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Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No.

2, 187-199, June 2004 / Copyright 2004 Japan Concrete Institute

187

Influence of Bleeding on Minute Properties and Steel Corrosion


in Concrete
Melito A. Baccay1, Takahiro Nishida2, Nobuaki Otsuki3, Junpei Hamamoto4 and Kyoku Chin5
Received 19 November 2003, accepted 2 February 2004

Abstract
This paper presents the results of laboratory and field investigations on the influence of bleeding on minute properties
and steel corrosion in concrete. Test methods such as minute compressive strength test, minute tensile strength test and
minute diffusion test were performed in the laboratory to assess the effect of bleeding on minute properties of concrete.
In addition, electrochemical investigations were conducted both in the laboratory and in the field to determine the influence of bleeding on the rate of steel corrosion in concrete. The various test results indicate a strong agreement between the laboratory experiment and the field investigations. The upper layer of concrete affected by bleeding exhibited
weaker strength, higher permeability, lower concrete resistance, and higher oxygen permeability. Consequently, a higher
macrocell corrosion rate than the microcell corrosion rate prevailed in both the vertical and horizontal steel bar and the
corrosion rate was enhanced at elevated temperatures (20-40oC).

1. Introduction
The premature deterioration of reinforced concrete
member has become a major concern in many countries
throughout the world. According to the technical report
of the Concrete Society based in London, while concrete has proved to be an essentially durable material it
has not always been completely durable. Its performance depends not only on the exposure conditions but
also on the concrete quality, which can vary widely.
One of the factors mentioned that affects the quality of
concrete is bleeding. This phenomenon occurs as a result of adding a large amount of water into the concrete
mix to increase its workability. Bleeding of concrete is
caused by the segregation of water from the cement
paste. In the case of high segregation, suspended particles precipitate depending on their fineness and specific
gravity and the mix proportions of the concrete (Yonezawa 1988). As a consequence, concrete is weaker
and less durable at or near its top layer compared to
other parts. A study done by Wainwright and Ait-Aider

Doctoral Student, Department of International Development Engineering , Tokyo Institute of Technology,


Japan
E-mail: mel@ide.titech.ac.p
2
Research Associate, Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology,
Japan
3
Professor, Department of International Development
Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
4
Civil Engineer, Toa Corporation, Japan
5
Masters Student, Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology,
Japan

(1995 cited Kasai 1979; Giaccio et al. 1986) confirmed


that bleeding results in variations in the effective water
content throughout the depth of concrete, producing
corresponding changes in concrete properties. Bleeding
tends to create water pockets resulting in an area with
high porosity and voids underneath the steel. A study
done by Bentur et al. (1997) stated that the voids and
porous area produced by bleeding presumably promote
the corrosion of steel reinforcements causing changes in
the chemical environment of the steel that result in a
reduced bond between the steel and the concrete. Unfortunately, scant data on the influence of bleeding on
the properties of concrete (minute properties) and the
corrosion of steel embedded in concrete is available.
The term minute properties refers to the properties of
concrete in the minute region at any concrete phase such
as the bulk mortar matrix phase, coarse aggregate phase,
and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the coarse
aggregate and the bulk mortar matrix phase. The term
ITZ refers to a region located at the vicinity of aggregate particles in concrete. This region is considered to
be the weakest link in concrete (Mehta and Monteiro,
1993) and its properties relate to the properties of concrete (strength, diffusion, modulus of elasticity etc.).
Therefore, by conducting in-depth investigation on the
influence of bleeding on the minute properties of concrete we should be able to better understand the complex process and role of bleeding in the mechanism of
steel corrosion in concrete. Given this background, the
following are the objectives of this research: (1) To determine the influence of bleeding on the minute properties of concrete; (2) To determine the rate of steel corrosion in concrete affected by bleeding; and (3) To determine the temperature dependency of steel corrosion in
concrete affected by bleeding.

188

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

Table 1 Physical and chemical compositions of cement.

Item
Specific Gravity
Blaine Fineness, cm2/g
Loss on Ignition
SiO2 %
Al2O3 %
CaO %
MgO %
SO3 %
Fe2O3 %

OPC
3.16
3270.00
0.90
21.80
5.10
63.80
1.70
2.00
3.00

2. Experimental procedure
2.1 Materials and mix proportions
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was used in the concrete mix. The physical and chemical compositions of
the OPC are shown in Table 1. The aggregates used
were natural river sand and crushed coarse aggregates.
Specific gravity, water absorption (%) and fineness
modulus of the sand were 2.59, 2.08 and 2.51, respectively. On the other hand, the specific gravity, water
absorption (%) and fineness modulus of the crushed
coarse aggregates were 2.61, 0.88, and 6.85, respectively. Deformed 16-mm diameter steel bars (SD 345)
conforming to the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS)
were used. The iron, carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur contents were 98.25%, 0.22%, 0.3%,
1.21%,
0.012%,
and
0.009%,
respectively.
Air-entraining agent and air-entraining water reducing
agent (JIS 6204) were used as admixtures. Except for
the control specimen, each of the concrete specimens
was admixed with a total amount of 10 kg/m3 of sodium
chloride. The mixture proportions of the concrete
specimens are summarized in Table 2.
2.2 Specimen layout
A total of seven (7) 30 cm x 15 cm x 150 cm reinforced
concrete specimens were prepared for the laboratory
investigation. Figure 1(a) shows the detail layout of the
specimen and the steel bars embedded in it. The steel
bars used in the said specimen are composed of vertical
and horizontal steel bars (Fig. 1(b)) formed by attaching
divided steel bars together using epoxy resin as the adhesive material. In order to measure in detail the mac-

rocell and microcell corrosion current density in the


steel, each segment of the steel bars was soldered with
lead wires serving as contact points for the electrical
connection Miyazato et al. (2001). In this study, the
concrete specimens were cured for 56 days at 20oC
temperature and 60 % relative humidity. After the curing period, the specimens were transferred in a controlled environmental chamber where they were exposed to different temperature conditions (20oC, 30oC,
and 40oC) at 55 % constant relative humidity.
For the field investigation, a test was performed on
the concrete wall (cast-in-place) of a 37-year old
5-storey building. The building is located in the Midorigaoka area of Meguro-ku, Tokyo. Details of the
measuring points are shown in Fig. 2. The total area
covered was approximately 0.24 m2. Cold-joints were
found on the surface of the wall by visual inspection
(Fig. 2). As shown in the picture the quality of the concrete in the upper layer is porous compared to the concrete found at the lower layer. In terms of compressive
strength, the concrete in the upper layer is 15% weaker
compared to the strength of the concrete in the lower
layer. On the other hand, the results of the carbonation
test reveal that the concrete in the upper layer and the
lower layer has carbonated to a depth of 43 mm and 35
mm, respectively. Judging from the above-results, we
can conclude that the said member has suffered from
segregation due to bleeding. To further investigate the
effect of bleeding, cored samples were taken and studied
in the laboratory to determine their minute properties. In
addition, electrochemical investigations to determine the
rate of steel corrosion in that part of the building were
conducted in February, May, and August of 2002, with
average temperatures of 10.2oC, 22.2oC, and 31.4oC,
respectively. The results are presented in the following
sections.

3. Measurement methods
The measurement items considered in the investigation
to determine the influence of bleeding on minute properties and steel corrosion in concrete are briefly discussed below. In this study, the test methods (minute
compressive strength test, minute tensile strength test
and minute diffusion test) used to assess the minute
properties of concrete were based from the measure-

Table 2 Mixture proportions of concrete.


Aggregates
(kg/m3)
small
large

AE*1
(g/m3)

AEWRA*2
(g/m3)

Slump
Flow*3
cm

Bleeding
(%)*4
175
318
854
518
518
2226
3180
16.90
3.70
0.62
0.55
225
409
760
462
462
2863
4090
18.50
8.00
1.08
275
500
668
405
405
3500
5000
69.0
0.80
6.67
W, C, G, S refers to water, cement, gravel and sand, respectively. *1 AE- Air-entraining Admixture *2AEWRA- Air-entraining
Water-Reducing Admixture *3 Slump Flow *4JIS A1123
W/C

Water
(kg/m3)

Cement
(kg/m3)

Sand
(kg/m3)

Air Content (%)

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

Vertical steel bar

30 cm

15 cm

Vertical steel bar


8 cm
Lead wire

Upper

Horizontal steel bar

150 cm

Epoxy
resin

Middle

Horizontal steel bar


10 cm 5 cm 10 cm

60 cm
Lead wire
Each divided steel
bar was connected
8 cm using an epoxy
resin
5 cm

60 cm

Lower

189

8 cm

Concrete cover: 5 cm
Steel bars: Divided D16, SD345
con
Upper and bottom surfaces -of concrete were coated with epoxy resin

Concrete

Fig. 1 (b) Detail of connection of divided steel bars (vertical and horizontal steel bar).

Fig. 1 (a) Detail layout of concrete specimen.

30 cm

10 cm
10 cm
10 cm
10 cm

80 cm

10 cm
10 cm

Fig. 2 Field-testing on existing concrete structure.

ment methods developed by Yodsudjai (2003). On the


other hand, concrete resistance test, oxygen permeability test, gap measurements, and macrocell/microcell
corrosion measurements were conducted to determine
the influence of bleeding on the corrosion of steel.
(1) Minute compressive strength test
The minute compressive strength of the concrete specimen was determined using a Universal Testing Machine
(UTM). The procedure was done by placing the test
piece (Fig. 3(a)) at the center of the loading board as
shown in Fig. 3(b), followed by application of a uniaxial compression load at a rate of 1.0 mm/min. The minute compressive strength was calculated using Eq. 1
(1)

aggregate matrix were taken from each layer (upper,


middle and bottom) of the 30 cm x 15 cm x 150 cm
concrete specimen. Concrete bars measuring 15 mm x
15 mm x 50 mm were cut from each of the sample
specimens using a diamond cutter. To reduce their sizes,
the bars were cut crosswise into 15 mm x 15 mm x 3
mm specimens using a Low Speed Saw (ISOMETTM).
The 15 mm x 15 mm x 3 mm cut specimens were set on
a glass plate using an electron wax and then cut into
cubes (3mm x 3mm x 3 mm). To detach and get the final test-piece (3 mm x 3mm x 3mm), the glass plate was
subjected to gentle heating using a lighted candle. Finally, the surfaces of the cube specimens were cleaned
with acetone to ensure the complete removal of any
adhering electron wax.

where c = compressive strength (MPa), P = load (N), A


= cross-sectional area of the test-piece (mm2).
The preparation of the test-piece for the minute compressive strength test is briefly described below. Using a
concrete saw, representative samples containing mortar

(2) Minute tensile strength test


The tensile strength of the concrete specimen (Fig. 4(a))
was measured using a minute tensile device originally
developed at Otsukis laboratory. Testing was performed
by setting the specimens on the test-piece holders, and

c =

P
A

190

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

Fig. 4 (a) Test-piece for minute tensile strength test (15


mm x 4 mm x 1 mm).

Fig. 3 (a) Test-piece for minute compressive strength


test (3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm).

Fig. 3 (b) Minute compressive strength test.

Fig. 4 (b) Minute tensile strength test.

loads were then progressively added to the loading tray


until failure occurred (Fig. 4(b)). Since each loading
tray was connected to a rope frictional resistance between the rope and pulley occurred as measurement was
performed. Therefore, to factor in the effect of frictional
resistance, the product of a constant of 0.77 and the applied load had to be calculated to obtain the actual load.
The 0.77 constant was derived based on a series of experiments done to calibrate the device. The minute tensile strength was calculated using Eq. 2

the other side with Ca(OH)2. The chloride ion concentration at the saturated Ca(OH)2 side was monitored
everyday using an ion chromatography device. Since the
gradient of the chloride ion concentration is known, the
flux of chloride ion can be calculated using Eq. 3

t =

V cell
J = Q

(3)

where J = ion flux through a unit area per unit of time,

(2)

where t = tensile strength (Pa) , P = load (N), = constant coefficient (0.77).


The procedure for preparing the test-specimens for
the minute tensile strength test was almost the same as
that for the minute compressive strength test, except for
the different size of the final test-pieces. The size of the
final test-pieces was 15 mm x 4 mm x 1 mm. These test
pieces were obtained from the 15 mm x 15 mm x 1 mm
cut specimens after selecting the best position of the
interfacial transition zone between the coarse aggregate
and the mortar matrix.
(3) Minute diffusion test
To perform the minute diffusion test, the test specimen
(5mm x 5mm x 0.5 mm) as shown in Fig. 5(a) was encased with rubber and fixed at the center of the acrylic
cylinder cell. A thin rubber sheet was used to seal the
cylinder. As shown in Fig. 5(b), one side of the acrylic
cylinder cell was filled with 3 % NaCl solution and on

Fig. 5 (a) Testpiece for minute diffusion test.

Saturated Ca(OH)2 solution

3% NaCl solution

Specimen

Fig. 5 (b) Minute diffusion test.

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

Q = penetration speed, Vcell = solution volume in the


saturated Ca(OH)2 solution, A = cross-sectional area of
the test piece.
The diffusion coefficient is calculated using Ficks
first law of diffusion as shown in Eq. 4

J cl
D cl =

( C cl x )

(4)

where Dcl = chloride ion diffusivity ( cm2/s), Jcl = ion


flux of the chloride ion (mol-cm/L/s), Ccl = concentration of the chloride ion (mol/L), x = thickness of the
test piece (cm).
Except for the size of the final test-piece, the method of
preparation of the test specimen for the minute diffusion
test is almost the same as for the minute compressive
strength test and the minute tensile strength test. This is
done by cutting a 5 mm x 5mm x 4 mm specimen from
the 15 mm x 15 mm x 4 mm cut specimens after carefully selecting the best position of the ITZ containing
only the mortar matrix phase. Subsequently, the 5 mm x
5 mm x 4 mm test-piece was set in a plastic mould containing epoxy resin. After the epoxy resin hardened,
both sides of the test-piece were polished to a thickness
of 0.5 mm using a grinder and a polisher (METASERV2000). Thus, the size of the final test-piece was
5 mm x 5 mm x 0.5 mm.
(4) Concrete resistance and oxygen permeability
The concrete resistance in the reinforced concrete
specimen was measured through the used of a portable
corrosion monitor. Concrete resistance was simultaneously obtained as output data when the test measurement for the microcell corrosion current density was
performed. Details of the microcell corrosion current
density test are discussed in the following section. The
measurement layout is shown in Fig. 6.
where CE = Counter Electrode; WE = Working Electrode; RE = Reference Electrode
On the other hand, the measurement set-up for the
oxygen permeability test was the same as in the microFRA

Potentiostat
RE
WE
CE

Concrete

Epoxy resin

Divided steel bar

Fig. 6 Measurement set-up of microcell corrosion current


density test.

191

cell corrosion current density test, except that no frequency response analyzer (FRA) was used. As shown in
Fig. 6, the electrochemical measurement system consisted of a working electrode (reinforcing steel bar with
lead wire attached to it), counter electrode (steel plate)
and a reference electrode (Ag/AgCl). The limiting current density was measured by a potentiostat. Oxygen
permeability in the concrete specimens was calculated
using Eq. 5 (Nagataki et al. 1996):
dQ
dt

(5)

i lim
=

nF

where dQ/dt = oxygen permeability (mol/cm2/sec), ilim =


limiting cathodic current density (A/cm2); F = Faradays
constant (96,500 coulombs/mole); and n = 4.
(5) Gap measurements
In order to determine the relationship between the total
amount of corrosion and the gap formed at the steel
concrete interface, at the end of the electrochemical
investigation, the 30 cm x 15 cm x 150 cm specimens
were cut by layer (upper, middle and lower) along the
longitudinal axis using a concrete saw. Cut sections of
the reinforced concrete specimens (obtained from the
upper, middle and lower layer of concrete) were taken
pictures using a digital microscope. The pictures were
then transferred and stored in a computer. Through the
use of a computer software, the area of gaps formed
between the steel and the concrete interface were obtained. The process of determining the area of gap is
very convenient because the computer software does the
analysis based on the color distribution in the picture
and then plots the corresponding area, for instance, the
area of the color formed at the gap between the steel and
the concrete.
(6) Macrocell and microcell corrosion
The macrocell and microcell corrosion current density
flowing in the steel were measured using a corrosion
monitor and an ammeter, respectively. Macrocell corrosion refers to a corrosion cell in the reinforcing steel in
which the anode and the cathode are physically separated along the length of the reinforcement. Microcell
corrosion refers to a corrosion cell in the reinforcing
steel in which the anode and the cathode are in the same
physical location within the reinforcement.
In order to obtain the microcell corrosion current
density, the polarization resistance in the steel element
was measured using AC impedance with a frequency
response analyzer (FRA) (Fig. 6). The supplied voltage
was 50 mV with an amplitude ranging from 0.05 Hz to
5000 Hz. The polarization resistance reading obtained
from the device was substituted in Eq. 6
I micro

K
pi S

(6)
i

where: Imicro = microcell corrosion current density


(A/cm2), K = constant (= 0.0209V) (Tsuru et al. 1979),

192

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

Ii-1,i

Ii,i+1

RS

RS

RS

RS

RS

Concrete

Ammeter

Rp
i

i-1

Concrete

Epoxy resin

i+1

Rp
V

Rp

Rp
V

Rp
V

Rp
V

Electric
double
layer
Steel bar

R p = Polarization resistance, V=Potential


Rs = Concrete resistance

Divided steel bar

Fig. 7 Measurement set-up of macrocell corrosion current density test.

Fig. 8 Electric circuit model.

Rpi = polarization resistance (), Si = surface area of


component i (cm2).
On the other hand, the macrocell current density in
the steel was measured using an ammeter. Figure 7
shows the diagram of the measurement method. As an
example, the macrocell current flowing in the middle
bar (Fig.7) can be calculated by substituting in Eq.7 the
readings obtained from the ammeter and dividing them
with the surface area of the steel.
I macro =

I i -1 , i - I i , i + 1

(7)

Si

where Imacro = macrocell corrosion current density


(A/cm2), Si = surface area of steel element i (cm2), Ii-1, i
= current flowing from component i-1 to steel element i
(A), Ii,i+1 = current flowing from steel element i to steel
element i+1 (A).
For sign convention purposes, the anodic current
density is denoted as positive (+) and the cathodic current density as negative (-).
The total current density was obtained by getting the
sum of the microcell and macrocell corrosion current
density. The total corrosion rate per year was calculated
using the conversion factor (100 A/cm2 current density
= 1.16 mm/year corrosion rate per year), Miyazato et al.
(2001).
In the field investigation, the process for measuring
the microcell corrosion current density was the same as
in the laboratory. However, in the case of macrocell
corrosion current density, measurement was slightly
different since the steel bars embedded in the concrete
were made of straight bars, unlike in the laboratory test,
where divided steel bars were used. Therefore, to determine the macrocell corrosion current density in existing concrete structures, the measurement method developed by Miyazato et al. (2001) was adopted (Fig. 8).
The electric circuit model was composed of polarization
resistance, concrete resistance and potential derived
from non-destructive testing. Potentials at some points
in the circuit model mentioned above were obtained
through the use of a corrosion monitor. However, it was

Vertical
(cm)
Verticaldistance
distance (cm)

160
140
120
100
80
60

0.62 (% Bleeding)

40

1.08 (% Bleeding)

20

6.67 (% Bleeding)

20
40
60
80
Minute compressive strength (MPa)

Fig. 9 Minute compressive strength distribution along


vertical direction (specimen).

necessary to perform calculations for the potentials (V)


at the junction because these could not be obtained directly from the corrosion monitor. Calculation was done
by deriving the equivalent equation from the circuit
model using Ohms Law and Kirchoffs Law. The macrocell corrosion density was then obtained by substituting the calculated value of the potential and the resistance in the equivalent equation.

3. Results and discussions


3.1 Minute compressive strength
Figure 9 shows the distribution of the minute compressive strength of the concrete specimens. The minute
compressive strength of the mortar aggregate matrix
taken near the upper layer is apparently almost 50%
weaker compared to the minute compressive strength of
the mortar aggregate matrix taken in the bottom layer.
On the other hand, as bleed water moves horizontally
from inside the concrete towards the formwork due to
the consolidation of the fresh concrete, it was found out
that the minute compressive strength of the hardened
concrete along the horizontal direction (distance from
the center) is 36% weaker as compared to the minute
compressive strength of the specimens taken in the inner
layer (Fig. 10). The same trend was also observed in the

80

40
Upper (145 cm from base)
Middle (75 cm from base)

20

Bottom (5 cm from base)

0
0

20

40

60

80

Horizontal distance from


wall surface (mm)
Fig. 10 Minute compressive strength distribution along
horizontal direction (specimen).

Vertical distance
Vertical
distance(cm)
(cm)

193

150

60

80
60
40
20
0
70

80

90

100

110

Minute compressive strength (MPa)


Fig. 11 Minute compressive strength distribution along
vertical direction (existing concrete member).

field investigation. Figure 11 shows the distribution of


the minute compressive strength obtained from the field
test. The result quantitatively confirmed that concrete
affected by bleeding generally exhibits lower minute
compressive strength. The more water content in the
mix the lesser the strength of the concrete. A noteworthy
finding of this study was the quantitative demonstration
that concrete affected by bleeding has lower minute
compressive strength.
3.2 Tensile strength
Figure 12 shows the trend of the minute tensile strength
in the interfacial transition zone between the coarse aggregate and the mortar matrix. The experiment results
show that the tensile strength of the mortar aggregate
matrix taken above the coarse aggregate is 34% higher
than the strength of the mortar aggregate matrix taken
underneath it. The tensile strength of both of the ITZs
located above or below the aggregates surface decreases
depending on the water cement ratio of concrete. This
clearly suggests that the aggregate-cement paste interfacial bond strength in the concrete matrix was significantly influenced by bleeding. As a consequence, the
matrix structure around the coarse aggregate was not
uniform, with a thicker water film forming underneath
the coarse aggregate surfaces while a thinner film de-

Vertical
Verticaldistance
distance(cm)
(cm)

Minute compressive
strength (MPa)

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

75

Above coarse
aggregate
Below coarse
aggregate

0
0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

Minute tensile strength (MPa)


(Bleeding ratio =6.67%)

Fig. 12 Minute tensile strength distribution (specimen).

veloped above it. The same trend was also reported in


research conducted by Bentur et al. (1996). The formation of a thicker film of water underneath the aggregate
surface occurs due to the poor condition of the concrete
matrix. This is the reason why a concrete affected by
bleeding is more likely to fail in tension due to the relatively low tensile strength of its constituent material
such as the weak bond between the mortar and the aggregate. It is noteworthy that through this study the
lower minute tensile strength of concrete affected by
bleeding was quantitatively established.
3.3 Chloride ion diffusion
Diffusion is the process by which liquid, gas, or ions
move through a porous material due to the presence of a
concentration gradient (Kropp and Basheer 2000).
Alexander et al. (2001) reported that diffusion rates are
dependent on temperature, moisture content of the concrete, type of the diffusant, and the inherent diffusibility
of the material. Based on the study by Kropp and
Basheer (2000), they emphasized that the movement of
gases, liquids, ions through concrete is important because of their interaction with concrete constituents or
the pore water, thus it can alter the integrity of concrete
directly and indirectly leading to the deterioration of
structures. Therefore, diffusivity of chloride through
concrete depends on the quality of the microstructure of
the concrete and mortar. In this study, a time-constant
diffusion was considered. Figure 13 shows the typical
variation in the distribution of the chloride ion diffusion
coefficient in the bottom layer and upper layer of concrete affected by bleeding. As shown, the chloride ion
coefficient on the upper layer is higher by 59% compared to the chloride ion diffusion coefficient in the
bottom layer. From the chloride ion distribution trend, it
is predicted that the ions may reach the steel reinforcement near the surface layer in a very short period of
time as shown in Table 3. The predicted results were
assumed to be dependent on the actual surface chloride
concentration. If this is the case, the initiation of corrosion in reinforced concrete will be hastened. The same
trend was also noted in the chloride ion diffusion test

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

Table 3 Chloride ion diffusion prediction results.

Vertical
distance(cm)
(cm)
Vertical distance

150

Specimen
Position

75
0.62 (% Bleeding)
1.08 (% Bleeding)
6.67 (% Bleeding)

0
0

10

15

20

(10 cm /s)
Fig. 13 Minute chloride ion diffusion coefficient(W/C =
0.55, specimen).

Vertical
distance(cm)
(cm
Vertical distance

Middle
(75 cm)

Bottom
( 5 cm)

25

Cl- ion diffusion coefficient


-9

Upper
(145 cm)

Diffusion Coefficient
20.80
10.00
8.50
of Cl-8
2
(10 cm /s)
Period (years)
3.47
7.22
8.47
Period: Number of years for the chloride ion to reach
the steel bar

80
60

150
Vertical
Verticaldistance
distance (cm)

194

75
0.62 (% Bleeding)
1.08 (% Bleeding)
6.67 (% Bleeding)

0
0

40

1000

2000

Concrete resistance (Ohm)

20
0
6.00

Fig. 15 Concrete resistance distribution in concrete


(specimen).

7.00

8.00

Cl ion diffussion coefficient


-9

(10 /s)
Fig. 14 Minute chloride ion diffusion coefficient (existing
concrete member).

done on existing concrete structures (Fig. 14). It was


quantitatively confirmed through the minute diffusion
test that a concrete member that suffered from bleeding
can be easily penetrated by chloride ions due to its porous condition at or near the upper layer of concrete.
3.4 Concrete resistance and oxygen permeability
Figure 15 shows the influence of bleeding on concrete
resistance. The results show that there is a gradual decrease in the concrete resistance of concrete from the
bottom layer towards the upper layer. Concrete specimens affected by bleeding generally exhibited lower
resistance (40-53%) in the upper layer compared to the
resistance of concrete measured in the bottom layer.
This condition may be due to the less dense and more
permeable condition of the concrete in the upper layer
as attested by the results obtained in the minute compressive strength test and the minute diffusion test.
As expected, higher oxygen permeability ensued due

to the poor quality of concrete in the upper layer. The


rate of oxygen permeability in the upper layer was 38%
higher compared to the rate of oxygen permeability in
the bottom layer (Fig. 16). The same reason may be
attributed to the porous and permeable quality of concrete in the upper layer. This observation is in agreement with the study done by Nolan et al. (1995) stating
that bleed water in normal concrete during compaction
tends to move upwards and towards the formwork
where it stays, causing the formation of a more porous
and permeable surface. As this phenomenon occurs,
the rate of oxygen permeability in concrete becomes
higher.
3.5 Measurements of gaps
The relationship between the area of gaps and the total
amount of corrosion rate in the horizontal bar is shown
both in Fig. 17 and Fig. 18. One can see that the greater
the area of the formed gaps the higher the amount of
generated corrosion.
3.6 Macrocell and microcell corrosion
Based on the results of the electrochemical investigation,
it was found that the rate of corrosion obtained from the
control specimens during the entire period of the investigation is negligible or almost zero. This therefore suggests that even if concrete is affected by bleeding, the

195

Total corrosion
Total
corrosionrate
rate(mm/year)
(mm/year)

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

75
0.62 (% Bleeding)
1.08 (% Bleeding)
6.67 (% Bleeding)

0
0

0.025
0.02
0.015

0.62 (% Bleeding)

0.01

1.08 (% Bleeding)

0.005

6.67 (% Bleeding)

0
0

2
4
6
Rate of oxygen permeability
-11

(10

time before corrosion occurs will be somewhat longer as


long that the concrete is not attacked or contaminated
with chloride and is not carbonated. On the other hand,
since the same amount of NaCl (10 kg/m3) was admixed
to the concrete specimens it was clear that bleeding has
a great influence on the rate of macrocell and microcell
corrosion in concrete specimens. The influence of
bleeding on the rate of macrocell and microcell corro-

150

0.62 (% Bleeding)
1.08 (% Bleeding)
6.67 (% Bleeding)

Vertical
distance(cm)
(cm)
Vertical distance

150

50

100

50

0.62 (% Bleeding)
1.08 (% Bleeding)
6.67 (% Bleeding)

0
0

0.005

0.01

0.015

Microcell corrosion rate


(mm/year)

sion in a chloride contaminated concrete is shown in Fig.


19. The specimen that bled the most generally exhibited
higher macrocell corrosion rates. In these graphs, it is
interesting to note that the corrosion rate in the upper
layer is higher than in the bottom layer. This trend may
be attributed to the high oxygen permeability and lower
concrete resistance in that section of the concrete. According to Tarek et al. (2002) the concentration corrosion cell formed on the vertical steel bar occurs due to
the concentration difference between the upper and
lower layer of the concrete. The porous and weaker
strength of concrete in the surface layer causes rapid
diffusion of a large amount of moisture and easy access
of oxygen, resulting in an accelerated rate of corrosion
in the steel. This explains why the upper layer has
greater rates of corrosion. Conditions such as this normally occur in concrete that suffered excessive bleeding
as confirmed by the results obtained in the concrete resistance test and oxygen permeability test.
On the other hand, the corrosion rate distribution on
the horizontal steel bar as shown in Fig. 20 indicates a
higher rate of corrosion underneath the steel bar. It is
also interesting to note in this figure that the macrocell
corrosion rate on the horizontal steel bars, particularly

Fig. 17 Gap between steel and concrete (specimen).

100

Fig. 18 Total corrosion rate vs. area of gap (specimen).

Gap

150

Area of gap (mm )

mol/cm /s)

Steel bar (D16)

Concrete

Fig. 16 Rate of oxygen permeability distribution in concrete (specimen).

Vertical distance
Vertical
distance(cm)
(cm)

0.03

Vertical
Vertical distance
distance (cm)

Vertical distance
distance (cm)
Vertical
(cm)

150

100

50

0.62 (% Bleeding)
1.08 (% Bleeding)
6.67 (% Bleeding)

0.005

0.01

0.015

Macrocell corrosion rate


(mm/year)

0.005

0.01

0.015

Total corrosion rate (mm/year)

Fig. 19 Influence of bleeding on rate of corrosion in vertical steel bar (specimen).

196

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

the upper steel bar, is zero in all cases. Based on the


results obtained in the electrochemical investigation, the
reason for this is that the upper steel bar behaved as
cathode while that of the lower steel bar behaved as
anode. Corrosion in the anodic area is more active than
in the cathodic area. That is why a higher rate of corrosion occurred at the anodic area. This condition may be
attributed to excessive bleeding in the concrete mix. As
a result of bleeding, water pockets trapped under the
coarse aggregates and underneath the steel bars caused
the formation of gaps between the steel and concrete
allowing corrosion cells to develop on the horizontal bar.
Just like in the vertical steel bar, macrocell corrosion
generally prevailed in the horizontal steel bar. The same
trend was also observed in the macrocell and microcell
corrosion distribution obtained in the field test (Fig. 21).

The prevalence of macrocell corrosion over microcell


corrosion confirms laboratory findings. It must be noted
that the high incidence of macrocell corrosion in concrete poses a serious threat to the structure. According to
a study done by Jaggi et al. (2001), macrocell corrosion between actively corroding areas of rebars and
large passive areas is of great concern because it results
in very high anodic current densities. The resulting local
loss in cross section has dangerous implications for the
structural safety especially if the corroded rebars are
located in a zone of high tensile or shear stresses.

4. Temperature dependency of corrosion in


concrete affected by bleeding
The corrosion of steel is an electrochemical reaction.

Horizontal steel bar


Epoxy resin

Percentage bleeding

Lead wire

Lower steel

150

150

100

50

150

Vertical distance (cm)

Vertical distance (cm)

Vertical distance (cm)

0.62% (Upper steel)


0.62% (Lower steel)
1.08% (Upper steel)
1.08% (Lower steel)
6.67% (Upper steel)
6.67% (Lower steel)

Upper steel

100

50

100

50

0.01

0.02

0.03

Microcell corrosion rate


(mm/year)

0.01

0.02

0.03

Macrocell corrosion rate


(mm/year)

0.01

0.02

0.03

Total corrosion rate


(mm/year)

Vertical
distance
Height
(cm) (cm)

Fig. 20 Influence of bleeding on rate of corrosion in horizontal steel bar (specimen).

70

70

70

60

60

60

50

50

50

40

40

40

30

30

30

20

Temperature
10.2
22.2
31.4

10

20

Temperature
10.2
22.2
31.4

10
0

0
0

0.002

0.004

Microcell
Microcell Corrosion
corrosionRate
rate
(mm/year)
(mm/year)

0.002

0.004

Macrocell
MacrocellCorrosion
corrosionRate
rate
(mm/year)
(mm/year)

20

Temperature
10.2
22.2
31.4

10
0
0

0.002

0.004

Total
TotalCorrosion
corrosionRate
rate
(mm/year)
(mm/year)

Fig. 21 Microcell and macrocell corrosion rate distribution (existing concrete member).

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

Its rate is dependent on the ambient temperature, such


that the rate is increased as the ambient temperature is
increased (Zivica et al. 1997). Theoretical discussion
on the influence of temperature on chemical reaction
can be best illustrated by the Arrhenius equation, as
shown in Eq. 8

k = A exp E a
RT

(8)

where k = rate constant, A = frequency factor, Ea = activation energy, R = ideal gas constant, T = temperature.
If we take the natural logarithm of the above equation


ln k = ln A Ea
RT

(9)

we get

1
ln k = Ea + ln A
R

(10)

Total corrosion rate


(mm/year)

0.06

Bleeding
% Bleeding
Ratio
0.62%
1.68%
1.08%
6.67%

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
10

20

30

40

with a slope equal to Ea/R and intercept equal to ln A.


The relationship between the total corrosion rate and
temperature is shown in Fig. 22, and its corresponding
Arrhenius plot is presented in Fig. 23. It may be noted
from the graph that the logarithm of the corrosion rate is
linearly related to the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. As shown, the rate of corrosion in concrete is
enhanced at elevated temperatures, which is consistent
with the theoretical expectations that corrosion should
increase with temperature. A study by Melchers (2002)
stated that in general, when corrosion process is kinetically controlled, the corrosion rate should double for
every 10oC increase in temperature.
The relationship between the total corrosion rate in
the steel bar and temperature in existing concrete structure is shown in Fig. 24. Fig. 25 shows the corresponding Arrhenius plot. As shown, existing concrete members that suffered from excessive bleeding have a
greater rate of corrosion at elevated temperatures. This
trend agrees well with the empirical data obtained in the
laboratory. As illustrated in the graph, measurements
done during the summer (31.4 oC) show a higher rate of
corrosion compared to measurements done during winter (10.2 oC) and spring (22.2 oC).

Total corrosion rate (mm/year)

a linear equation that relates the natural logarithm of k


to the inverse of the temperature.
Thus, if one were to plot ln k vs. 1/T, it gives a line

50

197

0.004

Position

Upper
Middle
Lower

0.003
0.002
0.001
0
0

Temperature ( C)

10

20

30

40

Temperature (oC)

-1

Bleeding
% Bleeding
Ratio

- 1.2

0.62%
1.68%
1.08%
6.67%

- 1. 4
- 1.6
- 1.8
-2
- 2.2
- 2.4
3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

1/Temperature x 1000
(1/K)
Fig. 23 Arrhenius plot (specimen).

3.5

Fig. 24 Total corrosion rate vs. temperature (existing


concrete member).

Log (total corrosion rate)

Log (total corrosion rate)

Fig. 22 Total corrosion rate vs. temperature (specimen).

-2.0

Position

Upper
Middle
Lower

-2.5
-3.0
-3.5
-4.0
3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

1/Temperature x 1000 (1/K)


Fig. 25 Arrhenius plot (existing concrete member).

198

M. A. Baccay, T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, J. Hamamoto and K. Chin / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 187-199, 2004

5. Conclusion
The conclusions derived from the results of the laboratory and field investigations that were performed can be
summarized as follows
1. Bleeding significantly influences the minute properties of concrete. This is bolstered by the following
results obtained in laboratory and field investigations,
to wit:
The minute compressive strength of concrete
taken near the upper layer particularly on the
concrete specimen affected by high bleeding was
weaker by almost 50% compared to the strength
of concrete taken in the bottom layer. The minute
compressive strength of concrete along the horizontal direction was also 36% weaker than that
of concrete taken in the inner layer.
The tensile strength of the mortar aggregate matrix taken above the coarse aggregate was 34%
higher than the mortar aggregate matrix taken
underneath it.
The chloride ion diffusion coefficient in the upper layer of the concrete was 59 % higher than
the rate of chloride ion diffusion coefficient in
the bottom layer.
Variations in the quality of the concrete (in the
upper, middle and bottom layers), as a result of
bleeding have great influence on concrete resistance, on the same order as oxygen permeability.
Concrete resistance in the upper layer is 40-53%
lower than the bottom layer. On the other hand,
the rate of oxygen permeability at the upper layer
is 38% higher than in the bottom layer.
In general, concrete affected by bleeding has weaker
strength, higher permeability, lower concrete
resistance and higher oxygen permeability at or near
the surface layer.
2. Bleeding significantly influenced the macrocell and
microcell corrosion rates in the reinforcing bars.
Concentration difference in the upper layer of the
concrete due to bleeding causes higher rates of
corrosion in the vertical steel bars. Hence, due to the
trapping of bleed water under the horizontal steel bars,
gaps formed leading to the development of crevice
corrosion cell. The greater the area of the formed gap
the greater the rate of corrosion. Generally, macrocell
corrosion prevailed over microcell corrosion both in
vertical and horizontal steel bars.
3. The intensity of corrosion in concrete was generally
enhanced at elevated temperatures. This was
consistent with the theoretical expectation that
corrosion should increase with temperature.
Furthermore, the graphical relation between
temperature and corrosion rate, using the data derived
from the laboratory and field investigation is in full
agreement with the Arrhenius equation. Thus we can
state the principle that the logarithm of the corrosion
rate is linearly related to the reciprocal of the absolute

temperature.
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