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PAKISTAN

INTERNATIONAL
CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER: 2

SCHOOL

HAND OUTS

ENGLISH
FOR

SECTION, RIYADH
GRADE 6

‘BASIC IDEAS’ (States of Matter)

1) MATTER:A measure of the amount of matter in an object. OR
Anything which has weight and occupies a space is called a matter. Matter is
sometimes called the collection of fundamental invisible particles known as
atoms. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

2) STATES OF MATTER: Matter can exist in one of three main states: solid, liquid, or gas.
 Solid matter is composed of tightly packed particles. A solid will retain its
shape; the particles are not free to move around.
 Liquid matter is made of more loosely packed particles. It will take the
shape of its container. Particles can move about within a liquid, but they are
packed densely enough that volume is maintained.
 Gaseous matter is composed of particles packed so loosely that it has
neither a defined shape nor a defined volume. A gas can be compressed.

3) CONVERSION OF ONE FORM OF MATTER INTO THE OTHER:The names of the changes in state are melting, freezing, boiling, condensation,
sublimation and deposition. The temperature of a material will increase until it
reaches the point where the change takes place. It will stay at that
temperature until that change is completed.
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A material will change from one state to another at specific combinations of
temperature and surrounding pressure, typically at atmospheric pressure.

Melting: Solid to liquid
Freezing: Liquid to solid
Evaporation: Liquid to gas
Condensation: Gas to liquid
Sublimation: Solid to gas (Skipping liquid phase)
Deposition: Gas to solid (Skipping liquid phase)
Melting: The conversion of solid to liquid is referred to as melting or fusion.
It is achieved
by heating the solid.
Freezing: The reverse of melting is called freezing. The liquid is converted
to solid in this
process by lowering the temperature.
Boiling: Conversion of liquid into vapour or gas is known as boiling. It is
achieved by
increasing the temperature of liquid.
Condensation: It is the reverse of boiling. The gas is converted to liquid by
lowering the
temperature.
Sublimation: Sometimes, solids are directly converted into vapour upon
heating. This
process is knows as sublimation.
Deposition: This
converted to solid.

is

reverse

of

sublimation.

The

vapours

are

directly

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4) How do particles move inside solids, liquids and gases?
Particle Motion in a Solid.
In a solid, the particles can vibrate but they cannot move from one place
to another.
If the solid is heated, the particles vibrate more and more until
the force of attraction between them is overcome.
The temperature at which this happens is called the melting point.
Above this temperature, the solid has become a liquid.

Particle Motion in a Liquid.
In a liquid the force of attraction between the particles is weaker than it
is in the solid.
It is still strong enough that the particles are held close to each
other but they are now free to move. If the liquid is heated,
the particles move faster and faster until
they overcome the force of attraction between them.
The temperature at which this happens is called the boiling point.
Above this temperature, the liquid has become a gas.
A liquid can also become a gas by evaporation.
Particle Motion in a Gas.
A gas takes up a lot more space (occupies a greater volume) than
the boiling liquid it came from. This is called expansion.
In a gas, the particles move fast in random directions.
There is no force of attraction between the particles.
5) KINETIC THEORY:
Substances can change from one state to another. Kinetic theory can explain
the change of state by considering all matter (substances) to be made of
particles.
The main aspects of the kinetic theory are:
1.Matter is composed of very tiny particles (atoms or molecules), which
are separated from each other by tiny distances.
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2.Each particle of matter is in constant motion.
3.The particles of matter experience forces of attraction amongst
themselves. These attractive forces decrease rapidly with increasing distance
between the particles.
4.Because
the
particles
are
in
motion,
they
possess kinetic
energy. The temperature of matter is a measure of the average kinetic
energy possessed by the particles. When heat is applied to matter, it gets
absorbed and translated to increased kinetic energy of the particles (which
means greater motion), resulting in a rise in temperature.

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Ms.Saamia Jamil (Chem)
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