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GOOD GOVERNANCE
I.
II.

Introduction
Definition
World Bank
Governance is defined as the manner in which power is exercised in
the management of a countrys economic and social resources. The
World Bank has identified three distinct aspects of governance.
The form of political regime;
The power by which authority is exercised in the
management of countrys economic and social resources for
development;
The capacity of Government to design, formulate and
implement policies.
United Nations Development Programme
Governance is the exercise of economic, political and administrative
authority to manage countrys affairs at all levels.
It comprises mechanism, process and institution through
which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise
their legal rights, meet their obligation and mediate their
differences.
Commission on Global Governance
Governance is the sum of many ways; Individual & Institution,
Public & Private, Manage their common affairs, where conflicting and
diverse interest may be accommodated and co-operative action may
be taken.

III.

Aim / Destination of Good Governance


Dedicated to securing human development.
Effective participation of people in state, civil society & private
section authorities.
Ensure that human development is sustainable.
Trustworthy to all living under threat.
Must enable the people to further broad based economic growth and
social development.

Owned by people
Good Governance promotes a decent society in which the worst off
can preserve dignity.
Government accountable to people.
IV.

Roots of Human Deprivation


Main reasons of human deprivation are rooted in social and politico
economic dimensions of governance, Hence,

V.

VI.

3 Aspects / Dimensions
A.

Good Political Governance

B.

Good Economic Governance

C.

Good Civic Governance

How to Measure Good Governance / Parameters


A.

Participatory in nature.

B.

People fully informed Transparency

C.

People decision makers Accountability.

D.

Women are equal partners.

E.

Needs of the poor & disadvantaged are met.

F.

Human rights are guaranteed.

G.

Needs of the future generations are taken into account.(Sustainable


Development)

Watchword of Good Governance


A. Ownership
B. Decency
C. Accountability

VII. Three Interlocking Dimensions of Good Governance


A.

Good Political Governance


a.

Rule of Law.

b.

Accountability and Transparency.

c.

Not easily amendable constitution.

d.

Free and fair multiparty system and elections.

e.

Clear separation of powers among different tiers.

B.

f.

Impartial Judiciary.

g.

No discrimination Cast, Creed, Colour and Gender

h.

Promotion of peace and harmony.

i.

Peoples participation Greek ideals Agora.

j.

Freedom of speech, belief and association.

k.

Human Rights.

Good Economic Governance


a.
b.

Removing market distortions.

c.

Investment in people and basic infrastructure.

d.

Protection of natural environment.

e.

Equitable and progressive fiscal system.

f.

Predictable rules.

g.

Progressive taxation / subsidies.

h.

Guaranteeing peoples property rights.

i.

Equitable access to credit and land.

j.

Strong economic institutions.

k.

C.

Securing macro-economic stability (Budget, Inflation, Exchange


Rate etc).

Accessible courts, effective bankruptcy laws, sound securities,


competition regimes and above all strong Anti Corruption
Policies.

Good Civic Governance


a.

Respect for human rights.

b.

Care for families and neighbors.

c.

Mobilization of people and services towards needy.

d.

Empowerment of people.

e.

Encouragement of corporate social responsibility


Principle of self organization comes to play. Self help and self
development
Components

i.
Determination and self initiative of people.
ii. Govern own lives.
iii. Role to protect human rights powerful voices
Community organizations
f.

An independent media.

Good Civic Governance Supports Good Political & Good


Economic Governance.

VIII. Impact and Cost of Poor Governance


A.

People in general remain alienated (Economic & Political).

B.

Unemployment crime violence, poor living.

C.

Social cleavages / Social split (Cast, Creed, Ethnicity).

D.

Child prostitution poverty.

E.

Poverty vast implications limits, decent livings.

F.

Crime, violence affects the poor, the most.

G.

Heavily policed societies encounters, punishments.

H.

Inequality in income and opportunity.

I.

Deprivation of basic facilities (health & education).

J.

Exclusive of rural areas.

K.

Educational inequities.

L.

Decline in quality of lives and services.

M.

Income and class division.

N.

Regulatory mechanism is weak.

O.

Average life expectancy and child mortality divisions.


Plato: A society is deep rooted in two basic percepts; Law
one: Everyone is free; Law two: no one can change the first
law.

Human Development Index (HDI)

Human Poverty Index (HPI)

1. Education

1. Shorter life span.

2. Health

2. Illiteracy

3. Life expectancy

3. Lack of access to safe water health &


nutrition

Altaf Hussain Ansari)

IX. Why Evaluate Governance?

Assessment of the impact of policies/procedures by the stakeholders


Government
Donors
Monitors
Private interests/investors
Scholars/think tanks etc.

World Bank Governance Surveys

Public voice and accountability

Political instability

Violence

Government effectiveness

Regulatory burden

Rule of law

Graft

ADB Indicators / Approach to Governance assessment

Public Administration

Govt. systems

Civil services

Local governance

Public Financial Management-all levels

Legal and Regulatory Framework

Judicial system

Civil Society

Civil Services / ADB-Parameters

Legality-responsiveness and accountability

Impartiality and Integrity

Efficiency in management and control

Professionalism and stability of Civil Services

Capacity development

Legal status of Civil Services