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# 2.

6 Pipe Networks
Many pipes are arranged in a complex manner such as the municipal water distribution
systems. Numerous pipes were normally connected at a junction.The principles for the
solution of problems involving pipe networks are :
(a) The continuity of flow equation.
(b) Energy equation.
The Hardy-Cross method provides a system for calculating the value of correction to be
made. Each loop or junction being considered in turn and corrected assuming that
conditions in the remainder of the network remain unultered.
Correction to one element will effect conditions elsewhere, and required balance of heads
and flows will not be reached as a result of the first correction.
Therefore, successive repetition of the process is necessary until the required accuracy is
reached.
Head Balance Method is used when the total volume flow rate is known, but the heads or
pressures at junctions within the network are unknown.
For each pipe, an assumption must first be made of the volume rateand direction of flow.
Secondly, the loss of head must be the same either the clockwise or anticlockwise route.
Neglecting all losses other than friction,
Q = volume rate of flow in the pipe.
K = resistance coefficient.
n = a constant in which for turbulent flow would be 2.
hf = 4f Lv2/2gd = f LQ2/3.03d5
K = fL/3.03d5
= summation of quantities in the clockwise direction
= summation of quantities in the anticlockwise direction
= loss of head in pipes in which flow is clockwise
= loss of head in pipes in which flow is anticlockwise
 ch
= cKQn
cch = ccKQn

For turbulent flow,
c
cc
 ch
cch
Therefore,
Say,

The initially chosen volume rate of flow in each pipe are unlikely to meet
the requirement that ch = cch
If we assumed that ch > cch
Out of balance head = ch – cch
= cKQn – ccKQn

To remove the out of balance head, the clockwise flow must be reduced by an amount Q
and the anticlockwise flow increased by Q, thus
ch – cch
= cK(Q – Q)n – ccK(Q + Q)n
=0
Expanding the terms in brackets and neglecting all terms involving the second or higher
order of Q
cK(Qn – nQn-1Q) – ccK(Qn + nQn-1Q) = 0 ,
cK(Qn – nQn-1Q) = ccK(Qn + nQn-1Q)
cKQn – cKnQn-1Q = ccKQn + ccKnQn-1Q
cKnQn-1Q + ccKnQn-1Q = cKQn – ccKQn
Q (cKnQn-1 + ccKnQn-1) = cKQn – ccKQn
Substitute KQn = h and KQn-1 = h/Q,
 c h -  cc h
Q 
n[ c (h/Q) -  cc (h/Q)]
If we adopt a sign convention to the loop under consideration (e.g. positive for flow
clockwise and negative for flow anticlockwise), for turbulent flow,
h
Q  
2 (h/Q)
The negative sign indicates that the positive (clockwise) values of Q are to be reduced
with an amount of Q, and the negative (anticlockwise) values of Q are to be increased
with an amount of Q.
When a system has a number of loops, correction to one loop will unbalance adjoining
loops, which will require further correction. In addition, pipes common to two loops will

Example 2.5 The figure below shows a simple pipe network consisting of two loops. The
flow rates of the water going in and out of the network at various junctions are also
shown on the diagram. Given the pipe properties (diameter and length of pipes), and the
known rates, determine the flow rate in each pipe within the network after third iteration
by Head Balance Method. Neglecting all losses other than those due to friction.

1km
300l/s
0.4m
1km
1000l/s

0.5m
1.25km
700l/s

LOOP I

0.25
m
1.1k
m
100l
/s

LOOP II

0.4m
1.25km
200l/s

0.2m
0.7km
100l/s

0.3m
1km
200l/s

Head loss due to friction is given by Darcy’s formula.
so that

h f  KQ 2 .

hf 

fLQ 2
fL
. Let K 
5
3.03d
3.03d 5

Solution:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Identify loops and allocate the estimate flows.
Calculate the value of K.
Calculate h. The sign of h must follow Q as head losses are according to the direction of flow.
Calculate h/Q.
Calculate Q.
For pipe BE (Loop I), Qnew = Q Assumed  QLoop I  QLoop II
For pipe BE (Loop II), Qnew = Q Assumed

TRIAL 1 Loop I
Pipe Diameter
(m)
FA
0.30
AB
0.40
BE
0.25
EF
0.40

Length
(m)
1000
1250
1100
1000

 QLoop II  QLoop I

K = fL/3.03d

5

1358.16
402.87
3717.49
322.30

Q  

h
2 (h/Q)

Assumed Q
-3 3
x10 m /s
-300.00
200.00
100.00
-1000.00
Sum :

h=KQlQl
(m)
-122.234
16.115
37.175
-322.300
-391.244

h/Q
Qnew
-3 3
(m/m³/s) x10 m /s
407.447 -134.51
80.575
365.49
371.750
236.68
322.300 -834.51
1182.072

h=KQlQl
(m)
-37.175
72.195
-54.326
-64.685
-83.991

h/Q
Qnew
-3 3
(m/m³/s) x10 m /s
371.750 -236.68
721.950
128.81
271.630 -171.19
92.407
-671.19
1457.737

h=KQlQl
(m)
-24.573
53.817
208.244
-224.452
13.036

h/Q
Qnew
-3 3
(m/m³/s) x10 m /s
182.685 -138.92
147.246
361.08
879.855
188.22
268.963 -838.92
1478.749

=- (-391.244/2*1182.072)
3
=
0.16549m /s
=
165.49l/s
Loop II
Pipe Diameter
(m)
EB
0.25
BC
0.20
CD
0.30
DE
0.50

Length
(m)
1100
700
1000
1250

K = fL/3.03d

5

3717.49
7219.47
1358.16
132.01

Q  

h
2 (h/Q)

Assumed Q
-3 3
x10 m /s
-100.00
100.00
-200.00
-700.00
Sum :

=- (-83.991/2*1457.737)
3
=
0.02881m /s
=
28.81l/s
TRIAL 2 Loop I
Pipe Diameter
(m)
FA
0.30
AB
0.40
BE
0.25
EF
0.40

Length
(m)
1000
1250
1100
1000

K = fL/3.03d
1358.16
402.87
3717.49
322.30

Q  

h
2 (h/Q)

5

Assumed Q
-3 3
x10 m /s
-134.51
365.49
236.68
-834.51
Sum :

=- (13.036/2*1478.749)
3
=
-0.00441m /s
=
-4.41l/s

Loop II
Pipe Diameter
(m)
EB
0.25
BC
0.20
CD
0.30
DE
0.50

5

Length
(m)
1100
700
1000
1250

K = fL/3.03d
3717.49
7219.47
1358.16
132.01

Q  

h
2 (h/Q)

Assumed Q
-3 3
x10 m /s
-236.68
128.81
-171.19
-671.19
Sum :

h=KQlQl
(m)
-208.244
119.786
-39.802
-59.470
-187.730

h/Q
Qnew
-3 3
(m/m³/s) x10 m /s
879.855 -188.22
929.943
172.86
232.502 -127.14
88.604
-627.14
2130.904

h=KQlQl
(m)
-26.211
52.526
131.699
-226.830
-68.816

h/Q
Qnew
-3 3
(m/m³/s) x10 m /s
188.677 -112.54
145.469
387.46
699.708
216.91
270.383 -812.54
1304.237

h=KQlQl
(m)
-131.699
215.722
-21.954
-51.920
10.149

h/Q
Qnew
-3 3
(m/m³/s) x10 m /s
699.708 -216.91
1247.958 170.56
172.676 -129.44
82.789
-629.44
2203.131

=- (-187.73/2*2130.904)
3
=
0.04405m /s
=
44.05l/s
TRIAL 3 Loop I
Pipe Diameter
(m)
FA
0.30
AB
0.40
BE
0.25
EF
0.40

Length
(m)
1000
1250
1100
1000

K = fL/3.03d

5

1358.16
402.87
3717.49
322.30

Q  

h
2 (h/Q)

Assumed Q
-3 3
x10 m /s
-138.92
361.08
188.22
-838.92
Sum :

=- (-68.816/2*1304.237)
3
=
0.02638m /s
=
26.38l/s
Loop II
Pipe Diameter
(m)
EB
0.25
BC
0.20
CD
0.30
DE
0.50

Length
(m)
1100
700
1000
1250

K = fL/3.03d
3717.49
7219.47
1358.16
132.01

Q  

h
2 (h/Q)

5

Assumed Q
-3 3
x10 m /s
-188.22
172.86
-127.14
-627.14
Sum :

=- (10.149/2*2203.131)
3
=
-0.00230m /s
=
-2.30l/s
=- (5.399/2*1377.182)
3
=
-0.00196m /s
=
-1.96l/s