29 views

Uploaded by davinccicode

très intéressant

- Chemistry Course Outline
- Electron Configuration Worksheet
- Chapter 6 Jan13
- Unit 1 Lesson 03 Answers to Homework on Quantum Numbers
- tmpD158.tmp
- 5-57-60-Spiritovic-Halilovic-1
- From Soap Bubbles to String Theory-Yoni Kahn
- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
- SPP Olaya Revised
- XRF in Art
- Orbitals
- Brown Lemay Chap 6
- Gan 2008
- Holidays Homework of Chemistry
- FIZIK 1_2
- diffraction_grating-2.pdf
- 8week Report Bhargav
- kc tan
- Electron - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- 259_johnson_2002

You are on page 1of 3

Spring 2013

Dr. Jean M. Standard

April 22, 2013

1. Atomic Term Symbols and the Sodium D-Line

The sodium D-line is responsible for the familiar orange glow of many street lights. The origin of the glow is

emission of photons in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum from excited sodium atoms. The excited

atoms emit light and return to their ground electronic states.

The sodium D-line gets its name because there are really two closely-spaced emissions possible, or a "doublet", as

shown in Figure 1. These transitions occur at wavelengths of 5890 and 5896 .

Na 3p1

=5896

=5890

Na 3s1

Figure 1. Sodium atom atomic emissions that produce the so-called D-line.

The doublet observed in the sodium D-line transition involves the outer electron in the sodium atom which

undergoes a transition from an excited 1s22s22p63p1 configuration to the ground state 1s22s22p63s1 configuration.

To see why this electronic transition corresponds to a doublet, the atomic term symbols for the different electronic

configurations must be determined. In both cases, only the outer open shell need be considered.

Sodium Atom Ground State 3s1 Term Symbol

Since the ground state of sodium only has one outer electron, the total orbital angular momentum quantum number L

and total spin angular momentum quantum number S are identical to the orbital and spin angular momentum

quantum numbers of the outer electron. Thus,

S = s1 =

1

2

and L = 1 = 0 .

The multiplicity 2S+1 is therefore 2 (a doublet) and the state corresponds to a 2 S state. Then, all that is needed is to

determine the total angular momentum

J.

quantum number

2

The total angular momentum quantum number J ranges from L S to L + S . For the S state, L=0 and S =

leads to J = 12 .

1

Therefore, the only possible term symbol for the sodium

state is 2S1/ 2 .

3s ground

1

2

2

Sodium Atom Excited State 3p1 Term Symbol

The 3p1 excited state of sodium only has one outer electron, so the total orbital angular momentum quantum number

L and total spin angular momentum quantum number S are identical to the orbital and spin angular momentum

quantum numbers of the outer electron. Thus,

S = s1 =

1

2

and L = 1 = 1.

2

The multiplicity 2S+1 is therefore 2 (a doublet) and the state corresponds to a P state. Then, all that is needed is to

determine the total angular momentum

J.

quantum number

2

The total angular momentum quantum number J ranges from L S to L + S . For the P state, L=1 and S =

1

2

and J = 32 .

2

2

1

Therefore, there are two possible term symbols for the

sodium3p excited state: P1/ 2 and P3/2 . Spin-orbit

coupling leads to energysplitting between

these two terms.

The term symbols determined for the ground and excited states of sodium can be used to label the transitions

responsible for the sodium D-line emission, as shown in Figure 2.

Na 2P3/2

Na 2P1/2

=5896

=5890

Na 2S1/2

Figure 2. Atomic term symbols for transitions involved in the sodium D-line.

1

2

3

3. Another Example of Energy Splitting of Atomic Terms

Consider an example of an atomic electron configuration 1s12p1. There are 12 ways of choosing the individual

quantum numbers for the two electrons in this configuration. In the absence of electron-electron repulsions, all these

states are degenerate.

1

The possible term symbols for the 1s12p1 configuration are P and P (not including the J value). Hund's first rule

3

states that terms with higher multiplicity will be lower in energy. Thus, including electron-electron repulsion, P

1

will be lower in energy than P.

1

For the P term, the only possible value of J is 1; thus, the only term symbol for this state is P1. For the P term, the

3

3

3

1

possible values of J are 0, 1, and 2; this leads to term symbols P0, P1, and P2. The total degeneracy of the P and

3

P terms is 3, 1, 3, and 5, respectively, for a total of 12 (in agreement with the 12 sets of individual quantum

numbers discussed above).

3

The P0, P1, and P2 states are split in energy by a very small amount. This splitting is due to the coupling of spin

angular momentum (S) with total orbital angular momentum (L). This spin-orbit coupling splits levels within the

same term (that is, the same values of L and S) that have different values of J.

Finally, if the atom is placed in a magnetic field, the levels with the same values of L, S, and J, but with different

values of MJ are split. All of the energy splittings for the 1s12p1 electron configuration are summarized in Figure3.

no elec-elec

repulsion

elec-elec

repulsion

spin-orbit

coupling

magnetic

field

- Chemistry Course OutlineUploaded byJoric Magusara
- Electron Configuration WorksheetUploaded bynmantas
- Chapter 6 Jan13Uploaded bykumutha
- Unit 1 Lesson 03 Answers to Homework on Quantum NumbersUploaded byAnonymous KZG7HXp
- tmpD158.tmpUploaded byFrontiers
- 5-57-60-Spiritovic-Halilovic-1Uploaded bymnjaga
- From Soap Bubbles to String Theory-Yoni KahnUploaded byqbexch
- Atomic Emission SpectroscopyUploaded byGjelo Cacho
- SPP Olaya RevisedUploaded byJames Sullivan
- XRF in ArtUploaded byxianchoon
- OrbitalsUploaded byJackson Figueiredo
- Brown Lemay Chap 6Uploaded byAlex Alexander
- Gan 2008Uploaded byprakush01975225403
- Holidays Homework of ChemistryUploaded bySabreeshBhatt
- FIZIK 1_2Uploaded bynurhayati8860
- diffraction_grating-2.pdfUploaded byceja003
- 8week Report BhargavUploaded bySai Teja Ravi
- kc tanUploaded byMly Smpng
- Electron - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bydonodoni0008
- 259_johnson_2002Uploaded byelvagojp
- nl9012024Uploaded byJcgonper Gonper
- Problems 42Uploaded bymail2sgarg_841221144
- 1404.5991Uploaded bycrocoali

- Resources-related-to-Chapter-9.pdfUploaded byLucas Hernandes
- BUC0 260 Syllabus f14Uploaded byTony Dong
- Questions Using Blooms TaxonomyUploaded byPriscilla Ruiz De Vergara
- Extend Withholding TaxUploaded byLakshman Swamy
- Montana 680Uploaded byKUMOD
- Hyundai Santro Xing 226Uploaded bySabin Manandhar
- ProjectUploaded byjahir00112233
- Sailplane and Gliding - Aug-Sep 2002 - 68 PgUploaded bylaerciofilho
- Bonafide report formatUploaded byBalashankar
- StripteaseUploaded byMiah Rashiduzzaman
- Fat_Loss_Guide_Roche.pdfUploaded bymiss teddy
- Integration of Intensive and Semi-Intensive AquacultureUploaded byAlee Di Vaio
- Brain-2004-Blanke-243-58 (1)Uploaded bymellyrianty
- The Hawaii Community Foundation Nonprofit Charity & Elder Law Estate planning Attorney Nancy J. Budd Yamakawa Deputy Attorney General Hugh R Jones Katharine P Lloyd Kate LloydUploaded byalohavulture
- Glocal and the Sing UniversalUploaded byLaura Adams Davidson
- 1. Neurodevelopment Following Fetal Growth Restriction and Relationship With Antepartum Parameters(1)Uploaded byDiana Fuentes
- jazz audition procedures for 2014-2015Uploaded byapi-202134143
- Stalin Collected Works 1Uploaded byArbab Ali Jinjh
- Avion, Inc. Case SolutionUploaded byBrainy12345
- Lecture 11Uploaded byYazid Abouchihabeddine
- Dinamling v PeopleUploaded byYana Dela Cruz
- 1 Tano vs Socrates GR No. 110249_ August 21, 1997Uploaded byEmmagine Eyana
- CaseStudy AmtrakUploaded bysnob_k
- NASA 164296main 2nd exp conf 31 ConstellationElements J-2XEngine SBouleyUploaded byNASAdocuments
- EpicUploaded byjackoftrumps8947
- Rival%20IceCream%20Maker%20GC8250Uploaded bysandra_white_11
- Airpass Brochure EnUploaded byVojislav Voja Vijatov
- Resume Coverletter MBerueda REVISEDUploaded byMarvin
- ECTD Tech Guide v1.1Uploaded byDontYou KnowMe
- FCA.Ava.Dock v. OHRDUploaded byjimsfish4fun