove that the area of the loop of the curve [OXFORD. [I.] Show that the area contained between the circle r=a and curve r=acos5$ is equal to threefourths of the area of the 26. Find the area of the loop of the curve r 24. 1881. .] Prove that the area of the curve r2(2c 2 cos 2 <9 . ] 0) and its asymptote. 4?i 25.] enclosed between two given radii vectores and two successive branches of the curve. Find the area included between the two loops of the 28. S. curve r = a(2 cos 30. [OXFORD.. 31. the initial line. 1885. Find the area of a loop of the curve r = a cos 3$ + b sin 3$. 2 (x'\y)(x^+y 33. ) = ^axy. and = a0cos between that the area of a loop of the curve r = acosn0 state the total area in the cases n odd.2ac sin is equal to cos 9 + a2sin 2 #) = aV irac. assuming b > a. 180 line to a point by the P on and if A be the area bounded and the radius vector to P.] Find the whole area of the curve represented by the equation r = acos + b. Show [TRINITY.] 32.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 29. C. x+y = Za 1881] divide the area of the loop? [OXFORD. n is even.] ^ . [OXFORD. C. the circle. 1889. Find the area of the closed portion _ 3a sin cos 9 of the Folium ~sin^6>TcoW In what ratio does the line C. Prove that the area of one loop of the pedal of the 2 lemniscate r 2 = a 2 cos2$ with respect to the pole is a [OXFORD. Find the area between the curve r=a(sec $+cos 1889. 1890.] .
is 5 etc. the semimajor axis. Find the area 44.] 39. and a radius vector r from the centre.?/ 2 ) and its asymptotes. 45. 2 4 3 (^ + 2/) = a^?/ . 1892. 1892. [a. 1882.b 2y 2 n.) (ii. ] : (i. 1887. being the b [CLARE. and 181 its asymptotes.] =a *L^ 2 ( that the area of the ellipse 2 +b 2 r2 in p eluded between the curve. the origin being taken at x = *Ja 2 6 2 y = 0.y)* = aV (mV + areas [ST. and find their of a loop of the curve . its tan" 1 ^/^^.QUADRATURE.a 2 log(sec + tan c). 1887. [OXFORD.f\/3). a 2 (fTT .] Show that the area of the space between the epicycloid p =^isin Sty and its pedal curve taken from cusp to cusp is ^irA 2B. 1887. Find the whole area 42.] .d*)l. a\ far .. whose areas are a 2 (f TT + 2\/3). =*(<**.) (^+^2)3 =aay*. [a. 1888. ellipse. of the curve tf+yi = a\x*+y*)..f V) spectively.] = atan^. Find the whole area contained between the curve 34.] 43. Trace the shape of the following curves. Find the area of the pedal of the curve x*+y* = Za 2 [OXFORD. ETC. 38. [OXFORD. < [TRINITY. Find the area of a loop of the curve 40. 1888.  etc.] 41. JOHN'S.] xy. Show 35. re [COLLEGES. Prove that the area of ' 3? V ' 2 1 / X 2 2 V \ 2 7TC 2 / SCHOLARSHIPS. semiaxes of the a. 1887. Show that the area in eluded between the curve = and its tangent at V*" <> i g tangent at 36. ^ a 2 tan </> + a 2 tan ^ . 1888. [BELL. Show that the curve r = a(^\/3 + cos^#) has three loops 37. Find the area included between one of the branches of 2= 2 2 the curve 3% a (# +.] .
1883. 1890. TRIPOS. Prove that the area is ^(5+5). are and 62 than both a and 5. 182 46. JOHN'S. [MATH.1  .aV h where 49. is 7r(ab of the curve ^4 2 c 2). Prove that the area in the positive quadrant of the curve (av+w^w 47. c is less Prove that the area is fTrtt 50. [OXFORD. Prove that the area of the curve 9 .INTEGRAL CALCULUS.] . [ST.] 3o^3 + a2(2^2 +y 2 )=0 [MATH. 1893.18900 of the curve f") is  & 3 + (V2  a 2 ) tan. 2 . TRIPOS.] . Prove that the areas of the two loops of the curve (32^ + 24^3) a (167r24\/3)a 2 . 1875.] 48. [a.
dx. More About any if PN . 5 that if the curve y=f(x) 153. Volumes of Revolution about the a>axis. SUKFACES AND VOLUMES OF SOLIDS OF KEVOLUTION. axis. was shown in Art. AB.CHAPTER XI. It revolve about the axis of x the portion between the ordinates x = x^ and x = x 2 is to be obtained by the formula *2 Tr 154. the revolution be about any line be any perpendicular drawn from a generally. and 2 if .
a+x o o Putting a +x=z. 40. a~x x* dx. and P'N' a expressed as AB Find the volume formed by the revolution of the loop of the curve Here AB is f=x ?^ (Art. 2. Let the parabola be Then the and axis of revolution y = 4o y = 2^7.~ 3 _J Ex. 1. 3) about the tfaxis. 2 is P fi . Fig. this becomes 3 rf2a log z .5a 2z + 2az 2 . Ex. 184 P on the curve upon the line point contiguous perpendicular. Ex. 2 volume =/ J 7ry J 2 dx=7r I J 130.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Find the volume of the spindle formed by the revolution of a parabolic arc about the line joining the vertex to one extremity of the latus rectum. the volume or if be a given point on the line 155.
Surfaces of Revolution. being the suppose PN. Aain. SS the area of the elementary zone traced out by the revolution of PQ . 3s the elementary arc PQ. out Fig. 41. if S be the curved surface of the solid traced y the revolution of any arc AB about the ^caxis. smaller. QM PN two adjacent ordinates.VOLUME OF REVOLUTION. dAN o 4?r 75 156. 185 Also and volume = .
INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
186
about the #axis, y and y
ordinates of
P and
+ Sy
the lengths of the
Q.
Now we may take it as axiomatic that the area
by PQ in its revolution is greater than it
traced out
it were at the distance PN
and less than if each point were at a
distance QM from the axis.
Then SS lies between ^y 8s and 2w(y + Sy)Ss, and
therefore in the limit we have
would be
from the
if
each point of
axis,
r/^
j
This
as
may
= 27T2/
f
\
be written as
to be convenient in
may happen
example, the values of
from the
8
or
r>
j>
^,
etc.,
any particular
being obtained
differential calculus.
157. Ex. 1. Find the surface of a belt of the paraboloid
formed by the revolution of the curve y 2 = &ax about the #axis.
Here
dx
=
V
x
dx
/
ydx
/X<1 dx
Ex.
line.
The curve r = a(l + cos 6} revolves about the
Find the volume and surface of the figure formed.
2.
Here volume =
/
= TT
try^dx = TT
/
2
a' (l
{
/
2
?'
sin 2
d(r cos 0)
cos #) 2 sin 2 #a c/(cos
f
cos 2 $),
initial
S URFA CE OF
RE VOL UTION.
187
the limits being such that the radius sweeps over the upper
half of the curve.
Hence volume  
T(l + cos 0)
7ra 3
2
(1
+ 2 cos 0)sin
:j
dO
*o
3
+ 5 cos 2 + 2 cos3 0)sinW0
T(l + 4 cos
2
3
(l 45 cos 0)sin
Fig. 42.
The surface = 2ir \yds=2ir T r sin 0~c?0
J
dO
J
= 2?r
^
/
a(l
27ra 2
+ cos (9)sin <9\/a 2(l + cos 0) 2
(l
+ cos
0)sin
(9
.
2 cos
o
^
16?ra2
/
cos 4
2
2
o
e
EXAMPLES.
1.
(ii.)
Obtain the surface of a sphere of radius a (i.) by Cartesians,
by polars, taking the origin on the circumference.
INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
188
2.
A quadrant of a circle, of radius a, revolves round its chord.
Show
that the surface of the spindle generated
and that
its
volume
= ^(10  3?r).
L
3. The part of the parabola
y = ax cut off by the latus
rectum revolves about the tangent at the vertex. Find the
curved surface and the volume of the reel thus generated.
THEOREMS OF PAPPUS OR GULDIN.
158. I. When any closed curve revolves about a
line in its own plane, which does not cut the curve,
the volume of the ring formed is equal to that of
a cylinder whose base is the curve and whose height
of the path of the centroid of the area
is the length
of the curve.
Let the #axis be the axis of rotation. Divide the
area (A) up into infinitesimal rectangular elements
with sides parallel to the coordinate axes, such as
Fig. 43.
N
each of area SA. Let the ordinate P l l = y.
PjPgPgP^,
Let rotation take place through an infinitesimal angle
Then the elementary solid formed is on base SA
89.
and its height to first order infinitesimals is ySO, and
therefore to infinitesimals of the third order its volume
is
SA
.
THEOREMS OF PAPPUS.
189
If the rotation be through any finite angle a we
obtain by summation SA y a.
If this be integrated over the whole area of the
curve we have for the volume of the solid formed
.
.
a!i/cL4.
Now
of a
the formula for the ordinate of the centroid
of masses
..., with ordinates
v
2
m m
number
X?7? II
2/i> 2/2'
>
is
y= y
^
then
,
we
seek the value of
the ordinate of centroid of the area of the curve, each
element 8A is to be multiplied by its ordinate and
the sum of all such products formed, and divided by
the sum of the elements, and we have
or in the language of the Integral Calculus
y=
(ydA

(yd A
_=i
J
.
A
\dA
Thus
Therefore volume formed = A(ciy).
But A is the area of the revolving figure and ay
is the length of the
path of its centroid.
This establishes the theorem.
COR. If the curve perform a complete revolution,
and form a solid ring, we have
a=
159. II.
line in its
the
27T
and
volume = A(2jry).
When any closed
own plane which
curved surface of
the
curve revolves about a
does not cut the curve,
ring formed
is
equal
to that
190
INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
of the cylinder whose base is the curve and whose
height is the length of the path of the centroid of the
perimeter of the curve.
Let the #axis be the axis of rotation. Divide the
perimeter s up into infinitesimal elements such as X P 2
each of length Ss. Let the ordinate P l l be called y.
Let rotation take place through an infinitesimal angle
Then the elementary area formed is ultimately a
S9.
N
P
rectangle with sides Ss and ySO, and to infinitesimals
of the second order its area is Ss y9.
.
Fig. 44.
If the rotation be through any finite angle a we
obtain by summation Ss ya.
If this be integrated over the whole perimeter of
the curve we have for the curved surface of the solid
.
formed
an/cfe.
If we seek the value of the ordinate (rj) of the
centroid of the perimeter of the curve, each element
Ss is to be multiplied by its ordinate, and the sum of
THEOREMS OF PAPP US.
all such products formed, and divided
the elements, and we have
191
by the sum of
Lt
or in the language of the Integral Calculus
^yds
n
\yds
s
\ds
Thus
\yd8=8tj,
= s(afj).
and the surface formed
But
s is the perimeter of the revolving figure, and
the length of the path of the centroid of the
perimeter.
This establishes the theorem.
Con. If the curve perform a complete revolution
and form a solid ring, we have a = 2?r and
arj
is
surface = s( 2 7377).
Ex. The volume and surface of an anchorring formed by
the revolution of a circle of radius a about a line in the plane of
the circle at distance d from the centre are respectively
volume =
surface
Tra 2
= 2:ra
X 2?rc? = 27T 2 a 2 o?,
x Zird = 4ir 2 ad.
EXAMPLES.
An
ellipse revolves about the tangent at the end of the
major axis. Find the volume of the surface formed.
2.
square revolves about a parallel to a diagonal through
an extremity of the other diagonal.
Find the surface and
volume formed.
1.
A
3.
A
scalene triangle revolves about
which does not cut the
surface and volume of the
any
line in its plane
for the
Find expressions
triangle.
solid thus formed.
whose area may be denoted to first order infinitesimals by <2 r o0. 192 160. Fig. Revolution of a Sectorial Area. y = rsin9. f 7r[r si we put = x = rcos9. 45. Thus by Guldin's first theorem the volume traced by the revolution of this element is to first order infinitesimals. 7 = r*cos*9t St = xH St.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. If = r3 sin 9 . When any OAB revolves about the divide the revolving area up into infinitesimal sectorial elements such as OPQ. and in a complete revolution the centroid travels a distance initial line sectorial area we may 27r(f r sin 6) or f irr sin 9. Being ultimately a triangular element. is . and ~ r 3 sin 9 S9 = r 3 sin (9$(tan l f) we have 161. its centroid is f of the way from along its median. and therefore the traced by the revolution of the whole area volume OAB 3 sin 9 d9.
C.] 8. c. 2. Find the volume the loop of the curve of the solid produced y^x^ C. Find by integration the volume and surface of the right circular cone formed by the revolution of a rightangled triangle about a side which contains the right angle. 5. C. 1884. 193 and the volume may therefore be expressed as (xHdt.] by the revolution about the axis of of x.. 1881. [I. S. S. S. [a. C. 1883. S. 1886. greater than E. show that the volume generated is 7ra(a2 4. Prove also that of all prolate spheroids formed by the revolution of an ellipse of given area. 2 y (2a ^)=x3 about its by the asymptote revolu is equal [TRINITY.EXAMPLES. [I. S. 1.] N .] Find the surface and volume of the reel formed by the revolution of the cycloid round a tangent at the vertex 6. 1892. EXAMPLES.. 9..] Prove that the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of an ellipse round its minor axis.. axis is equal to 2 area of ellipse . Show that the volume of the solid formed tion of the cissoid to 2?r 2a 3. ] [I. 7.] Prove that the surface of the prolate spheroid formed by the revolution of an ellipse of eccentricity e about its major 4. 1887. [I. 1891. b. . Determine the entire volume of the ellipsoid which is generated by the revolution of an ellipse around its axis major.x)y 2 = a?x about its asymptote. 3. is a mean proportional between those generated by the revolution of the ellipse and of the auxiliary circle round the major axis. C. [I. If the curve r = a + b cos revolve about the initial line.b 2 ) provided a be . i. Find the volume of the solid formed by the revolution of the curve (a . the sphere has the greatest surface.
194 10. Show that the volume generated is . 1890.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.] very small. The lemniscate r = a cos2# revolves about a tangent at _ the pole. If 3^7r% 16. . S.] 2 12. has for its coordinates 13. Find the volume of the solid formed by the revolution about the prime radius of the loop of the curve r^ = between 6 = 11. straight line y=a.1 2 2 17. The loop of the curve Zay 2 =x(x a) revolves about the Find the volume of the solid generated. 1892. 1892. the area lying within the cardioide and without the parabola r(l+cos $) = 2a. [I. the cardioide r = a(l cos #) revolve round the line p=rcos(9 y\ prove that the volume generated is 15. Show and that if [O x TO KD 1890. The curve r=a(l ecos 0\ where [ST. . revolves line. Show 14. Prove that the e is about a tangent parallel to the initial volume of the solid thus generated is approximately 2 27r 2 a 3 (l+e ). 2 + f 7T 2 3 cos y. C. 6 = ft. revolves about the initial line. JOHN'S. [OXFORD. 1882.] 0=. the volume generated is 187ra 3 [TRINITY.] that the coordinates of the centroid of the sectorial area of r=f(0) bounded by the vectors 0=a.. Show f on the that the centroid of the cardioide r = a(l initial line at a distance  from the 6 cos $) is origin.
for instance. and a pair of ordinates. y+8y. 163. For many purposes it is found necessary to use for our elements of area second order infinitesimals. Let PN. Let Ox. MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS. upon it. y). but represented at any point by cr = </)(x. Let R. be AJ and BK the A QM + U P P whose ordinates contiguous points on the ordinate of are y. where (x. we desire to find the mass of the area bounded by a given curve. Use of Second Order Infinitesimals as Elements of Area. Suppose. /(a)} and B {&. Oy be the coordinate axes. Then the parallel to the ceaxis. 162.CHAPTER XII. UT. 8y small quantities of the first order of smallness. Draw JRSf. and B. say. SURFACE INTEGRALS. y) are the coordinates of the point in question. when there is a distribution of surfacedensity over the area not uniform. PV . SECONDORDER ELEMENTS OF AREA. and x. And we shall suppose Sx. {a. ordinates of be any contiguous ordinates of the curve. the #axis. x Sx the abscissae of the points and Q. AB any arc of the curve whose equation is y=f(x)'./(&)} the coordinates of the points A.
Then the mass of the strip may be written may PNMV or in conformity with the notation of the Integral Calculus between the limits y = and y =f(x). i. BK. for we are finding the limit of the sum of the masses of all elements in the elementary strip PM.Sy. the mass of the strip PM. and the result may be written If all which may be written the limits of the integration with regard to x being from x = a to x = b. 196 RSTU area of the rectangle is Sx. In performing this integration (with regard to y) x is to be regarded as constant. y)Sx Sy.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.e. and its mass be regarded (to the second order of smallness) as 0(0. then we search for the mass of the area AJKB such strips as the above must be summed which lie between the ordinates AJ. .
Thus mass 197 of area A JKB = or n Notation. no uniformly accepted convention as to the order to be observed. we shall in the present volume adopt it and write 'x. the righthand element indicates the first integration. If 2 2 xP+y = a be given ^ / The limits for y w411 be quadrant. but as the latter appears to be the more frequently used notation. and the whole mass will be Ex. f f the elements dx. There is dy being written in the reverse order. That to say. &JL^ 2 Here we have [juv for the . find the mass of the disc. is the surfacedensity of a circular disc bounded by to vary as the square of the distance from the yaxis.?/ to y=*Jdl x L for the positive The result must then to x=a.y)dxdy. 164. This is often written <j>(x. when we y)dxdy are to consider the first integration to be with regard to y and the second with regard to made x. and its mass is therefore /*# 2 y.DOUBLE INTEGRATION.mass of the element 8x 6y. and when the first integration is with regard to x. . and for x from / = #=0 .
Fig. for the distribution being symmetrical in the four quadrants the mass of the whole is four times that of the first quadrant. . 47. we have Other Uses of Double Integrals. which may serve to indicate to the student the field of investigation now open to him. of the subjects introduced. The same theorem may be used for many other purposes. Putting x=asm0 and dx=acosOdO. be multiplied by 4. of which we give a few illustrative examples. But our scope in the present work does not admit exhaustive treatment 165.198 INTEGRAL CALCULUS.
and the sum of such elementary quantities is to be found over the whole quadrant. etc. . (See also Arts. Ex. The limits of the integration will be from y=0 to 7 _Va y=a 2 x* for ?/ . as it may be written when I \\ J arx the limit dx dy \ardxdy is taken . _~ We may apply these to find the coordinates of the centroid of a given area. The formulae proved in statics for the coordinates of the centroid of a number of masses m v m 2 m 3 at points (x v y^. the surfacedensity being supposed uniform. . crxdxd'u=^\ / a J 00J _<rbr _(a?x aL 166. and  _" S(cr ox 8y)x 9 I(<rSxSy) or. (x 2 y 2 ). . Find the statical moment r2 of a 199 quadrant of the ellipse 4. . a 2 3 )%\ Jo Thus we have Wa 2 x 2 dx ) _oba* 3 Cartesians.2 =! _+_ 9 2 1. then or Sx Sy is the mass of the element. are .be the surfacedensity at a given point. Gentroids. .) For if o.DO UBLE INTEGRA TION. Here each element of area 8x8y is to be multiplied by its surface density cr (which is by hypothesis constant in the case supposed) and by its distance x from the yaxis. 158. .9 ' a 62 about the yaxis.. moment = and from #=0 / to x=a for x. 159.
Find the centroid of the elliptic quadrant of the Example in Art. Moments of Inertia. Ex. Here the element of mass is /x being a constant. Such quantities are of great importance in Dynamics. Find the moment of inertia of the portion of the parabola f/ 2 = 4a# bounded by the axis and the latus rectum. It was proved there that the limit of the sum of the ele mentary moments about the yaxis was ? Also / / <rdxdy= mass *= Hence . and the moment Lt 2/i# V*&a? 8y where the limits for y are from or of inertia is //. of the 3/4 = STT y= Similarly 167. 200 jjaydxdy ~ Similarly ff~ \\adxdy jJ the limits of integration being determined so that the summation will be effected for the whole area in question. 2vW. to \ n \y*x dx dy. . the limit of the sum of such products is called the Moment of Inertia with regard to the line. quadrant =^^. about the #axis supposing the surfacedensity at each point to vary as the nth power of the abscissa. and for x from to a. When every element of mass is multiplied by the square of its distance from a given line.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 165.
and the #axis. In the first 2. 1. Find also the moments of inertia of this rod about each end and about the middle point. 4. Let 0. 168. the p q surfacedensity varying as x y 3. 3 about 0ff=3 EXAMPLES.) its .DOUBLE INTEGRATION.27 +^ =a the surface density varies at each point as xy.) the mass of the quadrant. 9 SO be it is + . Let OP.) its moment of inertia about the #axis. desirable to use for our element of area a secondorder infinitesimal of different form. Polar Curve. In. Ox the initial line. OQ be two contiguous radii vectores of the curve r=/(0). x = a. 2 2 2 quadrant of the circle . Find (i. 201 We thus get Mom. Work out the corresponding results for the portion of the parabola y^=^ax bounded by the axis and the latus rectum. Find the centroid of a rod of which the linedensity varies as the distance from one end. In. " centre of gravity. For polar curves Secondorder Element. (ii.() (iii. Find the centroid of the triangle bounded by the lines y = mx. the mass of this portion of the parabola n l*x ny\/ax C a \~ ~~l dxdy = p\ \y\ is given by xn dx + 271 Thus we have Mom. = = 3 f* oj o U + fo 3 Again. Also the moment of inertia about the #axis. . when the surfacedensity at each point varies as the square of the distance from the origin.
Thus the surfacedensity at each point R(r. and the mass of the sector is therefore cr if = Lt dr==Q [2orSr]S9.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. and let SO and Sr be small quantities of the first order. 202 P the angular coordinates of and Q. 9) is mass of the element RSTU is (to secondthe <f)(r. Draw two circular arcs RU. the summation being for r=f(9). with centre and radii r and r Sr respectively.sector ORU =r and to this order 9 Sr to the second order. all elements from r = to i <rrdr\80. 9).e. RSTU may therefore be considered a rectangle of sides Sr (RS) and rSO (arc RU\ Fig. Then + area RSTU= sector OST.i. 48. ST. order quantities err S9 Sr. and taking the limit of the sum of the sectors for infinitesimal values of S9 between any specified radii in . Q/(0) which integration 9 is to be regarded as constant.
And if these sectors be summed for the have /TFr rVfinnaif r2acoa& / /~5"[  pr*dr \dO \ whole circle. and mass of element Fig. and a as the radius. The mass of the sector is therefore the integration with regard to r being between limits OR=0 and OR = OP=2acos 0. Then we have density at 0) is ur. we .DOUBLE INTEGRATION. the equation of the curve is R (r. 49. a o Ex. arid the diameter through Taking initial line. as the as the origin. ( \^ \rdOdr. 164). vectores OA(9 = a) and OB(9 = /3) the sectorial area OAB we 203 get the mass of M rpriv or as we have agreed to write it (Art. Find the mass of a circle for which the surfacedensity at each point varies as the distance of that point from a point on the circumference.
204 C~% =2/ or (Art. 164) Centroid. 169. rcos(9. the yaxis SO is ST. 168. its moment about r cos 6 ar . ardOdr Thus x JJ j \ordOdr r sin ordOdr and similarly ar '~fl dO dr Ex. Find the centroid of the upper half of the circle in the example of Art. rZacoaO / pr*dOdr Polars. established the result for that semicircle that We Also between the limits r=0 and r = 2acos for S /* fr cos ^or c^^ dr= Tfji cos 0R 53 ^^ 15 ' r. 1.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Thus err SO Sr being the element of mass and r cos its abscissa. and 0=0 to . The distance of the centroid of a sectorial area from any line may be found as before by finding the sum of the moments of the elementary masses about that line and dividing by the sum of the masses.
to take in the lower half). and I / rsm6crrd6dr= jnsin0  I L4 Jo J J J 205 dO Q sin cos 4 dO /~2 Ex. '" The numerator =2 fT1 J  a3 1 L3J /"'(cos cos0o?0 + 3 cos 2 + 3 cos3 + cos*0)dO .DOUBLE INTEGRATION. Fig. #). and for from to TT (and double. The centroid is evidently on the initial line. 2. abscissa we have / "x Ir cos To find its rdOdr " 'rdOdr the limits for r being from r=0 to r=a(l+cos 0). 50. cardioide Find the centroid of the area bounded by the r=a(l+cos the surfacedensity being uniform.
Find the of the distance from a point moment of inertia of the area about an axis through perpendicular to the plane of the circle. //. In a circle the surfacedensity varies as the nfh power on the circumference. 206 =  a 3 T(3 cos 2 <9 + cos 4 6 . a being the radius.r //.r 2 5 5 r~ r 2  ' 2 2 a(l+cos 6) dO a 2 T(l +2 cos 0+cos 2 0)dO 2a 2 r rf / x = ?ra 3 Hence I ' 4 L2Jo /TT = ^4 ' 2 (l + cos 2 6>)d<9 ?ra 2 / = a.r where the limits for r are ffj to 2a cos 0. and for 0. ' 4 1 ' o3. 3. The density Hence the mass moment of inertia =p. Ex.r".INTEGRAL CALCULUS. double). the Here. n+3 8$ 8r. for origin and the diameter for initial line. of the element rSOSr about the specified axis Hence the moment is is n+1 S$Sr. Mom. taking bounding curve is r=2acos 6. its of inertia of the disc is f Thus and Inertia = J?^L(2a)+4 rc os+4 dO n+4 J (9 to ~ (and .
moment of the about the #axis. Again.DOUBLE INTEGRATION. Show that surfacedensity y=mtfc + M of inertia about the tangent at 0. Find the centroid of a circle whose surfacedensity varies on the circumas the nth power of the distance from a point 2. Show that the moments of inertia of a uniform ellipse 2 bounded by 2 _f fC 62 a2 1 about the major and minor axes are . and show that if M be the mass of the triangle. Hence Inertia = 4 EXAMPLES. respectively 4 M I . c<ft inertia of the triangle of ?/axis and the lines y uniform = m x+c bounded by the l l^ is Ml GI% V 6 \m l m 2 J the mass of the triangle. M . 1. and about a line through the centre 4 2 7)2 and perpendicular to its plane. being the mass of the ellipse. the mass of the disc 207 is /*2acos0 r"5" = ^o 2J r = _?^L(2a)w+2 f cosw+2 0d0. Find the centroid of the sector (a) (ft) when when of a circle the surfacedensity is uniform. about the diameter through 0. Also its moments (1) (2) 3. ' is where 4. 5. n+2 J n Mom. Find the moments of inertia of the triangle of uniform surfacedensity bounded by the lines about the coordinate axes . the surfacedensity varies as the distance from the centre.and ~. ference. they are the same as those of equal masses placed at the midpoints of the sides.
of the Find (1) the coordinates of the centroid of the area of the cycloid #=a(0hsin$). and assuming a surfacedensity varying inversely as the distance from the pole. Find for the area included between the curves (1) the coordinates of its centroid (assuming a uniform surfacedensity). find (1) the centroid. (3) the volume formed when this area revolves about the 8. (2) the 7.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. r=2acos#. a surfacedensity varying as the square distance from the pole. (2) the 8 . about the axis (#=0). Find the moment of inertia of the lemniscate r 2 about a line through the pole perpendicular to its plane (1) for a uniform surfacedensity. (2) the moment of inertia about the #axis. about the tangent at the vertex. moment of inertia about a line through the pole perpendicular to the plane. y=a(l cos0) volume formed by its revolution (a) about the base (y=2a). . 208 6. (2) for 9. Find the area between the circles r=a.
E.ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. . I. C.
.
y.a) = 0. is representative of a certain family of curves. DIFFEEENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST ORDER. It is proposed to add a brief account of the of solution of the more ordinary forms of differential equations leading up to such as are required by the student in his reading of common methods Analytical Statics. We shall not enter at all upon the solution of differential equations involving partial differential coefficients. 170. Genesis of a Differential Equation." f(x. Dynamics of a Particle. such as " solution. and what kind of result we Any are to expect as its equation. VARIABLES SEPARABLE. 171.CHAPTER XIII. " Let us examine for a moment how the " ordinary differential equation is formed. and the elementary portions of Rigid Dynamics. for each individual of which the constant a receives a particular . LINEAR EQUATIONS. (1) in which the form of the function is known.
.y) = a.. of which equation (1) is the typical equation of a member. or we should be treating one individual curve of the system instead of the letter whole family collectively... 0(. And it will be manifest that for such operations...... Problems frequently occur in which it is but necessary to treat the whole family of curves together.... y and y v replaces equation (1).... a goes out. and y v which is true for the whole family... ..a) = Q ' ... the same for the same curve different for different curves of the family. say a right angle.. the particularizing a ought not to appear as a constant in the functions to be operated upon. as.. and an equation involving x... (1) with respect to x and obtain and then eliminate a between equations (1) and (3)... in finding another family of curves.. thus obtaining a relation between x. For example... This is then the differential equation to the family of curves.... (2) and upon differentiation with regard to x.. ... consider the family of straight lines obtained by giving special values to the arbitrary constant in the equation . for instance.. In the formation of the differential equation it may be impracticable to solve for the constant.... In this case we differentiate the equation f(x. each member of which intersects each member of the former set at a given angle... Now a may be got rid of thus Solve for a we then put the equation into the form : .212 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. and definite value.y. y..
suppose the representative equation of the family of curves to be ftx y. We define the order of a differential equation to be the order of the highest differential coefficient occurring in it and we have seen that if an equation between . 213 Solving for w. and differentiating. 9 A single differentiation with regard to x will result in a relation connecting x. say If we .b) = 0. 173. Order of an Equation. . we have = yi m. without first solving for m. is 172. \MX V> 2/i> 2/2> a > = &) ( > 3) and from these three equations a and b may theoretically be eliminated (if they have not already disappeared by the process of differentiation). y. and expresses the obvious geometrical fact that the direction of the straight line is the same as that of the vector from the origin at all points of the same line. y v y 2 say . (1) b two constants whose values a. Again.a. 4(x y y l9 9 9 a 9 = b) (2) differentiate again with regard to x we shall obtain a relation connecting x. y v a. y. yi>y z ) => the differential equation of the family. y= Bl or etherwise. and there will result a relation connecting x. arbitrary containing particularize the several members of the family. y. F(x>y. y v y 2 a. b .ORDER OF AN EQ UA TION. b say . and therefore This then y=%yi the differential equation of all straight lines passing through the origin.
however. 1. this process of elimination is not in general a reversible process. and if it contain two arbitrary constants the result is a differential equation of the second order. that in attempting to solve a differential equation of the nth order we are to search for an algebraical relation between x. Eliminate a and Differentiating. which belongs to all circles whose centres lie on the #axis. and many equations may arise which are not solvable at all. Elimination an irreversible process. And our argument is general so that to eliminate n arbitrary constants we shall have to proceed to n differentiations. l+^+y^^^ Differentiating again. and n We . yv . Here the typical equation of a member of and we have and whence is this family of x(y? + yy 2 ) yyl =0 the differential equation sought. and when we wish to discover the typical equation of a member of a family of curves when the differential equation is given.2/ n > an(l is Ex. 2. y. x f yy^ = a. 214 two unknowns contains one arbitrary constant the result of eliminating that constant is a differential equation of the first order. Form the differential equation of all central conies whose axes coincide with the axes of coordinates. upon a set of standard cases. Ex. as in the case of integration. we are com174.. Now pelled to fall back.. y. and the result is : a differential equation connecting therefore of the nth order. and the constants having disappeared we have obtained as their eliminant a differential equation of the second order (?/ 2 being the highest differential coefficient involved).. may infer.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. x. c from the equation x2 +y 2 =2ax + c.
1. All equations in which it is possible to get dx and all the x's to one side. y Solve the following differential equations I ' / : 1. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST ORDER. Ex. 175. such that when these constants are eliminated the given differential equation will result. dy = x*+x+\ dx *++l' Show cuts every ' dxx*+x+l of the family of curves in Ex. x If y+l we have ( \ = xy^* dx x + . 3 of the set in Ex. I. and solve immediately by integration. that every member member dy y*+y+l . come under this head. Thus sec if we have y= sec x. CASE There are five standard forms. Variables Separable. 215 arbitrary constants.) dx = (y 2 + y)dy. Such a solution is regarded as the most general solution obtainable. 2. +A . dx cos x dx cos y dy. Ex. sin x = sin y and integrating. 2 at right angles. xJ 2 and therefore 2 + log 32 x^32 + A.VARIABLES SEPARABLE. 4. a relation containing one arbitrary constant A. +y~ containing one arbitrary constant A. EXAMPLES. and dy and all the y's to the other.
" The factor e . It is therefore the solution required. 8. An when P. differential R are functions of x or constants higher than the first. . we are limited for the present to the case ' If this seen that be multiplied throughout by we may write d . a relation between x and y satisfying the given differential equation. Q. Linear Equations. than r=Ae^ cot a class . said to be linear. (4) the Polar subnormal is constant. ' which rendered the lefthand member of the equation a perfect differential coefficient is " called an integrating factor. K. no .DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Find the Cartesian equation of the curve for which the tangent is of constant length. 10. Show that a curve for which the tangent at each point makes a constant angle (a) with the radius vector can belong to no other 9. . Find the equations of the curves for which (1) the Cartesian (2) the Cartesian subtangent is constant. (3) the Polar subtangent is constant. equation of the form II. . subnormal is constant. Show that all curves for which the square of the normal is equal to the square of the radius vector are either circles or rectangular hyperbolae. [DEF. dP Thus is Its peculiarity lies in the fact that coefficient occurs raised to a power ye e er * it first will be it /Pefccv n fPdx )=<^ /Pdx fPdx =\Qe dx+A. CASE 176. 216 7. and containing an arbitrary constant.] As we are now discussing equations of the order.
2. Ex. if not immediately of the linear form _ may be immediately reduced to it by change of the variables. & *2 or ye*=e*+A. and the equation written *JH+ x* and xy=+A. and the equation be written d   ax(ye*)=xe*. 177. One of the most important cases equation Or Putting we have yn y l ~n = z. Here mav Integrate fxd~ e** 217 yi+xy = x. . Ex.e. Jldx x =elogx =x. Integrate ^l + y=x2 dx x Here the integrating may be factor is e 2 . or e2 an integrating is factor. Many equations. y^dy=^ is that of the .LINEAR EQUATIONS. 1. + y = l+Ae i. Equations reducible to linear form.
we have GW? and the integrating factor is J 2xdx O r e* z . ze (lri)fpdx ln i. A dx+A. Cv^7 + x sin 2y = we have ec 2y^ dx + 2# tan yx^. t7 x dx and the integrating factor being e we have fix* j * = e .~ =(1 e y Ex. x dx\x) ?=logi X X i. 2 . tany=2.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.e. giving .e.e. 218 or which is linear. Integrate ^ + ^=?/ Here is \fr\ Q~ n )fPdx J . (\ri)fPdx its solution =(1 ft) \Q ri) dx+A. =Ax i. y Ex.1.. ^2^+^ or putting = 1. e f^ v . 2. Putting ^ + 2^=^.. and (lri)) We x.loex ^(^=1. =0. Integrate the equation 2 Dividing by cos y jf.
+ r fr ttC/ ?.+ x=xe^^. n [Put ?/ = sin~ ^. .+2= x __ dx x 10.] 1 iny. 77. 1). It will be obvious that for examples of this kind considerable ingenuity may be called into play in order to effect the reduction to the linear (or other known) form.* 4 ^X + =f. I . f dx x x ^ dx 11. Integrate the equations ". tan y e* = e*\x2 l) + A Thus is 219 . the solution of the given equation. Let then so that / x3 ex2 dx = %l (ue w o?cu =1^(0. Find the curves for which the Cartesian subnormal varies as the square of the radius vector. cW S Show that no O. /e. 2# dx = d<o. x 2 = co.LINEAR EQUATIONS. 2 . dx +?=. EXAMPLES. of Art.I JxJdy greater generality is obtained in the solution to the index in obtaining the by adding a constant jfpdx integrating factor e 8. Find the curves for which the sum of the reciprocals of the radius vector and the polar subtangent is constant. . \ y 7 7 /s^ Vfc? jj . x2 U.] [put z ^ [Put 2 = logy. ^.2 v Q dr 7. } 15. Integrate the equations 9. 1 ' y dy 5. 176 fi O.
Find the polar equation of the family of curves for which the sum of the radius vector and the polar subnormal varies as the nth power of the radius vector. Jc 18. 16. 17.220 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Integrate the equations . Show that the curves for which the radius of curvature varies as the square of the perpendicular upon the normal 2 2 belong to the class whose pedal equation is r p =^ + ^ * %* being a given constant and A arbitrary.
CHAPTER XIV. if and obtain a result of the form y = vx Putting we obtain v+ x^ dv ~<p(v)v y = <j>(v)> _dx x ' and the variables are separated and the solution thus comes under Case I. CASE III Homogeneous Equations. 178. EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST ORDER CONTINUED. ONE LETTER ABSENT. Equations homogeneous in x and y may be written dx (a) In this case we solve possible for ^. CLAIRAUT'S FORM.. giving as result log Ax r 1 . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS.
..... dx and putting y=v%....... 1.... Ex......... x we have y = x<f>(p) .... (2) Eliminating p between equations (1) and (2) we Integrating this equation function of obtain the solution required..... . we dx be inconvenient or impracticable to solve for and and write p for dx  .... Suppose the equation to be x dx \dx) ' .. 2.....DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS..2 or Ay^eW.... Solve (x*+y*)ty=xy... <[>'(p)dp < we have x expressed as a p and an arbitrary constant Ax=F(p)(**y) ...... ^+v dx or dv x =dx or og= 2 a.... Ex. (1) Differentiating with respect to dx = x or x. 222 (6) But solve for if it ....
.#+2logp giving P i. it is customary to leave the two equations containing p unaltered. or when. Solve the differential equations . 223 2 p = (p +p ) + x(l + 2p).=.e. log J. x+y dx 2. . This eliminant is But when it is algebraically impossible to perform the elimination of p. and the joeliminant between p 2 +p= x \ and is Axp*=& < the solution sought. and to regard them as simultaneous equations whose joeliminant if found would be the required solution. the result will be manifestly unwieldy. EXAMPLES.HOMOGENEO US EQ UA TIONS. Then p =0. if performed.
viz. . There is one case. .'g + TVi Now . k . however. (am\o)r)\ac . 224 A 179. when a_ b c ~~ a' Now let a dy Tx=  ~ . 180.a* = V n 7 dx my + c drj /) _ (am + b)rj + ad + 6c  dec"" and c'' =m and Then so that 6' . ca ^ a 6 ^= Then This ' equation being homogeneous we may now ^ ne variables are separable as before put n~ v ^ an(i shown. in which cannot be chosen as above. +c >.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.. Special Case. The equation ~ dx ^ f ax+oy+c the homogeneous form thus Put readily reduced to is : x ^ a ^+ by + (ah + bk + c) a dg. mrj . so that / oc ^.= ca be ^ ao . choose . b'' k so that r ^e. +bc n.1 h. h.
yx+yZ so that so that = then Now put 77=0(1. Ex.l.HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS. ax 2 + 2cx + 2bxy = b'y 2 + 2c'y + A A. being the arbitrary constant. c.1)2 l =#1 where E. ' . then l+v _ ~ v+1 . I. . Integrate #=+ k. and p v=^~ x\ . y = Put Choose h and Ic dx ri = + k. 181. For then we may write the equation thus an " (ax + c)dx + b(y dx+x dy) = (b'y + c')dy " exact differential equation the integral being . One other case is worthy of notice.. viz. the integration be at once performed. The may dy _ ax + by + c dx~ bx + b'y + c" when the coefficient of y in the numerator is equal to that of x in the denominator with the opposite sign. 225 variables being now separated.
\X j} CLX J are homogeneous in x. that solutions of the general homogeneous equa must always represent families of similar curves. y and some power of one constant. y which moves so that ~ will always lie Show 10. 11. then ..DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. the differential .#+y=??. Show that a particle #. 226 Ex. Integrate the equations : dy _ dx bx+ayb ^ 1* 8 9. tion upon a fUL ~) \ dx) ' conic section. *+* f = x+y Integrate dx .  dx ?? = ' 1 if] 1 ?7= EXAMPLES. ^ and where . y and some power of a single constant. and conversely that if the typical equation of a member of a family of curves be homogeneous in x. Show that solutions of /(. \ Let . 2.
State which of the following families of curves are similar sets : (1) ya = 4flW7. ax .) If this solve for is be inconvenient or impossible we may y and obtain y = (j) (p) where p stands as ) before for . ^ we throw the equation into the form Then and the integral (ii. b. Xdy\ ZH ~ or as may be most convenient. 227 equation of the family is homogeneous and the family consists of similar curves. (2) (5) b for different values of 182. One = tan" 1 *7 = a +y.ONE LETTER ABSENT. (4) y = a cosh .  y> we now (i. absent. A. 12.) solve for If we solve for y. Suppose x absent from the which then takes the form differential equation. letter absent. x 2/ a and CASE IV.
fj 1J Since = ^ ax ax may this be written dy dx' and therefore if y be regarded as the independent variable the foregoing remarks apply to this case also. between 183. Suppose differential equation. ^ .DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.e. 228 Differentiate with regard to x. . the absent letter. Thus convenient result of the form (i. y absent from the which then takes the form B. a5T*S dy = 7 then for dx 7^. y absent. x After the integration is performed we eliminate p this equation and 2/ = </>(p) and the solution of the given equation is obtained. is dx and obtain a .) if we dx solve dx and the integral ^. The P and dx Thus i.
ONE LETTER ABSENT. 1.2. the absent letter differen .) But if 229 this solution for 7. we solve for ~ ax by But when preference if possible. this is impossible or inconvenient we solve for the remaining letter and differentiate with regard to the absent one\ thus considering the absent letter in either case as the independent variable. Integrate the equation ' Here dy and is #= 2 the solution. Then where Solve dx = \dx) x q=. (ii. Thus and After the integration we eliminate q between this equation and x = <f)(q). Ex. x absent or y absent. and the solution of the given equation is obtained.be inconvenient or dy impossible form we x = (j)(q) solve for x and obtain a result of the yy /v> where q stands for j Then tiating with regard to y. Ex. The student should note that in either case. dy .
. dp {x+f(p)}0.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.... Clairaut's Form. 5. 4. dx ^= we have y=px+f(p) ..... 1 \dq l * ~ and # and the ^eliminant between equation this equation x=q+~ is the solution and the original required. EXAMPLES..... constant. 8.. 230 Then differentiating with regard to the absent letter y.. Writing ^9 for ~ \dx) dx =A+... dx \dx) CASE V... .. B 6. + ^2 )=a2 +2a^7. (1) Differentiating with regard to x....... . (2) or whence Now either f = or cc+/ (p) = 0....... (2a^ 184.. dy = y : + I....... /... ^=0 CLOu / gives p=C a.. Solve the equations 1..
.... There are therefore two classes of solutions." (2) " complete primicontaining an arbitrary constant.. called the tive.. and the student is referred to larger treatises for further information upon the subject. It is beyond the scope of this book to discuss fully the theory of singular solutions.... The geometrical relation between these two solutions is that of a family of lines and their envelope.. . The envelope or " singular solution " containing no arbitrary constant and not derivable from the complete primitive by putting any particular numerical value for the constant in that solution.CLAIRA UTS FORM. be found as a function of x from the is ential equation containing Again.. (3) equation (2) will still be satisfied. i.. : (1) The linear solution. and if this value of be substituted in equation (1). ..... Thus y = Cx\f(C) 231 a solution of the given differan arbitrary constant C..... equation if p +/(. or which is the same thing. if p be eliminated between equations (1) and (3) we shall obtain a relation between y and x which also satisfies the differential equation Now to eliminate p between p y=px+f(p)} 0= x+f(p)I is the same as to eliminate between = x+f(0)J the same as the process of finding the envelope of the line y = Cx+f(C) for different values of 0.. viz..) = 0.e..
we have & =  whence dp which is linear. : y y = (x a)p p^.. the solution being [<P(P)*P <t*P)P = xee J<t*P)P _ r ... 232 Ex. .. 2 y*=ax. Write down the complete primitive........Ji (P) tWPdp + A .... and then considering p as the independent variable. EXAMPLES.. and find the envelope solution in each of the following cases 4..DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. and in the complete primi = 4a# tive y=mx+ known equation the well of a tangent to the parabola...e. (y The equation 185. (2) ..... The student y 2  will at once recognize in the singular solution the equation to a parabola.. (i) may be solved by differentiating with regard to x. i.. 5.. 6.. Solve y=jt JP By Clairaut's rule the complete primitive is and the envelope or singular solution m between the above equation and o=*m is the result of eliminating .. For differentiating. y=x<P(p)+*Kp)..
.. We y = 2px+p Solve have 2 ... 2p 3 3 (1) Hen ce And by crossmultiplication between this equation and giving as the eliminant 2 4(y 186.. the equations (1) and (2) are often regarded as simultaneous equations whose >eliminant is the solution in question but the actual elimination not performed. / j9 + Ip^x py p*x Zpy 3 A = 0.. \ = 0. Solve the equations 1.. 2....... 3. y= y= y= y= : p . p^x %p A .. and substituting in equation (2)... (1) ..3 A) 2 . EXAMPLES. (2) The joeliminant from these two equations may now be found by solving equation (1) for p.. Ex. in + 3Ax)(x* +y) = (xy . . The algebraic process of eliminating p being many cases difficult or impossible..EXAMPLES.. 4... we 3 giving may proceed thus By equation (2) from : + 3p 2# + SA = 0. 233 now p be eliminated between equations (1) and the complete primitive of the original equation will result.. p  . But if it be an object to present the result in rational form.... If (2)....
[OXFOKD. Obtain and interpret the complete primitive and the singular solution.] the equation reduced to one of Clairaut's form. A curve satisfies the differential equation y=p\xp)) and determine its equation. Obtain as the complete primitive the equation of the tangent. 234 The tangent at any point P of a curve meets the axis Oy in and OT2 is proportional to the tangent of the inclination of PTto the axis Ox. 1890. 10. Hence write down its complete primitive and find solution.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. of the triangle 11. also that^>=0 when x=\ equation ' dx 14. 1889. and as the singular solu8. [OXFORD. is Show that by putting x 2 V^yj \ s and y 2 = . tion the curves in question. its singular . Form the differential equation of curves for which the.] 9. length of the portion of the tangent intercepted between the coordinate axes is constant. Find the differential equation of all curves which possess the property that the sum of the intercepts made by the tangent on the coordinate axes is constant.] IS. Find the complete primitive and singular solution of the 12. . 1888. Interpret the result. T. Obtain the curves for which the area bounded by the axes and a tangent is constant. [OXFOKD. Find the curve.
R are functions of x. Put to . Second Order Equation. but particular forms arise which present but little difficulty. CASE Suppose the Equation The typical form will be 188. Q. I. dx where P. We next come to the consideration of the differential equation of the second order. linear. 0(^2/>2/i>2/2) =  There is no general method of solution. 187. The usual method is first to omit R and try obtain or guess a solution of Suppose y =f(x) to be such a y =2/0*0 solution.CHAPTEE XV. DIFFERENTIAL EXACT EQUATIONS. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE SECOND ORDER.
. Ex. Hence z an equation which is linear for z v The integrating factor is or and the first integral is whence the second integral may be and the solution effected. = zj(x)+^'(x)+zf"(x). 236 = zj(x)+zf(x). 2/2 Then yi Thus on substitution we get But /'(*) + Pf(x) + Qf(x) = by hypothesis.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Solve L da? Here y=x at once obtained dx makes r^ Put then Hence /K and the integrating factor is e^ 4 x 3^ ** or x*e 4 .
y* + constant =?/ 4 + a4 . let y l =p. yv and again Ex. is So putting absent. \ and is yv y2) = = Q. we have 2 . If y be the letter absent. *and <f>(x. B. Solve the equation yy 2 +#i 2 =2# 2 . j Thus 237 x* ~(z l x^)=x^ a* and z 1x2 _* whence * z=\e and the solution required 5 e*=~+A r +A .SECOND ORDER EQUATIONS. 189. If and the equation takes the form <f>(y. e J a? \ is = 5 CASE II One letter absent. . The integrating factor or py 2 2 is e^ v Ay y=p or y and y2 =p^?.1. Here x is y%) becomes of the first order. dy/ of the first order. x be absent. pS\ <f>(y. say. let y 1 =p. A. p.
y* Ex. ow? 11. 10. x 1+jtr or i.. 5. 2 i. e. ^Jx* ady 2 oy giving =i?^ _< a and b being arbitrary constants. ^. 238 Hence or = a sinh(2# + A). 6.] . or a? dx. dx = pdp 5. Here y Solve is 2 l+#i =#y 2 #i So putting y^p^ absent. 1+3^=^2. i+y! 4. Solve the following equations : 1. 2. y which satisfies 1890. ~# 2 )^~#(^) = 2/> Given that # 2 is having given [OXFORD. log x = log Vl+p 2 + constant. ^2 = 1.yM 3/2 Solve the equation (1 ^ = when y = 0. that 2 ^ 1 2 8   2  ^</ a y#2=#i 9y 22=4 iyi 3 #i [OXFORD. ] the equation [L 0. 7. 2. 1894.] = (l+. EXAMPLES.e. _L2 y2+/iy=e a value of find the complete solution. 1889.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. 3. S. e.
etc.. Let us next consider the more general equation Pv P2 Putting y = vz. General Linear Equation.2 The coefficient of n _i is If then v be chosen so that dv v P or n v=e the term involving zn i will have been removed. by writing zl = rj. . 239 Removal of a Term. Q are given we have functions of y 2 = vz2 + 2V& + v2z. . should notice that this expression is the same in rj . whence  n(n  1) . and z n = rj n i. where .. if v be so chosen as to satisfy the differential equation the term containing The coefficient of z and if will make W_ is 2 will have been removed. . . and therefore z 2 = ly etc. we can.REMOVAL OF A TERM. a value of v can be found or guessed which this expression vanish. Similarly. x. reduce The student the degree of the equation by unity. 190. .
we can. 191.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. 240 form as the left hand member of the given equation. by writing y = vz. "EXACT" DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION. In the case of the equation of the second degree y = e~ the substitution l ^ dx z by what has been above stated reduce the given equation to the sometimes simpler form will But the general solution of this equation has not been at present effected. and then Z^ Y\. differential. When p is < q. Thus be.. = etc. . Canonical Form. 192. Hence if any solution y v can be found or guessed of the given equation when the right hand member is omitted. reduce the degree of the equation. x p r~ ^ is an exact and can be integrated whatever y may For denoting \xPy q dx by y q .
EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION.
It will be noticed that when q
tegration cannot be effected.
=p
241
<p
or
the in
193. By aid of the above lemma we may often see
"
exact/'
For
quickly whether a given equation is
if all terms of the form x p y
in
which
is
<
p
q be
q
first removed, we can frequently tell at once by inspection whether the remainder is a perfect differential
coefficient or not.
#2
Ex.
2
Here, by the lemma, # y 5 and x?y are perfect differential
and obviously ocy^\y is the differential coefficient
of xy.
Hence a first integral of this differential equation is
coefficients,
obviously
194.
A
A
more General
more general
equation
.
= cos x+A.
may
Test.
for an "exact" differential
be established in the general case
whatever forms the
test
coefficients
P Pv
,
have, provided they be functions of
...
,
Pn V may
,
x.
For denoting differentiations by dashes, we have
upon integration by parts
n Bysdx
=Pn
 32/2
 Pn  8^1 + P"n  zV 
I
P"'n 
etc.
Hence upon addition
p.
i.
c.
it is
obvious that
if
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
242
the given equation
tegral
is
exact;
and that
its
in
first
is
^ + 24#?/ = sin x exact
Is the equation cfiy z + 1 2x?y 2 + SG^2
Ex.
Applying the test,
?
we have
P3  P2 + PI  PQ'" = 24^  72^ + 72^  24^ = 0,
and
Thus the equation is exact ; and its first integral is
'
or
This again will be a perfect differential
which
is satisfied.
(8#
3

if
Hence a second integral will be
43% f ^4yx =  sin x + Ax + B,
y+^4y = sin^+^^ + J?,
4^73
or
1
which may again be tested.
third and final integral is
^=
But
it is
now
obvious that the
cos.*?+
IB
EXAMPLES.
Show
that the equation
exact, and solve it completely.
2. Solve the equation
1.
.
^7/3
3.
+ 6^/2 + %i + sin x(y* ~ %i) + cos X 33/2  !/} = sin ^
Write down
first integrals of
the following equations
:
'(a)
(b)
(c)
4.
Show
that
if
the equation
an integrating factor
equation
//,,
then
P y + P^y^ + P y = F admits
2
//,
0<
will satisfy
2
of
the differential
CHAPTER
XVI.
GENERAL LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS.
195.
General Linear Differential Equation.
The form of. the general
of the nih order is
linear differential equation
Pv P2 P3 ..., V are known functions of
Let us suppose that any particular solution,
where
,
,
x.
y=f(x)
can be guessed, or obtained in any manner.
Then making the
substitution
~
we
obtain
z = z n to be solutions of this
Suppose z = zv z = z2
then it is plain that
,
equation
z
is
. .
.
,
;
= A lz + A 2z2 +A 3 z3 +... +A nzn
l
also a solution of equation (2) containing
constants
A A2
lt
,
...,
An
.
n
arbitrary
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
244
Hence
a solution of equation (1) containing n arbitrary
and is therefore the most general solution to
be expected. No more general solution has been found.
The portion f(x) is termed the Particular Integral
(P.I.), and the remaining part containing the n arbitrary
constants, which is the solution when the righthand
member of the equation is replaced by zero, is called
If these two
the Complementary Function (C.F.).
parts can be found the whole solution can be at once
written down as their sum.
is
constants,
Two remarkable
196.
Cases.
There are two cases in which these solutions can be
generally readily obtained.
(1) When the quantities
Pv P
2,
...,
Pn
are
all
constants.
When
(2)
the equation takes the form
2+
Jnl
ri
r7n2n/
'
+ ^= F
'
>
av a 2 ..., a n being constants and V any function of x.
The solution of the second case is readily reducible,
as will be shown, to the solution of an equation coming
,
under the
first
head.
EQUATION WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS
COMPLE
MENTARY FUNCTION.
197. Let us therefore
such an equation as
2/n+^i2/ui
first
+ a 2/n2
determine the solution of
2
+... + ^n2/ = 0,
......... (1)
the coefficients being constants i.e. for the present we
confine our attention to the determination of the
"
"
Complementary Function in the first case.
;
COMPLEMENTAR Y FUNCTION.
As a
mx and we have
put y = Ae
2
w
+ a 2ra +...+a n = ....... (2)
trial solution
m +a m
n
245
,
n1
1
Let the roots of this equation be
m m
774,
2,
supposed (for the present)
are
all solutions,
y=
...,
s,
,
all different,
and therefore
A^ + A e^ + A
x
x
mn
2
3
then
also
mx
e *
+...+A n e m *x
,
...... (3)
a solution containing n arbitrary constants A v
A 3 ..., A n and is the most general to be expected.
is
,
A
2,
,
Two
198.
Roots Equal.
two
roots of equation (2) become equal, say
first two terms of the solution (3) become
(A!+ J. 2 )e" 11 *, and since A^ A^ may be regarded as a
single constant, there is an apparent diminution by
unity in the number of arbitrary constants, so that
(3) is no longer the most general solution to be
If
m =m
x
2,
the
+
expected.
Let us examine this more
Put
97i
A
Then
^r
= A l e m^x \A 2 (^x
closely.
= m 1 +A.
2
x
+ A 2e( i+*X
\
TO
h?x 2
l+hx+^ +
~~\
...
= (A l + A )^x + AJi xem x +A z hem rhy? + ~\
^~^
Now A^ and A 2 are two independent arbitrary
.
2
and we
quantities,
may
^
therefore express
.
..
them
I.
in
terms of two other independent arbitrary quantities
by two relations chosen at our pleasure.
we
an
will choose
A
so large that ultimately
2
indefinitely small may be written
2,
arbitrary finite constant.
First
A 2 h when
h
is
DIFFERENTIAL EQ UA TIONS.
246
A
so large and of opposite
Secondly, we will choose
1
be regarded as an arbitrary
sign to 2 that
2 may
finite constant Bv
Then the terms
A
A^+A
ultimately vanish with h since Aji has been considered
finite and the expression in square brackets is convergent and contains h as a factor.
^ may, when 2 = v
Thus the terms
be ultimately replaced by B1 emiX
xe miX and there2
fore the number of arbitrary constants in the whole
solution remains n, and we therefore have obtained
the general solution in this case.
A^^+A^e
199.
+B
equation (2)
when
become equal,
m *x
terms,
placed
by (Bi+B^e^+Atf**.
em
l
&+A# +A f?
three of the roots of
viz.,
A
ri*
x
2
m =m =m
2
1
3
The
.
have already been
,
re
m =m +h
Let
x
s
A^ = AjPtifc = A^
x
Then
for
,
3
/
x
(
A+Aw + Ae'W
and we may so choose
Ov C2
>
Three Equal Roots.
Consider next the case
Thus
m m
11
AB 5
,
2,
fcZftZ
1
\
+ kx + ^ +...)
we have
and
B v that
being any arbitrary constants, whatever k
Several Roots Equal. . limiting form of this expression is 200. . But AJc being chosen a finite quantity. A^ + A x 2 e m *x +. for the corresponding portion of the function. . 247 2 provided it be not absolute zero.*)&*&. viz. if be the complementary function of any linear differential equation with or without constant coefficients. Generalization.COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTION. . the remaining terms . what is to replace this expression so as to retain the generality when Let m =m m x 2 ? 2 Then and the terms Now putting two arbitrary A l <f>(m 1 ) +A A^A^ = B finite 2 ly <p(m 2 ) become h2 AJi = 2) constants. + KjxP . it is clear that ultimately.. More generally... when k is indefinitely diminished. = mp viz. the may be. and the series within the square brackets being convergent.. . m^ = m 2 = . (%! + K^x + Kfl? + .+ A p ew complementary *> x . In a similar manner it will be obvious that if p there will be no loss of generality in our solution we substitute the expression if roots of the equation (2) become equal. 201.
. .. where i = \/ we have 1. ^i 1 = 2 = .. 199. When a root of equation (2) of Art. show that =mp m +Ap <j>(mp . the form of <p( m^) being e m ix The / . viz. Thus A l <f)(ml )+ J. results of Arts. J. 198. 2 0(m 2 ) may be replaced by thus retaining the same number (n) of arbitrary constants B19 5 2 2 A^ . . for instance.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. for equations with real coefficients imaginary roots occur in pairs..^ >6 a*sin bx 1 = ( A l + A 2 )e ax : sin bx) ( 2 1 sm bx. Then the terms A^+A^e** may or A^ be thrown into a real form thus + A eax(cos bx eos bx + A . 200 we may proceed to p roots become equal. 1 0(ra 1 ) may + 4 0(m )+ 2 2 . 197 is imaginary. And as in Art. Imaginary Roots. 202. 248 ultimately disappear when we approach the limit in which h is indefinitely diminished. possessed. it is to be remembered that Suppose.. 2 i sin bx) . if the terms ) be replaced by when the generality of the solution will be retained. A n in the complementary function as it originally A . 200 are of course particular cases of this.
then B2 A^+ A 2 = JB* + Then ^cos fr# + 2 a = tan and 2 sin bx 2 replace ijgF. 249 where the two arbitrary constants Bl and and (A l A 2 )i respectively. For repeated imaginary roots we may proceed as before. and . +A^ m =m ^ if 4 3. Let B^ = p cos a. A^ +A^ X m =m If then x 2 X = a + ib may be replaced by and m 3 m =a 4 f 6. . for it has been shown that when 777 2 = ??i 1 x A l em x may be replaced by (J^+J?^***. Repeated Imaginary Roots. We may thus further replace ax jB^cos bx + B2 e sin bx by where C^ and 2 Ce aa! cos(6aj L are arbitrary constants.COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTION. B% = p sin a. = p cos(bx a). 203. we may replace by ( that is by e ax [(Bl + 53 )cos bx + (B .B3 sin te] + xeax [(B + ^4 )cos 60? + (B2 )i l 2 4 )^ sin 6 and therefore by e^CC^cos that is by 6^+ (72 sin 6aj) +cce tf*(Ci or which is aaj ((73cos 6x+ (74sin + cc(7 )cos 6aj + ^ 3 the same thing by Any of the last three forms contain four arbitrary constants which replace the original four arbitrary constants A v A 2 A^ A^ and thus retain intact the .
written A l by (if is w 2 a2 = with roots m a. the general solution containing two arbitrary constants. 250 proper number (n) of arbitrary constants requisite to make the whole solution the most general to be expected. which is its equivalent. desired) y = . aOC Here the auxiliary equation and the general solution is or as it may be by replacing Ex. 204.3. And this rule may obviously be extended to the case when any number of the imaginary roots are equal. Ex.2. y = AjCos ax + ^t 2 s i or. 2 . ax or (D.l) (2)y = 0. Here our Solve the equation 1.Z^cosh ax + ^sinh ax B^~ B B +B* and A i 2 2 by 2 Solve Here the auxiliary equation Hence the general solution is is m 2 fa 2 =0 with roots m +ai. y = Bl Ex. trial solution is y=Ae ^dx 2 mx y dx and we obtain whose roots are 1 and 2.4 Solve + 52y = ?4 ax ax ax? where D stands for .a?y =0.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Ex. Solve *V. 2x Accordingly y A^e* and y = A 2 e are both particular and y=A 1e*+A 2 e2x is solutions.
Our 251 is auxiliary equation mlra2 = 0. Our auxiliary equation Solve with roots i. ?/ is therefore = ^008(37 + J52)h Atf?. 1. 2 Ex. Ex. Our auxiliary equation has roots is and the general solution or is Solve ^ e^L.7^ 2 . and the general solution is JQ cos 2 Ex. +l)(7)l)y=0. 6. (Z> 1. Write down the solutions tions : of the following differential equa . Here obviously the general solution is x^ + ( A 3 + ^t 4#)e~^sin y = (A l + A 2 x)e ^cos + (A 5 + A Qx + J. 2. Solve 2 (Z) + ^I 2 e sn 2 + />+l) 2(Z>2)3(/)5)y=0. EXAMPLES. 5.ILLUSTRA TIVE EXAMPLES. containing eight arbitrary constants. 7. and 2. or having roots Accordingly the general solution 1.
of Algebra.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.. "Z>" 206. i. Commutative Law as far as regards con D(cu) = c(Du}. THE PARTICULAR INTEGRAL. 9.j satisfies The Distributive Law (2) The stants. where 1 ^7^ satisfies is = such an operator that fundamental the 2/ laws of Algebra. 6. g=y. viz. It is shown operator (1) D in the Differential Calculus that the (denoting y. a n being constants. 205.e. 10. 252 3  4 SS~ 3 9 5. g=y. turn our attention to the mode of obtaining . 11. and Fany function of x. . we next a particular integral. ( 12. We may write the above equation as (or [/(D)]F). and propose to give the ordinary and most useful of the processes adopted... Having considered the complementary function of such an equation as F(D)y = where F(D) stands for V a v a2 .
D~ re ax = a. Operation f(D)e has been proved in the Differential Calculus that .e. m and n being positive integers. r r Then D~ l represents an integration.re ax it follows that . The Index Law. It therefore follows that rational algebraical any identity has a corresponding symbolical operative Thus since by the binomial theorem analogue. ' l + 7? ( " T) \ JL .r e ax Hence values of it is clear that n positive . (3) 253 i.PARTICULAR INTEGRAL. ~L i 2i we have by an analogous theorem for operators which may be inferred without further proof JL if < ax 207. It . for all integral . and we shall l suppose that in the operation D~ u no arbitrary constants are added (for our object now is to obtain a particular integral and not the most general integral). Now since D ra~ re ax = e ax = D rD. Dne ax = aneax or negative. r be a positive integer. Let us define the operation D~ r to be such that D D~ u = u. Thus the symbol of combination exception that D satisfies all the elementary rules of it is algebraical quantities with the not commutative with regard to variables.
. positive or negative = ^A rzr say. Next let y = e ax Y. ( Then The result of the operation f(D)e ax D by be obtained by replaci'ng Ex. 254 208. Perform the operations indicated by 3. A r being a constant. g. 1. x.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Obtain the value of Obviously by the rule this  By therefore e ^ is "* or E. 2 . Obtain the value of the rule this e is 3a/ '=^e EXAMPLES. where Fis any function of 209. independent of z). Apply Art. 208 ' ^ to show that 2 /(Z) )sin m^7 /(Z) 2 =/( m )si 2 m2)c )cos mx =/( ax Operation f(D)e X. 1. may a. Let f(z) be any function of z capable of expansion in integral powers of z.
positive or D ne axX = eax(D + a)nX. As is.. Now so that X let we may write Then from above or and therefore Hence Dneax Y=eax(D+a)n Y Dneax (D + a) ~ nX = eaxX. 2 1 2 1 which. Ex. to D . Theorem F+ n (7 an .PARTICULAR INTEGRAL.+Dn F). f(D)e That n e ax may ax X= be transferred from the right side f(D) provided we replace the left of the operator by D + a. 2. D 2   4D + 4 e 2x sin x = e2x ~* sin x D e~ x sin x. 206). 208 we shall have in Art.D Y+ n C D Y+.. Then D e ax = are ax r since we have by Leibnitz's y n = e (a dx 255 n . n being a positive integer. by analogy with the Binomial Theorem (Art. may be written D neax Y= eax (D + a) n F. D in all cases for integral values of negative 210.
= eax (D + a)~ 1 sin 6^ (Art. _L_cos. 210) 7)Wri hv f<x/ f'Arf xxi li. Obtain by means of the exponential values of the sine cosine the results of the operations /(/>)cos mx. and .r . Perform the operations e 2. integrals of e^sin 3^. ^ X/^iSJlll a sin &. We 1 o X (D ./ J Ex. this sin 2^.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. e^sin ^. 3. Arts. 1.Y EXAMPLES.tan.# _ ea*(a?+ 6 2) 91^ 1y Zi L 6 cos bx ^sin^. si _I sin 2^7. as before. 1. 256 EXAMPLES. f e ax r>9\ ^ ) ' sin bx dx sin cos m mx = f( /v = Z) 1 e ax sin 6^7 sin o\ 2 ) y cos it will follow mx. Show 211.r. a^ nD j. Perform the operations 1 2.If* 6 h ' l X 1 Dl ' (DI)* that Operation /(7> D have sn 2 cos 2 ) wwu = (  m sin 2 ) y cos mx. /(Z>)sin mx. 208 and 210. Find by method the ax 2 cosbx.1 . and therefore Hence.
^ sin mx> f)~7 R . Thus "" sin S1T1 ^= 2# L4 + 1664 sin " %x ~ sin 2#. Let F(D) be arranged in powers of Z). 212. I. and then we may write But if : the operation sm mx = .PARTICULAR INTEGRAL. C. /T^ox . then if no odd powers occur the result may be written down by the foregoing rule of Art. 51 both even and odd powers occur we may Group the even powers together proceed as follows and the odd powers together.V sin mx ^ ^m m )sin mx mx 2 ( 2 )cos mx Upon examination it will be seen that in practice we may write m2 for Z) 2 immediately after the step writing immediately 1 \ E. 211. ^ /TV. 257 Operation Let us next consider the operation where F(z) is a function of z capable of expansion in positive integral powers of z.
2. J. 4^0 sin ma. ^e cos *cos ^p. 1. sin 2#.O ^ cos 2^ ^ sin or Ex. Thisis sin 2#. x ^ 2 [replacing each Z> by 1] 2* e ____ 1 = 4 (cos x sin x).. in/ J'Xv ) i in i . EXAMPLES. fjsrS SYT^ ^ Obtain the value of =  etc.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. =e This expression 2 ^ Obtain the value of 2  *^ 2^7. D sin 2^. Perform the operations indicated in the following ex pressions D : Z> 3 e*sin x+ . 258 mi or' ry^ Ex. 1. .
(D+a) being n 3. This 1. Ex. there integral signs.. find This expression 10 is . dx.)(#2 .PARTICULAR INTEGRAL..  D+ D 3 Again. wy^F.2. rational any method in ascending powers of J9 as far as the highest power of x contained in F. 2.. Show by that first expressing 1 operation ^fm F may ^=r~ *W in partial fractions. For example.. fe ax Vdx J J J J 259 . the be expressed in terms of a set of common integrations. we may expand rrrr\\ by If in the operation of x. find l is (1 Ex. 213. rV. Show l that /T.D^+ etc. Fbe an algebraic function and integral.v Operator Algebraic. n V= e~ ax f [ f .
Instead. To obtain the Particular Integral we have If we apply Art. instead of #. In applying the above methods of obtaining a Particular Integral. 214. Cases of Failure. the result becomes i^i We may operation evade or this difficulty  and obtain the result of the by applying Art. let us examine the operation Writing x(\ = & + h) more carefully.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Solve the equation x ^Ly=e dx . 210 when we have which is the particular integral required. 1. we have . We propose to illustrate the course of procedure to be adopted in such cases. ' The Complementary Function is Ae*. 260 EXAMPLES. 208. however. ( 215. J? COsh 37 COS 07. of substituting another method. Ex. Perform the operations CD+l)(Z> + 2) 2   3. cases of failure are frequently met with.
The two parts particular integral consists of and In this second part. The remaining terms contain h and vanish when h is decre. The term xe* is the Particular Integral desired. consider the limit.i'(l This expression =1 _1 4 i_(i+A)a 1 1 I U ^ X COS ^IX "*" COS ^^ S ^ n ^^ < JT2^ 9A J? ) 1 sin o = (a 2. i.263 CASES OF FAILURE. oo . The whole Ex. we We now get 2HL. solution is ^ Solve the equation Ct/X The complementary function is clearly y = A sin Zx + B cos 2#. when h = Q. i of  sin2. Art. 211. of A 4 term which may be included in the complemfunction) xc Thus the whole solution s ^ ^ + (terms which vanish v of the. differential equation JOS g " . Of this expression the portion Lte x//i becomes infinite.2? l fi 1 x cos 2.27 + powers r .e. taken with the complementary function Ae x . and so we apply if o e* the ri fail. sin 2#. indefinitely. and b A may be we may regard A + /i arbitrary as a new arbitrary constan for we may suppose A to contain a negatively infinite por to cancel the term I/A.2.
Solve the equation 3.3? 5# 2 + + "" ' . 10 1 6 + 2Z) sin x= 3Z) / 2(9 = (3 sin # .cos ^)/20. jjinally open 44 ie the whole solution y= A +A l e~ 3x + (A 3 2 e 2x + is ~~ 3 sin x cos x .x the complementary function is 6 x iy* + e viz.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. l " 44 h)]. 260 :. <? _ 1 = *_ JL ~(DI*' 4~4 'I?'' T = (a part going into the x .. (D 'ere 2 + 3D)(D l) 2y = e* + e~x + sin x 4.^PP. plainly particular integral consists of four parts. . . 1 1 complementary function) + (terms which vanish with .
(^ + cosh 6^). The C.a we have the coefficient of in i 1 l "?>. EXAMPLES. .COS o o .. . 1.\^ Thus the COSJP P. is To find the which is P. in #*.ILL USTRA TIVE EXAMPLES. * plX rp ' 4^6/^Tr.I. ( COS . Solve the equation Ex.I. 4. (7) /na ^/ n ^o. Obtain the Particular Integrals indicated by 0) 7TTT sina7 ' nTT 8*1111 *' 5> /n w^ovnQx*' (6) _ (sinh # + sin ^?). l l ** ~^l^D. is 8 and the whole solution _ 3^ gin ^ 8 is y = A ^inh ^ + ^ 2 cosh x + A 3sm x+A 4 cos x + x c s ^ ^'  ^ sin ^p. .F. ^?/ 263 = ^sin^.
x (8) (Z> 2 2 (9) (Z> (10) (^> 216.. +y = (3) Cfc# (4) (D*l)(D*l)y=xe*. CvQC A transformation which renders peculiar service in reducing an equation of the class A v A 2 . 1 ]X / ~1 ___~ l dxn . are constants. D d stand for j. dxn )X n ( \ x __ dx _ 11 I . The Operator &. 264 Solve the differential equations 2. and therefore x~. arises from putting where . to a form in which the coefficients are constants.= ^ax at obvious therefore that the operators xj. dx Then we have * dx\ nf\ n _ Z.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. t . x=e In this case TT = at It is e*... (6) (7) OD 3 (5) (Z) (ZP3D2 3D + I)y = e %=#sin.and d ji all Let are equivalent..
.. Now in succession 11 putting 265 2.2)y + 2D(D or % + 3%  3# = ( (D  i.e. x ^ + 3.. 3^++2/=^ ote2 rfa? dx* dx ' i dx? 5. giving y = Ae* + B cos . Hence generally or reversing the order of the operations = D(Dl\DZ). cfc 1 4.EXAMPLES. we have . etc... ~+ . 4.(D Ex. Solve the differential equations 1. dx .rIog EXAMPLES. Solve the differential equation Putting x = c?. the equation becomes D(D l)(D.. + a? ^ + (^ = [log ^] 2 + x sin log ^ + sin q log a?. s 2 2. 3.
CHAPTER XVII. . It has been shown in Art. 217. y. *dx 'dy dx Let this eliminant be This is the differential equation of the first family. so that the particularizing constant a ought not to appear in the equation of the family. The family problem we now propose to investigate is that of finding the equation of another family of curves each member of which cuts each member of the former family at right angles. ORTHOGONAL TEAJECTOEIES. a) of curves. And in such a problem as this it has been already pointed out that it is necessary to treat all members of the first family collectively. that the quantity a The equation may be eliminated between the equations . Cartesians. MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS. 17 1. ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORY. = is representative of a f(x.
. differential equation. Ex. .g^ The differential the second family of equation is therefore and when " this is integrated " The we have rule is therefore Differentiate the given : equation. and integrate the new differential equation. 1. . Thus if be the current coordinates of a point on r\ a curve of the second family at its intersection with one of the first family. y the current coordinates of the same point regarded as lying upon the intersected curve of the first family. . and x. the tangents to the two curves are at right angles. so is dr our rule is Differentiate the equation. 218. Polars. 267 Now at any point of intersection of a member of the first system with a member of the second system. write new the family of of the first system. we have dx dn * tx. rtnt* constant. dO in place plac of rv. If the curve be given in polars the angle the tangent makes with the radius vector now: df) rj. Find the orthogonal trajectory of the family of circles (1) each of which touches the yaxis at the origin.ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORY. 219. 1 write ite dr 70 . . Orthogonal Trajectories 7 eliminate the fl 1J in place of j and integrate the ..iy. . eliminate the constant.
. 268 Here a x+yJL= cLx and.......DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS....... and the variables become by the assumption y = vx.. Ex.. eliminating Hence the new .. Find the orthogonal trajectory of the curves 2 i A being the parameter n\  of the family.. (3) ... However. this being the same as equation (2) with the exception that x and y are interchanged... a2 + A = and Thus the differential equation of the family is (atb^yy or x*y*+xyyi =a 5 2 2 .. 2 +y = 2x( x \y differential equation must be 2 ^ + 2^^2 = o.. 2.. each of which touches the #axis at the origin..... and A must be eliminated between these two equations...... its integral must be which is separable another set of circles.... (2) gives so that x(b* + A) +yy l(a? + A) = 0. . (3) ay a homogeneous equation. 2 ...... or ).v #.
Show values of of the family of parabolas a. 1. i * i. r=a(l ^ Here and. viz. 3. dr ~ sm = 2 we must have for the family of orthogonal trajectories 1 dr n log r or + constant. another family of coaxial cardioides whose cusps point in the opposite direction. must have the same : a set of conic sections confocal with the former Ex. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the equiangular spirals r = ae^ cota for different values of a. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of 3. ' 4. and coaxial . r^ = l a.4^. 2 log cos 2t or r=b(l+cosO). EXAMPLES. that the orthogonal trajectories of the family of similar ellipses .=m 2 for different values of 2 2 a m is b s? =Ay b . eliminating Hence set.ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORY. 269 the differential equation of the #1 familv of trajectories is 2 (4) But same this being the primitive.e. Find the orthogonal parabolas =1 f cos 9 trajectories of the confocal for different values of a. as equation (3) ^ a n y 2 ~ _. # 2 Find the orthogonal trajectories = 4cM? for different 2. cardioides cos 0) for different values of a. Hence changing y^ into .
Show that if cos a) and r sinh 2 /? = a(cosh ft cos 0) f(x+iy) = u + iv the curves form orthogonal systems. 221. Show that the families of curves are orthogonal. Prove that for any constant value of /z the family of curves x cosec y p cot y = constant coth x cosech x cos y = constant cosh cut the family /z at right angles.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. 7. Show that the curves r sin 2 a = a(cos are orthogonal. 8.] SOME IMPORTANT DYNAMICAL EQUATIONS. 270 5. is The equation the general form of the equation of motion of a under the action of a central force. 1890. particle Multiplying by 2^ and integrating dO which we may write as and the solution is therefore effected. Equations of the form we have . [LONDON. 6. 220.
o Eliminating ^L du e nu = . sin nO^. cos nO first integral is is an integrating factor and the correspond ing cos n(& + nu sin nO= d\j f'f(ff) cos J nO'dO'+B.SOME SPECIAL FORMS. The solution may however be conducted thus : Multiply by sin n9. o Similarly. Integrating. 271 have already been discussed as being linear with constant coefficients. The equation of motion of a body of changing mass often takes some such form as d! dt ^ and for this equation integrating factor. . will be = found to be an j ^x)<l>(x)dx + A. 222. <f>(x)rr 2 leads at once to i{<(^' J ^Xto 1 J and the variables are separated. which will be found to be an integrating factor. d6 .nu cos nO= f*f(ff) sin J n&dff + A.O')d0 f(0') sin n(0 f + Bsmn6A cos n6.
3. Then = dx Thus dx dx dz x+A=lJ a or Ex. 272 FURTHER ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES. Solve e^  \dx dx) Let 6^ Then. dy dz y+^^=y. Ex. ax ' Let ax+by=z. Many equations may be solved by reducing to one or other of the known forms already discussed by special artifices.2. since this equation may dx = 77. 223. e x = s he arranged as \ e *dx is . Z or dz 1 = Xj+5. dx dx rpi Then . d *. + bf(z) dx\ y+a dx Put xy=z. ^=f(ax+by).. and the complete primitive . dx dz dx which is of Clairaut's form. Ex. 1.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
v=*Js y= Jt. we may write which being it as ?7 of Clairaut's form the complete primitive may be written or Ex. dx E. (an. Then the equation becomes ds . equation occurring in Solid Geometry). Solve the equation 5. Put and . I. C. 273 S lines .ILL USTRA Tl VE SOL UTIONS. t= giving ds as which is of Clairaut's form and has the complete primitive BC tsG ~ 1+2(7' and singular solution the four straight 9JJy Ex.  4.
sinh^Wa) = t.=dt> Solve the simultaneous differential equations (which are linear with constant coefficients) . and when the value of t in terms of x is substituted. 274 Let the transformation be such that then x is known by direct integration as a function of t. [If a be positive we have dx . the is solution complete. > ~j= If a be negative we have 1 Va Ex.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. dx . dy d^dL_ Now dx * ' and dx* d ax 4 f (^ax^yJ^dx* dt* dt dx Thus . 1 [=. to whose solution is y=A sin qt + B cos <^. 6. } and the given equation thus reduces ..
+ 139^^^V \ = . We may write these equations as (3 where 275 D + 34>? + (ID + 38)y = e\ D stands for .58e.. giving ^= or a? = ^e To obtain y Multiply the let us eliminate first 7 by ^ from the and the second by 9 and subtract. 7. at y = 7^9^2^^ Thus = It . 2 (D + 7Z> + 6)ff = 7 + 38* .9e* . ^ + 1x +y = This gives original equations. we eliminate y and obtain [(4Z) or + 44X7/> + 38) .] at Ex.Ae< + 4^e .58e.2( Ae~* + Be ~ ^=^* + ^. ) Thus 6  ? 6' .*t + * + *fr*. the introduction of supernumerary constants. It . Solve the simultaneous equations ^+ f dt 2 3 dt dt These equations may be written This avoids .(3D + 34)(9Z> + 49)> = 7 + 38* . at Operating upon these equations respectively by 7J9 + 38 and by 9D + 49 and subtracting.SIMULTANEO US EQ UA TIONS.y [The student should notice the elimination of ^.9e*.
25 cos ^ [I.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. 3. 4.^ EXAMPLES. 2^(i*)y=**. we eliminate y and obtain D +9 2 and by 3D and + 16)(D + 9) + 1 5 Z) 2> = 0. (Z> + 40Z) + 1 44> (D* + 4)(D' + 36)^=0. we have *" dt whence we obtain the value viz.] . [(D or 2 2 2 i. : y=%B sin 2t + 2 A cos 2t + i&D sin 6 . 4 2 = 0. Solve the equations i. C. x = A sin ~2t + B cos 2 + C sin 6 + D cos 6*. S. of y without any new constants. (1. 5. 2 8.e. 1804. 276 whence operating upon these in turn by subtracting. tions 2 cosy Obtain the integrals of the following differential equa: + 9y . whence Differentiating the first equation and subtracting three times the second to eliminate differential coefficients of y. 'cte 2.
. Find the form of the curve in which the tangent of the inclination of the current tangent to the #axis is proportional to the product of the coordinates of the point. 277 Integrate the simultaneous system _ 4=0. 10. 9. Find the form of the curve for which the curvature varies as the cube of the cosine of the inclination of the tangent to the 12. 11. y oc log sec ~. Show that in the curve for which the projection of the radius of curvature on the 7/axis is of constant length (l) S (2) oclogtan(?+).EXAMPLES.
). Mass of half the spheroid = J?r/xa26 2 . Area=ia 3. . Vol. 0. Vol. 5. 4. 5 tan 2 <9. 12. 3 7Tfia . 3 . =(e* b e2n 6.ANSWEES.^. 25 u =JL t) 7. CHAPTER PAGE 1. Area = e 6 ea 2. I. = 1 TT = VoL * 1  (8) JL Vol. Vol. .=f7ra tan 3 (a) Vol. = Vol. 2 = a Vol. 8.
CHAPTER PAGE 279 II. x/21. 2. 23. log(log^). 17. & loo' Tooo' Tool' _^ _^ 98 100' 2 2. a log x. PAGE X 2 ft ' _ *' c10' . logtan" 1 1 ^. + (sin 6 sin a). J ~j a log ^ +#. a 10. 4. 1. r!001 r !00 PAGE 25. ^Y. . 2. 8. 3.ANSWERS. Ioge . PAGE 26. logsin' ^. 6. 3. . .o C> X r!000 Ht. 7. ?^1.
JL. L / cosh^+l). asin^+tan. 2. log^ + e*). J_ tan.  V* sinV^'  PAGE  log cosh #. 3 ^2 _. 1 aT + 4+ + ' I log 6 3' 28. l ^! 7.f Jain. . 1 ?. g 1 H. ~. si 8. 4. III. 4 4. x 2 V2 6. . 86 an^.1^4 a cose* +6 . 8. sin. 2 logo _ log tan ^. 280 PAGE 9" J log2 4 log >> 5.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. ? tan. 3.1 *. v . 41. sin(log^). log sin ^ cosec ^. log(log sin x\ CHAPTER PAGE sin# 32.*. sine*. n 1.
6.^ + 2\/l + # + 7. 4 cosh. PAGE sinh x J log tan  Iog[log{log(loga7)}]. i(^ +1)4. CHAPTER ^7 ). CQS 2 ^ .2 2 8. 1 2  sinh. x/^.f _ ~~4^ _ ~""^~~ sin 6^7 /cos 2^7 cos cos 6^7 ~~ . (2 + # 2 )sinh x x sm 2<r Zx cosh x. log(log^).2^ cos 2^). 2 ^logtan(+. log{log(log. J(sin 2a? a?) + cos 3^ + 27 cos^]. 1 + ^?x/5?^ xyJ\^3?. 3. cosh #.^)}. Vl=F. 281 s 2 4.ANSWERS. IV. 47. ~"" sin 4. logtan CL a<r+& . . in 3a? + 9 sin 3. ^logtan^. I siii 1 ^2\/r^iWl ^ 2 .A \4 / \ fx 13.
^2 ). 2 _.(2^4 .. 1 2 2 \ p + qr. sn 3 \ 52.3(^2 + 2)cosh x.tan.4). .5?r4 + 607T2 . pqr. 339 9.1 *? PAGE + x/f^.3^)sin 2^ .INTEGRAL CALCULUS.tT 3^7 x sec" 1^ . 3 / \ cos x. . 265e720. 51. for the values of n.cosli" 1^. ^sin" 1 ^. (rf + 20^ + 1 20#)cosh x >3 6)sin x. ct / 7T 2 A 4. g. 2 v5 ^2(a + ^ )~sin^tan. 1 where #=sin#. where ^= + Y where ^ = sin(9. tan _il x 3 . 3 PAGE 1. \/l (b) 6>(sec(9 (c?) where A = S i / </> <^> cos </>). 282 5. 7T I. (/) + cos0)sin<9logtan (c) 2 (sin  ^7 4  1 . (e) Jlog(l+^ 2 ). 6. a ^sin^tan^).2  (1 . _ 2/ 84\V \ 2 4 . (a) (6) / \ (c) (m 4 2 + l)~^rnecos(^cot gsmg + cos^ ^ tan ^ + log (d) ^tan" 1 ^ (a) x m). 2 4 5(^ + 1 2^7 + 24)sinh x. r+pq. q + rp.6^ 2 + 3)cos J{2(2^ . ^sin^ . 7T. sin.240.
cot (9 log(cos (9 + \/c7^2g)  8.ANSWERS. (6) x v ie*(#. = cos =. . * log . sin cos 2<> + ?'  > r2 r r2 and </> = 4 + (log2) 2 cos 7* sn and "log +\/l^ 2 x 7. where 2 X (P sin 2#  cos 2^). 3.1)(a sin 6. . where  < 7* and r ) log(l x 6> + logg _  (9 cot 2* ^ + AVC 6. 4. 1  2 v JL_c 2 Vm +l where tan B=x. Sill C7 + tan 0) . (a) e*sin^. m 7 2 (6)' ie*/I + A^cos^tftan\\ 2 m//' \m Vm2 + 4 V (c) eme ( 4 where tan0 = #. (a) e*tan.. 53. are as in Art.^7 sinh ax b cos u? cosh a^) 2 2 (d) 6~ ax sin(6^ r* (e) \ + 2</>) V.Y (6) e*cot.. sin 6 cos 9. 283 W <J^>*p^.+ ilogsin( + . l+m l+^ (a)!*"*.
?JL_.log(# 2 + 6^7 + 10) + 1 1 tan. 284 CHAPTEK PAGE 2. 3. . x+ o a 7 e 1 l 27 (^Tiy ^T giZ^ log(^ . +8 (^l) 2 8(^l) a^^ + I_L. ^_ ct (ix.1 ^ H.) V. log(3. 1 #2log(# + 2. (.taii" 1 ^+ 2).) +etc. (iii. \ 4. 2 log(^' + 4# + 5) . f PAGE 62.r + 2) + 3tan2# .) 58. 2 5.r).3).INTEGRAL CALCULUS. g ^l + 16 j B .q. 6.
) x*J 3^2 tan'(4r \A/21_) * (v.) 3 (ii.) (v. ^ (iv.1 *  tan.) l .) log^/V^T). l 2V2 l (i. 3 285  2 (ii.ANSWERS.) lo g (* (iii.) 5.1 * VS.) 4 (i '> .) (viii. (iv.) (iii.+( tan.
INTEGRAL CALCULUS.) ilog^ ^o  17 17 ll .) 6.) (x.) (iii. (i. 286 (ix.+ l I 7 17 .
15 sin 2. x/2 2.r n n .ANSWERS.b)Jc(a + 26^ . 3. 1 / 2 \ 5 1 /sin 6^7 3 3 sin kx . 68. CHAPTER PAGE 1. 287 VI.cr ) + (6 + acj 8 PAGE 74. sinh^+1. ( 2 LRcar . bx + a) 4.
x + co cos 1 \ (m.%)x 1 2^2 l Jsin 3 4 Jtan 43 157T  2\/tan#. . f sin ^ 5.l) n /sin Znx _ 2^/7 sin(2tt . 4(n2) 83. x 192 60^/2' (ii. 5. 1 cos 5^  or 2.sin in 3.)  cos nx sin% + f sine#.2 sin 2. 1 tan Wo^P 7 #.3>. ^tan3 a tan.)7 : sma i u 1 cosh \ "f .) ' ' sin + 44 _ 1. 2 4 \ cos #. 288 2H 5 7 AO or ( .) (11. 2 6 [(ac + be)0 + (be ae)log(c sinO+e cos (9)]/(c + 0*1 a* / 6^ + J sin [a0 + 6 log(a cos (i.INTEGRAL CALCULUS.) 2n3 2nl ^.1 /" V* ^\ tan \3 2/ . (i.cos @2 sin(2?a 4)^ _ ) 2^4 "*/' 5 ~2 7r 2M ^^sin ^. COS(2ttl)#_ 2M+1 ff COS(2^. .r^  cos(n PAGE 1 \ . . 3. A / / i/l.  3 ' 8 + . 2 2 (9 + 6 sin (9)]/(a + b ). 2# .
AW log o r 7i ?i 2 cos # . .  2i 12. V for other cases . K tan(+ I.ANSWERS. 11.tan.sin ^ 2 \/2 log 1 + sin # 18 . 4 1 v6 a sin x .) ( vii.( a>a' and a'b>ab'.) 289 ^i3co^tani3)x/10 SvlO 000(4?. 1 ^v^CTW&^V^tan'tan. 2 cosh x tan. ^ sec 20. C.) (iii. 15. _1_ ' if .) (ii. (iv. 10.^^) }. with analogous forms 8 3 ' ' 3 (l+2cos(9) 2  sin 2^.cos^ + sin^ Q _ y.z 3) a.2 x/1  13.1 1 + cos a + cos x . W 1. cos a CO8 x cos a + sin a cosh. T . ^.sin .
tan x 1 8 CHAPTEE PAGE 7. cosec 26. 23. 5 . 19. 290 2 16. na 2 17.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 1 25. log log tan x. 20. cos x + x sin 22. (l+sin2^). 24. If 94. VII. x . artan^logtl+tf 2 ). cosh^cosfl+sinfl).
5. g and limits 2a.i sin 40 + 5 ^2871^/2 _ // 4 102. 7 cos 71.!1 c?j. PAGE 1. . 2^\ \ sin 4\2 sin x cos #). an / J si x cos 3# _ sin PAGE J 4 Zi 2\ 6 (ii.J cos3 ^ + f cos 6 6> . (iii. T / 95. . fsirAEcfe= _co^ / t. .) tan x 2 cot x 3?r 29 1680 37T8 ' 32 3?r ' 8 8 1 693' 693' 60' ' 8 J sin 6> +4 192 . = 2.f cos7 (9 + J cos9 0.ANSWERS.JQ sin 5 6> cos^ + yjgd ^ . etc. A = ~^ /2 = f 4 . 4. 3.) \  1 \ 3/ . 291 289 ' ^ sin ?r 2 5?r 8' 9' 192* ^ 4480' 8(9).x  cos n x 3?r 35?r 128 4' 16' 25(3' 315' 8 i sin 8 6>  7 <> I 1 / . 8 in% 4 / 7. . 3 _ sin ^ cos% 1 f su. J 4. 3(x TT siii ^. 3 \ cot #. /i= _ and Between _ /r2 = 5 xax x^f +a 7T3 = 7 x\2axxrf+a . n / 8 + = sin^cos"" ^ + nlf cos w ~ 2^ ax. _ g in2f \ 4 sin 6^ dx. /3 fsi and similarly for 6. g" a 10 r o sin 6>.
3?7i(3m 2).a 2 . 3.m = (y) (m .(m + 2) . . 1 X i a sin a sin 3m 3m(3m .. (K T ~~ n>p \ n an (a^bxf^ .li ___ra .2)(3m .(^ Tn . 1 2 / = __^ Xa cos x + 4 sin #) cos 3 2 + g^ 1 X acos ^+2sin^)+2.^ n a cos sin eu? 5 2 cos  9 2 1 w(m~l) .  In =  8. If Im< n denote the given 104.S) ^7 a? n cos # +w .4) "*"  ax n(n 1) r .n + l)/m (3) m/m =^. ^_ 7n = . 71 .win* ^ n* . integral.2)a 3/m _ " . m + n+l 6. With a W / similar notation. 1 . 292 PAGE 2. IH = 17 cos 2 1 7 8llln ..INTEGRAL CALCULUS. ' .(m .v.
..2)^7 cos ^7 + sin ^7 w + .1 ^. /^ 2 sm(ttl)* n 2 7 1 =_ 28. 2\/2 ^ ^^+l JL \/2 . (a) (/?) v / /rn = /rn _ 2 Deduce from r 25.^/t It TAJ 2 oosli m(m.1X^2X^3). (^_ l)( 7i _2)sin" 1 ^ CHAPTEE PAGE 2. ' . ork 20 . (77? 293 ram PVPTIl.  x/2 v/^ 2 +2^+3 . (nl)u m 29. amlm + (2m / Q1 N 31.x v a a >rn III 9VH ) Aj2_t_92\ /. 23. 115. \/3 2. ^T n VIII.3.ANSWERS. cosech.. . _ _(7i.sinh 1 1 lo 3.
. . ws _ 117. sin a .COS 1. ^u^u. V2 are in ascending order of magnitude with modifications for other cases. sir 4. COS 07 . cos a r _ 2 cogec a r. cos nx cos x being a positive integer) cos wo. 6. 6 p 1" 9 sinh_ T9 PAGE 120. Prove (TZ. c 5. ~\^ ^ r=i gin ra cos (^ _ r \ x / Then / cos a? cos a sin a r= i ?i \ sin Tia + __ . A 3. 294 _ x/2 f 7=tan PAGE *2 2 ^=^g <v> ^ sinh If a.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. cos ^ + cos ~ 6 3. 2(sin#+#cosa).log 2.
1 5^+1.sin a) f 2 sin a log tan tan" _ 6.) (vii. y) 2 CQS X mall 1 e. 5 2 2sm a 2 2 V PAGE 1.1 v/fT2^. c.cos if a < 1 ^ + COS a cos a for the case cos a other cases. x/3 l (v. 2 sin x + 2 sin a log(sin x . 129.) z.) 4\/2 (iii.) ^^L .sinhiL Llf \/3 1 (vi. 2tan.L inhif2 .) If \*' a>c coshi with a corresponding real form 3.ANSWERS. (i.) v (cos a cos /5)(cos a . > cos fi COS a cos or cos ~ COS "~ ft cos a ~ C QS cos a cos y y with modifications 7 for .)2tanV#.) v/^+^+1 l sinh. (i.) sinh.1  (iv. (ii. 295 cot tan 5. B no? (ii.) (viii.
) 2/^.) cot/ t : j iogX24 (i. e .) (ii.) (rjr^^S 12. (ii. IX. . cot y .) cot a : cot /? 6. 15.) (iii. JL.) 30. PAGE 2. 3 . (i. cot a 3? cot a cot x cosh" 1 Mi) (ii. 141.)ilog2.) (ii. (ii. *L.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. (iii .)^^).) a 8a. PAGE (i.) Iog e 2l. F. (i. (ii. 296 _1 Vsin(a  /3)sin(a y) 2 n tan l +. 151.) cot a 14. (iii.) L. 27. 3. 5^5.cot a (iii.  1 CHAPTER 7. ax Cycloid.) 1. (iv. 29. (i. * The 5 2a(coscos^. Iog e 2.
2 Mog (/) sini^i 37ra 2 . or \ 4 (n odd). 2 a3 a2 ' 4 ' .tan i/r). e*  g V^rp _ * 6. 8. 3. 2 167. PAGE 160.10 ~~co^0~ 2 v/1 + 3 cos ^^^ 297 + V3 cos ff~\ 2  5. 3 . r\/l+3cos 2 0_ V3. CHAPTEB PAGE 2. 4?^ 2 5 area=^! Total 2 tan a 2 /3 cot a/^gycot a _ i (w even). 8 . M ^ (o) 5. 2 (a) c sinh. 16 * 4. ^. R z.ANS WERS. X. * 2 3. G h (b) e 4a2 l. . 5o. 37ra 2 . 2. 3 (tan f + J. /3 6" ~^g3 9. 158. 2 a/5 PAGE 1.
. odd. PAGE 1. 5. (ii.  %nrab. ^. 2 ( J.STT). 298 4.  ^7?  2 24 ^ even ! 7r^^". a2 34.) nr .) . a 2 [2log(\/2 + l)iW2l 14. (ii.) (7r2)a 2 7. 4 4 12 28. 30. 178. 32. ^(107r + 9 x/3). a2 . 23. 1J. bmi*s4 44. (i. ^?V2. (32 + 24\/3 . (i. 41.L 17. 7' odd ' ^ ' ^. 39. v/3 22.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 7raj(ab). TT( 6 2 ' ) i 40. 25. (7r + 2). 29. 7rV2  . r(m + l) 128 m being supposed 11. TV* 9.) 2 2. 12. + ^^. 42. 6 1 4cV2sin.
3. 2 3 TV7T a .) (iii. 201. surface ). If the sides be a. 27ra 3 (log e 2 6. = slant height.c). y=^ m ( ) M J=l a) ). h^ h 3 the . XII. If of base. CHAPTER 1. c .) fi 'ass=g. and h^ distances of the midpoints from the given line. 6. 193.  y = 2Z . 3 PAGE 1. volume = ^TraPk. =%27ra volume =irV. Surface 8.ANSWERS. 299 XI. PAGE 191. s the semiperimeter . ) (ii. 5.a)(s . P Z.b)(s .) 2 J7r x= a3 . 7 2. a = rad. 2 . surface = Tral. 10.) (11. h = altitude. PAGE 187. = 27r(aA 1 + bh2 + cA3 = volume ^(hi + h 2 + k 2 )>Js(s . CHAPTEE 3. PAGE 2 (i.
INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Let 20 be the angle. 1. 2(3v/37r)' Mom. m w Mom. In.. . (2) (a) ??V R / 3v'37T (2) (2) 2 Hijfa ^^ . 5= 2. n+4' about diam. 5' PAGE 207. about ^axis = 6. If ^length. m m and 3 2 In. about tang. a (1) \ f (i) 9 K^. jr^. = Area _. a 7. 4. If^1= _A^3. the median the 2.. . 300 3. (3) initial line. f of length of rod from end of zero density. a the radius.
rO = a b cos bx + Ce~ ax . CHAPTER PAGE 1.log sec y + C.  3 3. 6. 1^2.ANSWERS. JU=  2. L_JLf(7. +O. X6 ye 2 ^= tan 1 y f~ C/. x =y tan y . .  x log 2 2^7 2 = ^L+ 2^? 2 2 9. + C. 2ye 2 iAn ~ lx ~ ==e2i&n lx 219. x sin ?/ v*= 2V^7 + a 13. I o. 6. i=i+ 7* a 16. 9. + b' )y = a sin bx 2 2. (a 3.log sec 301 XIII. 5. Cfe' (7. x tan x . (1) (2) 10. "{"C/. ^cy 15. y = (7e ?y2 (3) = 2^ + a (4) * PAGE 1. 215.^^ (7. .
8. The joeliminant ^ y y= of and 5.(B' \/4^6Y (^ 2 I) PAGE 226. (y^) 3 I) . 2x/73 where v=yjx. GyS^^ 7. 3. 302 18. (1) f^ 1 x 2#2 (2) (a 2 +C. 2. . and 1> + 0} _ 7. iI = a 4.= 2. + & 2 y = a sin bxb cos 6^ + (7e (3) si CHAPTEE PAGE XIV.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 4.r 6. 5. 223. <y= The joeliminant of y=x(Ap* + Bp + C). .
c< 2. o~s 5.y=apx+p\ ] 6. 3a ~ 2 3^ 2 A rectangular hyperbola. + C. 3. .ANSWERS. 4 6. y = Cx + C\ 3. PAGE 233. y= 4. 4. y= PAGE 232.  logpp + C ?/ = n p x = (n 2. 5. JL 1 ^ p v= 3a I 8. PAGE 303 230.
dy  = . the singular solution. 11. 2 jTpj 3c sin 1 a series of conies touching the four straight x*J^Ay = \A#. 242. 8?/=(2^l) 13. cos 3 6> . . Hyperbolae. (^^)2 + (y J5) 2 =a 2 11. 12. 4. 10.+ 6\ 7. Parabolae touching the axes. 6.^ +& 9. 2.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 3. (a) ^3^2+? = (o) Ax log x. A fourcusped hypocycloid x*+y*' =0?. 14. y = acosh(. y=x\ogx+Ax + B. y = 6 tan /1 5. . y= y=c 2 2/ =& 2 lines  . 3. x+b= J\ 2y = . 10. 304 9. C 1. y = Ex* 1 PAGE 2. PAGE 238. CHAPTEE XV.
XVI. y=( . y=*Af*+ Be** +&"*. . y= Ae x + fie** + Ce5x 4. . y = (4 + 11. 305 all capitals denote arbitrary : 3. CHAPTER PAGE bx ax y = Ae +Be 2. 251.ANSWERS. (First Set). y(44^+^^+l)^4<i^^)tf^ 12. y = (A + 10. cos 2 + B cos a? + <7e~ fsin *? + Z)e~ fcos 8. y = (A + 5j?)sin a# + ((7+ Z)^)cos GW7 + E sin fo? + F cos &# sin a? 0)siii ^P ^+ + ((7+ 7>o?)cos Cfeajsin a? + (Z) + JEr + ^r2)cos a? PAGE PAGE 256 254. In the results of the following set constants 1. y=A 9.
306 PAGE 256 (Second Set).\ 1. PAGE g(^ 2 ~ 258.INTEGRAL CALCULUS. (1) ^7 ( * c i. 260. 2 . J cos x. y=. (e^_e^ + e ~^~Zb ar sin 2 .sin t (5 ^r + cos or). (3) cosh. ( 2^7 + PAGE (i) /ON (2) x sin 2# (6) (cosh x (7) (4) (8) 2 (2) + jsin^ 5/ \ 263. . cos 2 x sinh #). jr 2. ^ sin %x. )cos^7 5/ l. 4 2 a^+(a . *(! y.6a + l)cos l)sin 2 cos a? cosh x. PAGE ~K 10 3. tan. x cosh # \ sin 2#.1 ). d/ ^(sin 2.*.
ANSWERS. 5.  >g 1. y = A^m(q log #) + A 2cos(q log 2. y = A ism(q log x) + ^ 2 cos(^ log ^) + 4. ' ^/ 2 cos(log a?) __ ~~ log x cos(^ log ^ y = ^! sin  log(a + bx) \ + J 2 COS  T lg( a + ^) j [ . r2 sin(log ^7) ^7). (sin# 5 (4) y = (4 1 (5) yr^ + (6) y = J jer (7) y=A1 2 2 +{(# 3)cos a? a? sin ^r x (8) (9) (10) 25 y = ^L e 1 ar +^l2 e ~ ar ~t cos x coshe y=(J 1 i + i^ sin^+^ 8 2 PAGE 265. (3) y=A 1 307 sw 6 2 cos#).
10. 276. siny=?7 (siny = (a) y = (b) y ^^3 sin(log x) + JB^cosQ. r XVII. GLASGOW I = Ad\ 11. (<*ex +iy*=A. 6. = lcos<9. Put 2 . x* .. 9. Put sin^=^..no + * * = tan~^ y = Put = sin~ o? y=^ Put 6^ = ^. Put tany=2 3. 269. Putt a + bx=S. . . 8. b{n\Ao) are the roots of the equation 2 4. 7. where m^ m 2 5. ^=77. 1 . y = C(a C( + bx)^ + D(a + tan?/ . (c) y .og x). y + Z = A sin 3x + B cos 3x + C si 32= .6(^1 sin 3x + B cos 3a?) + (C7siii 4r + D cos 4^).INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 308 CHAPTER PAGE 3. = be~ e ^ a PAGE 4. 2 = 2. 2/ =^ 2 PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. .
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