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Judul Artikel: What Is Neuropathy?

Neuropathy Causes And Treatments
Penulis:
Peter
Crosta
M.A.
Neuropathy is a collection of disorders that occurs when nerves of the
peripheral nervous system (the part of the nervous system outside of the brain
and spinal cord) are damaged. The condition is generally referred to as
peripheral neuropathy, and it is most commonly due to damage to nerve axons.
Neuropathy usually causes pain and numbness in the hands and feet. It can
result from traumatic injuries, infections, metabolic disorders, and exposure to
toxins. One of the most common causes of neuropathy is diabetes.
Neuropathy can affect nerves that control muscle movement (motor nerves) and
those that detect sensations such as coldness or pain (sensory nerves). In
some cases - autonomic neuropathy - it can affect internal organs, such as the
heart,
blood
vessels,
bladder,
or
intestines.
Pain from peripheral neuropathy is often described as a tingling or burning
sensation. There is no specific length of time that the pain exists, but symptoms
often improve with time - especially if the neuropathy has an underlying
condition that can be cured. The condition is often associated with poor
nutrition, a number of diseases, and pressure or trauma, but many cases have
no
known
reason
(called
idiopathic
neuropathy).
In the United States, about 20 million people suffer from neuropathy. Over half
of
diabetes
patients
also
suffer
from
the
condition.
How


is

neuropathy

classified?

Peripheral neuropathy can be broadly classified into the following categories:
Mononeuropathy - involvement of a single nerve. Examples include
carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar nerve palsy, radial nerve palsy, and peroneal
nerve palsy.
Multiple mononeuropathy - two or more nerves individually affected.
Polyneuropathy - generalized involvement of peripheral nerves.
Examples include diabetic neuropathy and Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Neurophathies may also be categorized based on a functional classification
(motor, sensory, autonomic, or mixed) or the type of onset (acute - hours or
days, subacute - weeks or months, or chronic - months or years).
The most common form of neuropathy is (symmetrical) peripheral
polyneuropathy, which mainly affects the feet and legs on both sides of the
body.
What

causes

neuropathy?

About 30% of neuropathy cases are considered idiopathic, which means they
are of unknown cause. Another 30% of neuropathies are due to diabetes. In
fact, about 50% of people with diabetes develop some type of neuropathy. The

such as Charcot-MarieTooth disease and amyloid polyneuropathy Poison exposure. It is not uncommon for this type of neuropathy to lead to a loss of balance and coordination. including: Trauma or pressure on nerves. What are the symptoms of neuropathy? Neuropathy symptoms depend on several factors. which often press up against nerves Other diseases and infections. rheumatoid arthritis. Neuropathy is also more likely to occur in people with kidney. Sensory nerve damage can cause various symptoms. or electric-like. and many report a sensation of wearing an invisible "glove" or "stocking". those who abuse alcohol or have vitamin deficiencies (especially B vitamins) are at an increased risk. or an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) Inherited disorders (hereditary neuropathies). liver or thyroid disorders. and spasms. often from a lack of B vitamins Alcoholism. Damage to arm nerves may make it difficult to do routine tasks like carry bags. autonomic). People with diabetes who poorly control their blood sugar levels are very likely to suffer from some neuropathy. such as lupus. often through poor dietary habits and vitamin deficiencies Autoimmune diseases. or turn door knobs. chiefly where the affected nerves are located and which type of nerves are affected (motor. Patients may find it difficult to walk or run. In addition. AIDS patients. cramps. numbness. or tire easily. have several possible causes. open jars. such as an impaired sense of position.        remaining cases of neuropathy. freezing. Autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis also increase one's chance of developing a neuropathy. Pain from this neuropathy is often described as burning. Motor nerve damage usually leads to symptoms that affect muscles such as muscle weakness. and certain medications and cancer treatments Who gets neuropathy? Risk factors for peripheral neuropathy include several conditions and behaviors. and others who have had some type of immune system suppression have a higher risk of neuropathy. such as kidney disease. often from a cast or crutch or repetitive motion such as typing on a keyboard Nutritional problems and vitamin deficiencies. called acquired neuropathies. pinching and pain. from toxins such as heavy metals. Some neuropathies suddenly arise while others come on gradually over the course of years. stumble. Lyme disease. These . feel like they have heavy legs. sensory. and GuillainBarre syndrome Tumors. Several types of neuropathy affect all three types of nerves. tingling. People who have received organ transplants. HIV/AIDS. liver disease.

where a small portion of nerve is removed and examined under a microscope. and can become painful and sever. Autonomic nerve damage affects internal organs and involuntary functions and can lead to abnormal blood pressure and heart rate. Antidepressants. constipation. The standard diagnostic process begins with a full medical history with physical and neurological exams that will examine tendon reflexes. thyroid function tests. Topical applications of capsaicin (the chemical that makes peppers hot) has also been used to treat neuropathic pain. Another class of medicines commonly prescribed for neuropathy is that of anticonvulsants. but are less favored because of the risk of dependency. are a favored treatment for neuropathies. It is not a single disease. Physicians may also recommend a nerve biopsy. However. How is neuropathy diagnosed? Peripheral neuropathy is often not easy to diagnose. opioids have been the most consistently effective in reducing pain. bladder dysfunction. can relieve the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Alternative therapies for peripheral neuropathy include cannabinoids (an class of chemicals found in marijuana). Botulinum Toxin Type A (better known as . On the contrary. sensory nerve damage may lead to a lessening or absence of sensation. and thinning of the skin. the ability to feel sensations. where nothing at all is felt. and posture and coordination. but a symptom with often several potential causes. Other common tests include urinalysis. such as post-herpes neuralgia. reduced ability to perspire. sexual dysfunction. In June 2012. an antidepressant. They will relieve neuropathic pain in non-depressed persons. They range from traditional pills and creams to special diets and therapies that stimulate the nervous system. Opioid narcotic treatments for neuropathy are used as well to treat the condition. How is neuropathy treated? There are a variety of treatments available for peripheral neuropathy. These medicines block calcium channels on neurons to limit pain. muscle strength and tone. incontinence. diarrhea. For some types of neuropathy. especially tricyclics and selective serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors (SNRI's). researchers from the University of Michigan School of Nursing reported that Cymbalta (duloxetine).sensations tend to be worse at night. and a nerve conduction study that includes electromyography (to measure electrical discharges produced in muscles). Blood tests are also common in order for doctors to measure levels of vitamin B-12. physicians recommend treatment with a topical anesthetic such as lidocaine.

sweet potatoes. The human body needs them to work properly. carrots. lungs. Massages of hands and feet may also aid neuropathy management by stimulating nerves and temporarily relieving pain. and vitamin K.g. lamb. Vitamin A can be found in eggs. yoga. reproduction and for the development of epithelial cells (that line any opening to the body e. in some cases are produced by the body. butter. and the ‘water-soluble vitamins’ which include vitamin C and the group of molecules referred to as the vitamin B complex. turkey or beef). tooth development. vitamin E. Vitamins are divided into two major groups: the ‘fat-soluble vitamins’ designated as vitamin A. dietary supplements (such as alpha lipoic and benfotiamine). nectarines. intestines and urinary tract). fish oil. and are also produced synthetically. stomach. Their deficiency results in many serious disorders. mouth. meditation. Vitamin A Vitamin A.. and accupuncture. milk. hair. cuts. chicken. nose. Vitamins (combination of two words: Vital Amines) are the complex organic substance essential in small quantities to the metabolism (nutrition) in most animals. plays a really big part in eyesight and helps us to see in dim light and also at night. a fat-soluble vitamin. In addition. electrodes that stimulate the motor cortex of the brain. throat. and mucous membranes. cantaloupe. These include both implantable and non-implantable technologies (electrical and chemical) such as spinal cord stimulators. Each of them has its own special role in the development of human body. Patients should also quit smoking and eat healthful meals. Good foot health is important. chiropractic massages. it is advised to avoid prolonged pressure on knees or elbows in order to prevent new nerve damage. liver (pork. Finally. A final class of therapies for neuropathy are called neuromodulators. it is necessary for proper bone growth. so that we can grow and develop just like we should. These are found in minute quantities in food.Botox). How can neuropathy be managed and prevented? There are several ways to manage neuropathy and prevent its symptoms. vitamin D. spinach. Patients should check feet for blisters. especially for diabetics. and orange or yellow vegetables . NMDA antagonists (such as ketamine). implanted spinal pumps. and methods called deep brain stimulation. Doctors can recommend an exercise plan that will reduce neuropathy pain and control blood sugar levels. broccoli. or calluses and avoid tight fitting shoes and socks. Vitamin A is also involved in the formation and maintenance of healthy skin. apricots. cognitive therapy.

bumps of coiled hair on the arms and legs. beans. affects normal growth and disturbs the nervous system. malformation of red blood cells. The deficiency of vitamin A can cause two major disorders like: night blindness and drying of skin. Some bacteria in our large intestine also prepare some type of B-vitamins. broccoli. a protein that gives structure to bones. B12. Vitamin C Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a water-soluble. In addition. Vitamin D can be found in fish liver oil. The sources of vitamin B are leafy green vegetables seafood. milk and other dairy products fortified with vitamin D. cracked lips. In addition it helps your body absorb the amount of calcium it needs. poultry. antioxidant vitamin that is vital to the production of collagen. muscle wasting. B2.or fruits. and blood vessels. cabbage and in other fresh fruits and vegetables. Vitamin D Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that regulates the formation of bone and the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine. tomatoes. strawberries. meats. The deficiency of vitamin C affects the healthy skin. niacin. It is important for keeping body tissues. cartilage. and many other problems. These B vitamins are very important in metabolic activity and in facilitating the red blood cell (which carry oxygen throughout your body). Vitamin B Vitamin B itself is a complex of different vitamins like: B1. cantaloupe. biotin and pantothenic acid. poor wound healing and can lead to a disease called “Scurvy” which causes bleeding in gums. easy bruising. egg yolks. pain in the joints. citrus fruits. . It is also produced in our body in the presence of ultra violet light and sunlight. It is this vitamin you need for strong bones and teeth. and vice versa. The vitamin C can be found in citrus fruits (like lemon & orange). They also help your body make protein and energy. weak muscles. B6. eggs and dairy products (like milk and yogurt). it helps protecting the fat-soluble vitamins A and E as well as fatty acids from oxidation. The deficiency of vitamin B can cause the disease “Beri Beri”. muscle. folic acid. peas. whole grains (such as wheat and oats). It helps to control the movement of calcium between bone and blood. such as gums and muscles in good shape and it helps in quick healing of wounds.

and Alzheimer's disease. is essential for the inhibition of oxidation in body tissues. cereals and seeds. it is a whole lot easier to prevent putting on pounds than to try losing them later on. nausea. leafy green vegetables. It maintains the body tissues and protects the lungs from becoming damaged by polluted air. The deficiency of this vitamin can cause many diseases like cancer. others having to do with looks. Contoh artikel kesehatan bahasa inggris yang lain: Natural Weight Loss: When you do not have to Go Over Eat right. nuts. And its excess can cause loss of appetite. heart disease. Vitamin E Vitamin E. In addition. And if there is one thing we all know. egg yolks. depression and deposits of calcium in the kidneys. wheat germ. headache. But the fact is. keep moving. formation of red blood cells. some related to health. but not for 35% of Americans who are unable to prevent being overweight. once we are overweight. a fat-soluble vitamin. That simple set of instructions should be easy to follow. bread. sardines. Of course. and also prevents breakdown of body tissues. it is that weight gain is likely to happen if we do not take forward-looking steps to stop it. This vitamin can be found in whole grains (such as wheat and oat). You just have read all that you need to know about how to prevent being overweight. diabetes. it is never too late to lose weight. . we usually want to trim down for a whole lot of reasons. weight loss.The deficiency of vitamin D can cause weak bones and bowed legs (in children).

some health experts contend that the significance of excess weight is more than cosmetic. Fat is the sour cream and butter you should not put on it. a reasonable approach for losing weight naturally is to stick to a diet that is high in complex carbohydrates. They say that it takes a huge toll on people’s physical health. experts say. Also. The Way to Losing Weight…Naturally The nuts and bolts of eating right maintaining a healthy weight is not all that complicated. Fiber is vegetables. Protein is a lean cut of meat. A complex carbohydrate is a baked potato. health experts say that dietary fat promotes weight gain because it is a very dense source of calories. you store those calories as body fat more efficiently than excess calories from other sources. Fat is the oil you should not fry them in. In fact. Fat is the gravy you should not pour over it. In fact. . it is a good bet that most people know pretty well what is best. Hence. They tend to go back to their old eating habits even after they learn to enjoy low-fat eating. high in fiber. They tend to return to sedentary ways even though they enjoy exercising.Health experts say that most people who are into losing weight usually stray. Moreover. you can stop it from happening. And there are plenty of good reasons to avoid excess pounds. losing weight the natural way should not be a problem at all. reasons that go beyond vanity or social acceptance. But despite the momentum toward weight gain. and low in fat. when you consume excess calories from dietary fat. Consequently. moderate in protein.

you have to keep track of every food you eat and of every activity that you do. One of the greatest delusions of the 1990s is that “no fat” means “nonfattening. When you feel the urge for food coming on. What’s more. you are often getting just as many calories from the no-fat version. When you say natural weight loss means that you do not have to use some accessories or helpful aids just to lose weight. Losing weight naturally is a process and not a fad. and discipline just to achieve your ideal weight. which may mean a nutritious low-fat snack between lunch and dinner. it would take a lot of dogged determination. Hence.” The truth is. it is best to respond to hunger with healthful snacks. snacking on something healthy such as a slice of whole-grain toasted bread is a better alternative. Manufacturers keep coming out with low-fat or fat-free versions of their best-selling foods. but Americans keep getting fatter anyway.On the other hand. even if the calories are not coming from fat. . it can also help you lose weight naturally if you will not fall into the so-called “fat-free” trap. if you want to lose weight naturally. Remember. The term fat-free can be a trap if you start to believe that you can eat any amount of the foods that are advertised that way. Health experts say it would be better to try eating every three to four hours. self-control. Never skip a meal and eat snacks instead because that is the worst thing you can do if you are trying to control your eating habits and weight.