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You are on page 1of 5

6 Pipe Networks

Many pipes are arranged in a complex manner such as the municipal water distribution

systems. Numerous pipes were normally connected at a junction.The principles for the

solution of problems involving pipe networks are :

(a) The continuity of flow equation.

(b) Energy equation.

The Hardy-Cross method provides a system for calculating the value of correction to be

made. Each loop or junction being considered in turn and corrected assuming that

conditions in the remainder of the network remain unultered.

Correction to one element will effect conditions elsewhere, and required balance of heads

and flows will not be reached as a result of the first correction.

Therefore, successive repetition of the process is necessary until the required accuracy is

reached.

2.7 Head Balance Method

Head Balance Method is used when the total volume flow rate is known, but the heads or

pressures at junctions within the network are unknown.

For each pipe, an assumption must first be made of the volume rateand direction of flow.

Secondly, the loss of head must be the same either the clockwise or anticlockwise route.

Neglecting all losses other than friction,

Head lost, h = KQn

Q = volume rate of flow in the pipe.

K = resistance coefficient.

n = a constant in which for turbulent flow would be 2.

hf = 4f Lv2/2gd = f LQ2/3.03d5

K = fL/3.03d5

= summation of quantities in the clockwise direction

= summation of quantities in the anticlockwise direction

= loss of head in pipes in which flow is clockwise

= loss of head in pipes in which flow is anticlockwise

ch

= cKQn

cch = ccKQn

**For turbulent flow,
**

c

cc

ch

cch

Therefore,

Say,

**The initially chosen volume rate of flow in each pipe are unlikely to meet
**

the requirement that ch = cch

If we assumed that ch > cch

Out of balance head = ch – cch

= cKQn – ccKQn

**To remove the out of balance head, the clockwise flow must be reduced by an amount Q
**

and the anticlockwise flow increased by Q, thus

ch – cch

= cK(Q – Q)n – ccK(Q + Q)n

=0

Expanding the terms in brackets and neglecting all terms involving the second or higher

order of Q

cK(Qn – nQn-1Q) – ccK(Qn + nQn-1Q) = 0 ,

cK(Qn – nQn-1Q) = ccK(Qn + nQn-1Q)

cKQn – cKnQn-1Q = ccKQn + ccKnQn-1Q

cKnQn-1Q + ccKnQn-1Q = cKQn – ccKQn

Q (cKnQn-1 + ccKnQn-1) = cKQn – ccKQn

Substitute KQn = h and KQn-1 = h/Q,

c h - cc h

Q

n[ c (h/Q) - cc (h/Q)]

If we adopt a sign convention to the loop under consideration (e.g. positive for flow

clockwise and negative for flow anticlockwise), for turbulent flow,

h

Q

2 (h/Q)

The negative sign indicates that the positive (clockwise) values of Q are to be reduced

with an amount of Q, and the negative (anticlockwise) values of Q are to be increased

with an amount of Q.

When a system has a number of loops, correction to one loop will unbalance adjoining

loops, which will require further correction. In addition, pipes common to two loops will

receive corrections for each loops.

**Example 2.5 The figure below shows a simple pipe network consisting of two loops. The
**

flow rates of the water going in and out of the network at various junctions are also

shown on the diagram. Given the pipe properties (diameter and length of pipes), and the

known rates, determine the flow rate in each pipe within the network after third iteration

by Head Balance Method. Neglecting all losses other than those due to friction.

1km

300l/s

0.4m

1km

1000l/s

0.5m

1.25km

700l/s

LOOP I

0.25

m

1.1k

m

100l

/s

LOOP II

0.4m

1.25km

200l/s

0.2m

0.7km

100l/s

0.3m

1km

200l/s

**Head loss due to friction is given by Darcy’s formula.
**

so that

h f KQ 2 .

hf

fLQ 2

fL

. Let K

5

3.03d

3.03d 5

Solution:

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

**Identify loops and allocate the estimate flows.
**

Calculate the value of K.

Calculate h. The sign of h must follow Q as head losses are according to the direction of flow.

Calculate h/Q.

Calculate Q.

For pipe BE (Loop I), Qnew = Q Assumed QLoop I QLoop II

For pipe BE (Loop II), Qnew = Q Assumed

TRIAL 1 Loop I

Pipe Diameter

(m)

FA

0.30

AB

0.40

BE

0.25

EF

0.40

Length

(m)

1000

1250

1100

1000

QLoop II QLoop I

K = fL/3.03d

5

1358.16

402.87

3717.49

322.30

Q

h

2 (h/Q)

Assumed Q

-3 3

x10 m /s

-300.00

200.00

100.00

-1000.00

Sum :

h=KQlQl

(m)

-122.234

16.115

37.175

-322.300

-391.244

h/Q

Qnew

-3 3

(m/m³/s) x10 m /s

407.447 -134.51

80.575

365.49

371.750

236.68

322.300 -834.51

1182.072

h=KQlQl

(m)

-37.175

72.195

-54.326

-64.685

-83.991

h/Q

Qnew

-3 3

(m/m³/s) x10 m /s

371.750 -236.68

721.950

128.81

271.630 -171.19

92.407

-671.19

1457.737

h=KQlQl

(m)

-24.573

53.817

208.244

-224.452

13.036

h/Q

Qnew

-3 3

(m/m³/s) x10 m /s

182.685 -138.92

147.246

361.08

879.855

188.22

268.963 -838.92

1478.749

**=- (-391.244/2*1182.072)
**

3

=

0.16549m /s

=

165.49l/s

Loop II

Pipe Diameter

(m)

EB

0.25

BC

0.20

CD

0.30

DE

0.50

Length

(m)

1100

700

1000

1250

K = fL/3.03d

5

3717.49

7219.47

1358.16

132.01

Q

h

2 (h/Q)

Assumed Q

-3 3

x10 m /s

-100.00

100.00

-200.00

-700.00

Sum :

**=- (-83.991/2*1457.737)
**

3

=

0.02881m /s

=

28.81l/s

TRIAL 2 Loop I

Pipe Diameter

(m)

FA

0.30

AB

0.40

BE

0.25

EF

0.40

Length

(m)

1000

1250

1100

1000

K = fL/3.03d

1358.16

402.87

3717.49

322.30

Q

h

2 (h/Q)

5

Assumed Q

-3 3

x10 m /s

-134.51

365.49

236.68

-834.51

Sum :

**=- (13.036/2*1478.749)
**

3

=

-0.00441m /s

=

-4.41l/s

Loop II

Pipe Diameter

(m)

EB

0.25

BC

0.20

CD

0.30

DE

0.50

5

Length

(m)

1100

700

1000

1250

K = fL/3.03d

3717.49

7219.47

1358.16

132.01

Q

h

2 (h/Q)

Assumed Q

-3 3

x10 m /s

-236.68

128.81

-171.19

-671.19

Sum :

h=KQlQl

(m)

-208.244

119.786

-39.802

-59.470

-187.730

h/Q

Qnew

-3 3

(m/m³/s) x10 m /s

879.855 -188.22

929.943

172.86

232.502 -127.14

88.604

-627.14

2130.904

h=KQlQl

(m)

-26.211

52.526

131.699

-226.830

-68.816

h/Q

Qnew

-3 3

(m/m³/s) x10 m /s

188.677 -112.54

145.469

387.46

699.708

216.91

270.383 -812.54

1304.237

h=KQlQl

(m)

-131.699

215.722

-21.954

-51.920

10.149

h/Q

Qnew

-3 3

(m/m³/s) x10 m /s

699.708 -216.91

1247.958 170.56

172.676 -129.44

82.789

-629.44

2203.131

**=- (-187.73/2*2130.904)
**

3

=

0.04405m /s

=

44.05l/s

TRIAL 3 Loop I

Pipe Diameter

(m)

FA

0.30

AB

0.40

BE

0.25

EF

0.40

Length

(m)

1000

1250

1100

1000

K = fL/3.03d

5

1358.16

402.87

3717.49

322.30

Q

h

2 (h/Q)

Assumed Q

-3 3

x10 m /s

-138.92

361.08

188.22

-838.92

Sum :

**=- (-68.816/2*1304.237)
**

3

=

0.02638m /s

=

26.38l/s

Loop II

Pipe Diameter

(m)

EB

0.25

BC

0.20

CD

0.30

DE

0.50

Length

(m)

1100

700

1000

1250

K = fL/3.03d

3717.49

7219.47

1358.16

132.01

Q

h

2 (h/Q)

5

Assumed Q

-3 3

x10 m /s

-188.22

172.86

-127.14

-627.14

Sum :

**=- (10.149/2*2203.131)
**

3

=

-0.00230m /s

=

-2.30l/s

=- (5.399/2*1377.182)

3

=

-0.00196m /s

=

-1.96l/s

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