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An industrial building is any structure that is used to store raw materials or furnished
goods from a manufacturing process or house the process itself like:

Food processing
Chemical processing
Paper and pulp industry
Metals industry
Power plants
Engineering industry
Electronics industry or
High bay storages

Industrial buildings can range from the simplest warehouse to highly sophisticated
Design considerations vary depending upon the type of industry in question e.g.
Heavy loads
Dynamic loads (vibration)
Moisture and
Aggressive chemicals
Levels of Industry
Primary (first): Primary industries are those that extract or produce raw materials from
which useful items can be made. Extraction of raw materials includes mining activities,
forestry, and fishing. Agriculture is also considered a primary industry as it produces
raw materials that require further processing for human use.
Secondary (second): Secondary industries are those that change raw materials into
usable products through processing and manufacturing. Bakeries that make flour into
bread and factories that change metals and plastics into vehicles are examples of
secondary industries. The term value added is sometimes applied to processed and
manufactured items since the change from a raw material into a usable product has
added value to the item.
Tertiary (third): Tertiary industries are those that provide essential services and support
to allow other levels of industry to function. Often simply called service industries, this
level includes transportation, finance, utilities, education, retail, housing, medical, and
other services. Since primary and secondary levels of industry cannot function without
these services, they are sometimes referred to as spin-off industries. Much of the city
of Thompson, for example, is made up of tertiary or service industries to support the
primary industry of mining.

Industrial building with the aspect of Architectural science

Rising energy and labor costs make the building environment an increasingly important
contributor to operating costs and productivity. Factors to be considered in providing
good conditions at the workplace include: dust and fume extraction ventilation in hot
weather heating in cold weather natural and artificial lighting noise control.
Normal types of industrial building are shed type buildings with simple roof structures on
open frames. These buildings are used for workshop, warehouses etc. These building
require large and clear areas unobstructed by the columns. The large floor area
provides sufficient flexibility and facility for later change in the production layout without
major building alterations. The industrial buildings are constructed with adequate
headroom for the use of an overhead traveling crane. Special types of industrial
buildings are steel mill buildings used for manufacture of heavy machines, production of
power etc. The function of the industrial building dictates the degree of sophistication.
Industrial operations can be carried on most efficiently when adequate illumination is
provided. The requirements of good lighting are its intensity and uniformity. Since
natural light is free, it is economical and wise to use daylight most satisfactory for
illumination in industrial plants whenever practicable.
Side windows are of much value in lighting the interiors of small buildings but they are
not much effective in case of large buildings. In case of large buildings monitors are

Fig. 2.3 Side windows and Monitors for natural light

Lighting of the development should complement the design of the development.
Floodlighting of buildings is encouraged, particularly to emphasize buildings with a

strong architectural form. Lighting designs should avoid creating a clutter of light
standards. Lights are preferred to be ground mounted within landscaped settings, or
mounted on the building itself.

Interior and exterior installations

The amount of light on a surface affects our ability to see. The finer the detail, the higher
the illuminance required.
Both interior and exterior lighting need to achieve a reasonable uniform illuminance in
all relevant working areas, illuminance across any given task area needs to be uniform.

Ventilation is the mechanical system in a building that brings in "fresh" outdoor air and
removes the "contaminated" indoor air.
In a workplace, ventilation is used to control exposure to airborne contaminants. It is
commonly used to remove contaminants such as fumes, dusts, and vapours, in order to
provide a healthy and safe working environment. Ventilation can be accomplished by
natural means (e.g., opening a window) or mechanical means (e.g., fans or blowers).
Industrial systems are designed to move a specific amount of air at a specific speed
(velocity), which results in the removal (or "exhaust") of undesirable contaminants.
While all ventilation systems follow the same basic principles, each system is designed

specifically to match to the type of work and the rate of contaminant release at that
Ventilation will be used for removal of heat, elimination of dust, used air and its
replacement by clean fresh air. It can be done by means of natural forces such as
aeration or by mechanical equipment such as fans. The large height of the roof may be
used advantageously by providing low level inlets and high level outlets for air.
Heating and ventilation demands are also a function of the standard of insulation and
quantity of glazing provided. Exposed walls and flat roofs of factory and warehouse
buildings are to have a max

Noise control
Noise is a major pollutant and limit on working efficiency: it can cause damage to
hearing. There is also human sensitivity to vibration: when vibration frequency exceeds
approximately 20-30 Hz it passes into the audible range (i.e. the vibration will be heard
as sound). For maximum levels in the workplace.

Reduce noise at source by design of equipment, screening and enclosure.

Reduce vibration at source by mounting machinery on resilient pads or special
Reduce noise before it reaches the workplace by absorption (walls, roofs and
pendant absorbers) and/or by modifying background noise.
Reduce noise effect by isolating workers in noise reducing enclosures.
Escaping noise can also be troublesome outside the building so place external
plant away from direct lines with surrounding users and screed suppress the

Contact the local authority or specialist firm to agree optimum method of disposal.
Materials can include: paper and card; plastic bags and foam infill; metal containers;
glass. Some materials may need to be sub-divided (e.g. plastics and aluminum steel
A compactor may be required. Waste collection must be near where the materials are
Contaminated or toxic materials may require a license from the local authority.
Waste disposal can be:
high grade to waste processor
low grade
Contaminated (specialist collection needed).
Treatment can reduce the volume and toxicity of a waste. Reducing a wastes volume
and toxicity prior to final disposal can result in long-term cost savings. There are a
considerable number of levels and types of treatment from which to choose. Selecting
the right treatment option can help simplify disposal options and limit future liability

Figure 1. Waste Management Hierarchy

Wall systems
A particular wall system may be selected over others for one or more specific reasons
Insulating properties,
Fire consideration,
Acoustical consideration,
Dust control,
Ease of future expansion,

Interior surface characteristics,

Maintenance considerations and
Environmental considerations.
The special consideration which must be given to wall systems for crane buildings
relates to movement and vibration. Columns are commonly tied to the wall system, to
provide bracing to the column or to have the column support the wall. It is essential that
proper detailing be used to tie the column to wall.
When bay spacing becomes greater than e.g. 10 m additional intermediate columns
(wind columns) are required to provide for economical girt design
Materials and Colours
Buildings are recommended to have a consistent use of the same materials on all
Where materials on the office portion of a building cannot be the same as on the plant,
the materials should be compatible and designed in a unified manner.
Architectural metal, glass and steel, manufactured or natural stone, brick masonry
products, and precast concrete shall be the preferred materials used on buildings.
Alternate materials will be reviewed and evaluated on the merit of their building design.
Building and roof colors play a significant factor in acceptability of metal buildings.
Architectural panel profiles, shapes and surface coatings should be carefully considered
when determining if a metal building would complement the building site and
Colors should be coordinated with the structure and the color of materials used in
surrounding development. Large expanses of light colored metal wall or roof materials
should be avoided. Darker colors help visually reduce the impact of large metal
buildings. Horizontal color bands, and wall projections and recesses, provide shadowing
to accentuate differentiation for wall designs.
Roof System
While planning a roof, designer should look for following quality lightness, strength,
water proofness, insulation, fire resistance, cost, durability and low maintenance
Sheeting, purlin and supporting roof trusses supported on column provide common
structural roof system for industrial buildings. The type of roof covering, its insulating
value, acoustical properties, and the appearance from inner side, the weight and the
maintenance are the various factors, which are given consideration while designing the
roof system. Brittle sheeting such as asbestos, corrugated and iron sheets or ductile
sheeting such as galvanized iron corrugated or profiled sheets are used as the roof
covering material. The deflection limits for purlins and truss depend on the type of
sheeting. For brittle sheeting small deflection values are prescribed in the code.


Designing factory or warehouse buildings to meet potential fire hazard involves the
Waste disposal can be:
Measures to limit the spread of fire within and outside building by sub- division,
detection devices, sprinklers and choice of materials for structure and cladding.
Providing readily accessible and identifiable means of escape with alternative route(s) in
every situation.
Providing ventilation in the roof to reduce heat and smoke build-up, to prevent fire
leapfrogging under roof cladding and to enable the fire service to rapidly vent smoke.
Typically one vent per structural bay, with curtains of non-flammable material forming
smoke reservoirs in roof space.
Extinguishing fire or at least controlling the seat of fire until the fire service can
extinguish it, by means of sprinklers, high expansion foam or gas drenching.
Light hazard: usually non-industrial premises.
Ordinary hazard: industrial and commercial premises unlikely to develop instant fires;
four groups, each with the same requirement for water density, but as risk increases,
the requirement for more sprinklers increases.
High hazard: industrial premises with high fire loads, either because of piled storage or
rapid burning materials.