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**Openings: An Experimental Study
**

S. Fragomeni1,*, J.H. Doh2 and D.J. Lee3

1School

**of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Australia
**

of Engineering, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Australia

3School of Construction Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Korea

2School

(Received: 6 April 2011; Received revised form: 2 November 2011; Accepted: 7 November 2011)

**Abstract: Forty seven reinforced concrete walls with various opening configurations
**

are tested in both one-way and two-way action. The test panels, with a slenderness

ratio of 30, 35 or 40, were subjected to a uniformly distributed axial load at an

eccentricity of one sixth of the wall thickness (tw /6). Apart from highlighting the

experimental set-up; typical crack patterns, failure modes, and load-deflection

behaviour of test panels are also reported. Actual test failure loads are compared to

ultimate load predictions using the Australian standard wall design equation and also

a recently derived formula specifically for walls with openings. The code equation is

found to be inadequate for the many cases investigated whereas the derived formula

was verified as being adequate in predicting failure load of walls with openings.

**Key words: concrete walls, openings, axial load, code method, slenderness ratio, design equation.
**

1. INTRODUCTION

Reinforced concrete walls with eccentric axial loads

can be designed using code methods that include the

use of simplified formulae or the more accurate column

design procedure. In many cases more rigorous

methods such as utilising finite element analysis can

also be employed. The design of walls as structural

members is now just as significant as beams, slabs and

columns. This is due to the modern day popularity of

tilt-up construction, shear walls and concrete cores in

tall buildings. The popularity has spread to Australia

where prior to the 1990’s limited experimental research

was performed on concrete wall panels. More recently,

significant research projects focusing on the load

capacity of solid concrete walls that have been

undertaken in Australia include the work of Fragomeni

(1995), Sanjayan and Maheswaran (1999) and Doh

(2002). Since then introductory research was undertaken

by Doh and Fragomeni (2006) on the load capacity of

**walls with openings, which was the catalyst for the
**

extensive experimental study by Lee (2008) on the same

topic.

The design of walls with openings is given little

treatment in international codes of practise. When

designing such elements engineering practitioners make

the decision to divide the wall into segments of columns

connected by cross beams at openings, which then

requires the design of each individual segment.

Although this is quite acceptable, it would be more

convenient if the practitioner was provided with

simplified equations similar to those provided in the

Australian Standard AS3600-2001 and American

Concrete Institute code ACI318-2008 for solid load

bearing walls supported top and bottom only. As

highlighted by Doh and Fragomeni (2005), these code

methods can only be used if certain restrictions are met.

The simplified design is restricted to normal strength

concrete walls with slenderness ratios of less than 30

*Corresponding author. Email address: sam.fragomeni@vu.edu.au; Fax: + 61-3-9919-4908; Tel: +61-3-9919-5212.

Associate Editor. J.G. Dai.

Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 15 No. 8 2012

1345

The strength reduction factor φ is 0. Eqn 1 is the same as in the previous code. There are also limited provisions for walls with small openings. the ultimate design axial strength per unit length (in N/mm) of a braced wall in compression is given by the following formula.2e − 2ea )0. The standard provides for a simplified equation to calculate the axial load capacity of walls when certain loading and bracing restrictions are met or alternatively allows for any wall to be designed using the column provisions.0025 horizontally. Doh and Fragomeni 2005). Hwe is the effective height of the wall. Only a few studies involved walls with openings. The ideal cracking scenarios at high axial loads are also depicted. the slenderness ratio (H/tw) of the panels was low at 12. The walls are required to have minimum reinforcement ratios of 0. Hwe/tw ≤ 30. therefore more guidance in this range was desired. ρh. three and four sides.0015 vertically. It applies to walls where the slenderness ratio. Side supports create the double curvature scenario in both parallel and perpendicular directions. and for walls with higher concrete strengths. AS36002001. 15 No. As adapted previously from Doh and Fragomeni (2006). has provided extended rules for the use of the simplified wall design equation for walls supported on either two. fc′ (MPa) is concrete strength and ea = Hwe2/(2500 tw). Due to the fact that there was minimal experimental data on walls with openings an extensive experimental program was recently undertaken by Lee (2008). SIMPLIFIED WALL DESIGN USING AS3600-2009 In Australia. Saheb and Desayi (1990) carried out a number of tests on walls with openings in both one and two-way action. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the behaviour of axial loaded walls by evaluating the results of this extensive experimental study on walls with openings. φ N u = φ (t w − 1.6 fc′ (1) where tw is the wall thickness (mm). a previously derived formula by Doh and Fragomeni (2006) predicting the ultimate load of walls with openings is verified. Details of the walls tested that include experimental setup and loading regime. 2. The appearance of openings can have an effect on the load capacity and cracking regime and is a focus of this paper. a study that provided an alternative simplified equation to the codes for load bearing walls with slenderness in this range. Walls with and without side supports (Doh and Fragomeni 2006) 1346 with openings. e is the load eccentricity (mm) which has a minimum of 0. ρv and 0. In the applications highlighted in the previous paragraph. typical crack patterns and load-deflection characteristics are provided. For the simplified design method. Significantly. the design of reinforced concrete walls is undertaken using the guidelines given in the Concrete Standard (AS3600-2009). 8 2012 . except that its scope has been extended for higher strength concrete. The later paper provided results of axial load tests on solid walls with slenderness ratios between 25 and 40. The forty seven half-scale panels were tested in one and two-way action with slenderness ratios between 30 and 40.6. Many researchers have investigated the behaviour of reinforced concrete solid walls either in one-way or twoway action. higher slenderness ratios and higher concrete strengths are commonly used which are outside the restrictions of current formulae. Apart from the introductory work of Seddon (1956) on walls Side support Curvature Crack (a) One-way action wall with opening (b) Two-way action wall with opening Figure 1. Although higher capacities can be obtained using the column method.Behavior of Axially Loaded Concrete Wall Panels with Openings: An Experimental Study and generally cannot account for openings such as doors or windows. failure loads. An extensive review of the previous work undertaken in this area is given elsewhere (Doh et al. 2001. the newly released Australian Concrete Standard. However. Utilising these test results.05 tw. a wall with one opening behaving in one-way action and two-way action is depicted in Figure 1. concrete walls with varying support conditions. 20 ≤ fc′ ≤ 100 MPa. three or four sides. a minimum vertical reinforcement content of 1% placed in two layers is required. That is the k factor is given as follows: a) For One-way buckling with floors providing lateral support at both ends Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. The effective height (Hwe = kHw) clause has been re-written to include walls supported on two. AS36002009.

Figure 2 identifies the important symbols used where G1 & G2 = centres of gravity of wall cross section with Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. or the area between two openings shall be designed as supported on two sides. Significantly AS3600 allows the effects of openings in a wall supported on four sides (two-way action) to be ignored if the total area of openings is less than 1/10 of the area of the wall. In this instance the simplified design equation can be used as normal ignoring the opening(s). and k = 1. The results were examined along with identically sized solid panels tested by Doh (2002).22 for one-way action and 1. 3.0fc′0.75 when walls are restrained against rotation at both ends. respectively. WALL DESIGN FORMULAE FOR WALLS WITH OPENINGS 3. Lee k = 0.0 when walls are not restrained against rotation at one or both ends. Doh and D.2. For panels with openings. Ao = Lo t w . J.H. 1 t w L2 − t w Loηo or η = 2 and. Lt w − Lo t w Eqn 2 is only applicable to concrete walls with slenderness ratio H/tw < 12 and normal strength concrete.55 [ Ag fc′ + ( f y − fc′) Asv ]{1 − [ H /(32t w )]2} and 0. The equation was recently found to perform adequately for a range of solid wall panels previously tested with two. Saheb and Desayi (1990) proposed that the ultimate load is: Puo = ( k1 − k2 ) Pu (2) where Pu is the ultimate load of an identical one-way and two-way solid wall panel defined as 0.25 and 1. Doh and Fragomeni (2006) Formula for Walls with Openings Doh and Fragomeni (2006) conducted tests on 8 normal strength concrete wall panels with openings in one-way and two-way action with slenderness ratios (H/tw) of 30 or 40. b) For Two-way buckling with three side lateral support provided by floors & intersecting walls 1 k= ≥ 0.3 but less than obtained 1 + ( H w /3 L )2 from a). 15 No.67 f ′Ag {1 − [ L/(120 t w )]2}{1 + 0. obtained from the test results. Saheb and Desayi (1990) Formula for Walls with Openings For wall panels with openings. G3 = centre of gravity of the opening.00 for twoway action. 3. 1. Geometry of wall openings in elevation and cross-section plan (Saheb and Desayi 1990) and without opening. 1347 . 8 2012 H G1 G3 G2 Hο L0 Elevation L0 η0 η L/2 η t G1 G2 G3 Cross . c) For Two-way buckling with four side lateral support provided from floors & intersecting walls 1 L k= for 2 for Hw ≤ L or k = 1 + ( H w /L ) 2Hw Hw > L where for all items.12( H / L )} respectively. the formulas may lead to inaccurate predictions (Doh and Fragomeni 2006). k1 and k2 were respectively.2e − 2ea) which is a modified version of the AS3600 equation and intended for panels with high slenderness ratios.1. If these conditions are not satisfied the area of wall between opening and support shall be designed as supported on three sides. three and four sides supported (Fragomeni and Doh (2010)).02 and 1. The non-dimensional quantity L A η χ = o + in which η = − η with η− being the A L 2 distance from the left vertical edge to the centre of gravity of the cross-section of the panel with openings. Beyond this slenderness ratio or for high strength concrete panels.7(tw − 1.S. Hw is the floor-to-floor unsupported height and L is the horizontal length.J. and the height of any opening is less than 1/3 of the height of the wall. Fragomeni. relating to the test data from which they were derived.section Figure 2. the authors proposed that the ultimate load for panels with openings is given by: N uo = ( k1 − k2 χ ) N u (3) where Nu is the ultimate load of an identical one-way and two-way solid wall panel defined as Nu = 2.

General purpose cement. water reducing agent and super-plasticiser in addition to the major components. and walls with higher strength concrete for further verification. satisfying the minimum requirements in the Australian Standard. 1 L β = α for H > L 2 for H ≤ L. The length of each strip was the same as the dimension of the side of the opening.175 and 1. Ao η The non-dimensional quantity χ = + is as A L defined by Saheb and Desayi (1990) and described in Section 3. and in two layers would contribute significantly to load capacity. obtained from the test results.Behavior of Axially Loaded Concrete Wall Panels with Openings: An Experimental Study k1 and k2 were respectively. Typical details of the test panels with one and two openings are given in Figure 3. Obviously increasing the amount of reinforcement.004 and 0. placed centrally within the panel cross-section. followed by W1 or W2 denoting one or two window openings respectively. Doh and Fragomeni (2006) found that Eqn 3 gave a good prediction of the 8 test panel failure loads.88 e e Hw 1− 1− tw tw t w for H/tw ≥ 27. Codes of practice such as AS3600 (2009) suggest the use of the column design method in such cases.6 refers to centre opening for 1. This consisted of strips cut from F41 mesh. No admixtures were used for the normal strength mixes. Test Panels In the major part of the experimental program. as shown in Figure 4. The fixing and the layout of the corner reinforcement are also shown in Figure 3. particularly over 1%. The final part of the panel description refers to location and length of panel. Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. The typical high strength concrete mixes consisted of fly ash. concrete strengths and slenderness ratios. The two digits after this first letter denote the nominal concrete strength.1. thirty five half-scale reinforced concrete wall panels with openings were tested to failure. so C1. where O and T indicate one and two-way action tests respectively. High density polystyrene foam was placed in specific positions on the timber moulds to ensure openings were formed in places required. 300 mm for the small walls and 400 mm for the larger walls. As current simplified wall design equations only require minimum reinforcement. The 1348 CL 40 CL 450 CL 1200 300 300 1200 450 450 CL 450 ea = Hwe2/(2500tw) as before with Hwe = βH 0. Reinforcing was also placed diagonally in each corner of the openings to prevent shrinkage cracking. 1. 4. Despite the positive results obtained it was evident that more testing was required on walls with various opening configurations. Three of these strips were tied in each corner. sand and 10mm aggregates were used to produce concrete. and β = 18 / for H/tw ≥ 27 tw when in one-way action.6m long panel. The F41 mesh had design yield strength of 450 MPa and the minimum tensile strength was 500 MPa.188 for one-way action and 1. Details of typical test wall panels with one and two openings (dimensions in mm) reinforcement ratios ρv and ρh were 0.88 H β = 1 for H/tw < 27. TEST SPECIMENS AND TEST SET UP Due to the limited nature of the previously derived Eqn 3.1. the eccentricity parameter 1 18 1 × for H/tw < 27 and α = α= 0. Wall panels were cast horizontally in specially made timber moulds with reinforcement secured at the centre cross-section with wire ties on 20 mm high chairs. This material was used for the openings as it could easily be cut to the required size of the openings needed and could also be easily removed before testing of the wall panels. All wall panels were reinforced with a single F41 mesh. Three moulds were made reflecting the three different sized panels being investigated. 15 No.0031 for all panels. 450 300 1200 450 40 200 300 200 300 200 1200 Figure 3. Eqn 3 was found to give reasonably accurate prediction. Wall panels were general cast in batches of three. and β = α 2H 1+ (H / L) when in two way action In these equations. 4. 8 2012 . it was decided that investigating the effect of increasing reinforcement ratios would not be investigated. The concrete was supplied by a local concrete readymix company. Lee (2008) undertook an extensive experimental study on walls with various opening configurations. to maximise the usage of moulds and concrete delivered.933 for two-way action. The dimensions and material properties of the test panels are given Table 1. Also when compared with Saheb and Desayi’s (1990) test data.

1 97.390 0. Actual formwork and steel reinforcement set-up Advances in Structural Engineering Vol.0 67.4 O50W1C1.175 0.1 45.6 T70W2C1.3 51.149 0.410 • n is number of openings.5 988.6 O90W2C1.2 O95W2C1.4 O95W1C1.2 O70W2C1. The delivered concrete was evenly placed into the mould using shovels.1 96.7 96.5 95. Wall panel dimensions.411 0. Figure 4.test/ f’cLefftw 0.8 308.5 80.386 0.339 0.3 503. Fragomeni.4 T50W2C1.1 1390.6 T90W1C1.6 50. failure loads Panel designation Size of panel H × L × tw (mm) Opening size Ho × Lo × n (mm) H/tw O50W1C1.3 300.4 T95W1C1.6 O50W2C1.2 759. the concrete compressive strengths of the various wall panels at day of testing 1349 .4 O95W2C1. J.321 0.2 O90W1C1.0 50.8 1236.4 O90W1C1.2 T90W2C1.6 T50W1C1. cast simultaneously.2 44.6 O90W1C1.102 0.326 0.3 75.512 0.0 347.427 0.0 80.6 O70W2C1.1 74.6 T50W2C1.0 99.4 T50W1C1. were also cured under this same moistcuring condition beside the wall panels.3 350.9 488.112 0.1 80. Leff = L − Lo where Lo is length of opening(s). After casting.1 93.356 0.120 0.2 O70W1C1.141 0.2 38.1 94.3 706.2 T70W1C1.2 50. and stock piled on top of each other where they were allowed to cure under normal shaded conditions until testing.2 O45W2C1.1 97.3 953. the panels were covered with wet hessian and then plastic sheets were placed over the top.2 T45W2C1.H.7 244.5 191.1 50.3 67.2 T45W1C1.3 74.7 470.3 191.130 0.138 0.0 97.2 O95W1C1.126 0.2 426.133 0.383 0. As indicated in Table 1.3 74.8 1303.6 T70W1C1.1 96. concrete strengths.361 0.158 0. the panels and cylinders were removed from the moulds.108 0.3 618.1 150.1 45. and vibrated to the same height as the edges to ensure appropriate thickness of the panels was achieved.5 732.089 0.7 95.0 633.4 O90W2C1.120 0.test (kN) 309.0 99.1 Nu.8 195.2 O45W1C1.4 T95W2C1.3 75.3 47.6 1200 × 1200 × 40 300 × 300 × 1 30 1400 × 1400 × 40 350 × 350 × 1 35 1600 × 1600 × 40 400 × 400 × 1 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 300 × 300 × 2 30 1400 × 1400 × 40 350 × 350 × 2 35 1600 × 1600 × 40 400 × 400 × 2 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 300 × 300 × 1 30 1400 × 1400 × 40 350 × 350 × 1 35 1600 × 1600 × 40 400 × 400 × 1 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 300 × 300 × 2 30 1400 × 1400 × 40 350 × 350 × 2 35 1600 × 1600 × 40 400 × 400 × 2 40 Cure (days) fcm (MPa) 45 28 55 49 36 45 57 30 45 30 28 49 47 45 57 30 61 45 29 54 49 55 44 29 91 48 32 54 49 48 55 55 20 91 30 53.109 0.6 1583.118 0.2 Nu.345 0.6 T90W2C1.4 1030.7 279.2 T70W2C1.162 0. 15 No.0 426.2 918. 8 2012 For each wall panel cast a minimum of three cylinders were also produced.520 0.9 647.5 95.4 T90W2C1.3 242.S.1 50. Lee Table 1.4 665.336 0.4 O50W2C1.J.352 0.1 662. • *Effective length. After a period of seven days.4 T90W1C1.120 0. Doh and D.285 0. The concrete cylinders.7 1298.1 294.

utilising the load cell positioned between the centre hydraulic jack and upper loading beam. To achieve this. 1350 (a) Test frame arrangement (b) Top and bottom restraint (c) Top view of side restraint Figure 5. 15 No. crack patterns and deflections were recorded. The variations of concrete strengths for the same batch of concrete are due to the different curing times achieved up to day of testing. The 250UC supporting beam on the strong floor was identical to the loading beam. Loading frame and support conditions 4. Test Procedure A static loading regime was adopted for the testing. The final dial gauge was placed in the very centre of the panel as shown. 8 2012 . The test frame was designed to support three independent hydraulic jacks each of 80 tonne capacity. The steel rod was welded along the steel plate at an eccentricity of tw/6 from the section centreline. The rig was originally built by Doh (2002) consisting of two main steel 310UC118 columns each 4000 mm high and 2 steel 380PFC cross beams that support the jacks. Two 20 mm × 20 mm angle sections were clamped to the thick plate using screw bolts. At each load increment. bottom and side gauges were all positioned midway between the edges of the panel and the edges of the opening as shown in Figure 6(b). The walls were therefore loaded at approximately 14.3 MPa. 4. all dial gauges were positioned midway between the edges of the panel and the edges of the opening.Behavior of Axially Loaded Concrete Wall Panels with Openings: An Experimental Study varied between 38. Test Set-Up The actual arrangement of the test set-up is shown in Figure 5. were applied to the wall panel at approximately 0. two 150 PFC’s separated by a square hollow section extending along the height of both sides of the test panel were used [see Figure 5(c)]. Details of the simply supported top hinged edge are shown in Figure 5(b). the edges of the wall panels had to be effectively stiffened in the perpendicular direction to prevent rotation about the x-axis while allowing rotation about the y-axis.3. The side restraints were tied up with high tension bolts (D16@100) through the SHS. The positioning of the dial gauges for the wall panels with one opening are indicated in Figure 6(a). The jacks were required to transmit a uniformly distributed load across the top through a steel 250UC72 loading beam at an eccentricity of tw/6. Dial gauges were used to measure the lateral deflections of the wall panels during testing.5 tonnes per hydraulic jack. Load increments.7 kN (0. For the wall panels with one opening. Curing ranged from 28 to 91 days which is attributed to availability of laboratory and its associated resources. to take advantage of the stronger axis of the section.5 × 3 tonnes) increments measured by the load-cell up to failure. For the wall panels with two openings.0 MPa and 99. The top and bottom hinged support conditions were each simulated by placing a 23 mm diameter high strength steel rod on a 50 mm thick steel plate of 150 mm width and varying lengths which corresponded to the different test panel dimensions. To achieve the hinged side support conditions for two-way action.2. This indicates a very good range of concrete strengths were obtained for both normal and high strength concrete panels. Most of the panels with high strength concrete Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. the top.

This was evident irrespective of whether one or two openings were present. The high strength panels (Figures 8 and 10) seemed to have a more brittle failure mode pattern with a distinctive single crack evident at failure whereas the normal strength Figure 7.2 Figure 8. Doh and D.1. RESULTS 5. Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. with values indicated in Table 1. There are distinct differences in failure modes of corresponding normal and high strength wall panels. The one-way panels with openings. J. similar to the ideal scenarios of Figure 1(a). The ultimate load was accurately recorded using the load cell output.J.2 failed in a brittle mode and the sudden failure of these panels made it sometimes difficult to record the maximum deflection precisely at failure. Lee (a) Wall panel with one opening (b) Wall panel with two openings Figure 6. Dial gauge locations 5.S. Crack pattern on compression face of O50W1C1. Fragomeni. 8 2012 1351 . Crack Patterns Figures 7 to 14 show the crack patterns observed on a typical selection of test panels after failure. showed typical single curvature bending failure characterised by horizontal cracking at the centre of the panels. 15 No. in Figures 7 to 10. Crack pattern on compression face of O90W1C1. These panels give an indicative insight of cracking behaviour observed.H.

4 Figure 10. more so in the high strength panels. 15 No. Crack pattern on tension face of T45W1C1. This was evident irrespective of whether one or two openings were present. similar to the ideal scenario of Figure 1(b).4 panels (Figures 7 and 9) seemed to produce several bending cracks before concrete failure at the midheight of the wall panels. It should also be noted that the diagonal crack patterns do deviate a little depending on wall irregularities and loading but the anticipated crack pattern was generally achieved in most cases. 8 2012 .Behavior of Axially Loaded Concrete Wall Panels with Openings: An Experimental Study Figure 9. The two-way panels in Figures 11 to 14 with openings showed typical double curvature bending failure characterised by diagonal cracking from corners that make their way to corner edges of openings.2 Figure 12. explosive types of failures were observed for all panels. Typically. The distinct differences in failure modes for panels of different strengths is again noted.6 Figure 11. with high strength panels (Figures 12 and 14) again producing distinct brittle cracks whereas more smeared diagonal cracks were evident in normal strength panels (Figures 11 and 13). Crack pattern on tension face of T90W1C1. Crack pattern on tension face of O50W2C1. Failure in this region could become the dominating factor in axial load capacity. which is logical since this is the area where the cross-section is reduced. In addition the panels with two openings (Figures 13 and 14) produced a horizontal crack pattern in the column sections only. 1352 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. Crack pattern on tension face of O90W1C1.

4 500 O95W1C1. as are readings for top and bottom transducers in these figures. Figures 19 and 20 highlight typical load-deflection of two-way action walls with one opening. They show that the deflections at the wall centre are generally in proportion to adjacent points. Fragomeni. Crack pattern on tension face of T90W2C1. The increase in nominal strength. The curves for the one-way action panels with openings (see Figures 15 to 18) give a very good indication of load deflection characteristics acting in single curvature. Doh and D.4 400 Loads (kN) Figure 13.J. Lee 500 O45W1C1. Figures 21 and 22 are the load-deflection 1353 . This early linear path is not evident in the normal strength panel behaviour given in Figure 19. That is. J. clearly shows that the load-deflection path becomes more linear at early load levels before becoming nonlinear (see Figure 20). from 45 MPa to 90 MPa. load deflection paths for left and right transducers are similar.4 300 200 Top Left Bottom Right 100 0 0 2 4 Deflection (mm) 6 8 Figure 16.2.S. This is typified by the maximum Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. The normal strength curves (Figures 15 and 17) tended to show a more nonlinear load-deflection path early in their load history whereas high strength panels (Figures 16 and 18) showed a more linear load-deflection path early before becoming nonlinear. The difference in behaviour is also highlighted by the fact that normal strength panels being had deflections at least double those of the high strength counterparts for the same load level.4 Figure 14. This indicates the data gives a reasonably accurate indication of load versus lateral deflection measurement. 8 2012 deflection readings occurring in the left and right transducers that are located on the central horizontal axis.4 5. 15 No.4 Top Left Bottom Right Loads (kN) 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 Deflection (mm) 6 8 Figure 15. Crack pattern on tension face of T45W2C1.H. It is also interesting to compare deflection profiles of identical normal and high strength concrete panels. Load versus lateral deflection curves for wall O95W1C1. Load versus lateral deflection curves for O45W1C1. Deflection Typical load versus lateral deflection relationships for the wall panels tested in both one and two-way actions are shown in Figures 15 to 22.

Again the increase in concrete strength.4 1000 800 T90W2C1. from 45 MPa to 90 MPa.4 800 Loads (kN) Loads (kN) 1000 Top Left Bottom Right 1200 600 400 200 600 400 Top Left Bottom Centre 200 0 0 2 4 6 8 Deflection (mm) 10 12 Figure 19.4 paths of two-way action walls with two openings. Load versus lateral deflection curves for T45W1C1.4 400 O90W2C1. Load versus lateral deflection curves for T45W2C1.4 2 4 6 8 Deflection (mm) 10 12 Figure 20.4 1000 T45W2C1. resulted in more linear load-deflection path 1354 0 0 2 4 6 8 Deflection (mm) 10 12 14 Figure 22. The effect of two openings compared to one is clearly evident where greater deflections have occurred for the same load levels.4 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Deflection (mm) Figure 21.4 at early load levels. 15 No.4 1200 1000 Loads (kN) 300 Loads (kN) T90W1C1.4 800 200 Loads (kN) Loads (kN) 300 Top Left Bottom Centre 100 600 400 Top Left Bottom Centre 200 0 0 2 4 Deflection (mm) 6 8 0 0 Figure 18.Behavior of Axially Loaded Concrete Wall Panels with Openings: An Experimental Study 1400 400 045W2C1. Load versus lateral deflection curves for wall O90W2C1.4 1400 T45W1C1. Load versus lateral deflection curves for O45W2C1. Load versus lateral deflection curves for wall T90W2C1. Load versus lateral deflection curves for wall T90W1C1.4 Top Left Bottom Centre 200 800 600 Top Left Bottom Right 400 100 200 0 0 2 4 Deflection (mm) 6 0 8 0 Figure 17. For Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 8 2012 .

This is obviously not the case as actual test Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. but predictions for these cases were calculated in any case. various concrete strengths and support conditions. Figure 23 and Table 3 give details and failure load results of the wall panels tested. 6. This indicates very good prediction of failure load.0 to 0. deflections of around 2 mm were achieved in T90W1C1.09. Note that AS3600 Eqn 1 can be used for two-way panels with openings. For example. as long as area of openings do not exceed 1/10 of total wall area (see last paragraph of section 2). is 1. This is generally not true for two-way panels where no specific trend is evident with increased slenderness. All panels were identically sized with H/tw = 30.6 kN.3. and F41 mesh placed centrally within the wall crosssection. together with the concrete strengths for all the test panels are given in Table 1. Again the reinforcement ratios ρv and ρh were 1355 .94 with standard deviation of 0. clearly illustrating the advantage of having panels supported on all sides.36 for one-way panels.4 (see Figure 22). Observation of predicted/test ratios in Table 2 further highlights the reliability of prediction Eqn 3. For example predicted load capacity of one-way panels with slenderness ratios of 35 or 40 reveals zero capacity. along with ratios of predicted to test results.8 kN compared to T70W1C1.6 in AS3600). This rule was slightly exceeded for two-way panels with two openings (area of openings = 1/8 of wall area).18.test/fc′ Leff tw.test) for the two-way panels of 0.175) which again indicate the distinct advantage of having panels supported on all sides. but gave totally unacceptable ratios in the range of 0. with slight over-estimation occurring at times. factor is used in design (eg. there still is significant ultimate load capacity recorded in all cases. similarly T70W2C1. More significantly. For one-way panels (with one or two openings) the average ratio. For panels in one-way action this ratio tends to decrease with an increased slenderness ratio.13. Further the failure loads for the two-way panels are much higher. Axial strength ratios (Nu. This can be highlighted in a direct comparison between Figures 16 and 20 which illustrate the behaviour of similar high strength concrete panels supported on two and four respectively.H.089 to 0.6 which failed at 1390. Doh and D. over-estimation will not occur. for the same load level. If an appropriate strength reduction.test. Fragomeni.test/fc′ Leff tw) also provided in Table 1 reveal further interesting trends. Eqn 1 produced an acceptable average ratio (NuEq1/Nu. NuEq3/Nu.00 with a standard deviation of 0.1 kN whereas O95W1C1. φ = 0. Eqn 3 gives much better overall failure load predictions for all one-way and twoway panels tested. It was also found to perform satisfactorily against wall panel test data by Saheb and Desayi (1990). Nu.2 (two openings) failed at 308.512) are significantly higher than those for the one-way panels (ranging from 0. Lee example at a load level of 800 kN. 5.J. O95W2C1. Nu. The distinct advantages of these two-way action panels compared to counterpart one-way walls is also evident with less deflections being achieved in the later case.89 with higher standard deviation of 0. the axial strength ratios for the two-way panels (ranging from 0.4 (see Figure 20) whereas deflections of around 4 mm were achieved in T90W2C1. by approximately 2 to 4 times. highlighting the impact of the additional side restraints.5 kN. than the corresponding one-way specimens. This analysis further verifies and illustrates the applicability of Eqn 3 originally presented by Doh and Fragomeni (2006). Similarly for two-way panels (with one or two openings) the average ratio is 0. J. 15 No. Table 2 shows predicted failure for test panels using Eqns 1 and 3. Recall the equation was originally derived for eight normal strength concrete walls with openings that had high slenderness with varying support conditions. Eqn 3 has now been found to perform adequately for a larger range of one and twoway panels with both normal and high strength concrete in this study. FURTHER VERIFICATION AND DISCUSSION In an effort to make Eqn 3 more encompassing another stage of testing of twelve wall panels was undertaken by Lee (2008).test and the axial strength ratios. For two-way panels Eqn 1 predictions were in closer agreement to actual failure loads.2 (one opening) failed at 488. Interestingly even though panels have high slenderness ratios and have either one or two central openings. For example a load level of 400 kN gives a lateral deflection of 4 mm for the one-way action panel and 1 mm for the two-way action panel. The reduced strengths of walls with two openings compared to identical walls with one opening is also evident. Actual and Predicted Failure Loads The ultimate loads.321 to 0. Recall it caters for walls with openings and was derived for higher slenderness ratios. 8 2012 results produced significant load capacity for these panels. Eqn 1 gives variable and at times unsatisfactory failure load predictions. where window openings of varying configurations were placed at varying locations and also where door type openings existed.S. φ.6 failed at 988.

02 1.9 471. Advances in Structural Engineering Vol.3 953.30 0.6 T90W1C1.1 661.90 1.97 0.1 1390.2 O45W1C1.6 T70W2C1.test NuEq3/ Nu.test) for all panels is 1.6 T50W1C1.2 921.4 T95W2C1.4 T90W2C1.1 NuEq1 (kN) NuEq3 (kN) NuEq1/ Nu.2 1175.8 308.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 673. safe prediction will occur using Eqn 3 in its current form when a strength reduction.11 1. The over-prediction is more significant in the one and two-way panels that had door openings.2 T90W2C1.1 1345.5 732.7 745.9 555.11 0.85 0. Test panel failure loads and predictions are investigated further here. χxy.84 0.89 1.35 0.7 1298.7 692.1 227.0 164.2 426. crack patterns and deflections were all recorded during testing with full details of results presented elsewhere (Lee 2008).9 688.35 1.1 294.1 753.2 T70W2C1.3 636.6 T90W2C1.4 O50W2C1.0 347.3 503.2 O95W1C1.70 0.2 918. over-prediction of failure load can occur when openings are offset to the left or right.6 O90W1C1.4 665.4 1030.16 which also clearly shows slight over-prediction. Table 3 shows that Eqn 3 over-predicts failure load in 11 of the 12 cases.04 0.3 618.18 1.9 1362. φ.93 0.test 91. Panels with window openings were in closer agreement with test results.6 725.8 1236.34 0 0 0 0 0 0.94 0.2 314.86 0.6 T70W1C1.93 0.4 436.82 0.1 150.95 1.98 0. As before failure loads.1 868.6 1583.4 T90W1C1.7 775.5 988.0 475.7 260.6 O70W2C1.6 992.1 185.81 0.6 866.89 1.2 759.2 O45W2C1.73 1.9 488. Lee (2008) has suggested a more encompassing factor ‘χxy’ to replace ‘χ’that allows for variations in opening size and location from the horizontal and vertical axes.3 166.87 1.9 78.5 191.4 T95W1C1.4 T50W1C1.9 449.91 0. or up or down from the central wall axes.4 878.11 with standard deviation of 0.82 0.2 T45W1C1.5 1162.02 0.3 300. The average predicted to 1356 Nu.9 291.09 1.4 O90W1C1.9 647.3 191.1 290.4 O90W2C1.6 T50W2C1.36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 O95W2C1. This indicates that even though Eqn 3 was verified for a number of panels with one or two openings.4 O50W1C1.4 213. satisfying the minimum requirements in the Australian Standard.93 0.32 0.86 0.4 695.99 1.5 541.2 886.67 0.95 1.0 426.3 1038.1 662.03 0.3 350.5 821.6 117.95 test ratio (NuEq3/Nu.30 0.8 1303.0 110.04 1.7 244.2 886.94 0.5 177.99 0.3 706.2 404.3 242.96 0.17 0.6 O50W2C1.4 659.5 1225.30 0. factor is used.64 0.2 T70W1C1.2 O70W2C1.2 T45W2C1.9 424.94 0.04 0.0031 for all panels.4 676.1 344.93 0.75 0.2 O70W1C1.2 O90W1C1.2 1293. Again it should be noted that in design.4 T50W2C1.6 1200 × 1200 × 40 300 × 300 × 1 30 1400 × 1400 × 40 350 × 350 × 1 35 1600 × 1600 × 40 400 × 400 × 1 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 300 × 300 × 2 30 1400 × 1400 × 40 350 × 350 × 2 35 1600 × 1600 × 40 400 × 400 × 2 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 300 × 300 × 1 30 1400 × 1400 × 40 350 × 350 × 1 35 1600 × 1600 × 40 400 × 400 × 1 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 300 × 300 × 2 30 1400 × 1400 × 40 350 × 350 × 2 35 1600 × 1600 × 40 400 × 400 × 2 40 0.5 1215. The testing regime was identical to the panels in the main program (and described in section 4).6 O90W2C1.4 1330.70 0.7 548. The factor.Behavior of Axially Loaded Concrete Wall Panels with Openings: An Experimental Study Table 2. 8 2012 . Three reinforcing strips cut from F41 mesh were also placed diagonally in each corner of the openings to prevent shrinkage cracking as before.4 O95W1C1.8 195. Predicted and actual failure loads of panels with one or two openings Panel designation Size of panel H × L × tw (mm) Opening size Ho × Lo × n (mm) H/tw O50W1C1.89 0.9 440.2 O95W2C1.7 0.7 268.27 0.94 0.test (kN) 309.93 0.97 0.7 200.7 279.0 311.2 0 0 0 0 0 57.7 470. 15 No.0 286. requires significantly more test results so that it gets calibrated along with k1 and k2.96 0.0 633.10 0.

The test results indicate that failure loads and crack patterns depend on the opening configuration and support conditions.S.4 65.2/T65W1L1.7 676.2 T65W1SB1.15 1.2 T65W1L1.9 582.2 O65D1C1. J.3 60.11 1. Loaded with an eccentricity of tw/6.2 Figure 23.J.3 56.2 CL CL 300 450 300 450 300 450 1200 mm 700 1200 mm CL CL 1200 mm 300 450 300 450 300 1200 mm 450 300 450 CL 300 CL 360 480 600 240 1200 mm 240 450 1200 mm T65W1SL1.7 809. 8 2012 NuEq3/ Nu.0 258. Fragomeni.test (kN) NuEq3 (kN) O65W1W1.5 287.4 755.6 671.2 T65D1C1.2 T65D1L1.3 60.01 1.2 O65W1UL1. the test results indicate that failure loads decreased when the number of openings was increased from one to two.05 1.6 720.2 741.3 60.6 287.5 317.2 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1200 × 1200 × 40 1600 × 1600 × 40 300 × 600 × 1 300 × 300 × 1 300 × 300 × 1 750 × 300 × 1 750 × 300 × 1 300 × 600 × 1 300 × 300 × 1 300 × 300 × 1 750 × 300 × 1 750 × 300 × 1 240 × 240 × 1 240 × 240 × 1 60.2 200 300 700 1200 mm O65D1L1.05 times those of similar one-way panels with openings.4 62.2 T65W1SB1. For two-way panels this axial strength ratio trend was inconclusive.2/T65D1C1.2 O65W1UL1.2 O65W1L1. The Australian Standard (AS3600-2009) wall design equation was found to be inadequate in predicting 1357 .4 176.0 210.test 1.01 1.4 56.0 682. In effect the failure loads of two-way panels with openings are about 2 to 4 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. Predicted and actual failure loads of panels with varying opening configurations Panel designation Size of panel H × L × tw (mm) Opening size Ho × Lo × n (mm) fcm (MPa) Nu. CONCLUSIONS An experimental study was undertaken on a total of forty seven reinforced concrete walls with openings in one and two-way action.20 1.5 715.0 62.4 257.75 1.2 T65W1SL1.2 737.H.2 7.3 60. Lee CL 600 450 600 1200 mm 200 300 300 O65W1W1.2/T65D1L1.2 T65W1UL1.19 1.0 56.2 360 480 240 240 600 480 450 450 O65D1C1. Overall.6 721. Details of typical test wall panels with various openings (dimensions in mm) Table 3.40 0.30 1.4 834.2 700 200 300 1200 mm O65W1L1.2 T65W1W1. these half-scale specimens had high slenderness ratios between 30 and 40.2 O65D1L1. Doh and D. Further the axial strength ratio for oneway panels gradually decreases when slenderness ratios are increased from 30 to 40.7 206.2/T65W1W1.2/T65W1UL1. 15 No.4 65.2 287.8 243.16 1.5 511.7 794.

103–115. 116. “Brief review of studies on concrete wall panels in on and two-way action”. Sanjayan. 4. pp. “Ultimate load formula for reinforced concrete wall panels with openings”. J. 8 2012 . No. S. The recently derived prediction equation for normal strength concrete walls with openings by Doh and Fragomeni (2006) was also used for comparison in this study. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering.H. where predictions give very conservative or even zero capacity.G. No.H. J. 1358 Doh. Concrete Structures. J. Design of Normal and High Strength Reinforced Concrete Walls. “Evaluation of the simplified concrete wall design equation in AS3600-2009”. once further testing is undertaken. 1. The prediction equation was found to give very good prediction of failure loads for the walls tested and can be extended for use for normal and high strength concrete walls with one or two openings and high slenderness. and therefore further refinement of may be necessary.E. AS3600-2001 (2001). 3. J. Fragomeni. S. Australia. Vol. 5. 571–576. D. J. pp. 253–262. (1990).W. International Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology. J. Doh. Vol. The equation does tend to slightly over-estimate failure load in some cases where openings are not symmetrical about the wall axes. PhD Thesis. Doh. and Maheswaran. ACI Structural Journal. Australia. Cement and Concrete Association. London. Gold Coast. This is clearly not the case as test results indicate significant capacities can be achieved. Seddon. S.Behavior of Axially Loaded Concrete Wall Panels with Openings: An Experimental Study failure load for walls with openings. ASCE. pp. “Ultimate strength of RC wall panels in two-way in-plane action”.H. (2010). AS3600-2009 (2009). REFERENCES ACI318-08 (2008). A. and Fragomeni. USA. Vol. Saheb. (1999).H. No. Concrete Structures. Fragomeni. 9. (2002). S. “The strength of concrete walls under axial and eccentric loads”. 1384–1402. 10. University of Melbourne. Griffith University. S. Australia. No. Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. and Fragomeni. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering. 6. pp.. (2006). Symposium on Strength of Concrete Structures. 15 No. S. Vol. (2001). “Evaluation of experimental work on concrete walls in one and two-way action”. Fragomeni. Sydney. May. Australia. 4 No. T. “Load capacity of slender high-strength concrete walls with side supports”. Advances in Structural Engineering. 1. (1995). Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Normal and High Strength Concrete Wall Panels. Experimental and Theoretical study of Normal and High Strength Concrete Wall Panels with Openings. American Concrete Institute. PhD Thesis. Lee. pp.J. and Desayi. pp. Griffith University. PhD Thesis. Detroit. Sydney. Standards Australia. and Kim. (1956). this is particularly so for one-way walls of high slenderness ratio. and Doh. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete.H. Standards Australia. Doh. 38–43. Australia. J. 1. UK. P. Vol. No.M. Journal of Structural Engineering. 96. Vol. (2005). (2008). 37–52.

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