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International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering

2015; 4(3): 153-167
Published online May 13, 2015 (
doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20150403.14
ISSN: 2326-957X (Print); ISSN: 2326-960X (Online)

Multi Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Cubic
Cost Functions
Moses Peter Musau, Nicodemus Odero Abungu, Cyrus Wabuge Wekesa
Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Email address: (M. P. Musau), (N. O. Abungu), (C. W. Wekesa)

To cite this article:
Moses Peter Musau, Nicodemus Odero Abungu, Cyrus Wabuge Wekesa. Multi Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Cubic Cost
Functions. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, pp. 153-167. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20150403.14

Abstract: The formulation and solution of the Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) problem is one of the key disciplines in
modern power system operation, planning, operation and control. Past researches have considered DED on Quadratic Cost
Functions (QCF), with only few works considering higher order cost functions which are more accurate. The Static Economic
Dispatch (SED) has been widely tackled in past researches, however, it is the DED problem that represents a real life power
system. There is need to review this problem and establish a more practical formulation of the same taking into consideration
all the objectives and constraints possible. The methods used in the solution of DED problem have evolved from the traditional
deterministic ones, to the pure heuristic, and finally to the state of the heart hybrids. The hybrids methods have been developed
to exalt the strengths and improve the weaknesses of the base method. Such optimisation methods need to be reviewed and
classified. This paper will do an in depth review of the DED problem on both quadratic and cubic cost functions. Further it will
provide a detailed classification of the methods used to solve the problem as its complexity increases. Consequently, three
method Hybrids is the way go as far as the solution of the cubic Multi Objective DED (MODED) with five objectives is

Keywords: Cubic Cost Functions (CCF), Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED), Hybrid Methods,
Multi Objective DED (MODED)

1. Introduction
The fuel cost in in existing textbooks, for example
Optimization of Power System Operation [1] is generally
assumed to be a smooth Static ED (SED) modeled as a
Quadratic Cost Function(QCF).According to Jizhong Zhu,
pp85-88, (2006) [1], this definition however makes many
assumptions which are impractical to real systems. These
assumptions include ignoring emissions, uncertainties,
reactive power dispatch, ramp rates, valve points and
integration of Renewable Energy (RE) generators. These
assumptions are impractical in the real time power system
and can no longer be ignored. Consideration of such
assumptions in ED formulation leads to the DED formulation
and solution.
DED optimization problem is one of the most important
issues which must be taken into consideration in power
systems planning and operation. DED is aimed at planning
the power output for each devoted generator unit in such a
way that the operating cost is minimized and simultaneously,

matching real and reactive load demand, power operating
limits and above all maintaining the system stability. Further,
the security challenges and power trade issues need to be
addressed in such a formulation. Based on convention,
electrical power systems are operated based on minimizing
operational cost while maintaining all the system constraints
in place.
The integration of renewable energy into the grid and the
need to account for the emission and transmission (real and
reactive) losses in a more accurate sense has greatly affected
the way in which the DED problem is formulated and solved.
This is due to the use of different generators which utilize
various fuels and the fact that their real and reactive power
outputs are not deterministic but stochastic in such a case.
Thus, there has been a desperate need to review the
formulation and solution of the existing DED problem.
The Thermal, Renewable Energy (RE), Emissions and
Transmission Loss cost functions when considered

type of coast function and published works with RE cost functions. Altun and T.P. Hybrid methods which do accommodate the uncertain RE will replace the static ones which are restricted to one or two objectives. Kwatny. In addition. Modern Power System Operation and Planning Power system operation and control problem include the Unit Commitment (UC).2008 [7] for the SED. operation and control. Hydro-Thermal Scheduling (HTS). Many practical applications in optimization often involve many goals to be satisfied simultaneously. Momoh et al . This will lead to improved ED. J. The paper has been divided into six main sections. Where more than two objectives are taken into consideration. Power System Planning. the existing hybrids must also be tested on higher order cost functions for the MODED with more objectives. 2.The DED problem has not been addressed and researched as thoroughly as other power optimization problems. This means that the inclusion of the RE into the ED problem can no longer be ignored since the security. the DED occupies a prominent place in a power system’s planning. and DED which are integrated to each other. the nonlinear and non-convex characteristics of the cubic cost functions(CCF) are more prevalent in the DED problem more so with the increasing number of objectives and constraints. According to a review of the Science Direct databases. The work presented in this research paper is different in that it categorizes earlier work based on the optimization algorithms. The SODED has been considered on a Quadratic Cost Function which is less accurate. 1977 [9]. As the MODED gets more complex. advanced voltage profile and better trade on electrical power. In power system planning. a MODED problem results.E. Further. Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) involves the formulation and solution of the thermal ED such that the ramp rates. This is as shown in the Figure 2. the number of publications on DED is on increase. This is because the higher order cost functions have proved to be more accurate and realistic than the traditional Quadratic ones. improved and higher order cost functions will continue to replace the Quadratic ones. 2010. Operation and Control [3]. From the published works sampled. There is an introduction to power system operation and planning.2009 [6] .E.: Multi Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Cubic Cost Functions individually. In practice. Dealing with multiple and conflicting objectives in optimization engineering has always been a challenging undertaking.H. the number of works integrating the Renewable Energy (RE) into the DED problem have been increasing significantly. Table 1. Early research works addressing this aspect were published by . Similar to most of the realworld complex engineering optimization problems.2009 [5] for the OPF and A. reactive power and multi area problems of the economic dispatch has been considered in a static environment and using the classical methods.E. This research paper aims at addressing the MODED problem by providing a detailed review of the existing DED works in terms of the problem formulation and the solution methods used.Bechert and H. emission and transmission line losses in a more accurate scenario in which the five main objectives are handled simultaneously in a fully constrained environment. number and type of constraints. Mahor et al . operation and control. the thermal cost functions has been taken as the base cost function then the other functions and the corresponding constraints have been added depending on the interest of the researcher. results in a Single Objective DED (SODED). Survey of published works dealing with these optimization problems include N. there is not as many studies of the DED problem and it has not been as thoroughly investigated as other electric power system optimization areas of study [3]. 1972 [8] and T. Padhy. Optimal Power Flow (OPF).R. However there is need to consider all these objectives and constraints simultaneously since they do affect the modern power system in such a practical manner. Yalcinoz . number of objective functions involved.G. This signifies the undeniable importance of investigating the DED problem.1999 [4] and M. formulation of MODED and the existing sub problems. three and four method hybrids will be embraced for more accurate realistic results. Figure 1 illustrates annual published research on DED according to a review of the Science Direct databases [3].154 Moses Peter Musau et al. MODED is a good example of such problems. Optimization Area % Publications SED 21 DED 4 OPF 27 HTS 14 3. SED. Bechert and Nanming Chen. Xia et al. reactive power and multi area aspects of the power system are affected . a classification of DED optimization methods and the review conclusion. there are SED and DED problems where the latter considers additional practical constraints. increased system security. MODED review.2004 [2] for the UC. The goal of DED is to determine the optimal power outputs of online generating units in order to meet the load demand subject to satisfying various operational equality and inequality constraints over finite dispatch periods. In most researches. valve points and all the possible constraints are accounted for. Al Rashid and M. ElHawary.This is evident in Table 1. Most of the existing security. Also. There is need to reconsider these problems in the MODED with the stochastic RE. As evident in Table 1. [10] offered a review of DED highlighting the problem constraints and some available solution methods. DED overview.As shown in the figure. The Multi Objective DED(MODED) which is well suited for the modern smart grid need to be revisited to include wind .

2006[14] M. MODED Review The history of the MODED problem dates back to early 2000 when transmission losses were considered as a cost function other than a constraint leading to the formulation of the first 2-objective MODED[12] Table 2.2005[13] M.E.E Solution Method(s) Non Linear Constrained Method (NLCM ) Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) Multi Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO MOPSO) SPEA and Strength Pareto Genetic Algorithm (SPGA) Con 2 3 5 4 Type Q Q Q Q Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) 3 Q Evolutionary Programming (EP) and Fuzzy Logic (FL)-(EP-FL) (FL) Simulated Annealing (SA) and Direct Search Method (DSM)-(SA-DSM) (DSM) Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (ENSGA-II) (ENSGA Preference-based Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm lgorithm (PNDSGA) 4 4 3 5 Q Q Q Q .E T.2009[11] M.A. Researcher Faisal .Chen.P Brent. From the table. Further the problem need to be constrained further for more realistic results. 2 MODED Problem with Quadratic Cost Function (QCF).TL T.The summary includes the number and types of objectives. the type of method used and the number of constraints.2010 [20] n 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 Objectives T.International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2015.2009[16]. M . 2007 [18] M. Basu.E T.2 summarizes the MODED problem so far. DED Publications Since 1970s[3]. 2003 [12] Zhao Bo and Cao Yi-Jia.W.A Abibo.A Abibo. 2007 [17] C .Basu. Amitah Mahor .Basu.S.E T.W T. DED Publications with RE Since 1970s[3]. Figure 2. Table 2.TL T. 2006 [15]. 4. it is clear that there is need to solve the MODED with all the five major objectives considered simultaneously on cubic cost functions. 4(3): 153-167 67 155 Figure 1.TL T E T. Mohamed . 2008 [19] R.

n. Krishnamurthy.2006[38] T Static 2 Lambda-logic based T. cost objective function S-Solar cost objective function E-Emissions cost objective function TL-Transmission Losses) Con-Number of constraints 4 Method Gram-Schmidt.a very crucial issue in DED studies is to determine the order and approximate the coefficients of the polynomial used to model the cost function.2012 [35] T Static 2 Firefly Algorithm Krishnamurthy .A Amoli et al.2012[36] T.2014[40] T Static 8 Teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) Reference Objectives Z.Jiang and S.X Liang and J.: Multi Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Cubic Cost Functions Researcher Zwe-Lee Gaing et al .Subramanial et al. it is clear that cubic renewable and transmission losses cost functions have not been considered.2009 [21] Alsumait et al. 2006[34]. 2014[33]. there is need to use more advanced hybrid methods for better results in these complex problems Table 3.E Hari Mohan D.2013[25] Azza A. A summary of ED works using cubic cost functions is provided in Table 3. C-Cubic Function. BF and Nelder-Mead(NM) (FL-BF-NM) PSO-General Search Algorithm (PSO-GSA) Yusuf Somez.E.2013[32] T.Jiang and S.B Elanchezhian et al.TL T. DED works using cubic cost functions include Bharathkumar S et al.W Solution Method(s) Bacterial Foraging(BF)-PSO-Differential Evolution-(DE) (BF-PSO-DE) Pattern Search (PS) Sequential Approach with Matrix Framework (SAMF) Model Predictive Control (MPC) Penalty-Based Algorithm (PBA) Weighted Aggregation (WA) and PSO(WAPSO) Variable Time Resolution (VTR) and Scheduling Horizon (SH)-(VTRSH) Con 4 3 6 5 4 7 4 Type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 2 T.156 Moses Peter Musau et al.W.E T.2014[33] T.From the table. n.E Static 2 Langrange Method T.Number of objective T-Thermal cost objective function W-Wind.Amoli et al. the cubic cost function provided more accurate and practical results as compared to lower order cost functions.2013 [24] Haiwang Zhong et al.This provided better results as compared to the quadratic functions.X Liang and J.S et al .D Glover. T Nature of objective functions Static Number of Constraints(n) - T Static 3 Dynamic programming(DP) A. Hari M.S T.A. Deepak Mishra et al.1991[29]. ED with Cubic Cost al. According Z.TL T.X Liang et al. 2012 [36] used the static cubic function of the emissions dispatch in the Multi Objective Static ED(MOSED) using the Lagrange Method(LM).Adhinarayananand M. a third order polynomial is realistic in modelling the operating cost for a nonmonotonically increasing cost curve.2014[28] n 2 3 3 2 4 2 Objectives T.1992 [30] Key Q-Quadratic Function.D Glover .D et al.E Multi Objective Computer Programming Based Method(MOCPBM) 5 Q Key Q-Quadratic Function. 2013 [26] Bakirtzis et al .1995 [31] to obtain accurate ED results.E Static DED with ramp rates and valve points Static 5 Newton Method(NM) Fuzzy Logic (FL).Sydulu.S.2014 [27] Soubache ID and Sudhakara Reddy.S et al .E T. 2010 [23] Chunghun et al. cost objective function S-Solar cost objective function E-Emissions cost objective function TL-Transmission Losses) Con-Number of constraints ED with cubic cost functions has been studied in the recent past .Ertem.Ertem. In all these studies. 2013[32]. Further.E T. Least Squares .X Liang et al.2006 [34] T General static 2 OR-Hopefield Neural Network N. and N. ElDesouky. 2010 [22] S.Sydulu. 20 12[35].1991[29] Z.Adhinarayananand M.W.1992 [30] and A. C-Cubic Function. According to Z.1995 [31] T 2 B.Number of objective T-Thermal cost objective function W-Wind. This helps in reducing the error between the approximated polynomial along with its coefficients and the actual operating cost.2010 [39] T Static 2 Lambda-logic based E.2013[37] T General static 2 ABC Deepak Mishra et al.

[47] [48] and [26]. . + L(. Network loss is a function of power injection at each node [30].[44]. 2013[136] as is given by F = +∑ . + L M$. The operational cost objective function for wind power generation is formulated as 157 $ ∑$ 76 89: 49: 899 49 . += . + (4) # In this case.[35]. Consequently. All these works have considered emissions using the quadratic function which is less accurate[29].2013 [26]for the solar and John Hetzer et al . is expressed using B. Since the power stations are usually spread out geographically. ) + . The formulations adopted in this paper are based on the work of Azza A. the MODED . . ./0 − . .. the cubic form of the SODED results. Similarly.[23].[43]. is the weighted cost function representing the cost based on wind speed profile [26]../0 . '.. + = . + '.[42]. The DED takes the ramp rate limits./0 − 3 + 3 (5) is the weighted cost function representing cost based on solar irradiance profile '. + sin ( − ). (5).. and are the cost coefficients of the " # unit./0 is the penalty reserve requirement cost which is due to the fact that that actual or available power is less than the scheduled wind power.BCD 4@.. the implementation of ED combined Thermal and RE(TRE) systems has become of paramount importance.[45]. Where the real power system transmission losses./0 −. El Desouky. transmission network losses must be taken into account to achieve true economic dispatch.. '1. + =(. and '1.. PL.+ (7) This can be expressed as a cubic function = =$ $ + =( ( += += (8) The cost of transmission line losses between plants are accounted with the actual fuel cost function by using a price factor > .BCD E∑@G9 ? 45@A.. ( . The general form of DED was formulated by Yusuf Somez.. exp Q$. is the penalty cost for not using all the available wind power and '1. +L + (12) . .This factor is defined as the ratio between the fuel cost at its maximum power output to the maximum power output .45 3 . + (. From equations (2).[46].When L=3.45 3 − 3 . + + sin ( − ) (1) Where ./0 ) is the penalty reserve requirement cost due to the fact that the actual or available power is less than the scheduled PV power. .. + (2) Also the SODED can be written as min ' = ∑+ ∑* ' . . It is given by E = L E . exp(Q ./0 − 3 is the penalty cost for not using all the available solar power.. is the scheduled output of the " wind generator in the 2 # hour '.BCD (9) Thus. When the loss expression is expanded for a particular number of generators and buses. − . ( . is the output power of the " # unit at time m. . +∑ = $ L . . (10) and (12).That is for this multi objective case > = F H ∑I @G9 ? 4@A.. ) = L$. + M . valve points and prohibited operating zone of the generating units into consideration. . the equation becomes = (3) where . the more accurate equation for estimating the emissions cost is the third (cubic ) form and it is the function which will be used in the proposed research. 2 is the number of buses in the system. 6) is the " # element of the loss coefficient matrix and 6 is the constant loss coefficient .coefficients by the relation =∑ 3 .2008 [41] for the wind cost functions. $. N is the number of generation units and M is the number of hours in the time horizon To maximize the outcome of the Renewable energy(RE) systems. − . the operational cost objective function for the PV power generation plant is formulated as [133] ' 3 = $ (%$ ) =' '1. MODED Formulation DED considers change-related costs.BCD E∑@G9 ? -@A.$ .$ ( . + + M(. This can be expressed as F (% ) = min ' = $. the cost function for the losses at a particular time becomes F .45 3 + '. = ( (%( ) = '. J (%J ) = = min ' = ∑ > =$. = .[19]. 6 is the "2 # element of the loss coefficient Square matrix. Some of these can be found in [11]. R (%R ) . (4). (.45 3 − 3 . ∑ +∑ 6 6 +6 (6) Where " is the number of generators .+ 6 + ( 8<< 89: 49: ∑( 76 899 49 .. is the lower generation bound for it unit and is the error associated with the ith equation. transmission loss is one important constraint since the generating centers and the connected load exist in geographically distributed scenario. . $./0 While attempting to find an optimum DED of generation. (11) .. $ .just to list a few. 4(3): 153-167 5. ) ' .International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2015. + (10) Several works on combined economic and emissions dispatch (CEED) have been considered in the past research.

M and S are the number of thermal wind farm and PV power plants. z+ is the number of online units for the area m . … .N.w . Applications of 5-Objective MODED The MODED formulated can be used to investigate Multi Area Multi Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch (MAMODED. F . 211-248. … . The multi area single objective economic dispatch (MASOED) problem formulation is given by min ' = min ∑+ ∑ *H ( ( +w +x ) (17) Where Is the power output of generator n in area m. Transmission line and Emissions Cost functions can be represented by (16g) (16i) ^)__ ≤ / (16j) T . + + T( E . /a ˆ = 1.3 … … . Spatial DP(SDP). are the fuel cost coefficients. which include RPED.3. to . ‹ = 1. • ( Ž i•. + 3 )Y ≤ ] * min 'U. 3 . This is the dynamic MAED(MAMODED) problem In the event that the power in these areas is changing significantly. According to Jizhong Zhu.* ( ) (19) Subject to Area power balance constraints (APBC) + $ The Multi Area Multi Objective DED (MAMODED) which incorporates the Renewable Energy. 1 W∑ * + Ω(. . [\ .3 … . (2006) [1]. Œ( •) . ≤ . only static MAED is considered. [\ T( are non-negative weights used to make tradeoff (relative importance )between emission security and total fuel cost considering the three fuels such that T +T( =1.1 (16c) 0 ≤ 3 ≤ 3cd BCD − e − 1 W∑* ^ /a ≤ ^ ≤ e ^ /a (16e) ≤ hg (16f) i = 1. + 3 )Y ≤ ] + ≤ / (20d) Generation constraint (GRC) | |≤ . are the fuel cost coefficients for area m and unit n. z (20c) Uncertainty constraint 6. ^ is the total ] real power loss for multi area system. w . M is the number of are z+ is the number of online units for the area M . the classical methods of MAED solution are no longer applicable in such stochastic environments . DP. n ≤ 4o. … .: Multi Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Cubic Cost Functions can be formulated as minF = minST ∑* ' ∑U ' 3 + F . V (13) Or minF = minWT ' + T( XY = T' + (1 − T) (14) Where ' = ∑* ' + ∑+ ' .+ = min ∑+ (16h) − + ( ) + (18) ∑ *„ '+. . Other methods of solving the MAED problems are explained in [49]-[59]. pp. + ∑U 3 = ≤ ] + ^)__ /a ≤ (16b) 0 ≤ . + ∑+ ' . '+.+. These include NFP with multi area wheeling (NFPMAW).2..y .2. The power allocation to each unit is done in such a manner that after supplying the total load. ONN. z‘ is the number of loads in area m. z is the number of tie lines and is the active power flow in the tie line t The objectives of reactive power (VAR) optimization. are to improve the voltage profile. is the active load at node n in the area m. In these methods however.2.. \ .Thus more advanced hybrids must be applied to solved the MADED problem which has gained a lot of interest with the integration of renewable energy into the grid . is the power output of generator n in area m . When a MAED problem is solved with spinning reserve constraints and RE cost functions the problem becomes further complicated. /a Tie-line power flow limit | |≤ . [\ y . EP and NLCNFP. some specified reserve is left for security reasons. pq ≥ 4o. [\ X = ∑*. Thus. the multi area single objective DED (MASODED) with a cubic objective function that is of interest in the proposed research is defined by the relation min '+.2.2. 3 + (15) Subject to ∑* + ∑+ . ≤ (20b) . many approaches have been considered for static MAED.U X + ∑U ' .+ = min ∑+ ∑ H + + + sin ( (16d) ≤ fg − (16a) AHP.stus + Ω(.3.3.These are discussed in this section.u‰Š (20e) In this formulation. Dynamic Reactive Power MODED (DRPMODED) and the Security Constrained MODED (SCMODED).+ is the MAMODED problem to be solved in the proposed research. z(Ž["ˆ•) and • = 1. [ = 1. T Is the algebraic sum of the individual weight of the four objectives? … 6x = ∑+ ∑ *H − ∑+ ∑ *† ] − ^ = 0 (20a) Generator capacity limit constraint ≤ .158 Moses Peter Musau et al.

’ is the real and reactive powers injected at bus i. EAs generally perform unconstrained searches. [67]-[71]. transformer tap changing. zŠ is the number of capacitor banks and z“ is the number of generator buses. . z4› is the number of PQ buses and ˜ is the voltage angle difference between bus I and bus j The security . especially during real .Wind Based DFIGs.3 … … . and PV generators. – .SVC. + + sin ( − ) The SOSCDED in the proposed research uses the more accurate cubic function and incorporates the error .International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2015. there is certainly a need for decision making tools in predominantly fluctuating and uncertain computational environments. the size of power systems and prevailing constraints produce strenuous circumstances for system operators to correct voltage problems at any given time. [66]. Ÿ is the apparent power flow through the ith branch. However. (.2. z6 − 1 = 0.Solving ORPED is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values compared to that of conventional gradientbased methods. while the other constraint handling methods remain untested.+ = ∑ ∈* ' (4 Where (22e) (22f) Reactive power balance where ˆ• is the tap setting of transformer at branch k State variables ’Š 159 @) (25) . $. and they require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. 4(3): 153-167 minimize system active power losses. The fuel cost in terms of reactive power output can be expressed as F ’“ = ”. " = (22a) 3 – sin ˜ − 6 cos ˜ 1. + . " ∈ z (22g) ∑* ’u + ∑* ’¡ = ∑•*¢ ’‘• + ’ (22h) In this formulation ’Š is the reactive power generated by the ith capacitor bank. ’‘• Reactive power load at load bus k and ’ Power system reactive power power loss and absorption . shunt capacitors. The main objective of electric power dispatch is to provide electricity to the customers at low cost and high reliability. However. + . In such cases. + (.’u Reactive power generated by generator i.3 … … .) and ” are the reactive power cost coefficients calculated using a curve fitting method ’“ is the reactive power generated by generator " and [ is the order of the fuel cost function Subject to Power balance constraints 1. (21) where ”. Methods applied so far to solve the SORPED are as found in [60]-[65].U = ∑ ∈* ' (4 @) (23) Where ' (4 @) = (. Transmission line failures constitute a great threat to the electric power system security.) +∑ ” ’“.Further . The several approaches to solve the SCED from 1952 to 2014are presented in [1]. There has been a growing interest in VAR optimization problems over the last decade. (. However. ’¡ Reactive power generated and absorbed by VAR compensation device j such as capacitors.power loss and emissions functions to the energy security of the power system is formulated as 'U. The multi objective SCED(MOSCDED) which investigates the effects of renewable energy . 3 is the voltage magnitude at bus j. the excessive time consumption of EP and GAs will limit their applications in power systems. " = (22b) * − 3 ∑ • 3 – cos ˜ + 6 sin ˜ ’ −3 ∑ *™š Continuous control variable (Generator Bus Voltage) 3 ≤3 ≤3 /a " ∈ z8 (22c) Discrete control variable (Transformer Tap Settings) ˆ• ≤ ˆ• ≤ ˆ• /a " ∈ zž (22d) ’“ ≤ ’Š ≤ ’Š /a " ∈ zŠ ≤ ’“ ≤ ’“ /a " ∈ z“ |Ÿ | ≤ Ÿ /a .valve points and ram rate terms. and SVC. ’“ is the reactive power generated at bus i.constrained economic dispatch (SCED) is one of the simplified optimal power flow (OPF) problems. .U = ∑ ∈* ' (4 @) (24) where ' (4 @) = $. In the literature. Where 3 is the voltage magnitude at bus i . Thus better method are needed to handle the more complex problems where stochastic reactive power from wind and solar generators are involved. Single objective SCDED (SOSCDED) problem is formulated as 'U. z8 − 1 is the total number of buses excluding the slack bus.2. . power system operators utilize control options such as adjusting generator excitation. z8 is the total number of buses. and to determine optimal VAR compensation placement under various operating conditions. + ). The static single objective SCED (SSOSCED) problem is formulated as 'U.time operation. zž "• the number of tap setting transformer branches. to solve ORPD the penalty function approach has been commonly used. To achieve these objectives. It is widely used in power industry. 6 is the mutual conductance and suspectance between bus I and j . + ). z4› = 0. various constraint handling techniques have been proposed.

Robert.A. The method can be categorized as GA. 2005 [91].Evolutionary Programming (EP) include Constrained Evolution Programming (CEP).Trust Region (TR) . In DED Only LM method has been used by W. 1995 [75] and Y. DED using Genetic Algorithms (GA) and the derived methods include Elitist Genetic Algorithm (EGA).Fuzzy Set Theory (FST). Linear Programming (LP) linearizes the nonlinear power system DED problem so that the objective function and the constraints have the linear form. 7.Muller Algorithm (MA). Chaotic Fuzzy(CF) and Variable Step Size (VSS) [86].The method was found Quick in identifying infeasibility and thus able to accommodate large variety of power system operating limits and contingency constraints. Xia et al. the method able to handle the nonlinear objectives and constraints . 2008 [79] and Model Predictive Control (MPC). 1985 [77] and an improved version of NLP called Non Linear Constrained Method (NLCM) developed by Faisal . Deterministic. However the method has a 7.Double-dogleg(DD) and Conjugate Gradient(CG) Methods. EP and DE.that is. Chandram et al.G. Heuristic (H) Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are based on natural evolution . Uncertainty due to insufficient information generate an uncertain region of decisions and therefore results from average values cannot be used to represent the uncertainty level. The three however use the same mutation. It was Ahmed Farag et al. they compute the unavailable or uncertain data so that the MODED problem can be solved even when some data for the wind and solar objective cost functions are not available[1]. reproduction. These methods include Optimization Neural Networks (ONN).F et al.Heuristic Neural Network(HNN)[83-84]. 2010 [74]. MAED and RPED problems [1].UC.Risk Management Tools(RMT) and Cost Benefit Analysis(CBA). 1997 [87]. Song and I. MODED Optimization Methods The methods that have been to solve the DED Problem so far can be classified into three groups. These are.2002 [89] and Elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (ENSGA-II).These include higher accuracy and global convergence .160 Moses Peter Musau et al. Babu et al.Fly et al. Non Linear Programming (NLP) is a first order method .Trust Region (TR) and Goal Programming (GP) [85] . Compared to the deterministic methods. (26d) 7.RPED and State Estimation problems with uncertainties.They are population based optimization processes. However the DED solutions generally met the requirements of Engineering precision when applied to the SCED and RPED optimization [1]. Joned et al. K. Xia et al. Rastgoufard. X.T.Brent Method (BM).+ = ST ∑* ' F + ∑+ ' .Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). Chandram et al.2011 [81] just to mention a few.ANN [82]. 2006 [78]. that is. Probabilistic /Characterization Theory (PT). 2006 [92] and Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA). Artificial Neural Network(ANN). Parallel Micro GA (PMGA).1997 [73] and Maclaurin Series-Based Lagrangian Method (MSBLM) was later applied to the DED problem by Hemamalini et al. This forms the basics of the formulation of the constrained optimization Algorithms.3.Line Search(LS). Wood. There is no need to differentiate the cost functions and the constraints in the ED formulation.HTS. V .Newton Raphson(NR) . NQA methods are meant to account for the uncertainties in information and goals related to multiple and usually conflicting objectives in power system optimization .: Multi Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Cubic Cost Functions 'U. cross over and selection operators [1]. 7. Other deterministic methods that have been used to handle DED problems include Economic Load Allocation and Supplementary Control Action (ELASCA). Yu. Differential Evolution (DE) is the most recent EA and the DED works done include Modified DE (MDE). + ∑U ' + T( E . These methods include Gradient Search (GS). recombination. 1972 [8] . X. 1982 [72] and W. Non Quantity Approaches (N) These methods are applied to problems with uncertainties in their parameter variations.These Methods have been used in the formulation of hybrids used in the solution of DED problems with uncertainties.J. 1999 [80].H. The method has also been used in SCED.A search direction is chosen and the search is done using reduced gradient method. Deterministic (D) Unconstrained Methods (UCM) convert constrained problems into unconstrained form.R. 2009 [11]. + 3 )Y ≤ ] u 1 W∑ * /a " ≤ ]• + ^ (26a) ∈ zž (26b) u /a + ^)__ (26c) ≤ / slow rate of convergence due to a zigzagging problem in the search direction. Heuristic and Hybrid methods.Yuang et . 3 + Subject to ∑ ∈* u = ∑•∈*¢„ ≤ u ≤ + Ω(.1. These methods have been discussed in the following sub sections.These methods find application in ED. convergence is guaranteed independent of the starting point. 2008 [93]. the NQA Methods are effective in handling uncertainties.Since DED problems are nonlinear. However the method was found inaccurate in evaluating the power system losses and therefore had insufficient ability to find an exact solution as compared with more accurate Non Linear models. Ongsakul et al . As applied by P.2004[90]. Bechert and Kwatny. EP.the method has several advantages as compared to the LP Method . Barcelo and P.Shailti et al. Mohamed. Examples of such include.2. 1997 [76] and it proved reliable in terms of convergence .Quasi-Newton (QN).P.Lagrange Multiplier(LM). van den Bosch.

Hybrids The reason for increased use of hybrids is because they exalt the strengths and improve the weaknesses of the methods concerned. Anti Colony Optimization(ACO). Zwe-Lee et al. Other Methods that have been used in DED include Simulated Annealing (SA).Swarm Direction Technique (SDT) and Fast Evolutionary Programming (FEP) -(SDT-FEP).Yuan et al. QP-LP.PSO-SQP.BAT Algorithm. 2013[44].Relaxed GA (RGA) and Gradient Search (GS)-(RGAGS) .V Kuntsevich.2000 [94]. These include N-N.2011 [106].EP and Sequential QP (EPSQP). Non Quantity Approaches-Non Quantity Approaches (NN): Since non quantity methods are only used to address uncertainities. F. HH and H-H approaches. F.A et al. 2006 [125] Heuristic. Lu et al. 2004 [131] and Chaotic Differential Evolution (CDE). Ghasemi .K. 1990 [109].Deb. 4(3): 153-167 al .They include Quadratic Programming (QP) and Linear Programming (LP) – (QP-LP). H-D. Lin and Chen.Kappel and A.2000 [121]. 7.2013 [107] and Optimality Condition Decomposition (OCD). K.[100] .Ongsakul et al.Variable Scaling Hybrid Differential Evolution (VSHDE).Improved Differential Evolutionary (IDE) and Shor’s Algorithm (SHA)-(IDE-SHA).2011 [132]. These include SA and GA – (SA-GA). Rabiee. R. Bandi Ramesh et al.Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO). on serves as the base and the other is used to improve the weaknesses of the first for accurate results.A et al. N-D.2012[128].Heuristic and NonQuantity Approaches are used in hybrid formation . Gaing.PSO and Harmony Search (HS)(PSO-HS).Deb. The vice versa is also true Examples include Fuzzy Optimization Technique (FOT) and Goal Satisfaction Concept (GSC)-(FOT-GSC) P.2010 [123]. Ravikumar et al.2000 [94].Bee Colony Optimization(BCO) . Ongsakul et al.2012 [124] .2009 [104].Heuristic (H-H): In this type two heuristic methods are involved. DED SCED RPED and MAED problems.Chiou.2000 [117].Modified Teaching-Learning Algorithm (MTLA) Niknam. M. SQP-EP. Zhang et al. 2002 [118].Modified Artificial Bee Colony (MABC) with Differential Evolution (DE)-(MABC-DE). T et al .4. 2004 [42] and Modified Adaptive PSO (MAPSO). Examples in this context include Lambda-Iteration Technique (LIT) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)-(LIT-ANN). 2011[105] Hemmalini et al. Elaiw. Han et al.2009 [95] and Cellular Differential Evolution (CDE) Noman and Iba. D-N. M. A et al . H. 2014 [108] 7. Divya Mathur.Real Coded GA (RCGA) with QuasiSimplex (QS)-(RCGA-QS).2009 [119]. Panigrahi et al. Dun –Wei Gong et al.Multi Objective PSO (MOPSO) and Brent method(BM)-(MOPSOBM). 2009 [120].Karthikeyan et al. Hardiansyah .Chen.Artificial Immune System (AIS).Li and Aggarwal.2012 [127].Hybrid Differential Evolution (HDE) and Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)-(HDE-SQP). 2002[111] Deterministic-Heuristic (D-H): These involve a deterministic method with a Heuristic method to fine tune it. These methods have been used in all hybrid algorithms where an accurate search is needed in DED problems. 2001 [102]. Victoire et al. 2001 [110] and Interior Point (IP) and Quadratic Programming (QP) .2011 [122] .Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) includes all the swarm intelligence algorithms inspired by the social dynamics and an emergent behavior that arises in socially organized colonies. Deterministic. Abdul-Aziz et al. .then a combination of two or more of such methods in the formulation of an hybrid is not feasible. 2008 [83-84]. P.Non Quantity Approaches (D-N) or Non Quantity Approaches-Deterministic (N-D): This involves a base deterministic method with a non-quantity method to deal with the uncertainities. Deterministic-Deterministic (D-D): These method involve two deterministic methods . 2004 [97]. 2013.Lu et al.International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2015. J.(IP-QP).2013[ 130] Non Quantity Approaches-Heuristic (N-H) 0r HeuristicNon Quantity Approaches (H-N): In this case a non –quantity method is used to address an uncertainty before a heuristic method is applied.Basu. 2011 [96]. Y. 2010[126].2009[104].There are two types of hybrids depending on the number and Type of methods used. Niknam et al. 2006 [101]. D-D.Alsumait et al. Y.Feasibility-Based Selection Comparison (FBSC). A.2005 [113-115]. In DED .2013[129] and PSO and Simulated Annealing (SA) –(PSO-SA). 1997 [116].Adaptive Look-Ahead (ALA).(SOA-SQP). X. Two Method Hybrids There are eight possible types of two-method hybrids. Somuah and Khunaizi. Zhao et al. 2002 [103]. Deterministically Guided (DG) PSO (DGPSO). 1999 [82] and Heuristic Neural Networks (HNN) and QP (HNN-QP). 2007 [18] Deterministic.Bacterial Foraging (BF).examples include Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Gradient Search (GS)-(GA-GS).L.Pattern Search (PS). D-H. Heuristic -Deterministic (H-D): In this case a hybrid method is used as the base algorithm then its weaknesses are strengthened using a deterministic method.Seeker Optimization Algorithm (SOA) and SQP. 2005 [113-115] and SA and Direct Search Method (DSM)-(SA-DSM). S.Firefly Algorithm (FA) with GA Mutation (GAM)-(FA-GAM) . Sivasurbramani et al.More specific PSO methods used in DED problems are BAT Algorithm. However these methods require all information to be included in the fitness function therefore it is difficult to consider all the MODED problem objectives and constraints in the objective function.5. 2010 [22]. Examples include PSO and DE (PSO-DE). Hardiansyah et al 2012[98]. They include Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Z. Shayeghi and A. Niknam. and N-H.The vice versa is also true. Han et al. Teacher Learning Algorithm(TLA) .V. Victoire et al.Li et al. Yuan et al. C . 2011[99].EAs methods have been used to solve simplified CED. 2001 161 [112].H Liang.Evolution (DE) and Local Random Search (LRS)-(DE-LRS). T.2008 [4].

Therefore.there will be a more accurate MODED modelling . Conclusion This paper has psesented a detailed review of the MODED problem in terms of the formulation and the methods applied in the solution. Three Method Hybrids used in DED.2014[86] Trust Region (TR).: Multi Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Cubic Cost Functions 7. the Warm Start Technique (WST) and the Range Restriction Scheme (RRS)-(MIQP-WSTRRS). Therefore . heuristic algorithms have drawbacks such as being problem dependent. Wenxia Liu. Type Examples in DED H-H-D EP. A. Further. 2014 [136] Variable Step Size(VSS) Chaotic Fuzzy(CF) Quantum Genetic and better method for MODED Solution. Improved power system Security .It is apparent that cubic cost functions are found to be more accurate than quadratic ones. Titus and A. In addition. Dynamic reactive power (two-way) from the renewable sources will provide a far much improved voltage profile as compared to the static reactive power.E Jeyakumar. These are summarized in Table 4 Heuristic algorithms seem to have shared the same dominance as deterministic algorithms. unlike deterministic ones.6.2011 [135] D-H-H N-N-H Mixed Integer Quadratic Programming (MIQP).Goal Programming(GP) and PSO (TR-GP-PSO). This is as shown in Figure 3. .They are also independent of the initial solution.Mousa et al. A more recent trend for solving MODED is the threemethod hybrids formulation in which all the weaknesses of the base methods are suppressed and the strengths exalted. and unable to guarantee global solution attainment. New Jersey &Canada: John Wiley and Sons.2010 [134] H-D-H GA and Local Search(LS) -Goal Programming(GP) -(GA-LS-GP). Amhed et al.A. and SQP (EP-PSO-SQP).2008 [133] H-H-H BF-PSO-DE. (VSS-CF-QGA). In this section we discuss such methods that have been used in DED solution. requiring parameter tuning. This explains why publishing research work using hybrid methods has been becoming increasingly popular. Dynamic trade in power is supposed be cheaper than the static one as the Improved Wheel Method (IWM) will be more realistic in modelling the areas and the tie lines. PSO. Table 4. and capable of solving optimization problems without requiring convexity. Praveena et al .162 Moses Peter Musau et al. are derivative-free. better methods for handling DED with wind and solar cost functions need to be developed. This leads to increased accuracy and speed in handling higher order cost functions with more objectives. There are twenty seven possible three-method hybrids that can be used. Wang et al. S. However fourth order functions are predicted to be even better than the third order systems. References [1] Jizhong Zhu (2009) Optimization of Power System Operation. A combination of a both methods into a hybrid has proved to solve this problem. Also in the last decade integration of RE cost function has been of increasing interest. and have the ability to avoid being trapped in local optima. fully constrained 5-Objective MODED with cubic functions to give more realistic results. This is because heuristic algorithms. Three Method Hybrids Recent trends in Hybrid formation involve the use of three methods.2013[48] Figure 3.dynamic MAED and a new way for Reactive Power Dispatch. there is foreseen better security due to the full constraining (with. uncertainty) and two way reactive power. On the other hand. Journals on DED Published Using Various Methods[3]. This is because RE is well utilized once in the national grid. et al. 8.

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