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TOPIC 1 : REAL FLUID FLOW

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LEARNING OUTCOMES:
1. To apply Hagen Poisseuille equation on laminar flows
in bounded system
2. To apply Darcy Weisbach equation on laminar and
turbulent flows in bounded system
3. To determine the flow friction factor, f using Moody chart
4. To determine head losses in pipe flow due to friction,
separation (sudden contraction & expansion) and pipe
fittings

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CHAPTER 1
STEADY FLOW IN PIPES
1.1 Laminar Flow through Circular Pipes
1.2 Turbulent Flow in Bounded Conditions
1.3 Determining Friction Factor, f
using Moody Chart
1.4 Different forms of the Darcy Equation
1.5 Pipe Problems
1.6 Separation losses in pipe flow
1.7 Equivalent Length
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LECTURE 1.1
STEADY FLOW IN PIPES
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Laminar flow through Circular Pipes
under Steady and Uniform conditions

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INTRODUCTION

Deals with analysis of pipe flow running under
STEADY and UNIFORM condition.
Pipes are analysed for both laminar and turbulent
flow.
Head loss due to friction - results from shear stresses
derived by both laminar and turbulent flow.
Head loss also results in flow separation.
9/9/2014

5 UNIFORM FLOW Fluid flow in which all the conditions at any one point are constant with respect to space STEADY FLOW Fluid flow in which all the conditions at any one point are constant with respect to time 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes under Steady and Uniform Conditions 6   Can be analysed theoretically by applying momentum equation to the element of flow within the pipe The relationship between the shear stress and velocity gradient is utilised to obtain the velocity distribution within the cross section 9/9/2014 .

7   No slip condition  used for a given fluid where the velocity of the fluid in contact with solid boundary = velocity of the solid boundary Stationary pipe case  the velocity will equal to zero = the velocity of the fluid at the location where it is in contact also equals to zero 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 8 p+p • Annulus of radius r with elemental thickness. δr • Annulus  part of the fluid flowing in the pipe with radius R 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 9 p+p  Velocity distribution in pipe due to laminar flow  Fluid density. ρ  Momentum equation applied to the annular element and summing the forces and equating them to the rate of change of momentum 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 10  Force in the direction of motion due to :  Pressure.   Weight of element. p  Shear stress. W  Force in opposite direction due to : p +P   +  p+p 9/9/2014 .

(in the opposite direction) = (p+ (p/x). A  EQN 1  Similarly force due to p + δp. p= F/A F =p. p (in the direction of flow) = pressure multiplied by the cross sectional area of the annulus. x) 2 r r 9/9/2014  EQN 2 .Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 11 PRESSURE  Force due to the static pressure.

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 12 SHEAR FORCE • Shear force acting along the inner surface of the annulus Shear Force = A  EQN 3 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 13 • Similarly the shear force acting on the outer surface (in the opposite direction) Shear Force = (+ ) A = ( + (/r). r) . 2rx  EQN 4 *Ignoring higher order terms 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 14 WEIGHT • Weight of the element is equal to the Weight = density x volume x g where g is the gravitational acceleration W= mg = g 9/9/2014 .

2r. g sin = .(z/x) W sin = -2r rx. r x.15 W sin Where W = . g (z/x)  EQN 5 p+p 9/9/2014 .

must be equal to zero since there is no acceleration of steady flow Sum up all the forces. sum of the forces in the direction of flow.(EQN 2) + (EQN 3) – (EQN 4) + (EQN 5) = 0 9/9/2014 . F = 0 (EQN 1) .Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 16 MOMENTUM EQUATION • Applying momentum equation.

r x.Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 17 • Substituting W = . g and sin = . P 1  z r   g   0 x r r x P 1  z r   g  0 x r r x 1    r   gz  P    0 r r  x  Piezometric Pressure 9/9/2014 .2r.(z/x) and cancelling out terms. will yield.

where C is the constant of integration • Substituting values at the centreline where r = 0. C = 0 9/9/2014 .Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 18 PIEZOMETRIC PRESSURE • It is independent of r. thus expression can be integrated with respect to r • Integrating the equation.

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 19 SHEAR STRESS & VELOCITY GRADIENT RELATIONSHIP • Circular pipes distances are measured from the centre (r). modify the expression  EQN 6 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 20 • Substitute equation 6 into • Result in the following 9/9/2014 .

du • Velocity obtained by integrating the expression Where D is the constant of integration 9/9/2014 .Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 21 • Hence velocity gradient.

velocity. where r = R.Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 22  Applying the boundary condition at the pipe wall. u = 0 due to no slip condition 9/9/2014 .

section μ = dynamic viscosity p = pressure  = density of the fluid flowing g = gravitational acceleration z = elevation dx = incremental distance along the pipe 9/9/2014 . u = velocity at a specific point in any cross section R = internal radius of the pipe r = distance of the point measured from the centre of the pipe x.Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 23 Substituting into results in the velocity distribution across the cross section in circular pipe of radius R Where.

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 24 MAXIMUM VELOCITY     Previous equation describes the variation of the velocity across the pipe cross section Velocity variation is parabolic in nature The maximum velocity occur in the centre of the pipe where r = 0 Hence. maximum velocity Velocity profile in a circular pipe for laminar flow 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 25 FLOW RATE Flow rate can be determined by integrating the incremental flow. δQ through – Annulus of radius. r – Thickness δr across the flow from r = 0 or r = R  9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 26 Q=v. A 9/9/2014 .

27 Flow Rate in a Circular Pipes for Laminar Flow  EQN 7 9/9/2014 .

Average velocity for Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 28   Average velocity. substitute Q = Av in the equation 7 where A = πR2 9/9/2014 . v can be computed by v = Q/A where A = cross sectional area A = πR2 or πd2/4. d = diameter of pipe Therefore.

Average velocity for Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 29 9/9/2014 .

 Average velocity in the pipe is equal to half of the maximum velocity (occurs in the centre) 9/9/2014 .Relationship between Average velocity and Maximum velocity for Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 30  Comparing & yields.

Thus.31 Finding Pressure drop for Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes  Substituting with (the pressure drop per length of the pipe) into equation 7. 9/9/2014 .

Thus.  also known as the Hagen Poisseuille equation  9/9/2014 .Hagen Poisseuille equation for Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 32  Rearranging the equation to obtain Δp.

Substitute the head loss due to friction in the Hagen Poisseuille equation 9/9/2014 .Head Loss due to friction for Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 33   Head loss due to friction.

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 34 EXAMPLE 1.1 9/9/2014 .

Solution for example 1.1 35 9/9/2014 .

1 36 9/9/2014 .Solution for example 1.

Solution for example 1.1 37 9/9/2014 .

2 9/9/2014 .Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 38 EXAMPLE 1.

Solution for example 1.2 39 9/9/2014 .

2 40 9/9/2014 .Solution for example 1.

2 41 9/9/2014 .Solution for example 1.

Solution for example 1.2 42 9/9/2014 .

assume 0 9/9/2014 .Solution for example 1.2 43 L= dx = incremental distance along the pipe p = p z if not given.

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 44 EXAMPLE 1.3 9/9/2014 .

Solution for example 1.3 45 9/9/2014 .

Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes 46 EXAMPLE 1.4 9/9/2014 .

Solution for example 1.4 47 9/9/2014 .

Solution for example 1.4 48 9/9/2014 .

Solution for example 1.4 49 9/9/2014 .