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Chapter I

Fundamentals of Computer Network


Aim
The aim of this chapter is to:

introduce the concept of computer network

discuss the history of network

explain the transmission technology

Objectives
The objectives of this chapter are to:

explain broadcast network

elaborate on point-to-point network

evaluate various networks based on scale

Learning outcome
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

draw a basic data representation

explain the concept of data communication

explain digital and analog transmission

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1.1 Introduction to Computer Network


The concept of Network is not new. It is an interconnected set of some objects. For decades, we are familiar with
the radio, television, railway, highway, bank and other types of networks. In recent years, the network that is making
significant impact on our day-to-day life is the computer network.
Computer network is an interconnected set of autonomous computers. The term autonomous implies that one
computer can function independent of others. However, these computers can exchange information with each other
through the communication network system.
Computer networks have emerged as a result of the convergence of two technologies of this century Computer and
Communication, as shown in the figure given below. The consequence of this revolutionary merger is the emergence
of an integrated system that transmits all types of data and information. There is no fundamental difference between
data communications and data processing and there are no fundamental differences among data, voice and video
communications.
Computers
ENIAC 1946
Batch Mode 1950s
interactive 1960s
ARAPME
Ethernet

Packet Switching

Network

Satellite
Micro-wave
TV 1923
Radio 1896
Telephone 1876
Telegraph 1838

Fig. 1.1 Evolution of computer networks

1.2 Historical Background


Electronic computers came into existence in the early 1950s and during the first two decades of its existence, it
remained as a centralised system housed in a single large room. In those days, the computers were large in size
and were operated by trained personnel. To the users, it was a remote and mysterious object having no direct
communication with the users. Jobs were submitted in the form of punched cards or paper tape and outputs were
collected in the form of computer printouts. The submitted jobs were executed by the computer one after the other,
which is referred to as batch mode of data processing.

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In the 1960s, computer systems were still centralised, but users were provided with direct access through interactive
terminals connected by point-to-point low-speed data links with the computer. In this situation, a large number of
users, some of them located in remote locations could simultaneously access the centralised computer in timedivision multiplexed mode. The users could now get immediate interactive feedback from the computer and correct
errors immediately.
Following the introduction of on-line terminals and time-sharing operating systems, remote terminals were used
to use the central computer. With the advancement of VLSI technology, and particularly, after the invention of
microprocessors in the early 1970s, the computers became smaller in size and less expensive, but with significant
increase in processing power. New breed of low-cost computers known as mini and personal computers were
introduced.
Instead of having a single central computer, an organisation could now afford to own a number of computers located
in different departments and sections. Side-by-side, riding on the same VLSI technology, the communication
technology also advanced leading to the worldwide deployment of telephone network, developed primarily for
voice communication. An organisation having computers located geographically dispersed locations wanted to
have data communications for diverse applications. Communication was required among the machines of same
kind for collaboration, for the use of common software or data or for sharing of some costly resources. This led
to the development of computer networks by successful integration and cross-fertilisation of communications and
geographically dispersed computing facilities.
One significant development was the APPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). Starting with fournode experimental network in 1969, it has subsequently grown into a network several thousand computers spanning
half of the globe, from Hawaii to Sweden. Most of the present-day concepts such as packet switching evolved from
the ARPANET project. The low bandwidth (3KHz on a voice grade line) telephone network was the only generally
available communication system available for this type of network. The bandwidth was clearly a problem, and in the
late 1970s and early 80s, another new communication technique known as Local Area Networks (LANs) evolved,
which helped computers to communicate at high speed over a small geographical area. In the later years, use of
optical fiber and satellite communication allowed high-speed data communications over long distances.

1.3 Classification Based on Transmission Technology


Computer networks can be broadly categorised into two types based on transmission technologies:
Broadcast networks

Broadcast network have a single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network as
shown in fig. 1.2 and 1.3.

All the machines on the network receive short messages, called packets in certain contexts, sent by any
machine.

An address field within the packet specifies the intended recipient.

Upon receiving a packet, machine checks the address field.

If packet is intended for itself, it processes the packet; if packet is not intended for itself it is simply ignored.

Fig. 1.2 Example of a broadcast network based on shared bus

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Satellite

Multiple receivers

Multiple receivers
Transmitter

Fig. 1.3 Example of a broadcast network based on satellite communication


This system generally also allows possibility of addressing the packet to all destinations (all nodes on the
network). When such a packet is transmitted and received by all the machines on the network. This mode of
operation is known as Broadcast Mode.

Some Broadcast systems also support transmission to a sub-set of machines, something known as
Multicasting.

Point-to-Point networks
A network based on point-to-point communication is shown in the figure given below.

The end devices that wish to communicate are called stations. The switching devices are called nodes.

Some Nodes connect to other nodes and some to attached stations.

It uses FDM or TDM for node-to-node communication.

There may exist multiple paths between a source-destination pair for better network reliability.

The switching nodes are not concerned with the contents of data.

Their purpose is to provide a switching facility that will move data from node to node until they reach the
destination.

As a general rule (although there are many exceptions), smaller, geographically localised networks tend to use
broadcasting, whereas larger networks normally use point-to-point communication.

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Communication
Network node

2
4

E
D

3
5
C

Fig. 1.4 Communication network based on point-to-point communication

1.4 Classification Based on Scale


Alternative criteria for classifying networks are their scale. They are divided into Local Area (LAN), Metropolitan
Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN).
Local Area Network (LAN)
LAN is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building or campus of up to few kilometers
in size. These are used to share resources (may be hardware or software resources) and to exchange information.
LANs are distinguished from other kinds of networks by three categories: their size, transmission technology and
topology.

LANs are restricted in size, which means that their worst-case transmission time is bounded and known in
advance. Hence, this is more reliable as compared to MAN and WAN.

Knowing this bound makes it possible to use certain kinds of design that would not otherwise be possible. It
also simplifies network management.

LAN typically uses transmission technology consisting of single cable to which all machines are connected.

Traditional LANs run at speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps (but now much higher speeds can be achieved).

The most common LAN topologies are bus, ring and star. A typical LAN is shown in fig. 1.5.

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internet

Fig. 1.5 Local Area Network

1.5 Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN)


MAN is designed to extend over the entire city. It may be a single network as a cable TV network or it may be
means of connecting a number of LANs into a larger network so that resources may be shared as shown in fig. 1.6.
For example, a company can use a MAN to connect the LANs in all its offices in a city. MAN is wholly owned and
operated by a private company or may be a service provided by a public company. The main reason for distinguishing
MANs as a special category is that a standard has been adopted for them which is DQDB (Distributed Queue Dual
Bus) or IEEE 802.6.

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MAN
Desktop PC

Desktop PC

LAN

LAN

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

LAN

LAN
Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

LAN

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Fig. 1.6 Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN)


Wide Area Network (WAN)
WAN provides long-distance transmission of data, voice, image and information over large geographical areas that
may comprise a country, continent or even the whole world. In contrast to LANs, WANs may utilise public, leased
or private communication devices, usually in combinations, and can therefore span an unlimited number of miles
as shown in fig. 1.7. A WAN that is wholly owned and used by a single company is often referred to as enterprise
network.
LOCAL AREA
NETWORK

LOCAL AREA
NETWORK

Router

National Public
Switched Telephone
Network

Router

Satellite

LOCAL AREA
NETWORK
Router
Router

Satellite Dish

National Public
Switched Telephone
Network

Router

Router

Satellite Dish

LOCAL AREA
NETWORK

Fig. 1.7 Wide Area Network


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1.6 The Internet


Internet is a collection of networks or network of networks.

Various networks such as LAN and WAN connected through suitable hardware and software to work in a
seamless manner.

Schematic diagram of the Internet is shown in fig. 1.8.

It allows various applications such as e-mail, file transfer, remote log-in, World Wide Web, Multimedia, etc run
across the internet.

The basic difference between WAN and Internet is that WAN is owned by a single organisation while internet
is not.

However, with time, the line between WAN and Internet is shrinking, and these terms are sometimes used
interchangeably.

WAN-I

LAN-I

LAN-II

WAN-II
LAN-III

1.7 Data Representation

Fig. 1.8 Internet Network of networks

The purpose of a network is to transmit information from one computer to another. To do this, you first have to
decide how to encode the data to be sent, in other words, its computer representation. This will differ according to
the type of data, which could be:

Audio data

Text data

Graphical data

Video data

Data representation can be divided into two categories:


Digital representation: The information is encoded as a set of binary values, in other words, a sequence of 0s
and 1s.

Analogue representation: The data will be represented by variation in a continuous physical quantity.

1.8 Data Communication


The distance over which data moves within a computer may vary from a few thousandths of an inch, as is the case
within a single IC chip, to as much as several feet along the backplane of the main circuit board.

Over such small distances, digital data may be transmitted as direct, two-level electrical signals over simple
copper conductors.

Except for the fastest computers, circuit designers are not very concerned about the shape of the conductor
or the analog characteristics of signal transmission. Frequently, however, data must be sent beyond the local
circuitry that constitutes a computer.

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In many cases, the distances involved may be enormous.

Unfortunately, as the distance between the source of a message and its destination increases, accurate transmission
becomes increasingly difficult. This results from the electrical distortion of signals travelling through long
conductors, and from noise added to the signal as it propagates through a transmission medium.

Although some precautions must be taken for data exchange within a computer, the biggest problems occur
when data is transferred to devices outside the computers circuitry. In this case, distortion and noise can become
so severe that information is lost.

Data communications concerns the transmission of digital messages to devices external to the message
source.

External devices are generally thought of as being independently powered circuitry that exists beyond the
chassis of a computer or other digital message source.

As a rule, the maximum permissible transmission rate of a message is directly proportional to signal power and
inversely proportional to channel noise.

It is the aim of any communications system to provide the highest possible transmission rate at the lowest
possible power and with the least possible noise.

1.9 Communications Channels


A communications channel is a pathway over which information can be conveyed. It may be defined by a physical
wire that connects communicating devices, or by a radio, laser, or other radiated energy source that has no obvious
physical presence.

Information sent through a communications channel has a source from which the information originates, and a
destination to which the information is delivered.

Although information originates from a single source, there may be more than one destination, depending upon
how many receive stations are linked to the channel and how much energy the transmitted signal possesses.

In a digital communications channel, the information is represented by individual data bits, which may be
encapsulated into multibit message units.

A byte, which consists of eight bits, is an example of a message unit that may be conveyed through a digital
communications channel.

A collection of bytes may itself be grouped into a frame or other higher-level message unit. Such multiple levels
of encapsulation facilitate the handling of messages in a complex data communications network.

Any communications channel has a direction associated with it.

Simplex
In simplex mode, the communication can take place in one direction. The receiver receives the signal from the
transmitting device. In this mode, the flow of information is Uni-directional. Hence, it is rarely used for data
communication.
Half-duplex
In half-duplex mode, the communication channel is used in both directions, but only in one direction at a time.
Thus, a half-duplex line can alternately send and receive data.
Full-duplex
In full duplex, the communication channel is used in both the directions at the same time. Use of full-duplex line
improves the efficiency as the line turnaround time required in half-duplex arrangement is eliminated. Example of
this mode of transmission is the telephone line.
A

B
Fig. 1.9 Simplex A to B only
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B
Fig. 1.10 Duplex A to B or B to A

B
Fig. 1.11 Full-Duplex A to B and B to A

1.10 Digital and Analog Transmission


Data is transmitted from one point to another point by means of electrical signals that may be in digital and analog
form. So, one should know the fundamental difference between analog and digital signals.

In analog signal, the transmission power varies over a continuous range with respect to sound, light and radio
waves.

On the other hand, a digital signal may assume only discrete set of values within a given range.

Examples are computer and computer related equipment.

Analog signal is measured in Volts and its frequency is in Hertz (Hz).

A digital signal is a sequence of voltage represented in binary form.

When digital data are to be sent over an analog form the digital signal must be converted to analog form.

So, the technique by which a digital signal is converted to analog form is known as modulation. And the reverse
process, that is the conversion of analog signal to its digital form, is known as demodulation.

The device, which converts digital signal into analog, and the reverse, is known as modem.
Digital Signals

Fig. 1.12 Digital signal


Analog Signals

Fig. 1.13 Analog signal

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1.11 Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission


Data transmission through a medium can be either asynchronous or synchronous.

In asynchronous transmission, data is a transmitted character by character as you go on typing on a keyboard.


Hence, there are irregular gaps between characters. However, it is cheaper to implement, as you do not have to
save the data before sending.

On the other hand, in the synchronous mode, the saved data is transmitted block by block. Each block can
contain many characters.

Synchronous transmission is well suited for remote communication between a computer and related devices
like card reader and printers.

Asynchronous and synchronous communication refers to methods by which signals are transferred in computing
technology.

These signals allow computers to transfer data between components within the computer or between the computer
and an external network.

Most actions and operations that take place in computers are carefully controlled and occur at specific times
and intervals.

Actions that are measured against a time reference, or a clock signal, are referred to as synchronous actions.

Actions that are prompted as a response to another signal, typically not governed by a clock signal, are referred
to as asynchronous signals.

Typical examples of synchronous signals include the transfer and retrieval of address information within a
computer via the use of an address bus.

For example, when a processor places an address on the address bus, it will hold it there for a specific period of
time. Within this interval, a particular device inside the computer will identify itself as the one being addressed
and acknowledge the commencement of an operation related to that address. In such an instance, all devices
involved in ensuing bus cycles must obey the time constraints applied to their actions. This is known as a
synchronous operation.

In contrast, asynchronous signals refer to operations that are prompted by an exchange of signals with one
another, and are not measured against a reference time base.

Devices that cooperate asynchronously usually include modems and many network technologies, both of which
use a collection of control signals to notify intent in an information exchange.

Asynchronous signals, or extra control signals, are sometimes referred to as handshaking signals because of the
way they mimic two people approaching one another and shaking hands before conversing or negotiating.

Within a computer, both, asynchronous and synchronous protocols are used.

Synchronous protocols usually offer the ability to transfer information faster per unit time than asynchronous
protocols. This happens because synchronous signals do not require any extra negotiation as a prerequisite to
data exchange.

Instead, data or information is moved from one place to another at instants in time that are measured against
the clock signal being used.

This signal is usually comprised of one or more high frequency rectangular shaped waveforms, generated by
special purpose clock circuitry.

These pulsed waveforms are connected to all the devices that operate synchronously, allowing them to start and
stop operations with respect to the clock waveform.

In contrast, asynchronous protocols are generally more flexible, since all the devices that need to exchange
information can do so at their own natural rate be these fast or slow.

A clock signal is no longer necessary; instead the devices that behave asynchronously wait for the handshaking
signals to change state, indicating that some transaction is about to commence.

The handshaking signals are generated by the devices themselves and can occur as needed, and do not require
an outside supervisory controller such as a clock circuit that dictates the occurrence of data transfer.
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Asynchronous and synchronous transmission of information occurs both externally and internally in
computers.

One of the most popular protocols for communication between computers and peripheral devices, such as
modems and printers, is the asynchronous RS-232 protocol.

Designated as the RS-232C by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA), this protocol has been so successful
at adapting to the needs of managing communication between computers and supporting devices, that it has
been pushed into service in ways that were not intended as part of its original design.

The RS-232C protocol uses an asynchronous scheme that permits flexible communication between computers and
devices using byte-sized data blocks each framed with start, stop, and optional parity bits on the data line.

Other conductors carry the handshaking signals and possess names that indicate their purpose these include
data terminal ready, request to send, clear to send, data set ready, etc.

Another advantage of asynchronous schemes is that they do not demand complexity in the receiver hardware.

As each byte of data has its own start and stop bits, a small amount of drift or imprecision at the receiving end
does not necessarily spell disaster since the device only has to keep pace with the data stream for a modest
number of bits.

So, if an interruption occurs, the receiving device can re-establish its operation with the beginning of the arrival
of the next byte. This ability allows for the use of inexpensive hardware devices.

Although asynchronous data transfer schemes like RS-232 work well when relatively small amounts of data
need to be transferred on an intermittent basis, they tend to be sub-optimal during large information transfers.

This is so, because the extra bits that frame incoming data tend to account for a significant part of the overall
inter-machine traffic, hence, consuming a portion of the communication bandwidth.

An alternative is to dispense with the extra handshaking signals and overhead, instead synchronising the
transmitter and receiver with clock signal or synchronisation information contained within the transmitted code
before transmitting large amounts of information.

This arrangement allows for collection and dispatch of large batches of bytes of data, with a few bytes at the
front-end that can be used for the synchronisation and control.

These leading bytes are variously called synchronisation bytes, flags, and preambles.

If the actual communication channel is not a great distance, the clocking signal can also be sent as a separate
stream of pulses.

This ensures that the transmitter and receiver are both operating on the same time base, and the receiver can be
prepared for data collection prior to the arrival of the data.

An example of a synchronous transmission scheme is known as the High-level Data Link Control, or HDLC.

This protocol arose from an initial design proposed by the IBM Corporation.

HDLC has been used at the data link level in public networks and has been adapted and modified in several
different ways since.

A more advanced communication protocol is the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), which is an open,
international standard for the transmission of voice, video, and data signals.

Some advantages of ATM include a format that consists of short, fixed cells (53 bytes) which reduce overhead
in maintenance of variable-sized data traffic.

The versatility of this mode also allows it to simulate and integrate well with legacy technologies, as well
as offering the ability to guarantee certain service levels, generally referred to as quality of service (QoS)
parameters.

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1.12 Types of Communication Services


A term used to describe the data-handling capacity of a communication service is bandwidth. Bandwidth is the range
of frequencies that is available for the transmission of data.

A narrow range of frequencies in a communication system is analogous to a garden hose with a small diameter.
The flow of information in such a system its data rate is restricted, just as is the flow of water in the narrow
hose.

Wider bandwidths permit more rapid information flow. The communication data transfer rate is measured in a
unit called baud. Baud is identical to bits per second. Therefore, a rate of 300 baud is 300 bits per second.
Communication companies such as American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) and Western Union are
called common carriers, and they provide three general classes of service for both, voice and data communication:

Narrowband handles low data volumes. Data transmission rates are from 45 to 300 baud. The low- speed
devices might use narrow band communications.

Voice band handles moderate data transmission volumes between 300 and 9600 baud. They are used for
applications ranging from operating a CRT to running a line printer. Their major application is for telephone
voice communication hence, the term voice band.

Broadband handles very large volumes of data. These systems provide data transmission rates of 1 million baud
or more. High-speed data analysis and satellite communications are examples of broadband communication
systems.

1.13 Serial Communication


The purpose of this application note is to attempt to describe the main elements in Serial Communication. This
application note attempts to cover enough technical details of RS232, RS422 and RS485.

DCE and DTE Devices


DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment, and DCE stands for Data Communications Equipment. These
terms are used to indicate the pin-out for the connectors on a device and the direction of the signals on the
pins.
Your computer is a DTE device, while most other devices such as modem and other serial devices are usually
DCE devices. RS-232 has been around as a standard for decades as an electrical interface between Data
Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment (DCE) such as modems or DSUs. It
appears under different incarnations such as RS-232C, RS-232D, V.24, V.28 or V.10. RS-232 is used for
asynchronous data transfer as well as synchronous links such as SDLC, HDLC, Frame Relay and X.25.

RS232
RS-232 (Recommended standard-232) is a standard interface approved by the Electronic Industries
Association (EIA) for connecting serial devices.
In other words, RS-232 is a long established standard that describes the physical interface and protocol for
relatively low-speed serial data communication between computers and related devices.
An industry trade group, the Electronic Industries Association (EIA), defined it originally for teletypewriter
devices.
In 1987, the EIA released a new version of the standard and changed the name to EIA-232-D.
Many people, however, still refer to the standard as RS-232C, or just RS- 232.
RS-232 is the interface that your computer uses to talk to and exchange data with your modem and other
serial devices.
The serial ports on most computers use a subset of the RS-232C standard.

RS232 on DB9 (9-pin D-type connector)

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There is a standardised pinout for RS-232 on a DB9 connector, as shown below.


Pin Number

Signal

Description

DCD

Data Carrier detect

RxD

Receive Data

TxD

Transmit Data

DTR

Data Terminal Ready

GND

Signal Ground

DSR

Data Set Ready

RTS

Ready to Send

CTS

Clear To Send

RI

Ring Indicator

Table 1.1 9-pin D-type connector


RS232 on DB25 (25-pin D-type connector)


In DB-25 connector, most of the pins are not needed for normal PC communications, and indeed, most new
PCs are equipped with male D type connectors having only 9 pins.
Using a 25-pin DB-25 or 9-pin DB-9 connector, its normal cable limitation of 50 feet can be extended to
several hundred feet with high-quality cable.
RS-232 defines the purpose and signal timing for each of the 25 lines; however, many applications use less
than a dozen.
There is a standardised pinout for RS-232 on a DB25 connector, as shown below.
Pin Number

Signal

Description

PG

Protective ground

TD

Transmitted Data

RD

Received Data

RTS

Request to Send

CTS

Clear to send

DSR

Data Set Ready

SG

Signal Ground

CD

Carrier Detect

Voltage (testing)

10

Voltage (testing)

SCD

Secondary CD

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12

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13

SCS

Secondary CTS

14

STD

Secondary TD

15

TC

Transmit Clock

16

SRD

Secondary RD

17

RS

Receive Clock

18

Ready to Send

19

SRS

Secondary RTS

20

DTR

Data terminal Ready

21

SQD

Signal Quality Detector

22

RI

Ring Indicator

23

DRS

Data Rate Select

24

XTC

External Clock

25
Table 1.2 25-Pin D-type connector

RS232 on RJ-45
RJ-45 (Registered Jack-45) is an eight-wire connector used commonly to connect computers onto local-area
networks (LAN), especially Ethernets.
In other words, RJ-45 is a single-line jack for digital transmission over ordinary phone wire, either untwisted
or twisted.
The interface has eight pins or positions.
For faster transmissions in which you were connecting to an Ethernet 10BASET network, you need to use
twisted pair wire.
RS232D, EIA/TIA - 561 standard is applied when connecting to or from a serial port with a 8 position
Modular Jack (RJ45) though it is not widely used as such.

Fig. 1.14 RJ-45 connector

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Signal description
TxD:
This pin carries data from the computer to the serial device.
RXD:
This pin carries data from the serial device to the computer.
DTR signals: DTR is used by the computer to signal that it is ready to communicate with the serial device like
modem. In other words, DTR indicates to the Dataset (i.e., the modem or DSU/CSU) that the DTE
(computer) is ON.
DSR:
Similar to DTR, Data set ready (DSR) is an indication from the Dataset that it is ON.
DCD:
Data Carrier Detect (DCD) indicates that carrier for the transmit data is ON.
RTS:
This pin is used to request clearance to send data to a modem.
CTS: This pin is used by the serial device to acknowledge the computers RTS Signal. In most situations,
RTS and CTS are constantly on throughout the communication session.
CD: CD stands for Carrier Detect. Carrier Detect is used by a modem to signal that it has a made a
connection with another modem, or has detected a carrier tone. In other words, this is used by the
modem to signal that a carrier signal has been received from a remote modem.
RI: RI stands for Ring Indicator. A modem toggles (keystroke) the state of this line when an incoming
call rings your phone. In other words, this is used by an auto answer modem to signal the receipt of
a telephone ring signal
Clock signals (TC, RC, and XTC): The clock signals are only used for synchronous communications. The modem
or DSU extracts the clock from the data stream and provides a steady clock signal to the DTE. Note that the transmit
and receive clock signals do not have to be the same, or even at the same baud rate. The Carrier Detect (CD) and
the Ring Indicator (RI) lines are only available in connections to a modem. Because most modems transmit status
information to a PC when either a carrier signal is detected (i.e., when a connection is made to another modem) or
when the line is ringing, these two lines are rarely used.

DTE-DCE interface
There are two terms important to computer networking:
Date Terminal Equipment
Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE)

Facts
The DTE generates the data and passes them, along with any necessary control characters, to a DCE.
The DCE converts the signal to a format appropriate to the transmission medium and introduces it onto
the network link.
When the signal arrives at the receiving end, this process is reversed.

DTE
Includes any unit that functions either as a source of or as a destination for binary digital data.
At the physical layer, it can be a terminal, microcomputer, computer, printer, fax machine or any other
device that generates or consumes digital data.
Imagine: concept of brain function.

DCE
Includes any functional unit that transmits or receives data in the form of an analog or digital signal through
network.
At the physical layer, a DCE takes data generated by a DTE, converts them to an appropriate signal, and
then introduces the signal onto the telecommunication link. e.g. modem (modulator/demodulator).
In any network DTE generates digital data and passes them to a DCE; the DCE converts the data to a form
acceptable to the transmission medium and sends the converted signal to another DCE on the network.
The second DCE takes the signal off the line, converts it to a form usable by its DTE, and delivers it.

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Interfacing
To ease the burden on data processing equipment manufacturers and users, standards have been developed
that specify the exact nature of the interface between the DTE and the DCE. Such an interface has 4 important
characteristics:
Mechanical (all the 4 refer to text book pg 181)
Electrical
Functional
Procedural

EIA
The most active organisation that develop DTE-DCE interface standard.
EIA standard called as v series/x series

EIA-232 interface
Previously called RS-232 standard issued in 1962 and has been revised several times.
The most recent version, EIA-232-D

Mechanical specification of EIA-232


Defines the interface as a 25-wire cable with a male and female DB-25 pin connector attached to either
end.
The length of the cable may not exceed 15 meters,

Electrical specification of EIA-232


The electrical specification of the standard defines the voltage level and the type of signal to be transmitted
in either direction between the DTE and the DCE.
EIA-232 states that all data must be transmitted as logical 1s and 0s (mark and space) using NRZ-L encoding,
with 0 defined as +ve voltage and 1 defined as -ve voltage.

Functional specification of EIA-232


2 Different implementations of EIA-232 are available:
DB-25 and DB-9

DB-25 Implementation
EIA-232 defines the functions assigned to each of the 25 pins in the DB-25 connector.

Note
Remember that a female connector will be the mirror image of the male, so that pin 1 in the plug matches tube
1 in the receptable, and so on.

DB-9 implementation
Many of the pins on the DB-25 implementation are not necessary in a single asynchronous connection. A
simpler 9-pin version of EIA-232 known as DB-9 and shown in fig. 6.11

Other interface standard


Both data rate and cable length (signal distance capability) are restricted by EIA-232: data rate to 20 kbps and
cable length to 50 feet (15 meters).

To meet the needs of users who require more speed and/or distance, the EIA and the ITU-T have introduced additional
interface standards: EIA-449, EIA-530 and X.21.

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Computer Networks and Tools

Summary

Computers came into existence in the early 1950s and during the first two decades of its existence, it remained
as a centralised system housed in a single large room. In those days, the computers were large in size and were
operated by trained personnel.

To the users, it was a remote and mysterious object having no direct communication with the users.

Jobs were submitted in the form of punched cards or paper tape and outputs were collected in the form of
computer printouts.

The submitted jobs were executed by the computer one after the other, which is referred to as batch mode of
data processing.

In this scenario, there was long delay between the submission of jobs and receipt of the results.

In the 1960s, computer systems were still centralised, but users provided with direct access through interactive
terminals connected by point-to-point low-speed data links with the computer.

One significant development was the APPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network).

Starting with four-node experimental network in 1969, it has subsequently grown into a network several thousand
computers spanning half of the globe, from Hawaii to Sweden. Most of the present-day concepts such as packet
switching evolved from the ARPANET project.

The low bandwidth (3KHz on a voice grade line) telephone network was the only generally available
communication system available for this type of network.

Computer networks can be broadly categorised into two types based on transmission technologies is Broadcast
networks and Point-to-point networks.

The end devices that wish to communicate are called stations. The switching devices are called nodes.

Some Nodes connect to other nodes and some to attached stations. It uses FDM or TDM for node-to-node
communication.

LAN is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building or campus of up to few
kilometers in size.

These are used to share resources (may be hardware or software resources) and to exchange information.

LANs are distinguished from other kinds of networks by three categories: their size, transmission technology
and topology.

Various networks such as LAN and WAN connected through suitable hardware and software to work in a
seamless manner.

The purpose of a network is to transmit information from one computer to another. To do this, you first have to
decide how to encode the data to be sent, in other words its computer representation. This will differ according
to the type of data.

The distance over which data moves within a computer may vary from a few thousandths of an inch, as is the
case within a single IC chip, to as much as several feet along the backplane of the main circuit board.

Over such small distances, digital data may be transmitted as direct, two-level electrical signals over simple
copper conductors.

Except for the fastest computers, circuit designers are not very concerned about the shape of the conductor or
the analog characteristics of signal transmission.

Frequently, however, data must be sent beyond the local circuitry that constitutes a computer. In many cases,
the distances involved may be enormous.

A communications channel is a pathway over which information can be conveyed. It may be defined by a
physical wire that connects communicating devices, or by a radio, laser, or other radiated energy source that
has no obvious physical presence.

18/uts

Information sent through a communications channel has a source from which the information originates, and a
destination to which the information is delivered.

Although information originates from a single source, there may be more than one destination, depending upon
how many receive stations are linked to the channel and how much energy the transmitted signal possesses.

References

Tanenbaum, 2003. Computer Networks, Pearson Education.

Peterson, L.L and Davie. B. S., 2007. Computer networks: A systems approach, Morgan Kaufmann.

Singh, K. A., 2005.Computer Network, Firewall Media.

megaboy84, 2006. Computer Networks, [Video Online] Available at:<http://www.youtube.com/


watch?v=R9CjOOCzwZc> [Accessed 19 Jauary 2012].

lonelyusa, 2009. Computer Network Tutorial, [Video Online] Available at:<http://www.youtube.com/


watch?v=1IyXq9p25s8>[Accessed 19 Jauary 2012].

Networking Fundamentals, [Pdf] Available at:<http://oz.stern.nyu.edu/fall99/pdf/networking.pdf> [Accessed


10 January 2012].

Dr. Banerjee, R., Computer Networks, [Pdf] Available at:<http://discovery.bits-pilani.ac.in/rahul/CompNet/


CN-2008-Lecture-1-Rahul.pdf> [Accessed 10 January 2012].

Recommended Reading

Kwiecien, A, 2010. Computer Networks: 17th Conference, CN 2010, Ustron, Poland, June 15-19, 2010.
Springer.

Hsu, J. Y, 1996. Computer networks: architecture, protocols, and software. Artech house.

Black, U. D, 1993. Computer networks: protocols, standards, and interfaces. PTR Prentice Hall.

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Computer Networks and Tools

Self Assessment
1. The network that is making significant impact on our day-to-day life is the _____________.
a. telecommunication network
b. computer network
c. electric network
d. electronic network
2. To the users, _________ was a remote and mysterious object having no direct communication with the users.
a. computer
b. satellite
c. aeroplane
d. radio
3. Broadcast network has a ________communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network.
a. double
b. multiple
c. single
d. many
4. Some Broadcast systems also support transmission to a sub-set of machines, something known as_________.
a. multicasting
b. multiple casting
c. mix casting
d. mode casting
5. The end devices that wish to communicate are called_________.
a. sets
b. stations
c. stages
d. sites
6. _______ is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building or campus of up to few
kilometres in size.
a. WAN
b. LANs
c. PAN
d. CAN
7. ______ is designed to extend over the entire city.
a. MAN
b. PAN
c. CAN
d. WAN

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8. __________ provides long-distance transmission of data, voice, image and information over large geographical
areas that may comprise a country, continent or even the whole world.
a. CAN
b. LAN
c. WAN
d. PAN
9. __________ is a collection of networks or network of networks.
a. Sub-net
b. Internet
c. Extra-Net
d. Entra-net
10. The purpose of a network is to transmit information from one ___________ to another.
a. room
b. computer
c. area
d. network

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Computer Networks and Tools

Chapter II
OSI Reference Model and Protocols
Aim
The aim of this chapter is to:

explain the standards used in communications

elucidate ISO organisation

evaluate OSI reference models layer

Objectives
The objectives of this chapter are to:

describe layers in reference model

discuss the terminology of OSI model

explain the working of each layer in reference model

Learning outcome
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

explain the RS-232 working in communication

describe the concept of flow control

discuss the automatic repeat request

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2.1 The Need For Standards


Over the past couple of decades, many of the networks that were built, used different hardware and software
implementations and as a result they were incompatible and it became difficult for networks using different
specifications to communicate with each other. To address the problem of networks being incompatible and unable
to communicate with each other, the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) researched various network
schemes. The ISO recognised that there was a need to create a network model which would help vendors create
interoperable network implementations.

2.2 ISO - Organisation for Standardisation


The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) is an International standards organisation responsible
for a wide range of standards, including many that are relevant to networking. In 1984, in order to aid network
interconnection without necessarily requiring complete redesign, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference
model was approved as an international standard for communications architecture.
2.2.1 The OSI Reference Model
This model was developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) in 1984. It is now considered
the primary Architectural model for inter-computer communications. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
reference model is a descriptive network scheme. It ensures greater compatibility and interoperability between
various types of network technologies.
The OSI model describes how information or data makes its way from application programmes (such as spreadsheets)
through a network medium (such as wire) to another application programme located on another network. The
OSI reference model divides the problem of moving information between computers over a network medium into
seven smaller and more manageable problems. This separation into smaller more manageable functions is known
as layering.
2.2.2 A Layered Network Model
The OSI Reference Model is composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions.

The process of breaking up the functions or tasks of networking into layers reduces complexity.

Each layer provides a service to the layer above it in the protocol specification.

Each layer communicates with the same layers software or hardware on other computers.

The lower 4 layers (transport, network, data link and physical-Layers 4, 3, 2, and 1) are concerned with the flow
of data from end to end through the network.

The upper four layers of the OSI model (application, presentation and session-Layers 7, 6 and 5) are orientated
more towards services to the applications.

Data is encapsulated with the necessary protocol information as it moves down the layers before network
transit.

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Computer Networks and Tools

2.3 The Seven OSI Reference Model Layers


7. Application Layer

Network Processes to Applications

6. Presentation Layer

Data Representation

5. Session Layer

Interhost Communication

4. Transport Layer

End- to end Connections

3. Network Layer

Address and Best Path

2. Data Link Layer

Access to media

1. Physical Layer

Binary Transmission
Fig. 2.1 OSI Model

Layer 7: Application
Application layer provides network services to the users applications.

It differs from the other layers. It does not provide services to any other OSI layer, but rather, only to applications
outside the OSI model.

Examples of such applications are spreadsheet programs, word processing programs, and bank terminal
programs.

The application layer establishes the availability of intended communication partners synchronises and establishes
agreement on procedures for error recovery and control of data integrity.

Layer 6: Presentation
The presentation layer ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable
by the application layer of another system.

If necessary, the presentation layer translates between multiple data formats by using a common format.

It provides encryption and compression of data.

Examples: JPEG, MPEG, ASCII, EBCDIC, HTML

Layer 5: Session
The session layer defines how to start, control and end conversations (called sessions) between applications.

This includes the control and management of multiple bi-directional messages using dialogue control.

It also synchronises dialogue between two hosts presentation layers and manages their data exchange.

The session layer offers provisions for efficient data transfer.

Examples :- SQL, ASP (AppleTalk Session Protocol)

Layer 4: Transport
The transport layer regulates information flow to ensure end-to-end connectivity between host applications reliably
and accurately.

The transport layer segments data from the sending hosts system and reassembles the data into a data stream
on the receiving hosts system.

The boundary between the transport layer and the session layer can be thought of as the boundary between
application protocols and data-flow protocols. Whereas the application, presentation, and session layers are
concerned with application issues, the lower four layers are concerned with data transport issues.

Layer 4 protocols include TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

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Layer 3: Network
Network layer defines end-to-end delivery of packets.

Defines logical addressing, so that any endpoint can be identified.

Defines how routing works and how routes are learned so that the packets can be delivered.

The network layer also defines how to fragment a packet into smaller packets to accommodate different
media.

Routers operate at Layer 3.

Examples :- IP, IPX, AppleTalk

Layer 2: Data link


The data link layer provides access to networking media and physical transmission across the media and this enables
the data to locate its intended destination on a network.

The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link by using the Media Access Control
(MAC) addresses.

The data link layer uses the MAC address to define hardware or data link address in order for multiple stations
to share the same medium and still uniquely identify each other.

Concerned with network topology, network access, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, and flow
control.

Examples: Ethernet, Frame Relay, FDDI.

The Data Link Layer is Layer 2 of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking.

It corresponds to, or is part of the link layer of the TCP/IP reference model.

The Data Link Layer is the protocol layer which transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area
network or between nodes on the same local area network segment.

The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities
and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer.

Examples of data link protocols are Ethernet for local area networks (multi-node), the Point-to-Point Protocol
(PPP), HDLC and ADCCP for point to-point (dual-node) connections.

The Data Link Layer is concerned with local delivery of frames between devices on the same LAN.

Data Link frames, as these protocol data units are called, do not cross the boundaries of a local network.

Inter-network routing and global addressing are higher layer functions, allowing Data Link protocols to focus
on local delivery, addressing, and media arbitration.

In this way, the Data Link layer is analogous to a neighbourhood traffic cop; it endeavours to arbitrate between
parties contending for access to a medium.

When devices attempt to use a medium simultaneously, frame collisions occur.

Data Link protocols specify how devices detect and recover from such collisions, and may provide mechanisms
to reduce or prevent them.

Delivery of frames by layer 2 devices is affected through the use of unambiguous hardware addresses.

A frames header contains source and destination addresses that indicate which device originated the frame and
which device is expected to receive and process it.

In contrast to the hierarchical and routable addresses of the network layer, layer 2 addresses are flat, meaning
that no part of the address can be used to identify the logical or physical group to which the address belongs.

The data link thus provides data transfer across the physical link.

That transfer can be reliable or unreliable; many data link protocols do not have acknowledgments of successful
frame reception and acceptance, and some data link protocols might not even have any form of checksum to
check for transmission errors.

In those cases, higher-level protocols must provide flow control, error checking, and acknowledgments and
retransmission.
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Computer Networks and Tools

Sub layers of the data link layer


Data link layer is divided into two layers. These are discussed as follows:
Logical Link Control sub layer
The uppermost sub layer is called the Logical Link Control (LLC).

This sub layer multiplexes protocols running atop the Data Link Layer, and optionally provides flow control,
acknowledgment, and error notification.

The LLC provides addressing and control of the data link.

It specifies which mechanisms are to be used for addressing stations over the transmission medium and for
controlling the data exchanged between the originator and recipient machines.

Media Access Control sub layer


The sub layer below LLC is the Media Access Control (MAC) layer.

Sometimes, this refers to the sub layer that determines who is allowed to access the media at any one time
(usually CSMA/CD).

Usually it is referred as a frame structure with MAC addresses inside.

There are generally two forms of media access control: distributed and centralised. Both of these may be
compared to communication between people.

In a network made up of people speaking, i.e., a conversation, we look for clues from our fellow talkers to see
if any of them appear to be about to speak.

If two people speak at the same time, they will back off and begin a long and elaborate game of saying no,
you first.

The Media Access Control sub layer also determines where one frame of data ends and the next one starts frame
synchronisation.

There are four means of frame synchronisation: time based, character counting, byte stuffing and bit stuffing.

The time based approach simply puts a specified amount of time between frames. The major drawback of this
is that new gaps can be introduced or old gaps can be lost due to external influences.

Character counting simply notes the count of remaining characters in the frames header. This method, however,
is easily disturbed if this field gets faulty in some way, thus making it hard to keep up synchronisation.

Byte stuffing precedes the frame with a special byte sequence such as DLE STX and succeeds it with DLE
ETX. Appearances of DLE (byte value 0x10) has to be escaped with another DLE. The start and stop marks
are detected at the receiver and removed as well as the inserted DLE characters.

Similarly, bit stuffing replaces these start and end marks with flag consisting of a special bit pattern (For example,
a 0, six 1 bits and a 0). Occurrences of this bit pattern in the data to be transmitted are avoided by inserting a
bit.

To use the example where the flag is 01111110, a 0 is inserted after 5 consecutive 1s in the data stream.

The flags and the inserted 0s are removed at the receiving end. This makes for arbitrary long frames and easy
synchronisation for the recipient.

Note that this stuffed bit is added, even if the following data bit is 0, which could not be mistaken for a sync
sequence, so that the receiver can unambiguously distinguish stuffed bits from normal bits.

Data link layer: Flow and error control flow layer


Flow Control specifies how much data the sender can transmit before receiving permission to continue from the
receiver. Error Control allows the receiver to tell the sender about frames damaged or lost during transmission
and coordinates the re-transmission of those frames by the sender. Since flow control provides the Receivers
acknowledgement (ACK) of correctly-received frames, it is closely linked to error control.

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Layer 1: Physical
The physical layer deals with the physical characteristics of the transmission medium.

It defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and
deactivating the physical link between end systems.

Such characteristics as voltage levels, timing of voltage changes, physical data rates, maximum transmission
distances, physical connectors and other similar attributes are defined by physical layer specifications.

Examples: EIA/TIA-232, RJ45, NRZ.

The Physical Layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices.

In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium, such as a copper or optical
cable. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, cable specifications, hubs, repeaters, network adapters, host
bus adapters (HBA used in storage area networks) and more.

To understand the function of the Physical Layer, contrast it with the functions of the Data Link Layer.

Think of the Physical Layer as concerned primarily with the interaction of a single device with a medium,
whereas the Data Link Layer is concerned more with the interactions of multiple devices (i.e., at least two)
with a shared medium.

Standards such as RS-232 do use physical wires to control access to the medium.

The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are: Establishment and termination of a
connection to a communications medium.

Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users.
For example, contention resolution and flow control.

Modulation or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding
signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such
as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link.

Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer, although it must be remembered that the logical SCSI protocol is a
Transport Layer protocol that runs over this bus.

Various Physical Layer Ethernet standards are also in this layer; Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the
Data Link Layer. The same applies to other local-area networks, such as token ring, FDDI, ITU-T G.hn and
IEEE 802.11, as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4.

2.4 RS-232
In telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for
serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a
DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the
electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors.
The current version of the standard is TIA-232-F Interface between Data Terminal Equipment and Data CircuitTerminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, issued in 1997.
2.4.1 Scope of the Standard
The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standard RS-232-C as of 1969 defines:

Electrical signal characteristics such as voltage levels, signalling rate, timing and slew-rate of signals, voltage
withstand level; short-circuit behaviour, and maximum load capacitance.

Interface mechanical characteristics, pluggable connectors and pin identification.

Functions of each circuit in the interface connector. Standard subsets of interface circuits for selected telecom
applications.

The standard does not define such elements as character encoding (for example, ASCII, Baudot code or EBCDIC)
the framing of characters in the data stream (bits per character, start/stop bits, parity) protocols for error detection
or algorithms for data compression bit rates for transmission, although the standard says it is intended for bit
rates lower than 20,000 bits per second.
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Computer Networks and Tools

Many modern devices support speeds of 115,200 bit/s and above power supply to external devices.

Details of character format and transmission bit rate are controlled by the serial port hardware, often a single
integrated circuit called a UART that converts data from parallel to asynchronous start-stop serial form.

Details of voltage levels, slew rate, and short-circuit behaviour are typically controlled by a line driver that
converts from the UARTs logic levels to RS-232 compatible signal levels, and a receiver that converts from
RS-232 compatible signal levels to the UARTs logic levels.

2.5 Stop-and-Wait Flow Control


Receiver

Sender
WT= wait time

Data
ACK

WT

Data

WT

ACK
Data

WT

ACK
EOT
Time

Time
Fig. 2.2 Stop-and-wait flow control

ACK can be a frame by itself, or a control field in data frames going from receiver to sender (piggybacking). Its
advantage is its simplicity. On the other hand, its disadvantage is inefficiency (wait times).
Note: Wait times may vary for different frame transmissions, as is the case here can talk about average wait
time.
2.5.1 Basic Idea of Flow Control
Even if frames are received error-free, the receiver will be forced to drop some of them if the sender transmits faster
than the receiver can process them. The sender has to slow the signal rate acceptable to the receiver. This signal can
be explicit or implicit (e.g. delay sending ACK to sender).
2.5.2 Basic Idea of Error Control
ACK every correctly-received frame and negatively acknowledge (NAK) each incorrectly-received frame. Sender
keeps copies of un-ACKed frames to re-transmit if required. Packet (inside frames) passed to receivers network
layer in order.
Sliding window flow control

Sender can transmit several frames continuously before needing an ACK.

If ACK received by sender before continuous transmission is finished, sender can continue transmitting.

An ACK can acknowledge the correct receipt of multiple frames at the Receiver.

Frames and ACKs must be numbered:


Each Frames number is 1 greater than the previous Frame.
Each ACKs number is the number of the next frame expected by the Receiver.

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Number of grames that can be


transmitted without an ACK

Window
6

Fig. 2.3 Sliding window flow control


Frames may be acknowledged by the Receiver at any time, and may be transmitted by the Sender as long as
the Window hasnt filled up.

Frames are numbered modulo-n, from 0 to n-1: 0,1,2,....,n-1,0, 1,...

Size of the window is n-1: 1 less than the number of different numbers.

Senders sliding window


If sender receives ACK 4, then Frames up to and including Frame 3 were correctly received.
Sender Windows
0

7 0

Direction

Direction
This wall move to the
right, by frame, when
a frame is send

This wall move to the


right, the side of several
frame at a time, when an
ACK is received

Fig. 2.4 Senders sliding window

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Computer Networks and Tools

Receivers sliding window


Receivers window represents the number of un-ACKed Frames.
Sender Windows
0

7 0

Direction

Direction
This wall move to the
right, by frame, when
a frame is received

The sides of several


frames will move to the
right at the same time,
when wall moves and an
ACK is sent

Fig. 2.5 Receivers sliding window


Sliding window flow control example (assume no errors:)
Sender

Receiver

Window size = 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4

Data 0
Data 1
ACK 2
Data 2
ACK 3
Data 3
Data 4
Data 5
ACK 6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4

Fig. 2.6 Sliding window flow control

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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4

Data 0
Data 1
ACK 2
Data 2
ACK 3
Data 3
Data 4
Data 5
ACK 6

Fig. 2.7 Sliding window flow control: sender behaviour

Data 0
Data 1
ACK 2
Data 2
ACK 3
Data 3
Data 4
Data 5
ACK 6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4

Fig. 2.8 Sliding window flow control: receiver behaviour

2.6 Frame Correct First Time


Could try and get everything through correctly.

If we Knew the problem then we could work out a parity correcting scheme to do this.

Generally, we have to add substantial overhead even for fairly low Bit Error Rates (BER).

However, for most networks we do not know in advance the properties of the links.

We would also like our scheme to deal well with all types of links as best as is possible.

Use a different philosophy to do this.

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Computer Networks and Tools

2.7 Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)


Now let us consider automatic repeat request in data transmission.

When the receiver detects errors in a frame, how does it request the transmitter to resend the corresponding
packet?

The problem is that the feedback channel too is error prone.

The simplest strategy is stop and wait: The sender sends a frame and waits for an ACK or NAK; then sends
new packet or resends the old packet.
msg departure times at Sender
pkt 0 CRC

pkt 1 CRC
ACK

pkt 0
Accepted

Time

pkt 1 CRC
NAK
pkt 1
Accepted

msg arrival times at Receiver


Fig. 2.9 Pure stop and wait protocol

Note that the receiver does not know the content of the packet received is clean until it receives and verifies
the CRC.

Sequence number and request number


The use of time-outs for lost packet requires sequence numbers to distinguish the retransmit packet and the
next packet.
Times -out

pkt 0 CRC

Time

pkt 0 CRC

ACK
pkt 0
Accepted

pkt 0 or pkt 1?
Fig. 2.10 Sequence number

Request Numbers are required on ACKs to distinguish packet ACKed.


0

pkt 0

Times -out

0 pkt 0

1
ACK

pkt 1
Accepted
Fig. 2.11 Request number

?
X

ACK

pkt 0
Accepted

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pkt 1

Time

Request number
Instead of sending ACK or NAK, the receiver sends the number of packets currently awaited.

Sequence numbers and request numbers can be sent module 2. What is the name of this protocol?

This works correctly for all combinations of delay and time-outs assuming that following points:
Frames travel in order (FCFS) on links
The CRC never fails to detect errors
The system is correctly initialized.
SN

Sender

Receiver
pkt
Accepted 0

Time

Fig. 2.12 Request number


Go Back n ARQ & Selective Repeat ARQ

Desirable to send data while awaiting an ack

The usual approach for this is called go back n ARQ.

Two alternate approaches:


Selective repeat ARQ
ARPANET (Multiplex stop and wait schemes)

Goback n (sliding window) ARQ


Standard scheme used by HDLC, SDLC, ADCCP, X25.

Packets are numbered in order of arrival (SN); SN is sent in frame header (as in stop and wait).

Receiver sends request number RN back to transmitter; says that receiver wants packet RN next (i.e., RN is
the awaited number). RN is usually piggybacked on return traffic.
Frame Header
SN RN

CRC

Packet

Fig. 2.13 Goback n (Sliding Window) ARQ


The transmitter has a window of n packets that can be sent without acknowledgments.

This window ranges from the last value of RN obtained from the receiver (denoted SNmin) to SNmin+n1.

When the transmitter reaches the end of its window, or times out, it goes back and retransmits packets starting
from SNmin.
Window (0.6)
SN 0
2
1
Node A
Node B
RN

pkt
Accepted

(1.7)

2
1 2

(2.8)

3
3

5
4

(3.9) (5.11)
6

Time

5
5

Fig. 2.14 Example of Goback 7 ARQ


Note that packet RN1 must be accepted at Node B before a frame containing request RN can start transmission
at Node B.
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Computer Networks and Tools

Retransmission due to errors in Goback 4 ARQ


Window (0.3)
SN 0
1
2
Node A
Node B
RN

0
pkt
Accepted 0

(1.4)

1
1

2
2

(2.8)
Time
3
3 4

Fig. 2.15 Retransmission due to errors in Goback 4 ARQ


Module m in Goback n systems

SN and RN are actually sent module m in Goback n systems.

The constraint is that n < m.

The standard choice is m=8; three bits for SN, three bits for RN.

Optional standard is m=128 (for satellite channels and other channels where round trip delay is large relative
to packet transmission time).

Goback n is guaranteed to work correctly if condition is true:


System is correctly initialised
No failures in detecting errors
Frame travel in FCFS order
Positive probability of correct reception
Transmitter occasionally resends SNmin
Receiver occasionally sends RN

Go Back n < 2m

Where m is the # of bits used in sequence # field.

If we use n = 2m, we will accept retransmitted frames.

For the following go-back-3 protocol execution, what ack msg should be sent back?

34/uts

M=22=4, Go-Back - 4:
fr
1

fr
0

fr
2

Transmitter goes back 4

fr
3

fr
1

fr
0

fr
3

fr
2

time

A
C
K
1

A
C
K
2

A
C
K
3

A
C
K
4

M=22=4, Go-Back - 3:
fr
0

fr
1

fr
2

Receiver has Rnext =0 but it dose not know


whether its ACK for frame 0 was received,
so it dose not know whether this is the old
frame 0 or a
new frame 0

Transmitter goes back 3


fr
0

fr
1

fr
2

time

A
C
K
1

A
C
K
2

A
C
K
3

Receiver has Rnext =3 so it rejects the old


frame 0

Fig. 2.16 Go Back n < 2m


Goback N with NAK
Transmitter goes back to frame 1
Goes Back 7:
A

fr
0

fr
1

fr
2

fr
3

fr
4

A
C
K
1

N
A
K
1

fr
5

fr
1

fr
2

Out- of-sequence
frames

fr
3

A
C
K
2

fr
4

fr
5

A
C
K
3

fr
6

A
C
K
4

A
C
K
5

fr
7

fr
0

A
C
K
6

time

A
C
K
7

error
Fig. 2.17 Goback N with NAK

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Computer Networks and Tools

Selective Repeat ARQ


Receive Window
Send Window
Frames
transmitted
and ACKed

Slast

Srecent

Frames
received

Slast+1Ws-1

Rnext

Rnext +Wr-1

Buffers
Timer

Slast

Timer

Slast+1

Timer

Srecent

Rnext +1
Rnext +2
Rnext +Wr=1

Slast+1Ws-1

need more buffer on receiver


can receive pkts out of order

Fig. 2.18 Selective Repeat ARQ sender and receiver window


Efficiency of Goback n can be increased by accepting packets out of order.

An explicit NAK (selective reject) can request retransmission of just one packet.

Typical frame error rates are less than 0.001; selective repeat does not gain much in efficiency unless there are
very many frames in a round trip delay.

For a window size of n, the modulus must be at least 2n. Or For m bit sequence #, us window size of 2m-1.

fr
0

fr
1

fr
2

fr
3

fr
4

fr
5

fr
6

fr
2

fr
7

fr
8

fr
9

fr
10

fr
11

time

fr
12

B
A
C
K
1

A
C
K
2

A
C
K
error 2

A
C
K
2

A
C
K
2

A
C
K
2

A
C
K
7

A
C
K
8

Fig. 2.19 Select repeat ARQ

36/uts

A
C
K
9

A
C
K
1
0

A
C
K
1
1

A
C
K
1
2

2m-1 window size for Selective Repeat ARQ


Incorrect Way
Use a window size
simillar to Goback n
n=2m -1

M-22-4, selective Repeat: Send Window - Receive Window - 3

fr
0

fr
2

fr
1

fr
0

Frame 0 resent
retransmission

time

A
C
K
1

A
C
K
2

Send Window - Receive Window -2


fr
0

it falls in receive window and will


be accepted as a new msg.

A
C
K
3

fr
1

Receive window {3,0,1}


Correct Window size to use 2m-1

fr
0

Frame 0 resent

time

A
Its sequence # not within receive window
it is recognised as duplicate msg.
A
C
K
1

A
C
K
2

frame 0 rejected
Receive Window

{2,3}

Fig. 2.20 2m-1 window size for selective repeat ARQ

2.8 Frame Synchronisation


Three approaches to find frame and idle fill boundaries are:

Character-oriented protocols

Bit-oriented protocol (use flags)

Length counts (characters or bits)

2.8.1 Character-oriented Protocols


In IBM BSC (Binary Synchronous Comm.), a frame begins at the end of a sequence of two or more SYN characters
in the incoming signal.
Normal mode
SYN SYN [control and data characters] BCC BCC


8
8

terminated by ITB,ETB or ETX character
SYN SYN [Control characters]
Note:

SYN is an ASCII character with 00010110 patterns.

BCC BCC are 16 parity bits for error detection.

Transparent text mode


SYN SYN DLE STX [transparent data] DLE ETX BCC BCC
The transparent data may contain DLE control character character stuffing.

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Computer Networks and Tools

Character stuffing
DLE STX

DLE

DLE ETX Data from Network layer

Sender

Data Link Layer: Character-oriented Protocol at transprant text mode

SYN SYN DLE STX DLE DLE STX

DLE DLE

DLE DLE ETX DLE ETX BCC BCC


:Stuffed

Stuffed transprant data


Frame come down from data link layer

DLE

Physical Layer

Receiver

Data Link Layer: Character-oriented Protocol at transprant text mode


DLE STX

DLE

DLE ETX Data to Network Layer

Fig. 2.21 Character stuffing


Drawbacks of character-oriented framing

Character code dependent

Errors in control characters are difficult to handle.

Exercise on character stuffing


Using BSC protocol operating at text transparent mode, given the data DLE, DLE, A,
DLE from the network layer, what will be the frame sent out?
Ans: The frame sent out is as follows (in transparent text mode)

SYN SYN DLE STX DLE DLE DLE DLE

DLE DLE DLE ETX BCC BCC


:stuffed DLE

Fig. 2.22 Character stuffing exercise


2.8.2 Bit-oriented Protocol
HDLC, SDLC, ADCCP are bit-oriented protocols.
All frames look like
variable length transparent data

F Address Control

info FCS F

Bits subject to
1. error checking
2. insertion/deletion of a zero following 5 consecutive ones

Fig. 2.23 Bit-oriented protocol


Flag F is the unique sequence 01111110
Bit stuffing

A 0 is stuffed after each consecutive five 1s in the original frame.

A flag, 01111110, without stuffing, is sent at the end of the frame.

38/uts

Destuffing

If 0 is preceded by 011111 in received bit stream, remove it.

If 0 is preceded by 0111111, it is the final bit of the flag.

Example: Bits to be removed are underlined below


1001111101100011110111110001111110 Flag
Why is it necessary to stuff 0 in 0111110?
If not, then
0111110111 0111110111
011111111 0111110111
The overhead per frame in the flag scheme is one byte for the flag plus 1/64 times the expected frame length. For
short frame lengths, this is essentially optimally efficient.
2.8.3 Length Counts Framing
Some DLC protocols use a header field to give the length of the frame (in bits, or bytes). This conveys the same
information as the flag scheme and uses essentially the same overhead.
Example: DECNET uses length counts approach.
A disadvantage is that resynchronisation is needed after an error in the length count.

2.9 Framing Errors


Some framing errors are as follows:

An error in a flag, or a flag created by an error causes a frame to disappear or an extra frame to appear.

An error in a length count field causes the frame to be terminated at the wrong point and makes it tricky to find
the beginning of the next frame.

An error in DLE, STX, or ETX causes the same problems.

When a framing error is made, the receiver looks in the wrong place for CRC. With a 16 bit CRC, the probability
of false acceptance is about 2-16.

DECNET partially avoid the problem by putting CRC on packet header; inefficient.

Using a longer CRC is probably the best current solution to this problem.

2.10 DLC Standards


HDLC, ADCCP, LAPB (X.25 layer 2), and SDLC are almost the same except that LAPB and SDLC are subsets of
HDLC and ADCCP (which are virtually identical). These classes of protocols all use flags for flaming and go back
n for error detection and retransmission.

Flag Address Control

Packet

16

CRC

Flag

Fig. 2.24 DLC standards


The address field allow use on multipoint lines.


0

SN

P/F

RN

Type

P/F

RN

Type

P/F

Type

Table 2.1 Polling/Final bit


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Computer Networks and Tools

Information frames use SN and RN for goback n (mod 8)

Supervisory frames send ACKs (RN) without data

Unnumbered frames are for initiation, termination, etc.

2.11 Control Frames


There are four types of supervisory frames that send ack information. These are as follows:
receive ready (normal ACK)
receive not ready (ACks but requests no further data)
reject (to explicitly send a NAK)
selective reject (for primitive selective repeat)

The unnumbered frames are used to initiate and terminate the link protocol and to send various special
commands.
There are 3 modes of operations - asynchronous balanced (LAPB), normal response (SDLC), and
asynchronous response (SDLC).
The third is rarely used, the second is for master/slave relationships (and not at all normal), and the first is
normal for data networks.
The unnumbered frames initiate operation in one of these modes.
The error handling on these unnumbered frames is somewhat defective.

2.12 High-level Data Link Control (HDLC)


High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented protocol for communication over point-to-point and multipoint
links.
Configurations and transfer modes
HDLC provides two common transfer modes that can be used in different configurations:
Normal response mode (NRM) and asynchronous balanced mode (ABM).
Normal response mode

In normal response mode (NRM), the station configuration is unbalanced.

We have one primary station and multiple secondary stations.

A primary station can send commands; a secondary station can only respond.

The NRM is used for both point-to-point and multiple-point links, as shown in figure given below.
Primary

Secondary

Commend
Response
Fig. 2.25 Point-to-point normal response mode

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Secondary

Secondary

Primary

Command
Response

Response

Fig. 2.26 Multipoint normal response mode


Asynchronous balanced mode
In asynchronous balanced mode (ABM), the configuration is balanced. The link is point-to-point, and each station
can function as a primary and a secondary (acting as peers), as shown in figure given below. This is the common
mode today.
Combined

Combined

Command Response
Command Response

Fig. 2.27 Asynchronous balanced mode


Frames

To provide the flexibility necessary to support all the options possible in the modes and configurations just
described, HDLC defines three types of frames: information frames (I-frames), supervisory frames (S-frames),
and unnumbered frames (V-frames).

Each type of frame serves as an envelope for the transmission of a different type of message.

I-frames are used to transport user data and control information relating to user data (piggybacking).

S-frames are used only to transport control information.

V-frames are reserved for system management.

Information carried by V-frames is intended for managing the link itself.

Frame format

Each frame in HDLC may contain up to six fields, as shown in figure given below: a beginning flag field, an address
field, a control field, an information field, a frame check sequence (FCS) field, and an ending flag field.

In multiple-frame transmissions, the ending flag of one frame can serve as the beginning flag of the next
frame.
User
Information

Flag Address Control

Flag Address Control FCS

Flag Address Control

PCS

Flag I-frame

PCS

Flag U-frame

Flag S-frame

Management
Information

Fig. 2.28 HDLC frames


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Computer Networks and Tools

Fields
Let us now discuss the fields and their use in different frame types.
Flag field
The flag field of an HDLC frame is an 8-bit sequence with the bit pattern 01111110 that identifies both the beginning
and the end of a frame and serves as a synchronization pattern for the receiver.
Address field

The second field of an HDLC frame contains the address of the secondary station.

If a primary station created the frame, it contains a to address.

If a secondary creates the frame, it contains a from address.

An address field can be 1 byte or several bytes long, depending on the needs of the network.

One byte can identify up to 128 stations (l bit is used for another purpose).

Larger networks require multiple-byte address fields.

If the address field is only 1 byte, the last bit is always a 1.

If the address is more than 1 byte, all bytes but the last one will end with 0; only the last will end with 1.

Ending each intermediate byte with 0 indicates to the receiver that there are more address bytes to come.

Control field

The control field is a 1- or 2-byte segment of the frame used for flow and error control.

The interpretation of bits in this field depends on the frame type.

Information field
The information field contains the users data from the network layer or management information. Its length can
vary from one network to another.
FCS field
The frame check sequence (FCS) is the HDLC error detection field. It can contain either a 2- or 4-byte ITU-T
CRC.

2.13 X.25 Protocol


X.25 is an International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) protocol
standard for WAN communications that denes how connections between user devices and network devices are
established and maintained.

X.25 is designed to operate effectively regardless of the type of systems connected to the network.

It is typically used in the packet-switched networks (PSNs) of common carriers, such as the telephone
companies.

Subscribers are charged based on their use of the network.

The development of the X.25 standard was initiated by the common carriers in the 1970s.

At that time, there was a need for WAN protocols capable of providing connectivity across public data networks
(PDNs).

X.25 is now administered as an international standard by the ITU-T. This chapter covers the basic functions
and components of X.25.

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2.13.1 X.25 Devices and Protocol Operation


X.25 network devices fall into three general categories: data terminal equipment (DTE), data circuit-terminating
equipment (DCE), and packet switching exchange (PSE).

Data terminal equipment devices are end systems that communicate across the X.25 network. They are usually
terminals, personal computers, or network hosts, and are located on the premises of individual subscribers.

DCE devices are communications devices, such as modems and packet switches that provide the interface
between DTE devices and a PSE and are generally located in the carriers facilities.

PSEs are switches that compose the bulk of the carriers network. They transfer data from one DTE device to
another through the X.25 PSN.

Figure given below illustrates the relationships between the three types of X.25 network devices.
Personal
Computer
x.25 WAN

Network
Host

PSE

DTE

Switch

Modem
DCE

DTE

Fig. 2.29 DTEs, DCEs, and PSEs make up an X.25 network


2.13.2 Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD)
The packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) is a device commonly found in X.25 networks.

PADs are used when a DTE device, such as a character-mode terminal, is too simple to implement the full X.25
functionality.

The PAD is located between a DTE device and a DCE device, and it performs three primary functions: buffering,
packet assembly, and packet disassembly.

The PAD buffers data sent to or from the DTE device.

It also assembles outgoing data into packets and forwards them to the DCE device. (This includes adding an
X.25 header.)

Finally, the PAD disassembles incoming packets before forwarding the data to the DTE. (This includes removing
the X.25 header.) Figure given below illustrates the basic operation of the PAD when receiving packets from
the X.25 WAN.

Data

DCE

PAD
X. 25

Assembly/
Disassembly

Buffer

Data

Fig. 2.30 PAD buffers, assembles, and disassembles data packets

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Computer Networks and Tools

2.13.3 X.25 Session Establishment


X.25 sessions are established when one DTE device contacts another to request a communication session. The
DTE device that receives the request can either accept or refuse the connection. If the request is accepted, the two
systems begin full-duplex information transfer. Either DTE device can terminate the connection. After the session
is terminated, any further communication requires the establishment of a new session.
2.13.4 X.25 Virtual Circuits
A virtual circuit is a logical connection created to ensure reliable communication between two network devices.

A virtual circuit denotes the existence of a logical, bidirectional path from one DTE device to another across
an X.25 network.

Physically, the connection can pass through any number of intermediate nodes, such as DCE devices and
PSEs.

Multiple virtual circuits (logical connections) can be multiplexed onto a single physical circuit (a physical
connection).

Virtual circuits are demultiplexed at the remote end, and data is sent to the appropriate destinations.

Figure given below illustrates four separate virtual circuits being multiplexed onto a single physical circuit.
Virtual Circuits
Source

Destination
Physical Circuit

Multiplexing

Demultiplexing

Fig. 2.31 Virtual circuits can be multiplexed onto a single physical circuit.

Two types of X.25 virtual circuits exist: switched and permanent.

Switched virtual circuits (SVCs) are temporary connections used for sporadic data transfers.

They require that two DTE devices establish, maintain, and terminate a session each time the devices need to
communicate.

Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) are permanently established connections used for frequent and consistent
data transfers.

PVCs do not require that sessions be established and terminated. Therefore, DTEs can begin transferring data
whenever necessary, because the session is always active.

The basic operation of an X.25 virtual circuit begins when the source DTE device specifies the virtual circuit
to be used (in the packet headers) and then sends the packets to a locally connected DCE device.

At this point, the local DCE device examines the packet headers to determine which virtual circuit to use and
then sends the packets to the closest PSE in the path of that virtual circuit.

PSEs (switches) pass the traffic to the next intermediate node in the path, which may be another switch or the
remote DCE device.

When the traffic arrives at the remote DCE device, the packet headers are examined and the destination address
is determined.

The packets are then sent to the destination DTE device.

If communication occurs over an SVC and neither device has additional data to transfer, the virtual circuit is
terminated.

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2.13.5 The X.25 Protocol Suite


The X.25 protocol suite maps to the lowest three layers of the OSI reference model.

The following protocols are typically used in X.25 implementations: Packet-Layer Protocol (PLP), Link Access
Procedure, Balanced (LAPB), and those among other physical-layer serial interfaces (such as EIA/TIA-232,
EIA/TIA-449, EIA-530, and G.703).

Figure given below maps the key X.25 protocols to the layers of the OSI reference model.
OSI Reference Model
Application
Presentation
Session

Other
Services

Transport
Network

PLP

Data Link

LAPB

Physical

X.21b is EIA/TIA-232,
EIA/TIA-449, EIA-530,
G.703

X.25
Protocol
Suite

Fig. 2.32 Key X.25 protocols map to the three lower layers of the OSI reference model

2.14 Packet-Layer Protocol (PLP)


PLP is the X.25 network-layer protocol. PLP manages packet exchanges between DTE devices across virtual circuits.
PLPs also can run over Logical-Link Control 2 (LLC2) implementations on LANs and over Integrated Services
Digital Network (ISDN) interfaces running Link Access Procedure on the D channels (LAPD). The PLP operates
in five distinct modes: call setup, data transfer, idle, call clearing, and restarting.
Call setup
Call setup mode is used to establish SVCs between DTE devices. A PLP uses the X.121 addressing scheme to set
up the virtual circuit. The call setup mode is executed on a per-virtual circuit basis, which means that one virtual
circuit can be in call-setup mode while another is in data-transfer mode. This mode is used only with SVCs, not
with PVCs.
Data transfer
Data-transfer mode is used for transferring data between two DTE devices across a virtual circuit. In this mode,
PLP handles segmentation and reassembly, bit padding, and error and flow control. This mode is executed on a
per-virtual circuit basis and is used with both PVCs and SVCs.
Idle mode
Idle mode is used when a virtual circuit is established but data transfer is not occurring. It is executed on a per-virtual
circuit basis and is used only with SVCs.
Call-clearing
Call-clearing mode is used to end communication sessions between DTE devices and to terminate SVCs. This mode
is executed on a per-virtual circuit basis and is used only with SVCs.

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Computer Networks and Tools

Restarting mode
Restarting mode is used to synchronize transmission between a DTE device and a locally connected DCE device.
This mode is not executed on a per-virtual circuit basis. It affects all the DTE devices established virtual circuits.
2.14.1 Four Types of PLP Packet Fields Exist
Four different types of PLP packet fields are:
General Format Identifier (GFI)
Identifies packet parameters, such as whether the packet carries user data or control information, what kind of
windowing is being used, and whether delivery confirmation is required.
Logical Channel Identifier (LCI)
Identifies the virtual circuit across the local DTE/DCE interface.
Packet Type Identifier (PTI)
Identifies the packet as one of 17 different PLP packet types.
User data
Contains encapsulated upper-layer information. This field is present only in data packets. Otherwise, additional
fields containing control information are added.

2.15 Token Bus Network


Token bus is a network implementing the token ring protocol over a virtual ring on a coaxial cable.

A token is passed around the network nodes and only the node possessing the token may transmit.

If a node doesnt have anything to send, the token is passed on to the next node on the virtual ring.

Each node must know the address of its neighbour in the ring, so a special protocol is needed to notify the other
nodes of connections to, and disconnections from, the ring.

Token bus was standardized by IEEE standard 802.4.

It is mainly used for industrial applications.

Token bus was used by GM (General Motors) for their Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) standardization
effort. This is an application of the concepts used in token ring networks.

The main difference is that the endpoints of the bus do not meet to form a physical ring.

The IEEE 802.4 Working Group is disbanded. In order to guarantee the packet delay and transmission in
Token bus protocol, a modified Token bus was proposed in Manufacturing Automation Systems and flexible
manufacturing system (FMS).

Fig. 2.33 Token bus

46/uts

2.16 Token Ring


Token ring local area network (LAN) technology is a local area network protocol which resides at the data link
layer (DLL) of the OSI model.

It uses a special three-byte frame called a token that travels around the ring.

Token-possession grants the possessor permission to transmit on the medium.

Token ring frames travel completely around the loop.

A Token Ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which all computers are connected in a ring or star
topology and a bit- or token-passing scheme is used in order to prevent the collision of data between two
computers that want to send messages at the same time.

The Token Ring protocol is the second most widely-used protocol on local area networks after Ethernet.

The IBM Token Ring protocol led to a standard version, specified as IEEE 802.5.

Both protocols are used and are very similar. The IEEE 802.5 Token Ring technology provides for data transfer
rates of either 4 or 16 megabits per second.

Very briefly, here is how it works:


Empty information frames are continuously circulated on the ring.
When a computer has a message to send, it inserts a token in an empty frame (this may consist of simply
changing a 0 to a 1 in the token bit part of the frame) and inserts a message and a destination identifier in
the frame.
The frame is then examined by each successive workstation. If the workstation sees that it is the destination
for the message, it copies the message from the frame and changes the token back to 0.
When the frame gets back to the originator, it sees that the token has been changed to 0 and that the message
has been copied and received. It removes the message from the frame.
The frame continues to circulate as an empty frame, ready to be taken by a workstation when it has a
message to send.

Token

Fig. 2.34 Token ring

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Computer Networks and Tools

Summary

To address the problem of networks being incompatible and unable to communicate with each other, the
International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) researched various network schemes.

The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) is an International standards organisation responsible
for a wide range of standards, including many that are relevant to networking

The OSI reference model divides the problem of moving information between computers over a network medium
into seven smaller and more manageable problems.

The lower 4 layers (transport, network, data link and physical-Layers 4, 3, 2, and 1) are concerned with the flow
of data from end to end through the network.

The upper four layers of the OSI model (application, presentation and session-Layers 7, 6 and 5) are orientated
more toward services to the applications.

Application layer provides network services to the users applications.

The presentation layer ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable
by the application layer of another system.

The session layer defines how to start, control and end conversations (called sessions) between applications.

Network layer defines end-to-end delivery of packets.

The data link layer provides access to the networking media and physical transmission across the media and
this enables the data to locate its intended destination on a network.

The physical layer deals with the physical characteristics of the transmission medium.

In telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards
for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment).

In telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards
for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment).

Electrical signal characteristics such as voltage levels, signalling rate, timing and slew-rate of signals, voltage
withstand level; short-circuit behaviour, and maximum load capacitance.

Interface mechanical characteristics, pluggable connectors and pin identification.

Functions of each circuit in the interface connector. Standard subsets of interface circuits for selected telecom
applications.

References

Macfarlane, J., 2006. Network Routing Basics Understanding Ip Routing in Cisco Systems. Wiley-India.

Anderson, R., 1996. Information hiding: first international workshop, Cambridge, U.K., May 30-June 1, 1996:
Springer.

teracomtraining, 2011. OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks,[Video Online] Available at:<http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=GsaMQCej3Dc> [Accessed 10 January 2012].

enrichedd, 2011.Networking Protocols and Reference Models Overview, [Video Online] Available at:<http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2dt0ynnVUc> [Accessed 10 January 2012].

Introduction to OSI Reference Model, [Online] Available at:<http://www.bpsharma.in/eLearning/Networking/


OSI_Reference_Model.htm> [Accessed 10 January 2012].

Torres, G., 2007. The OSI Reference Model for Network Protocol, [Online] Available at:<http://www.
hardwaresecrets.com/article/431> [Accessed 10 January 2012].

48/uts

Recommended Reading

Jamas, K. A. and Klander, L., 2002. Hacker proof: the ultimate guide to network security. Cengage Learning.

Rackley, S., 2007. Wireless networking technology: from principles to successful implementation. Elsevier.

Banzal, S., 2007. Data and Computer Network Communication. Firewall Media.

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Computer Networks and Tools

Self Assessment
1. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is a descriptive __________scheme.
a. network
b. system
c. net
d. administration
2. The OSI Reference Model is composed of _______layers, each specifying particular network functions.
a. five
b. three
c. seven
d. three
3. The process of breaking up the functions or tasks of networking into layers reduces________.
a. sophistication
b. density
c. complexity
d. difficulty
4. Application layer provides network services to the ________ applications.
a. users
b. systems
c. networks
d. internets
5. The presentation layer ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is ________
by the application layer of another system.
a. writable
b. readable
c. plain
d. comprehensible
6. The __________layer defines how to start, control and end conversations (called sessions) between
applications.
a. transport
b. session
c. physical
d. data link layer
7. The ___________ layer regulates information flow to ensure end-to-end connectivity between host applications
reliably and accurately.
a. transport
b. network
c. session
d. data link

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8. Network layer defines end-to-end delivery of_________.


a. sachets
b. containers
c. envelopes
d. packets
9. The data link layer provides access to the networking media and physical transmission across the media and
this enables the data to locate its intended __________ on a network.
a. purpose
b. end
c. destination
d. goal
10. The physical layer deals with the physical characteristics of the ________medium.
a. broadcast
b. show
c. transmission
d. spread

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