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# Turbomachinery

Pumps
Definition: The pump is used when the common requirement of all
applications is to move liquid from one point to another. In general the
selection of any pump can be characterized according to the followings:
• Capacity range of liquid to be moved
• Differential head required
• NPSH (Net Positive Section Head)
• Shape of head capacity curve
• Pump speed
• Liquid characteristics
• Construction

Classification of pumps
Several types of pumps are exist in industrial and a classified as shown in figure
below

1

low head] 3.In general the reciprocating pumps posses high head and low flow rates like oil pump in cars.Axial [high flow rate.Centrifugal (Radial) pimps [high head. fuel pump in cars. on the other hand. Rotary pumps. 2 . low flow rate] 2. They can be manufactured as single or double acting (to minimize the pulsating flow). can be classified to: 1.Mixed flow [Moderate head and flow rate] We are interested in Centrifugal pumps They are generally designed so that the angular momentum entering the impeller is zero.

a: normal....Vu2 U2 α1 Β2 Momentum Balance Vr2 Wp=ωT Wp=(U/r)ρQ(Vu2r2-Vu1r1) in the x-direction Where ω=U/r T=F. (2) and (3) h=U22/g-U2Va2cot β2/g .(2) From equs..(5) Where K1=U22/g....K2 Q . K2=U2 cot cot β2/(2π r2b2g) where b2: blade width at the exit..Efficiency=100% 2.(4) g g h=K1 ...(3) Q=2π r2 b2Va2  Va2=Q/(2 π r2b2) U 22 U 2 Q cot  2 h  .....α1=90o γQh=ρQVu2U2/g h=U2 Vu2/g ……(1) Vu2=U2-Va2 cotβ2 …. u: circumferential 3 β1 Vu1 r2 Vr1 Va1 U1 r1 .r F=m.V V2 Va2 ω Pump Efficiency p  Qh V1 WT α1 Theoretical Head Discharge Relation Assumptions: 1....

Turbulence losses: due to operation the pump under or over the designing speed 4 . This losses proportional with the square of velocity and hence with Q 3.Actual head-discharge curve The most important losses that occur in pumps are: 1. 2.Circulatory flow losses: liquid leaves the blades with an angle less than the blade angle.Friction losses: due to friction of liquid with vanes and with the passages.

Q for pump 1. 5 . pumps placed in series: n  Q H i 1 n W i 1 p Series connection h1  h2  hT QT  Q1  Q2 Method1 1-Draw ∆h vs. The overall efficiency of pumps in parallel is: n  H  Q i 1 n W i 1 p For high head demands.2 and system. two or more pumps are placed in parallel configuration.Pumps Connection Where large flow quantities are required.

Q for pump 1.2 and system. and project on the curves of pumps to find Q1 and Q2. 3-If Q1+Q2=Qs then the selection is correct which represent the point of operation condition of system. Number of Blades in the Impeller t β2 a Let: Nb: number of blades a: the passage width t: blade interval = l ω 2r2 Nb l: blade length a t  2  sin 1   r2 a=t sin β2 or t  Nb  r1 a sin  2 2r2 sin  2 a 6 . 3-calculate QT=Q1+Q2 3-draw QT vs. and project on the curves of pumps to find ∆h 1 and ∆h2. 3-If ∆h1+∆h2=∆hs then the selection is correct which represent the point of operation condition of system. 3-draw Q vs. ∆h for system represent the point of operation condition of system. 3-calculate ∆hT=∆h1+∆h2. or try to satisfy it. ∆h with curve of Q vs. ∆hs for system represent the point of operation condition. 4-the point of intersection between curve of Q T vs. 4-the point of intersection between curve of QT vs. ∆hT. ∆h. Method2 1-Take several selections for ∆h and find Q1and Q2. Method2 1-Take several selections for Q and find ∆h1and ∆h2. ∆h with curve of Qs vs. or try to satisfy it.2-Draw vertical line. 2-Draw horizontal line. Parallel connection h1  h2  hT QT  Q1  Q2 Method1 1-Draw ∆h vs.

and 4. 3-the power exerted on the water by the impeller.15 m and 0.l  2 : assumption in most design a l=c(r2-r1) where c is a constant Nb  2r2 sin  2 2 cr2  r1  Nb  4r2 sin  2  r  c 1  1   r2  Where C is given for curved blades. find: 1.the number of blades (c=1.15=15. 2-the direction of water as ir leaves the impeller.7-6. The water enters radially into the impeller with a flow rate of 18 m3/min when it rotates at 1000 rpm. thickness is 50 mm. 3   r 2   U2=ω r2=2π1000/60 * 0. Solution: For radial inlet: Vu1=0.37/tan 60=12 m/s 7 . is calculated for straight blades and is equal to unity radial straight blades.05=6.37 m/s tan α2=Va2/Vu2 Vu2=U2-Va2/tanβ2=15.7 m/s Q= 2πr2b2 Va2 Va2=(18/60)/ 2π *0.2 1  0 .3 m respectively. the blades at outlet are inclined backward at 60 o.2). 15     r  c 1  1  1. Example: A centrifugal pump has the following impeller dimensions: internal and external diameters are: 0.the pressure increase across the impeller. For 80% efficiency.0 Nb  4r2 sin  2 4 sin 60   18 blades 0 .15* 0.

Hence. When water enters a pump. These bubbles collapse violently (rapidly) as they move to areas of higher pressure creating the noise and vibration from the pump.Lowering of the h-Q and efficiency curves The main problems of cavitations are: 1-Weaken the solid surfaces 2-After repeated collapse cycles. If this pressure falls too low.tan α2=6. pitting and further erosion and fatigue of surfaces can occurs To avoid cavitations in centrifugal pumps. 8 .7=56. To find the pressure difference across the impeller.37 2  12 2 =13.5*103/9810*18/60 =15. the signs of cavitations are: 1-Noise 2-Vibration 3.8*56.4 =139. its velocity increases causing a reduction in pressure within the pumping unit. we apply Bernoulli equation without losses across the impeller: P1+1/2 ρV21+γh= P2+1/2 ρV22 P2-P1=1/2ρ(V21.37/12  α2=28o Wp= ρQVu2U2=1000*18/60 *12*15.732-13.582)+9810*15.075*0.5 kW.05=12.8 kPa Cavitations in Centrifugal Pumps Cavitation is one such phenomenon that can be very damaging to pumps. NPSH is usually used. is a direct result of improper operating conditions.V22)+ γh p  Qh WT h=0.73 m/s V 2  Va22  Vu22  6. forming bubbles entrained in the liquid. some of the water will vaporize.58 m/s Δp=500(12.4 m V1=Va1=Q/2πr1b1=(18/60)/2π*0.

Pv is 1666 Pa. the net positive suction head NPSH is NPSH  Pa  Pv   Z  hl Example: Determine the elevation that the 7.666 7. apply Bernoulli between the water source (atmospheric pressure) point 1 and the region of minimum pressure in the pump.63 m 9 . Water temperature is 15 oC. From table of water properties. substituting this into the above equation.5 m NPSH pump can be situated above the water surface of the suction reservoir without cavitations. Neglect pipe losses.Referring to the figure shown. point 2 P1  1 1 V12  P2  V22  Z  hl 2 2 V22 P1  P2   Z  hl 2g  The minimum allowable pressure at location 2 is the vapor pressure Pv. one can say that the value V22 2g represents the maximum kinetic energy head possible at location 2 when cavitations is imminent (approaching). NPSH  Pa  Pv Z  101  1. Thus.5  Z 9810 Z=2. use pa=101 kPa.