This is Navarre

I- Geography and Population
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The territory and its people The Mountains The Middle Area The Ribera

A) The territory and its people Physical and human environment Navarre enjoys a privileged setting on the Atlantic Seaboard. Navarre, the Comunidad Foral de Navarra, is situated in the North of Spain, at the western end of the Pyrenees, where it shares a 163kilometre stretch of frontier with France. It has a land area of 10,421 km2 and is bordered, to the east, by Aragon – its provinces of Huesca and Zaragoza – to the south by Aragon and La Rioja, and to the northwest by the Basque Autonomous Community – Alava and Guipuzcoa -. The vast range of terrains, climates and peoples in Navarre is traditionally grouped into three regions arranged from North to South: the Mountains (Montaña), the Middle Area (Zona Media) and the Ribera, on the banks of the Ebro River. Yet as this division is insufficient to cater for all the existing variations, these three divisions are, in turn, divided into districts (comarcas). Accordingly, the Mountains consist of the humid Navarre Húmeda, the valleys of the Valles Pirenaicos and the river basins of the Cuencas Prepirenaicas; the Middle Area around Estella is called Tierra Estella and the eastern part is Navarre Media Oriental; finally, the lands of the South, close to the Ebro, are divided into the Ribera Estellesa and Ribera Tudelana. Population The number of inhabitants has risen from 307,669 in 1900 to 601.874 in 2006 and the density has grown from 29 inhabitants per square kilometre to 56.65. The population growth in Navarre has been below the Spanish average and density continues to be low.

The growth of district administrative centres, and especially of Pamplona and its metropolitan areas, has evolved at the expense of draining population from areas in which small rural hamlets prevail. The Valles Pirenaicos, Tierra Estella and Navarre Media Oriental have been losing inhabitants since the beginning of the 20th century; this also applies, albeit to a more moderate extent, to the Navarre Húmeda, and growth has only been recorded in both Riberas and in the Pamplona basin, which concentrates the majority of the population of Navarre. In terms of municipalities, 42.3% of the population of Navarre live in cities of more than 20,000 inhabitants, namely Pamplona, Tudela and Barañain, 39.2% in towns of between 2,000 and 20,000 inhabitants and 18.5% live in villages of fewer than 2,000 people. In recent years, as has occurred in Spain as a whole, Navarre has become a receiving region for a migrant population. In total, it is estimated that nearly 20,000 people have arrived from developing countries. The greater part of this migrant influx has settled in the district of Pamplona and the remainder is distributed throughout Navarre, although to a greater extent in the southern third of the community. B) The Mountains Three sub-zones This area occupies the north of Navarre and its southern boundaries are formed by the Urbasa, Andia, Sarvil, Perdon, Alaiz, Izco and Leire ranges. There are three separate sub-zones: Navarre Húmeda, in the northwest, the The Pyrenean Valleys and The Pre-Pyrenean basins. The rainy Navarre in the Northwest Featuring a temperate, humid coastal-type climate and an average annual temperature that ranges between 11 and 14.5ºC and a rainfall between 1,400 and 2,500 mm, with evenly flowing rivers, it is however very varied in terms of both geology and terrain. Roncesvalles. It is formed by the valleys that belong to the Cantabrian slopes – Cinco Villas, Urumea, Leizarán, Araitz, Basaburúa Menor, Doneztebe/Santesteban, Bertizarana and Baztán– and to the Mediterranean or Ebro watershed – Burunda, Aranaz, Arakil, Larraun, Basaburúa Mayor, Imotz, Atez, Odieta, Ultzama and Anué–. The main rivers are the Bidasoa, which rises in the Baztán, the Urumea, the Leizarán and the Araxes, which empty into the Bay of
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Biscay, and the Arakil, the Larráun and the Ultzama, which flow into the Mediterranean. As for the vegetation, there is a prevalence of Atlantic deciduous species – oak, beech, chestnut -, meadows and scrubland with common gorse or furze, heather and ferns. The Pyrenean Valleys This district occupies the northeast of Navarre, from the Pyrenees to the north, to the Leyre hills and the basins of Lumbier-Aoiz and Pamplona, to the south, and from the valley of the Arga through to the Ansó valley in Aragon, running from south to east. Its terrain is more even and is shaped by the backbone of the Pyrenees, from which valleys spread out at right angles, such as Arga or Esteríbar, Erro, Arce, Aezkoa, Almiradío de Navascués, Salazar and Roncal. Altitude increases from west to east –1,459 m on Adi to 2,438 m on the Mesa de los Tres Reyes–. For this reason, there is a north – south climate transition from a wet and cold continental climate with much more extreme temperature conditions, including heavy snowfalls, to another with cool Mediterranean conditions. The average annual temperature ranges from 7 to 12ºC and rainfall between 900 and 2,200 mm. The main rivers, with a fast-flowing and regular rainfall discharge regime are the Arga, Erro, Urrobi, Irati, Salazar and Esca. The vegetation consists of the common pine – intermingling with beech and fir to the north –, boxwood, hawthorn and natural high-altitude meadows. The Cuencas Prepirenaicas Lying to the south of the Navarre Húmeda and to the valleys of the Valles Pirenaicos is the region of the Montaña, the Mountains. It is a pre-Pyrenean depression that is a continuation of the Berdún channel in Aragon, consisting of two basins: one is Lumbier-Aoiz, drained by the Irati River and its tributaries, and the other is Pamplona, drained by the Arga River. Its southern limits are the mountain ranges of Andía, Perdón, Aláiz and Izco; and to the east, the Leire range. Foz de Arbayún. Regarding the prevailing weather, the Cuencas Prepirenaicas are areas of transition between a cold Mediterranean climate and a temperate Mediterranean system: rainfall ranges between 700 and 1,400 mm. and the average annual temperature fluctuates between 10 and 13ºC. As its very name suggests – cuencas means basins in Spanish –, the main rivers in the Mountains join up with their drainage courses, the Arga and Irati, already fast-flowing and with a regime somewhere between rainfall discharge and Ocean discharge.
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The climate transition is reflected in the vegetation, dominated by Mediterranean deciduous – holm and gall oaks, the common pine and scrubland of boxwood and scorpion’s thorn. B) The Middle Area Transition landscape This is an intermediate landscape, which shares traits with both the Mountains and the Ribera, which is not to say that it lacks a personality of its own – it most certainly does not – but rather its transition landscape softens and tempers the huge geographical contrasts between the Mountains and the Ribera. There are two distinct areas, Eastern Middle Navarre and Tierra Estella. Eastern Middle Navarre An area lying to the south of the mountain ranges of Perdón, Aláiz, Izco and Leire, it extends from the Arga, to the south, to the boundary with Aragon. It consists of Valdizarbe, Valdorba, Val de Aibar, Tierra de Sangüesa and the Somontano of Tafalla-Olite. Its terrain is made up of somontanos (foothills) or generally small plains, abutting mountains that run in a south-east direction, through which from north to south flow the Aragón, Cidacos and Arga. The land is flatter, with a temperate Mediterranean climate, with an average rainfall of 450 to 750 mm and average temperatures of between 12.5 and 14ºC, which suggests a tendency towards a continental climate. Although there are instances of beech. oak and common pine, the tree covering is thinner than in the Mountains, with a prevalence of a mixed forest of holm and oak, and scrubland featuring rosemary, lavender, scorpion’s thorn, juniper and Kermes oak. View of Olóriz (Valdorba) Tierra Estella Also referred to as Western Middle Navarre - Navarre Media Occidental, this area runs from the boundary with Alava, to the south, to the mountain ranges of Urbasa and Andía, to the north, and to the Arga River, to the east. The southern limit is less precise and it extends into what has become known as the Ribera Estellesa. Tierra Estella is also a series of basins, plains and mountain ranges that include the valleys of the Améscoas, Val de Lana, Valdeallín, Yerri, Guesálaz, Goñi, Villatuerta, Mañeru, Monjardín, Ega, Berrueza, Aguilar, Solana and numerous municipalities from Dicastillo and Allo to Viana. All these lands have historically centred on the city of Estella, the district’s administrative centre.

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Typical landscape of the Middle Area. The Ega is the main river. The Urederra, which springs forth from deep in the Urbasa range, is its principal tributary. There are huge climate changes between the mountainous northern area, under the influence of the Atlantic - with 1,100 to 1.500 mm. of rainfall and an average temperature of between 9 and 11ºC in the area of Urbasa-Andía, and the southern plains, with a continental Mediterranean influence - 500 to 800 mm. and 11.5 to 13.5ºC on average. The vegetation reflects this climate transition and, accordingly, evolves from oak, beech, holy, boxwood and meadows in the north to holm oaks and clumps of rosemary, thyme and lavender in the foothills of the south. C) The Ribera The influence of the Ebro Although a distinction is made between the Ribera Estellesa and Ribera Tudelana, due to the influence of their two main urban centres – Estella and Tudela, both Riberas have so much in common that they can be described jointly. If indeed there is something that differentiates them, it is that the former – the area of Estella – has a gentle terrain of crests, rolling hills, anticlinal valleys of a diapiric nature and hanging synclines, and the other, around Tudela, is defined by plains or structural platforms, isolated hills and terraced alluvial plains. One of the typical wetlands in the Ribera of Navarre. The climate in the Ribera is of a Mediterranean continental nature, typical of the Ebro depression, with dry summers, temperatures with large annual variations, little and irregular rainfall – less than 500 mm per year – and the frequent presence of the cierzo (North wind). Due to human activity, its original vegetation has been reduced to no more than the scattered remnants of its original holm oak and pine forests, as well as Mediterranean scrubland with rosemary, thyme, scorpion’s thorn and esparto grass. Were it not for the Ebro, its tributaries and the irrigation system, the Ribera would be an arid and inhospitable land, instead of being Navarre’s agricultural heartland par excellence.
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II- History and Culture
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Origins of the Kingdom Expansion and decline Modern history Cultural life Customs and traditions

A) Origins of the Kingdom Prehistory Confirmation of the first settlements in Navarre is provided by the Lower Palaeolithic remains (600,000 BC to 40.000 BC) found in Coscobillo, Urbasa, Estella, Lezáun, Lumbier and Viana. Later on, Neolithic culture converts the hunters into farmers and shepherds, and the Bronze Age means dolmens and flint workings spring up all over the pasturelands; at this time, megalithic constructions appear throughout the land, from Viana, Cirauqui and Artajona, to the mountain ranges of Urbasa and Aralar, reaching as far as the towering Pyrenean peaks. The Iron Age teaches the primitive Basque inhabitants new techniques and ways of life brought by the Celts and Celtiberians from Central Europe. Romanisation Rome’s presence is weak in the saltus vasconum or northern and forested area – the Mountains –, where the autochthonous Basque language prevails, and cultural exchange is minimal; on the other hand, as of the 2nd century AD, Roman influence becomes more consolidated in the ager vasconum, the middle area, which is more accessible and has greater natural resources. Within the saltus, in 75 AD, Pompey occupies Iruña, the main Basque city, where he founds the Roman city named after him, Pamplona. With the decline of the Roman Empire, the Basque tribes recover their influence over the Roman ager, extending it furthermore to include neighbouring areas. At the same time, they defend themselves against military incursions by the Visigoth monarchs, who seek to consolidate their political influence in the north of the peninsula. These same Basques also oppose the presence of the Franks, who threaten their independence from the northern slopes of the Pyrenees. The Battle of Roncevaux against Charlemagne in 778 stalls the plans of the powerful Frankish monarch in this part of the Pyrenees. The first Navarre dynasty A new threat emerges with the arrival of the Moors, who manage to occupy the Ebro basin in 714. Nevertheless, the Moorish presence is weak, as it will fail to take hold either politically or socially. There soon arises a Christian core in opposition

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to the Moors, which by the 9th century will end up politically transforming the autochthonous dynasty of the Íñigos into the first Navarre dynasty. It will be succeeded by the Jimenos, politically more consolidated. Sancho Garcés (905-925), the dynasty’s first monarch, embraces a committed policy of territorial expansion against the Moors, whereby he forms alliances with the other Christian kingdoms. Despite the advances made by Sancho Garcés, who occupies the district of Estella, fords the Ebro and reaches Nájera and Calahorra (914), the Moorish presence will remain in the Ribera for a further century, as Tudela will remain under Moorish control until the year 1119. B) Expansion and decline Navarrese domination Detail of the hispanic-arabic coffer placed in the Museum of Navarre. It dates back to 1004. Sancho Garcés III el Mayor – the Elder (10041035) rules over the greater part of the Peninsula’s Christian domains: Pamplona, Nájera, Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza, Castile and Leon, at the same time as he lays claim to Gascony and the County of Barcelona. His reign leads to the social, political and economic expansion of the kingdom of Pamplona, with major territorial gains. This monarch organises the Way of Santiago, introduces the Romanesque and spreads the Cluniac culture throughout his kingdoms. At the end of the 9th century, the kingdom of Pamplona is forced to bring its territorial expansion to a halt, held in check by the advance of its powerful neighbours, Castile and Aragon. Thus its southward expansion is halted at the same time as it lives under the constant threat of political annexation. Hovering between independence and incorporation within the political sphere of the French, Castilian and Aragonese monarchs is the awkward status that prevails in Navarre during the Early Middle Ages. Under the Aragonese Crown From 1076 to 1134 it will remain part of the Aragonese crown, from which it will secede during the reign of Garcia Ramirez (1134-1150), thus restoring its political independence; in the ensuing reign of Sancho el Sabio – the Wise (1150 – 1194), the kingdom of Pamplona will become known as the Kingdom of Navarre, which is interpreted as a gesture of political affirmation and territorial sovereignty in the face of annexationist threats from other Peninsular kingdoms, and especially from Castile.
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Nevertheless, the process involving the loss of territory continues, and in 1200, under the reign of Sancho el Fuerte – the Strong (1194 – 1234) the kingdom is deprived of the territories of Alava, Guipuzcoa and the Duranguesado, in Vizcaya, which are conquered by the Castilian monarch. Thereafter, Navarre, blocked to the west by the frontier with Castile, will be forced to focus its policy of territorial expansion largely towards the north, the French lands of Ultrapuertos, and to the east, the border tract with Aragon. Under French influence The death of Sancho VII el Fuerte in 1234 brings the Navarrese dynasty to an end and the kingdom falls under French influence, in search of an ally that will ensure its survival in the face of constant pressure from Castilians and Aragonese alike. The first to be installed on the throne is the House of Champagne (1234 – 1274), which is succeeded by the Capetian dynasty, which between 1274 and 1326 simultaneously occupies the thrones of France and Navarre. The House of Evreux (1328-1425) initiates a time of intense relations in the political life of the Peninsula and Europe overall, especially during the reign of Charles II, obsessed by occupying the French throne; the reign of Charles III the Noble (1387 – 1425) strikes a balance between cultural and material prosperity; testifying to this is the splendour of the Navarrese Gothic, evident in artistic works such as the Royal Palace in Olite and this same monarch’s sepulchre in Pamplona Cathedral. Conflict of succession and invasion The death of Charles III gives rise to a serious conflict regarding his succession. This is no more than the first signs of a far-reaching institutional and social crisis that will lead to civil war. John II, who heads the camp of the Agramonteses, is married to Blanca, the heir to the Navarrese throne, and has been King of Navarre and of Aragon since 1458; opposed to him is his step-son, the legendary Charles, Prince of Viana, who heads the camp of the Beaumontes in their quest, which was never to be fulfilled, to occupy the throne of Navarre. This state of internal weakness will last for half a century and will finally be exploited by Ferdinand the Catholic who, in support of the Beaumonteses, invades Navarre in 1512, thus making it part of the Crown of Castile. Soundly defeated, Don Juan and Doña Catalina de Albret, the last monarchs of Navarre, seek refuge on the other side of the Pyrenees, which they will never cross again, and will uphold the dynasty that, as of 1555, will give rise to the House of Bourbon, which will reign in France until the 1789 revolution, and in Spain from 1700 onwards. Following its conquest by Castile, Navarre is governed by a Viceroy, who exercises the powers of a monarch in Pamplona. This situation will last for four centuries. Meanwhile, the kingdom’s institutions are maintained, especially the Cortes, which is convened throughout the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries to legislate and approve the kingdom’s financial contributions to the ventures of the Spanish monarch. The Kingdom’s Council (Diputación) is founded in 1576 as a standing governing body
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in representation of the Cortés when the latter is not sitting: for five centuries this institution has been the exponent of Navarre’s own administration and since the 19th century it has persisted under the name of Diputación Provincial (Provincial Council), Diputación Foral de Navarre (Regional Council of Navarre), and since 1982, Gobierno de Navarre (Government of Navarre). C) Modern history The 19th and 20th centuries Meeting of the Cortes de Navarra, according to a 19th century engraving The end of the 15th century’s internal rivalries, which concluded with the victory of the Beaumontes’ camp and the Castilian conquest, lead to an economic resurgence that brought with it the recovery of demographic equilibrium, affected by the protracted civil war. It also brought stability to economic life and reinforced the foundations of the institutional structure of the Kingdom of avarre, as it continued to be called until the middle of the 19th century. From the Carlist Wars to the present day The situation of political and institutional stability begins to deteriorate in the second half of the 18th century, with the centralist policies of the Bourbons. This will generate ever-increasing tension that will explode in 1833 in the form of the First Carlist War. The military conflict will conclude in 1839, with an armistice on the part of the Carlists, and from an institutional and political perspective it will be embodied in the so-called Ley Paccionada of 1841. By virtue of this law, the historical Kingdom of Navarre becomes part, under the status of Province, of the liberal state, whilst it still maintains institutions and legislation from its age-old system of Fueros (regional rights), especially those involving taxation and the administration. This particular situation persisted throughout the Restoration, the 2nd Republic and Franco’s regime. With the advent of democracy and following the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the regional system for Navarre becomes integrated within the new institutional regime, by virtue of the Organic Law of 1982 for the Reintegration and Improvement of the Régimen Foral (Regional System) of Navarre.

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D) Cultural life Wealth and variety The soprano María Bayo. Despite being a small community in terms of surface area and population, Navarre currently enjoys a rich and varied cultural life. The cultural offer consists of the activities organised by universities, local authorities, a host of public and semi-public bodies, and by private entities, which have a bearing on the development of music, art, the Basque language, literature, publishing, theatre and audiovisual media. One institution, the Institución Principe de Viana, which is responsible for the cultural activities of the Government of Navarre, is involved mainly in the field of preserving and restoring the monumental and documentary heritage, in publications, in the network of museums and public libraries and in cultural dissemination. Interior of the Church in the Monastery of Leyre. Half a century of systematic progress in the restoration and preservation of the artistic heritage now allows for the contemplation of such exceptional sites as Olite Castle, the cathedrals in Pamplona and Olite, the ramparts encircling Artajona and the monasteries of Leyre, La Oliva, Iranzu, Irache and Tulebras, or the collegiate church of Roncesvalles. In addition, the length and breadth of Navarre is dotted with myriad palaces, convents, churches, civil buildings, organs, altarpieces, paintings and silver and gold ornamentation. Infrastructures Major investment has been made in recent years in order to improve and enrich the cultural infrastructures. Accordingly, since 2003 Navarre boasts “El Baluarte”, an Auditorium and Congress Hall that stands in the heart of the city of Pamplona. Furthermore, since 2003, the work of Jorge Oteiza, one of the 20th centuries leading exponents of the plastic arts, is on display in the eponymous Museum Foundation, built according to a project by the architect Francisco Sáenz de Oiza in the town of Alzuza, near Pamplona, where the artist had his workshop-cum-home. In addition, from this year onwards, the Palace of the Kings of Navarre, located on Pamplona’s northern ramparts, will house the Royal and General Archive of Navarre, according to a project by the architect Rafael Moneo.
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This Comunidad Foral also features an extensive network of libraries and museums, with the highlights being the Museum of Navarre in Pamplona, Ethnology in Irache, the Diocesan in Pamplona and Sacred Art in Corella, as well as the Gustavo de Maeztu in Estella. Festivals, symposia and competitions Regarding those activities of cultural dissemination sponsored by the Government of Navarre, special mention should be made of the Olite Festival of Classic Theater, the weeks of Ancient Music and Medieval Studies in Estella, as well as the Judaic Symposia in Tudela. Also noteworthy, furthermore, are the competitions organised by the Institución Principe de Viana: the “Julian Gayarre” in bel canto, “Pablo Sarasate” in violin, in sculpture and painting, as well as prizes for literary creation and those awarded annually to mark the festival of Audiovisual Creation. Continuing with the subject of prizes, mention should also be made of the “City of Tudela” for short stories and those awarded by the “Bilaketa” society in Aoiz in the fields of painting, poetry, narrative and sculpture. Cultural life is further expanded through the courses and exhibitions held in the forty cultural venues operating in the main towns and cities. Others The Symphony Orchestra of Navarre, the Philharmonic Society of Pamplona, the Pamplona Orfeón (Choral Society), “La Pamplonesa” brass band, the Chamber Choir and the Music Chapel in the Cathedral are all flagship institutions in the field of music, not forgetting either the council or private music schools that supply the students for the classrooms of the Pablo Sarasate Music Conservatory. E) Customs and traditions From one generation to the next Dancers in Ochagavia The minutiae of history, which is normally glossed over by textbooks, consist of all that which a people preserves and passes down from one generation to the next, being fuelled by traditions and customs. The people of Navarre proudly safeguard their history, protecting a series of traditions that are as rich and as varied as the landscape itself. Accordingly, it may be indicative to point out that in the regional laws of Navarre custom prevails over the written law. Christmas: the Olentzero and the water ritual In addition to traditional Christmas nativity scenes, feasts and carols, Navarre has other traditional rituals. The Olentzero, a fat-bellied, hard-drinking charcoal maker,
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comes down from the mountain to announce the arrival of Christmas Eve and bring the children their presents; this tradition, which originates from Lesaka, has spread to other rural and urban areas. On New Year’s Eve, young people, especially in Urdiáin, celebrate the water ritual: they collect fresh water from the fountain in jars and offer it to the authorities and local people in exchange for their Christmas treat. The King of the Faba (Bean) January 5th is celebrated throughout Navarre with the colourful Cabalgata de Reyes – the procession of the Three Kings. On the morning of the 6th, the streets of Sangüesa are the setting for the religious play "El Misterio de Reyes" (The Mystery of Epiphany), whilst the cloister of Pamplona Cathedral displays the relics of saints and noble countrymen for their veneration. The excitement felt by children on the eve of the visit by the Three Kings, when they discover that their serving of cake, the rosco, contains the “haba” (bean) or a small gift hidden in the dough stems from the traditional children’s celebration in which one of the children was crowned king or queen following the ancient ritual. This tradition is kept alive, and in January each year a palace, church or castle hosts the crowing of the Rey de la Faba (The King of the Bean), in which a local child, the lucky recipient of the “haba” in the rosco, is proclaimed King of Navarre with the same ceremony as in the Middle Ages. Scene of a pilgrim, a romero, carrying a cross in the romería of Ujué. The Javierada Two weekends in the windy month of March see thousands of pilgrims make their way from all over Navarre to the castle of Javier. It is the mass concentration of the “Javierada”, a silent popular display that blends tradition with religious fervour, at the birthplace of the patron saint of Navarre, Francisco de Javier. On Good Friday, at dusk, the streets of towns and cities are filled with processions, such as those in Pamplona, Corella and Estella, where one can even “see” the air, as it is written on a banner. On the morning of Easter Saturday, in Tudela, the Volatín endlessly swirls around in Los Fueros Square until its apparel fall in rags amongst the crowd of children and adults who eagerly await the balloons and sweets that fall from the Casa del Reloj, the Clock Tower. In the evening, the cloister of Pamplona Cathedral is the setting for the procession of the Encounter between the Christ Risen and his Mother.
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The Descent of the Angel The following day, Easter Sunday is celebrated in Tudela with the Bajada del Ángel – the Descent of the Angel, a ceremony in which a child descends through the air to remove the mourning veil that covers the Virgin Mary’s face; very closeby, in Cabanillas, following the procession of the Encounter between the Blessed Lord and Our Lady of Sorrows, Judas is pursued in order to be put to the sword; at the other end of Navarre, in Luzaide-Valcarlos, the bolantes dance to the florid Easter and take a collection around the various neighbourhoods and outlying farmhouses. Romerías Spring arrives and, before the flurry of romerías (religious processions) to chapels and shrines, the Ángel of Aralar visits the countryside, towns, villages and the city of Pamplona, frequently accompanied by life-bringing rain. Ujué, Osquia, Roncesvalles, Sorlada, Codés, Cataláin, el Yugo in Arguedas, Lumbier, Labiano and Alsasua are landmarks on the dense map of romerías that are held throughout the length and breadth of Navarre. In village squares, the “Mayos” – barkless trunks of great height that still have their crown – herald the splendour of springtime. Scene from the bull-run in San Fermin. Sanfermines and summer festivals The summer festivals begin with the bonfires of San Juan. On this, the shortest and lightest night, bonfires burn all those useless items that get in the way of the enjoyment of the best part of the year, the time when the towns and villages of Navarre come alive with the festivals in honour of their patron saints, the most famous of which are the universally acclaimed “Sanfermines”. San Saturnino and San Francisco With the arrival of autumn, hunters go out after wild boar and pigeons, which are caught with decoys and nets in Etxalar. Pamplona celebrates Saturnino, its patron saint, on November 29th, and the regional holiday, Navarre Day, is held on December 3rd, the festivity of San Francisco Javier, the best known of all Navarrese saints. Carnivals The carnivals have a particular character, above all in the north of Navarre. People don fancy dress in Ituren and Zubieta to accompany the ioaldunak or zanpantzar who parade from one village to another. The carnival of Lantz is the most widely known: here the bandit Miel Otxin is executed and burnt in the form of a huge straw “guy”.
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III- Nature
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Biodiversity Protected areas Fauna Flora Conservation policies

A) Biodiversity Biological diversity is the main characteristic of Navarra’s rich natural heritage. Biodiversity in Navarra is the result of the region’s special geographical location, where three biogeographic areas –the Alpine, the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean– come together. It also has to do with the fact that the region is not as densely populated as the rest of Spain (50 people per km2 vis-à-vis 77 people per km2 as the country’s average). Other factors favouring biodiversity are the harmonious development, conjugating economic and social growth and a respect for nature, the local population’s environmental awareness, and suitable habitat management policies. Ecosystems Navarra is a rich mosaic of landscapes, where countless animal and plant species live. Nine main ecosystems can be distinguished: the alpine system, the fluvial areas and humid zones, the forests, the Mediterranean shrublands, the pasturelands and heathlands, the rocky places, the steppes, the limestone areas, and the salt marshals and closed (endorheic) basins. In all these ecosystems, very different species live together: brown bears, European minks, grouses, white-backed woodpeckers, otters, vultures, bearded vultures, Egyptian vultures, eagles, and bitterns, to name but a few. A view of the Irati forest. Castildetierra Peak (Bardenas Reales Natural Park)

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Species Navarra’s variety of climates and landscapes, from the Cantabrian valleys and the peaks in the Pyrenees to the desert plains of the Bardenas Reales Biosphere Reserve and Natural Park, makes this region a real book of nature. 2,652 species of ferns and flower plants (20% of all the species in Europe), 27 species of fish (18%), 43 species of amphibians and reptiles (24%), 236 species of birds (47%), and 75 species of mammals (50%) live in Navarra. Forests and rivers Two of the main characteristics of Navarra’s natural heritage are forest conservation (64% of the region’s surface area is forests), and the abundance of water resources. There are 7,450 kilometres of rivers, with two distinct biotopes: the mountainous areas, inhabited mainly by the Salmonidae, where the predominant species are fish like trout, brown trout, dace, loach, cyprinid fish, goby, salmon; and the lower and coastal areas, where the Cyprinidae family prevails, with rough water cyprinid fish –French nase, barbel, mountain barbel–, and calm water cyprinid fish –tench, carps, goldfish– replacing brown trout and dace. B) Protected areas Protected nature areas Navarre has a Network of Protected Nature Areas consisting of 3 Integral Reserves (487 ha.), 38 Nature Reserves (9,171 ha.), 28 Nature Enclaves (931 ha.), 2 Nature Recreation Areas (459 ha.), 13 Special Protection Zones for Bird-life – ZEPAS (71,805 ha.), 14 Areas for the Protection of Wild Fauna (2,815 ha.) and 3 Nature Parks (63,000). Mention should also be made of the presence of two Wetlands of International Importance: the Laguna de Pitillas and the Laguna de las Cañas (Viana). In addition, the Government has proposed 42 LIC’s (Places of Community Interest) for their inclusion within the Natura 2000 Network created by the European Union for the preservation of biological diversity. Bardenas Reales Nature Park Given their size and importance, it is worth describing the three Nature Parks that have been declared in Navarre: the Señorío de Bértiz, Urbasa-Andía and Las Bardenas Reales. The Señorío de Bértiz The Señorío de Bértiz Nature Park covers an area of 2,040 ha. and is situated within the municipal boundaries of Bertizarana, in the north of Navarre, on the banks of the Bidasoa River. The park is of particular interest for its
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landscape, being one of the few valleys in the area that has a complete and uninterrupted forest covering. It is very steep, as in a distance of only six kilometres it rises 700 metres from the banks of the Bidasoa to the summit of Aizkolegi. Its vegetation and fauna are typical of the pre-Pyrenean valleys under an Atlantic influence, although there are no endemic species. Urbasa and Andía The mountain ranges of Urbasa and Andía (21,408 ha. of Nature Park) constitute a nature area featuring a wide range of geological, biological, ecological, aesthetic, scenic, archaeological and socio-cultural attractions. They lie in the west of Navarre, at an interim position between the so-called Humid Navarre (Navarre Húmeda) in the northwest and the Middle Area (Navarre Media Occidental or Tierra Estella). It is a high plateau that is affected by the influences of both the Atlantic, penetrating through the northern reaches, and the Mediterranean, doing so from the south. This intermingling creates an attractive landscape of oak, beech, gall and holm oaks and pasturelands that is home to a fauna of great value given its diversity. Urbasa – Andía Nature Park The park is an example of a karstic terrain and this area holds a large part of Navarre’s water resources, as it constitutes a vast underground reservoir, whose natural drainage flows out through such spectacular springs as the one in Urederra. The Bardenas Reales The Bardenas Reales (40,000 ha. of nature park) constitutes a vast territory in the southeast of Navarre, which in terms of climate is defined by occasional and torrential rainfall, hot summers and fairly cold winters, The vegetation is of the steppe and Mediterranean variety. The botanical interest of the flora and fauna here is linked to the specific weather conditions of the Ebro depression and it has merited inclusion in the National Inventory of Habitats, drawn up under the auspices of Directive 92/43 EEC of 21 May on Habitats. In 2000, this park was declared a World Biosphere Reserve. The fauna consists of numerous species of fish, amphibians and reptiles, with the presence of birds being what defines the character of the area, given their importance not only locally but also in Europe, as is the case of the Egyptian vulture.

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C) Fauna The importance of bird-life Close-up of a specimen of Egyptian vulture. (Photo: David Campión) Navarre has an extensive range of animal species, although the bird population is especially significant. Up in the Pyrenees, it is possible to see such mammals as chamois, roe deer, deer, grey dormouse and marmot and also, very occasionally, a brown bear may de sighted. Insofar as birds are concerned, one of the area’s most valuable species is the quebrantahuesos – the bearded vulture. Also important are the grouse and black woodpecker. In the Atlantic area and pre-Pyrenean ranges, the most significant mammals are the wildcat, fox and wild boar, whereas predatory species prevail in terms of bird-life. The gorges are the domain of these species, amongst which there are vultures, Egyptian vultures, golden eagles and red kites. In central and southern Navarre, wooded groves are the winter home for such birds as the grey heron, the common heron, the little grebe and the mallard, whereas the Bardenas is home to birds that are typical of steppelands, such as the Dupont’s lark and the sand grouse. Endangered species Navarre’s catalogue of vertebrates identifies 16 endangered species. Amongst these, the list is headed by bears, otters, bats, great bustards, bearded vultures, rock ptarmigan and grey partridge, great bittern, griffon vultures and Montague’s harrier. Some of these species already have specific recovery schemes, such as the bearded vulture, grouse and brown bear. At the time of writing, the register details the existence of 27 species of fish, 6 of which are autochthonous (pike, rainbow trout, goldfish, carp, catfish and black bass), 17 amphibians, 26 reptiles and 236 different birds, including the Eurasian collared-dove and ring-necked pheasant as allochthonous varieties. The register is completed by 78 species of mammals, of which the wolf, the mountain goat, or bucardo, and the Iberian lynx are now considered extinct and the fallow deer, American mink and nutria rat or coypu are featured as allochthonous. Amongst the existing autochthonous livestock, noteworthy for their peculiarity are the Betizu breeds (bovine), and Jaca Navarra pony and Burguete breed (horse), which are now endangered species. Studies are now underway on these breeds to ensure their recovery. Navarre is, therefore, currently home to a total of 381 species, which means our community accounts for 60% of the total species of Spanish vertebrates and for 39% of the species in the European Union.
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D) Flora 33% of Spanish flora Navarre has been identified as home to 2,650 species of ferns and flowering plants, and around 1,700 species of wild mushrooms and fungi have been recorded. If it is calculated that the number of taxons of vascular plants (ferns and flowering plants) present in Spain ranges between 8,000 and 9,000 (around 80-90% of the total present in the European Union), the approximate number of species and sub-species of vascular flora in Navarre accounts for 33% with regard to Spain and 20% in terms of the European Union, and all within an area that covers only 2% of Spain’s land mass. There are, however, virtually no plants that are exclusive to Navarre, as only two endemic sub-species have been recorded: cochlearia aragonensis subspecies Navarrena and iberis carnosa subspecies nafarroana, both of the family cruciferae. The forests Forests are one of nature’s defining characteristics in Navarre. Virtually the whole area of Navarre is wooded in one or another. In contrast to what has happened in other Spanish regions, traditional modes of woodland husbandry have managed to ensure the survival down to the present day of extensive forest tracts combined with a mosaic of landscapes with other forms of tree covering and natural grasslands, crop farming and reafforestation. Sixty-four percent of the surface area of the Comunidad Foral is forested (between tree-covered and wooded scrubland), which is why the countryside plays such a vital role in the preservation of biodiversity. According to types of forest, special mention should be made of the vast tracts of deciduous trees, which cover 224,894 hectares, 64% of the woodland area. The main leafy species are beech (37% of the forest area), followed by Mediterranean oak (11%), holm oak (9%), Atlantic oak (6%) and riverbank tree-lines (2%). Insofar as conifers are concerned, there is a prevailing presence of wild pine (15%), and to a lesser extent of Austrian pine, Aleppo pine and Monterrey pine. It is worth noting that the woodland surface of Navarre has increased over the last century by between 100,000 and 140,000 hectares. This growth has been recorded in almost all kinds of forest, with the reafforestation of conifers responsible for less than half the increase. Purple Foxglove. (Photo: Etxeberria/Astrain)

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Close-up of oak leaves. Forest Inventory The 3rd National Forest Inventory presented in March 2001 indicates that the area of forestland in Navarre has grown by 24% over the past twenty years, currently exceeding 460,000 hectares (46% of the total surface area of the Comunidad Foral). This Inventory recognises Navarre to be the Spanish region with the greatest proportion of mature forests. This conclusion has been reached on the basis of standing biomass (timber-yielding volume with bark), which has increased over the past ten years by 21%, exceeding 54 million cubic metres of timber. There has also been a significant growth in larger trees (with a diameter greater than 7.5 centimetres) and smaller trees (diameter between 2.5 and 7.5 cm) with increases of 16% and 22%, respectively. Navarre currently has 7,070 million trees, of which 266 million correspond to large trunks (over 7.5 centimetres in diameter) and 441 million to small trunks (between 2.5 and 7.5 cm. in diameter). E) Conservation policies Shared responsibility A forest ranger attends to an injured red kite The Comunidad Foral de Navarra has traditionally pursued hands-on policies regarding nature conservation, in keeping with the high degree of environmental awareness amongst local people. From the outset, these policies give full backing to the premise that conservation is a shared responsibility. In accordance with this criterion, the Administration is to allocate the necessary resources as required, but society as a whole is also to conduct itself responsibly, as all human activity has an impact on the environment. Sustainable development plans Accordingly, in order to ensure the preservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, the Government of Navarre has drawn up several sustainable development plans, which are tools designed to protect and safeguard the biodiversity of the Comunidad Foral.
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Amongst these tools and given their significance, special mention should be made of the Plan Forestal (Forestry Plan), the Plan de Conservación de Ecosistemas y Hábitats (Plan for the Preservation of Ecosystems and Habitats), the Plan de Conservación y Gestión de Ecosistemas Fluviales (Plan for the Preservation and Management of River Ecosystems), the Natura 2000 network of natural spaces and the schemes for the recovery of listed species, game, agricultural development, renewable energies, rural tourism and transport. In addition, since 1999 the Comunidad Foral has deployed the so-called Strategy for the Preservation and Sustainable Use of the Biological Diversity, which has been endorsed by the UNESCO and is accompanied by an action plan running through to 2004 with investments amounting to 96.16 million euros (16 billion pesetas). This strategy, the first of its kind in Spain, links issues related to conservation and nature’s heritage to all those economic and social sectors that may have a bearing on it. In turn, it aims to raise awareness amongst the people of Navarre, encouraging them to embrace the defence of environmental values. The strategy’s precepts are ecological coherence, sustainable economic development and social cohesion.

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IV- Economy and services
• • • • •

Economy Productive sectors Communications and health Tourism Education and research

A) Economy Economic situation Over the past 40 years, Navarre has undergone profound socio-economic change. The industrial boom that began in the 1960’s, due largely to the Programme of Industrial Development sponsored by the Regional Administration as of 1964, involved shifting away from a farming-based economy, which at the time employed half the active population, to a balanced and dynamic economy as befitting a modern region. This outlook laid the foundations for the current state of the economy of Navarre, whose main assets are its balanced productive structure, its excellent geographical situation, its high degree of openness to the outside world and its tax autonomy. Industry has been the driving force behind this transformation. Navarre began its industrial expansion in the decade of the seventies. Thus, in the structure of Gross Valued Added (GVA) for Navarre corresponding to 2003, the industrial sector accounts for a share of 31% of the regional total, as opposed to the 20.9% said sector registers in the country as a whole. The major development of services over the past two decades, in keeping with the process of fostering the tertiary sector pursued by the more advanced economies, has not meant that Navarre has in any way watered down the largely industrial component of its economy. Labour market As for the regional labour market, the positive economic evolution recorded in the second half of the 1990’s enabled Navarre to significantly improve on the levels of employment existing at the beginning of that decade and, likewise, considerably reduce its levels of unemployment. Throughout the period specified, our region has recorded a net increase in jobs of 38,440, at an average annual rate of 2.2%, at the same time as the rate of
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unemployment has fallen by half, from 11.7% in 1990 to 5.7% in 2002, now standing below the European average. Navarre is one of Spain’s autonomous communities registering the lowest rate of unemployment. The significant economic progress made over these years has meant that the Comunidad Foral de Navarra recorded a GDP per inhabitant in 1999, measured in terms of parity of purchasing power, five percentage points above that corresponding to the European Union as a whole; whereas in Spain, which has also made progress in terms of real convergence with the EU, it still remains, nonetheless, 18 points below. As a result, Navarre is part of the group of Spanish autonomous communities registering the highest indicators of social wellbeing: health care, household furnishings, cultural promotion and leisure. B) Productive sectors Structure Although it only has a relatively small bearing on employment (5.9%), the primary sector in Navarre has a significant sociological value and provides an exquisite raw material for the agro-industrial sector. From a physical and geographic point of view, a trip from north to south in Navarre means a gradual change from mountainous terrain, rich in forest expanses, with an abundance of meadows, corn and beet crops, and therefore, eminently suitable for livestock, to the Middle Area, where now cereal and forage crops, fruit orchards and ultimately industrial crops, such as sunflower and rapeseed, prevail. Crops and fallow land. (Photo: Etxebarria/Astrain) The Ribera has a greater extension of vines and there are abundant vegetable crops, of wellearned fame, which supply the district’s traditional and extensive canning industry. As proof of the prestige of the agricultural and livestock production, mention should be made of the labels of origin for Idiazabal cheese in the Urbasa area, Roncal cheese, asparagus of Navarre, piquillo peppers from Lodosa and Navarre wine in the red, rosé and white classes. In addition to these, there is the “Veal of Navarre” label of quality.
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Industrial sector A network of small and medium-sized companies, bordering the AlsasuaPamplona-Tudela corridor and along the Ribera del Ebro axis, constitutes the region’s industrial fabric, but there is also a significant presence of production plants belonging to multinational corporations, given their importance in terms of employment and value added, as well as their decisive contribution to the modernisation of the regional productive machine and, therefore, to the economic development of the Comunidad Foral. A large part of these industrial plants, characterised by their cutting-edge technology, their significant export capacity and their knock-on effect on the rest of the economy, belong to the two most important sub-sectors in Navarre’s industry: Car manufacturing and Machinery and equipment. These two sub-sectors along with the third in order of importance, the agro-food industry, provide over half Navarre’s industrial GAV. In contrast to this concentration, the diversification of activities within the sector has only made significant progress towards the end of the 90’s, thanks to the implementation and development of a wind-power industry that is considered to have a high potential for growth. Tertiary sector The transformation of the economic sector in the Comunidad Foral is also apparent when analysing the major development of services over the past twenty years. The process of developing the tertiary sector in Navarre’s economy, and as yet incomplete, has meant that the sector currently accounts for over half the region’s employment and GAV. With regard to Spain as a whole, its added value accounts for 1.4% of the national figure, a proportion that is one-tenth higher than befalls it in terms of population. The service sector has undergone major development over the past two decades. Concerning the branches of activity, the capacity for creating employment has been especially noteworthy in certain sub-sectors, such as services to companies, retailing and property services, although all the activities in the service sector have registered major rates of growth, especially those in Health, Education, Public Administration and Social Services.

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C) Communications and health Infrastructures Although the urban areas of Pamplona and Tudela concentrate over half the population, Navarre has over 900 centres of population, of which 67 percent have fewer than 100 inhabitants. Ensuring the integration of the numerous towns and villages requires a major effort to adapt the network of infrastructures to the standard of living and development attained by their citizens. Regarding the arrangement of local networks for the supply of water and for sewage, power supply and addressing the problem of solid urban waste, over the past ten years numerous schemes have been undertaken with an estimated investment of 450.75 million euros (75 billion pesetas). Pamplona and its district, especially, have an exemplary system for the selective collection of rubbish for recycling, in which 75 of the local people take part on a voluntary basis. Roads Navarre has 3,636 km of roads, 209 pertaining to the category of motorways and dual carriageways, 540 km to the general interest network, 457 km to the regional interest network and 2,427 to local or district interest. The main network features a radial structure that fans out from Pamplona in the direction of neighbouring autonomous communities and France. The links with San Sebastian-France, Vitoria-Bilbao and Zaragoza-Barcelona involve motorways and dual carriageways, and work is already underway on converting the PamplonaEstella-Logroño road into a dual carriageway, as well as on improving the Pamplona-France route via Irun. Furthermore, plans are afoot for the dual carriageway Pamplona-Jaca-Huesca and another large capacity road for the Pamplona-Tudela-Medinacelli-Madrid route. Conscious of the strategic importance of road communications, the Comunidad Foral is developing Road Master Plans (the Master Plan 2002-2009 in currently in force) in order to deploy a safe and modern road network that will consolidate Navarre as a major axis of communications between the Iberian Peninsula and the rest of Europe, and the Ebro Valley corridor will ensure access for its inhabitants in an equitable manner throughout the area, thus favouring relations with neighbouring communities and territories. Navarre has 3,636 km of roads, of which 209 are motorways and dual carriageways. Navarre has rail links with Madrid, Barcelona and other major cities.
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Railway and airport Insofar as the railway is concerned, Navarre has connections with Madrid and Barcelona, amongst other cities, via the Zaragoza-Alsasua line, which runs to a length of 175 kilometres. Projects have been drawn up for the construction of a High Speed Railway corridor in Navarre that will connect up with the MadridBarcelona line, to the south, and with the European network, to the north. In terms of air travel, Navarre has an airport in Noáin, near Pamplona, with several daily flights to Madrid and Barcelona, in addition to other routes. The airport has a master plan for investments that will cater for the increase in traffic, which currently exceeds 200,000 passengers per year. Health The health system is one of the more advanced in Spain. Thanks to the proper organisation of its services as well as the spirit of associationism that exists in our land, the people of Navarre enjoy a healthy lifestyle and longevity. The quality of life is the result of their responsible attitude to fostering healthy living. This complements a modern medical system that customises its services and on average dedicates over 90,000 pesetas / year to each one of the local inhabitants. The 2001-2005 Health Plan is the palpable expression of health development that has focused its objectives on five essential areas: mental complaints, neurodegenerative illnesses, neuro-cardiovascular diseases, oncological treatment and accident prevention. Navarre’s public health system operates using a decentralised management model that permits each health centre to adopt a flexible approach to such issues as the free choice of specialist. In addition, online applications have been introduced in the health sphere, thus permitting the immediate transfer of medical records between GP’s and specialist consultants or the arrangements of appointments with specialists from the GP’s own computer. All this has meant that the citizens of the Comunidad Foral have a high opinion of the current state of public health in Navarre. D) Tourism A physical and human mosaic The forest of Orgi, in the Ulzama hills, 23 kilometres outside Pamplona. In view of its strategic position at the extreme western end of the Pyrenees, on the border with France and straddling an important part of the Way of Santiago, of its cultural and higher education infrastructure, of its vast potential in terms of landscapes, monuments, ethnography, festivals and cuisine, Navarre provides visitors with a complex unit consisting of a
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physical and human mosaic, with a sum of contrasts that enrich the human, cultural and natural disposition of this land. In just over 100 kilometres, one can travel from the alpine scenery of the Pyrenean summits to the barren almost lunar landscape of the Bardenas Reales, a World Biosphere Reserve and spectacular natural setting for numerous film productions. From a tourist perspective, this entire wealth of heritage is geared towards a balanced and environmentally friendly exploitation, in which the criterion of quality prevails. Navarre’s tourist products are structured around different approaches: congress tourism, rural tourism, active and nature tourism, cultural tourism, language tourism, thematic tourism and gastronomic tourism. Accordingly, efforts are being made to increase and improve hotel accommodation and restaurants, to implement a network of camping sites and rural stays, as well as to open tourist offices in the more visited areas. In keeping with this, efforts have also been made in recent years in the creation of infrastructures such as the Baluarte (Congress Hall and Auditorium), in Pamplona, the Museum of Jorge Oteiza, the General Archive of Navarre, the Ethnographic Museum in Irache, the Nature Park in Arguedas, or the development of municipal golf courses. Special interest is provided by the Way of Santiago, an itinerary steeped in history and art, which crosses Navarre from north to south via the two routes that come down from the Pyrenees through Roncesvalles and Somport, joining up at Puente la Reina. In addition to all this, there is the tranquillity of life in the valleys and mountains, which still uphold age-old customs and traditions, and the characteristic cuisine that offers visitors its excellent fresh produce, vegetables and meats, and the consummate expertise of its famous restaurants. E) Education and research A comprehensive system Navarre’s education system is comprehensive and has been adapted to the needs of schooling demands. It ranges from infant schools to post-graduate courses in higher education, including all stages of compulsory and secondary education, without forgetting special needs, language schools, the teaching of music, arts and social training schemes. The results for education in Navarre exceed the Spanish average and are steadily gaining ground on the parameters for the more advanced countries in the European Union. In non-university education, a sphere of competence that is the sole concern of the Government of Navarre, the population under the age of eighteen receives schooling at both public and private centres, depending on the parents’ choice. Private education is subsidised by the Regional Administration at each and every
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level, through formal agreements. The educational system also includes teaching in and of Basque, the original language of Navarre. The creation of the Public University of Navarre has completed the offer in higher education, which up until now focused on the University of Navarre. The latter’s prestige has extended beyond the regional boundaries, and even outside the country itself; noteworthy in this sense is the work of the Faculty of Medicine and the Hospital of the University of Navarre. The Public University of Navarre, under the administration of the public institutions, has in a few years acquired a highly significant student and staff base, and has opted for a groundbreaking structure, being divided into departments. This section should not fail to mention the now consolidated existence of the centres in Pamplona and Tudela of Spain’s Open University, the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. There are over 28,000 registered students at Navarre’s three universities. Research In addition to that undertaken by Navarre’s universities, research is also pursued by public and private bodies, such as the Centro Láser de Navarra, Centro de Electrónica y Automática, Centro de Ensayos y Metrología (Testing & Metrology), managed by the Public Company, Cetenasa; the Instituto Científico y Tecnológico (Science & Technology), attached to the University of Navarre; Technical Institutes for Agricultural and Livestock Management, the Estación de Viticultura y Enología (Vine-groving and Enology), the Laboratorio Agrícola, the Asociación de la Industria Navarra and the Laboratorio del Ebro. Furthermore, under the auspices of the technological schemes fostered by the Government of Navarre, there are projects either underway or at the project stage, such as the Centro Navarro de Automoción (Automotion), the Centro Nacional de Energías Renovables (Renewable Energies), the Ciudad de la Innovación (City of Innovation), the Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Recursos Naturales (Agrobiotechnology and Natural Resources) or the Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada (Applied Medical Research), amongst others.

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V- Self-government
• • • • • •

The Fueros The Kingdom The Treaty Law The Improvement Economic Treaty The Symbols

A) The Fueros The term fueros is used in Navarre to refer to civil, political, administrative and economic customs and laws; in other words, to its own legal system and to the exercise of self-government upheld over the course of the centuries. The motto of the Infanzones de Obanos “Pro libertate patria gens libera state” (Arise free men, for the freedom of the nation!), which may be read on the façade of the Palacio de Navarra, connects individual and public freedom. This is the basic precept of the Fuero of Navarre. The Fuero grants the people of Navarre the right to decide upon all those matters that affect then directly, with the ceiling being the respect for the Spanish Constitution. This is the way in which Navarre goes about its self-government on the basis of the principle of solidarity with the rest of the peoples that make up Spain. The Fuero means loyalty and, therefore, it always has to prevail as an essential means of coexistence. The Fueros are the result of an agreement upheld with fortitude and dignity between Navarre and the authority that, any given time, holds sovereign power in the nation as a whole. The charter of principles of the monarchy of Navarre was originally passed down by word of mouth, and as of the 13th century it was set down in writing in “Fueros y Compilaciones”. For over a thousand years, Navarre has upheld its system of Fueros, the regimen foral, and has adapted it to the circumstances prevailing at each moment by means of successive treaties or agreements. The Fueros of Navarre, which have always been better loved than known by the local people, are fully valid today as a key element on the road to a future of progress, wellbeing and freedom. Accordingly, the Fueros of Navarre continue to be applicable in the 21st century as a democratic assurance of a common future and for the people of Navarre they will continue to be a guarantee of their collective freedom and new heights of development.

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B) The Kingdom Origins and evolution The Kingdom of Navarre, whose origins date back to the 9th century, under the name of Kingdom of Pamplona, has historically been governed by the Fueros, laws based on age-old local customs and enriched by the possible influences of Roman and Visigoth law, and forged during the Middle Ages. In Navarre, the distribution of power between the seats of government (Monarch, Courts, Cortes - Parliament) and the existence of institutions of control (Cortes Parliament, Diputación del Reino – Council of the Realm) constituted the theoretical bases for structuring the Kingdom’s policy. The existence of a social organisation based on a class system and characteristic of the ancien régime means that the system prevailing at the time in Navarre cannot in retrospect be deemed “democratic” in current terms. But even if it was not democratic, it was at least constitutional: the subordination of political power to the basic rules of the Kingdom and the creation by the latter of institutions of control was a steadfast commitment for those governing and those governed. An historical analysis of the self-government of Navarre may be broken down into the following periods: 1) From the 9th century to 1515. Navarre was an independent Kingdom; 2) From 1515 to 1839. Navarre was a Kingdom annexed to the Spanish crown, maintaining its own institutions, except for the Monarchy; 3) 1841-1982. Navarre was a Spanish province, with administrative and fiscal autonomy; and 4) 1982to the present day. In observance of the Constitution of 1978 and the Ley de Reintegración y Amejoramineto del Fuero (the official name given to Navarre’s own statute of autonomy), Navarre is Comunidad Foral, within the framework of Spain’s status as a nation of autonomous communities, with its own democratic institutions and a high degree of self-government. In each case, the representative institutions were as follows: 1. Independent Kingdom: King, Cortes – Parliament, Royal Council, Supreme Court or Cort General and the Chamber of Comptos. 2. Annexed Kingdom: the same institutions persist, except that the monarch is now the Spanish one, being represented by the Viceroy. Furthermore, the Cortes gain in importance and the Diputación del Reino – Council of the Realm is set up. 3. Spanish province: the provincial council, Diputación Provincial and, subsequently, also the Consejo Foral Administrativo (Administrative Foral Council). 4. Comunidad Foral: the President, the Government and the Parliament. The incorporation of Navarre within Castile, following the 1512 defeat, was undertaken on the grounds that Navarre would retain its status as a Kingdom and its own institutions. A viceroy represented the Spanish monarch in Pamplona and the
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other political institutions were the Consejo Real, the supreme body for the administration of justice, the Corte Mayor, a tribunal of a technical nature, and the Chamber, the Cámara de Comptos, for matters involving the Treasury and Estates. The transition from a medieval monarchy to one in the Modern Era, along with the physical and psychological remoteness of the monarch with regard to his kingdom, meant that the institution of the Cortes del Reino became especially important in representing the interests of the people of Navarre before the decisions of the King. In proportion, the Cortes of Navarre had a major influence in comparison to the Cortes of other Spanish kingdoms. This largely concerned the financial contributions, or “donativo” delivered to the Crown. The Cortes were responsible for examining each and every one of the crown’s rulings to see whether they contained a grievance or “contrafuero”. In order to protect themselves against royal injustice, they had two options: the “sobrecarta” and the “publicación” of the laws. The former meant that royal seals had to bear the “sobrecarta” of the Consejo del Reino, upon the hearing of the Diputación del Reino. Nonetheless, given the fact that when passing the laws, the King could introduce amendments to the petition of the Cortes in detriment to the interests of the Kingdom, the Cortes reserved the right of “publicación”, a formality without which the law had no validity. The most important consequences of Navarre’s incorporation into Castile were: the introduction of a new dynasty, the loss of identity abroad and forgoing the right to declare war and peace. Yet Navarre remained a Kingdom, maintaining all the institutions that pertain to a State: legislative power (Cortes), executive power (shared between the Consejo Real and the Diputación del Reino) and legal power, with supreme authority residing in Navarre. C) The Treaty Law From kingdom to province The First Carlist War (1833 – 1840) led to Navarre losing its status as a Kingdom. In the Treaty of Vergara (1839), General Espartero declared his commitment to recommending that the Government should submit to parliament a draft law for the ratification or amendment of the Fueros of Navarre. Accordingly, the Government passed a law that ratified the Fueros whilst upholding constitutional unity. The result of all this was the Ley Paccionada de 1841 (Treaty Law) of 1841, which instituted what has come to be known as the “regimen foral”. Navarre renounced its condition as Kingdom in exchange for far-reaching autonomy. In its 26 articles, the Ley Paccionada addresses political and military government, the administration of justice, local councils, the countryside and Treasury matters. As of the enactment of the Ley Paccionada, the Diputación de Navarra performs the duties of a Government, It approves its own budgets, levies taxes, takes charge
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of highways and byways, of the organisation and care of the countryside and, gradually, provides the services of a modern Administration. D) The Improvement Reintegration of the Fueros Following the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the first to expressly protect and respect Navarre’s historical rights, a system was introduced to democratise Navarre’s institutions. Elections were held by universal suffrage in 1979 for the Parlamento Foral – the first autonomous parliament in Spain – and the Diputación Foral. The following year saw the beginning of the process for negotiating a treaty that would renew Navarre’s legal and institutional framework, which concluded with the enactment in 1982 of the Ley Orgánica de Reintegración y Amejoramiento del Fuero de Navarre (LORAFNA). This may now be seen as the essential framework for Public Law in Navarre. The Amejoramiento (Improvement) means that the regimen foral has been brought up to date and it further extends the centuries old right to self-government. There follows a list of some of its more significant provisions: Article 1. Navarre constitutes a Comunidad Foral with its own system of governance, autonomy and institutions, forming an integral part of the Spanish nation and on an equal standing with all its peoples. Article 2. 1. The original and historical rights of the Comunidad Foral de Navarra shall be respected and safeguarded by the authorities in accordance with the Law of 25 October 1839, with the Ley Paccionada of 16 August 1841 and supplementary provisions, with the present Organic Law and with the Constitution. 2. Exception is made of the powers of the State inherent to constitutional unity. Article 3. The aim of the Amejoramiento is: 1. To improve the Régimen Foral of Navarre in all those faculties and competencies compatible with constitutional unity. 2. To organise the foral institutions of Navarra on a democratic basis. 3. To uphold all those faculties and competencies pertaining to the Régimen Foral of Navarre.

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Article 4. The territory of the Comunidad Foral de Navarra consists of the municipalities constituted in its historical Merindades, or districts, of Pamplona, Estella, Tudela, Sangüesa and Olite. Article 7. 1. The coat of arms of Navarre consists of gold chains on a red background, with an emerald in the centre of the nexus between its eight arms of links and, above them, the Royal Crown, the symbol of the ancient Kingdom of Navarre. 2. The flag of Navarre is red, with the coat of arms in the centre. Article 8. The capital of Navarre is the city of Pamplona. Article 9. 1. Spanish is the official language of Navarre. 2. The Basque language also holds the status of official language in the Basquespeaking areas of Navarre. Article 10. The foral institutions of Navarre are: the Parliament, or Cortes, of Navarre, the Government of Navarre or Diputación Foral, and the President of the Government of Navarre or Diputación Foral. Article 11. The Parliament represents the people of Navarre, wielding legislative power, approving the Budgets and the Accounts of Navarre, furthering and controlling the actions of the Diputación Foral and undertaking all other duties assigned to it in accordance with current legislation. Article 23. The Government of Navarre constitutes the ruling body, consisting of the President and Ministers, and determines general policy and manages the administration of the Comunidad Foral. It is imbued with executive powers. Article 45 By virtue of its regimen foral, taxation and financial business in Navarre is regulated by the traditional arrangement of the Convenio Económico, subscribed by the Government of the Nation and the Diputación Foral, and submitted to the respective Parliaments for their approval by means of ordinary law. Article 46. In matters of Local Authorities, Navarre is imbued with the powers and competencies that it currently holds, and which have their origin in the Ley Paccionada of 16 August 1841. The Government of Navarre exercises the control
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of the legality and general interest of the conduct of the Municipalities, Councils and Local Entities in Navarre. Article 48. 1. Navarre has sole rights in matters of Foral Civil Law. 2. The observance, amendment and development of the current Code of Foral Civil Law or Fuero Nuevo of Navarre shall be performed, as appropriate, by a Foral Law. E) Economic Treaty The financial autonomy of Navarre The financial activity of the Comunidad Foral de Navarra is governed by a particular and specific system within the State’s organisation into autonomous communities, which has its roots in historical reasons. It is the so-called Convenio Económico, or Economic Treaty, between Navarre and the State. The Convenio Económico governs the financial autonomy of Navarre within Spain and stems from the Ley Paccionada of 1841, whereby the Old Kingdom became part of the structure of the State, withholding its right to levy its own taxes. Consistent with the Spanish Constitution, which protects and respects the historical rights of Navarre, theLey Orgánica de Reintegración y Amejoramiento del Régimen Foral de Navarra specifically mentions the power befalling Navarre to uphold, determine and regulate its own system of taxation, provided that it does not conflict with international treaties and the State’s own system of taxation. The Convenio Económico is, therefore, a consequence of Navarre’s financial autonomy. It lays down the criteria for fiscal harmonisation (the tax burden in Navarre may not be lower than that of the rest of Spain), and Navarre’s so-called “contribution to the State”, whereby the Comunidad Foral pays the State on an annual basis for the services and functions not transferred that the Central Administration provides in the Old Kingdom. The proportion of this common expenditure (Defence, Foreign Affairs, etc) that Navarre has to pay is calculated by means of the application of the so-called “Índice de imputación” (Allocation index), set at 1.6%, a figure that reflects the relative income or share of the Comunidad Foral in the nation’s wealth. Since 1841, six treaties have been subscribed: 1877, 1927, 1941, 1969, 1990, 1997 and the present one that dates from October 2003.(see related links on this page). F) The Symbols Coat of arms, flag and anthem The coat of arms of Navarre on the flag.
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The coat of arms, flag and the anthem of Navarre make up the official symbols of the Comunidad Foral. The first two are defined in the LORAFNA. Foral Law 24/2003 of 4 May, passed by the Parliament of Navarre, establishes the official anthem and regulates the use of all the symbols of Navarre. Coat of arms Article 7.1 of the Ley Orgánica de Reintegración y Amejoramiento del Régimen Foral de Navarra (LORAFNA), of 10 August 1982, lays down that: “The coat of arms of Navarre consists of gold chains on a red background, with an emerald in the centre of the nexus between its eight arms of links and, above them, the Royal Crown, the symbol of the Ancient Kingdom of Navarre”. This description applies to the historical coat of arms of Navarre – a gold chain on a red background – which has its origin in the coat of arms that the Navarrese King Sancho VII the Strong made his own in 1212, following the victory of the Christian monarchs of Navarre, Castile and Aragon against the Moorish forces, which took place in Navas de Tolosa (in today’s province of Jaen), during the re-conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. The chains are representative of those that surrounded the tent of the Moorish King Miramamolin the Green and which Sancho the Strong rent asunder with his own sword. The emerald in the centre represents the one the defeated Moorish king wore on his turban. This personal heraldic symbol belonging to Sancho the Strong replaced the one the same king had been using up until that time, namely a black eagle – arrano beltza in Basque. The King’s coat of arms later became seen as the coat of arms of the whole kingdom and over thecenturies it is depicted in a variety of ways – chains, bars, little circles. In 1910, the Diputación Foral approved the official design of the coat of arms. In 1931, with the advent of Spain’s Second Republic, the royal crown on the coat of arms was replaced by a walled crown, somewhat akin to a castle or stronghold. The royal crown was restored in 1937. In that same year, the official coat of arms was added to with the inclusion in the background of the Cruz Laureado de San Fernando, a military decoration awarded to Navarre by General Franco in recognition of its involvement in the 1936 uprising. In 1981, by means of a ruling of the Parliament of Navarre, the coat of arms returned to its traditional format, which months later would be defined by the highest legal authority of the LORAFNA. Flag Article 7.2. of the LORAFNA stipulates: “The flag of Navarre is red, with the coat of arms in the centre.” The flag of Navarre has been used as a symbol of the Comunidad Foral since 1910. In that year, the Diputación Foral decided upon its characteristics, adopting the colour red as this was the same as the background on the official coat of arms, agreeing to raise it on the balcony of the Palacio de Navarra on religious holidays
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(San Fermín, San Francisco Javier, San Miguel and the Inmaculada Concepción, as well as on the 16th July, the anniversary of the battle of Navas de Tolosa, and on other significant dates). Since the LORAFNA was passed in 1982, the official flags are permanently hoisted on the facades of the Palacio de Navarre, as well as on other official buildings. The Ley Foral de Simbolos de Navarre (Law governing the Symbols of Navarre) specifies that the flag is to be raised on the outside, and to take pride of place inside, all civil public buildings within the sphere of the Comunidad Foral, without prejudice to the pre-eminence of the Spanish flag. Hymn The Ley Foral de Simbolos de Navarre also specifies that the Anthem of Navarre is the “Himno de las Cortes”, which owes its origin to the “Marcha para la entrada del Reino” (March for entering the Realm), a Baroque pasaclaustro that was played in the cloisters of Pamplona Cathedral when the members of the Cortes of Navarre passed by as they made their way into their sessions. From the 19th century onwards, this march was played at major official ceremonies and was considered the de facto anthem of Navarre, although it was not specifically granted such status until 1985, when this Foral Law was passed. In 1993, when the Government of Navarre lent its approval to the official harmonisation of the anthem, it also approved the words, based on those composed in 1971 by Manuel Iribarren, translated into Basque by Jose Mª Azpiroz, and which are follows: HIMNO DE NAVARRA Por Navarra tierra brava y noble, siempre fiel, que tiene por blasón la vieja ley tradicional Por Navarra pueblo de alma libre proclamemos juntos nuestro afán universal En cordial unión, con leal tesón, trabajemos y hermanados todos lograremos honra, amor y paz. ANTHEM OF NAVARRE For Navarre, brave and noble land, forever loyal, whose standard is the ancient traditional law For Navarre, a people of unfettered soul let us proclaim in unison our universal longing in heartfelt union with loyal determination let us strive and as one we shall all attain honur, love and peace.

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VI- Navarre in figures
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Demography Employment Economy Society Situation Municipalities

A) Demography Population statistics for Navarre have historically been collated by the IEN (Navarre Institute of Statistics) and are contained in the section Statistical Information: Demography on its web page. There follows a breakdown of the latest core data in this field.
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Population Gender indicators Demographic indicators

Population The population of Navarra totalled 601,874 inhabitants, according to data obtained from the Census Survey (Reviewed on 1st January 2006), which means that compared with the population in January 2005, the Community has increased by 8,402 people, or in other words 1.4%. These figures are from the Municipal Register Review, declared official by the Government of Spain through Royal Decree 1627/2006, dated 29th December (BOE nº 312, of 30/12/2006). Further information on DEMOGRAPHY in Navarre up Gender indicators They follow reasons of femininity and illustrate the situation of women in relation to that of men, where equality between the sexes is expressed by a value of 1. The following areas are addressed: demography (Single population, widows…), Education (Population with basic education, secondary education…), Employment (Employment rate, unemployment…) and Health (Life expectancy at birth, Perception of the state of one’s health…). In addition, contemplation is also made of the index of femininity of the population studying higher education according to the course and that of the population enrolled on training courses according to the branches chosen. Information prepared by the Navarre Institute of Statistics.

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Demographic indicators A snapshot is provided of the characteristics of the population in each municipality by means of 26 indicators that address, in general terms and amongst others, the annual rate of growth, the index of masculinity, of youth, ageing, youth and old age dependency and indices of replacement of the active population. B) Employment The data regarding the Employment market in Navarre stem from various sources: Registered Unemployment, Active Population Survey, Social Security registrations and other sectorial surveys: all of them may be consulted in Statistical Information: Employment Market on the IEN website. In order to provide an up-to-date overview, the following aspects of the Active Population Survey have been included. In the third quarter of 2006, the number of active individuals amounts to 303.900, which represents 61,48% of the total population over the age of 16. Those employed add up to 289.300, of which 168.800 are men and 120.500 women, with an activity rate of 71,18% and 51,92% respectively. The rate of unemployment stands at 4,79% as opposed to 8,15% in Spain as a whole. C) Economy The state of the Economy in Navarre may be consulted under the heading for Statistical Information on the IEN Website. The following data are provided as an overview of the measure of the economy:
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GDP Foreign Trade Quarterly Accounts (GDP)

GDP The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at present-day prices per inhabitant in Navarre in 2005 (with 24.761 euros) exceeds the national average, recording a figure of 119.6% of the same. According to the Annual Financial Accounts for 2000, the latest issued, and taking into account that the GDP is the result of aggregating the Gross Value Added (GVA) and Taxes on Products, constituted in turn by Value Added Tax (VAT), Taxes on Imports and other Special Taxes, the structure of the economy of Navarre and of Spain as a whole is as illustrated in the following graphs.
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Foreign Trade Navarre’s exports in February 2007 came to 483,2 million euros and the accumulate value in the two first months of the year added up to 929,4 million euros, which means and innteranual increase of 4,9% and 6,8% respectively. In addition to this, the imports´ value reached 480,2 million euros, with an innteranual increase of 13,4% and an accumulate value of 944,5 million euro, which has favoured an increase of 13,0% in comparison with the amount of the past year. Accordingly, the commercial balance for the month of February had a negative result of 3 million euros and the coverage rate (coefficient of imports divided by exports) for that month ended up to 100,6%, figure that means 8,2 percentage points less that what it comes to the same period in 2006.

Exports and imports 2005 in millions of euros. Latest processed data.

Interannual evolution of Foreign Trade in millions of euros Source: Department of Customs and special Taxes. Quarterly Accounts (GDP) The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at market prices generated by the economy of
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Navarre in the first quarter of 2004 has undergone a real growth of 3.4% (2.8% in Spain) compared to the same quarter in the previous year, as illustrated by the data for the Quarterly Accounts of Navarre prepared by the Navarre Institute of Statistics. GDP. Market prices GDP at market prices. Overall economy D) Society The Social situation in Navarre is a broad term that requires different approaches, all of which are dealt with in the Statistical Information on the IEN website. The following are provided as a summary of the data that best define the performance of Navarrese Society:
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Information Society Living conditions Education Health

Information Society An analysis of the profile of households with regard to the possession of computers and internet connection reveals the rapid growth observed in the way families in Navarre have adapted to technology, mainly in internet connection, which has more than doubled in its implementation over the past year since the first survey, held in 2001. The data have been taken from the Survey on the Information Society in Navarre carried out by the Navarre Institute of Statistics, whose most recent wave concluded in November 2003. Households possessing computers Households connected to the internet Living conditions The main aspects that determine the living conditions of the people of Navarre are the socio-demographic characteristics of the individual and their families, the job market, health, specification of their dwelling, physical and social environment, spatial mobility, relationships with the family and social environment, knowledge of computers and languages, leisure and free time. The data have been taken from the Survey on Living Conditions in Navarre carried out by the Navarre Institute of Statistics.
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Population Growth

Interannual growth rate Education The main data are provided regarding students enrolled in Navarre, Spain and the European Union referenced to the last period available, the 2001-2002 academic year. Navarre Institute of Statistics. Datos avance RÉGIMEN GENERAL Infantil Primaria Educación Especial ESO Bachillerato BUP y COU FP II C. Formativos de FP Grado Medio C. Formativos de FP Grado Superior Programas de Garantía Social RÉGIMEN ESPECIAL EDUCACIÓN ADULTOS ENSEÑANZA UNIVERSITARIA España 6.830.989 1.211.826 2.475.027 27.241 1.901.238 698.013 19.301 29.380 213.541 213.395 42.027 467.161 367.066 1.508.116 Navarra 81.767 15.379 29.768 104 21.487 8.113 0 0 3.266 2.943 707 210 140 19.278

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Students enrolled. 2001-2002 Academic year The gross schooling rate is defined as the ratio, expressed as a percentage, between the students of any age enrolled in each level of education and the population whose ages fall within the window specified for each one of these levels. The gross schooling rate may exceed 100, as occurs in primary and secondary (ESO) education. This occurs because there are students enrolled whose ages differ from those allocated to these levels.

Situation This heading covers the latest references for a series of indicators that reflect Navarre’s socio-economic situation.
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RPI Consumer confidence Business confidence Retail services

RPI The Consumer Price Index in Navarra increased by 1.3% in march 2007 as compared to previous month, and by 2.2% y-o-y, which means that the rate was 0.3% lower than that of the Spanish CPI (2.5%). In comparison with the previous month, and considering the impact on the overall month index, Recreation and Culture (+5.4%) and Apparel and Shoes (+4.1%) had the most significant increases, with impact factors of 0,441 and 0,437, respectively. On the other hand, the items that recorded highest changes year-on-year were Alcoholic Drinks and Tobacco (6.3%) and Medicine (-0.1%). Comparative year-on-year Navarra and Spain. evolution for

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Comparison of annual CPI variations in Navarra and Spain. Consumer confidence Consumer confidence amongst the people of Navarre measured by means of the Consumer Confidence Index (CCI) shows deceleration in first quarter (2007) in comparison with the previous quarter. These data are taken from the Survey on the Situation of Consumers in Navarre that the Institute of Statistics carries out quarterly on a random sample of 641 households. This indicator, similar to those produced in Europe and the United States, is often used to monitor the family consumer cycle and, accordingly, the increase in consumer confidence suggests there has been a recovery in consumer spending on the part of Navarrese households. Business confidence This index on the prevailing industrial climate gathers the impressions of industrial business executives on trends in output, the portfolio of orders and stocks, with data collated from answers given to the Survey on the Industrial Situation carried out by the Navarre Institute of Statistics.

Evolution of the Industrial Climate Retail services The Survey on Retail Services in Navarre gathers the opinions of business executives regarding employment (number of employees and variations recorded), level of activity (variation in the turnover of work and sales revenue), evolution of prices (in terms of both suppliers and retail prices) and the outlook for investment

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and the number of employees foreseen. It is a qualitative survey carried out by the Navarre Institute of Statistics. Municipalities This section provides a synthesis of the wide variety of information related to the municipalities, such as their physical boundaries, population and natural evolution, public infrastructures, housing, agriculture, transport, tourist services, electoral results and budget. Once the choice has been made of the municipality we wish to receive further information on, a summarised table is displayed with a grouping of data on the same. This involves a summary of the Municipal Information provided by the IEN. Once the choice has been made of the municipality we wish to receive further information on, a summarised table is displayed with a grouping of data on the same.

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