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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

CFD Drag Prediction Training Workshop


Payam Dehpanah
Department of Aerospace Engineering
K.N. Toosi University of Technology

September, 2012
updated on Dec. 15, 2015

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

Outline

Overview

Computational Cases
RAE 2822 Airfoil
Flow condition and solver setting
Computational grid
Validation and Results

ONERA M6 Wing
Flow condition and solver setting
Computational grid
Validation and Results

NASAs Common Research Model


Flow condition and solver setting
Computational Grid
Validation and Results

Summary

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

Overview

In this workshop, three standard test cases are numerically studied. They include RAE 2822 airfoil,
ONERA M6 wing, and NASAs common research model with iH = 0 . They are typically used as
validation cases in computational analyses. They are introduced briefly as follow:
RAE 2822 Airfoil
Is a supercritical airfoil that was used for validating turbulence models in simulations.
ONERA M6 Wing
Designed by ONERA Aerodynamic Department in 1972 as the experimental geometry for investigating three-dimensional computational simulations.
NASAs Common Research Model (iH = 0 )
Designed and developed by the Boeing Company and NASA using the SYN107 wing design
code. It is an open-source geometry for studying three-dimensional flow and CFD validations.

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

RAE 2822 Airfoil


Flow condition and solver setting

In this case, compressible viscose flow over RAE 2822 airfoil is simulated in accordance with the
flow conditions and numerical schemes in the below table. The results are validated with Cook et
als experimental data[1].
Solver setting
Density Based

Solver
Implicit
Equations

2D Steady

Least Squares

Reynolds-Average Navier Stoks (RANS)

Turbulence Model

K (SST)

Reynolds Number

6.5 Million (based on chord)

Boundary Condition

= 2.31

Mach = 0.729

Turbulence intensity = 3%
Turbulence length scale = 0.0001m

Schemes

AUSM

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Roe

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

RAE 2822 Airfoil


Computational grid

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

RAE 2822 Airfoil


Validation and Results

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

ONERA M6 Wing
Flow condition and solver setting

In this case, inviscid and viscous compressible flow over ONERA M6 wing are simulated in accordance with flow conditions and numerical schemes in the below table. The numerical results are
validated with Schmitt et als experimental data[2].
Solver setting
Density Based

Solver
Explicit
Equations

3D Steady

Density Based

Least Squares

Explicit

3D Steady Least Squares

Reynolds-Average Navier Stoks (RANS)

Euler

K (SST)
6.5 Million (based on chord)

Inviscid

Turbulence Model
Reynolds Number

Boundary Condition = 2.31 M = 0.729

intensity = 3%

= 2.31

M = 0.729

AUSM

AMG (V cycle, ILU)

length scale = 0.0001m


Schemes

AUSM

AMG (V cycle, ILU)

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

ONERA M6 Wing
Structured block for Euler and RANS solution around the wing

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

ONERA M6 Wing
Full structured grid

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

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ONERA M6 Wing
Coarse and fine O-topology grids

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

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ONERA M6 Wing
Coarse and fine C-topology grids

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

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ONERA M6 Wing
Validation and Results

ONERA M6 numerical solutions


Spatial discretization

Simulations Grids Turbulence Precision

CL

CD

Flow Kinetic energy Dissipation rate

Experiment
CL

CD

Scaled

300K

SST

double second

second

second

0.13369 0.00990 0.1409 0.0087

RANS

3M
5M

SST
SST

double second
double second

second
second

second
second

0.26764 0.01853
0.267 0.0170
0.26222 0.01688

Euler

650K

Inviscid

double

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first

0.28855 0.04189

second

0.28531 0.01003

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

ONERA M6 Wing
Pressure coefficients for Euler and RANS solutions at 44 % and 99 % locations

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Computational Cases

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ONERA M6 Wing
Validation of pressure coefficient of RANS solution for the finest grid

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ONERA M6 Wing
Upper surface shock surface and Y+ contour of the RANS solution for the finest grid

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

NASAs Common Research Model


Flow condition and solver setting

In this case, external viscous compressible flow over Common Research Model is simulated in accordance with flow conditions and numerical schemes in below table. The numerical results are
validated with with Sclafani et al analysis using the OVERFLOW [3].
Solver setting
Density Based

Solver
Implicit

3D Steady

Equations

Least Squares

Reynolds-Average Navier Stoks (RANS)

Turbulence Model

K (SST)

Reynolds Number

5 Million (based on MAC)

Boundary Condition

= 2.5 , 3

Mach = 0.85

Turbulence intensity = 3%
Turbulence length scale = 0.0001m

Schemes

AUSM

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AMG (V cycle, Gauss-Seidel)

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

NASAs Common Research Model


Hybrid coarse mesh

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

NASAs Common Research Model


Medium anisotropic tetrahedral mesh

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

NASAs Common Research Model


Medium hybrid mesh

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Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

NASAs Common Research Model


Comparison between the medium hybrid mesh and the anisotropic tetrahedral mesh

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NASAs Common Research Model


Validation and Results

CRM (iH = 0 ) numerical solutions


Spatial discretization

AOA ( ) Grids Turbulence Precision

CL

CD

Flow Kinetic energy Dissipation rate

Verification[3]
CL

CD

2.5

5.8M
13.5M

SST
SST

double second
double second

second
second

second
second

0.55927 0.03461
0.500 0.02672
0.50185 0.02843

12.6M

SST

double second

second

second

0.59885 0.03715 0.5924 0.03424

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

NASAs Common Research Model


Validation of pressure coefficient in two spanwise locations for grid convergence and downwash studies

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NASAs Common Research Model


Shock surface over the wing and under the tail for the grid convergence and downwash studies

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NASAs Common Research Model


Streamlines over and under the tail for the grid convergence and downwash studies

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Computational Cases

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Summary

The summary conclusion for three standard cases are:


RAE 2822 Airfoil
Both solution on structured C-topology and O-topology grids have good agreement with NASAs
numerical simulation and experimental data.
ONERA M6 Wing
The Fine Grid have good agreement with experimental data. The 2nd order method provides
better results both for Euler and RANS solution. The K- (SST) turbulence model seems to be
robust enough both in convergence and accuracy of the solutions.
NASAs Common Research Model (iH = 0 )
The convergence and accuracy of hybrid grid (i.e. prism and tetrahedral cells) seem to be more
robust compared with anisotropic tetrahedral grid. Due to limited computational resources,
solution on the finest grid is unreachable but for better results it is necessary. It is expected
the difference between the results and the Boeing Company numerical solution on the shock
locations of upper surface, which was appeared in pressure coefficient distribution, will improve
by use of denser chord wise grid.

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

Thank you!

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Outline

Overview

Computational Cases

Summary

References

References

[1]

PH Cook, MA McDonald, and MCP Firmin. Aerofoil RAE 2822-Pressure Distributions, and Boundary Layer
and Wake Measurements, AR-138, AGARD, 1979, pp. A 6. 1-A 6. 77. In: Principal Component Analysis ().

[2]

V Schmitt and F Charpin. Pressure distributions on the ONERA-M6-Wing at transonic Mach numbers. In:
Experimental data base for computer program assessment 4 (1979).

[3]

Anthony J Sclafani et al. Drag Prediction for the NASA CRM Wing/Body/Tail Using CFL3D and OVERFLOW
on an Overset Mesh. In: AIAA Paper 4219 (2010).

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