You are on page 1of 41

Chapter I

Human Resource Management-An Introduction


Aim
The aim of this chapter is to:

explain the role of human resource management in an organisation

enlist the responsibilities of human resource management (HRM)

elucidate the human relation concept

Objectives
The objectives of this chapter are to:

explain human resource management

explain the responsibilities of human resource management

describe about the revolution of human resource management

Learning outcome
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

understand the responsibilities of human resource management

differentiate between personnel management and human resource management

recognise human resource management as a career option

1/uts

Human Resource Management

1.1 Introduction
Human Resource Management is the strategic and logical approach of every management system. Human Resource
Management has replaced the Personnel management, as it brings together the most valued asset of the organisation
i.e. the employees of an organisation which contribute to the achievement of the objective of the business. Human
Resource Management (HRM) simply means employing people, developing their competence utilising, maintaining
and compensating their services for getting the job done as per the requirement of organisations.
There are some factors discussed below which may result in success or failure of any organisation

The business and political surroundings that can influence an undesirable thinking in the masses.

Lack of resources that can reduce the productivity.

Incompetency of the employees that can degrade the quality of the product.

Lack of constructive motivation can lower employees involvement in work.

Lack of supervision can lead to inefficiency.

Most important factor is the communication gap that exists between the workers and the management. Such
filtration of communication can result in serious organisational conflicts.

1.2 Responsibilities of Human Resource Management


The proper steps carried out to improve performance, productivity, relation between employees and management.
Let us go through the responsibility of the Human Resource management on by one:
1.2.1 Human Resource Management Goal

Goal of the Human Resource management is to communicate with the people in the organisations.

They have to bring the employees and the management together and improve productivity and efficiency
collectively.

The main goal of Human Resource Management is to use proper human resources, develop their skills and
motivate them for doing efficient work by ensuring higher productivity and producing better quality.

1.2.2 Recruitment and Selection of Candidates


Human Resource Management team has to choose correct candidates for a particular job.

Selection process is carried out by taking interviews of candidates and examines their qualification and
ability.

1.2.3 Training and Development of Employee


Training an individual is carried out by recognising the area where the candidate has to be trained. It is done by
developing the key competence through planning and learning process.
Proper training will enhance the capability of an individual and enable him to perform well in current and in future
job.
1.2.4 Organisational Development

This element helps assuring healthy inter and intra relationships.

Moreover, it helps an employee to work in the organisation and cope up with the changes made in the
organisation.

1.2.5 Career Development of the Employee


This ensures that the employee will stay back with the organisation and it also gives job satisfaction to the
employee.

2/uts

1.2.6 Job Design


As per the competence and training given to the individual, management has to decide the job allocation of
candidates.
1.2.7 Performance Management System
The management and the employees communicate with each other and can address their concerns which ensure
smooth functioning of the organisation. Furthermore, rewarding employees gives encouragement to the workers.

1.3 Comparison between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management


1.3.1 Comparison on the basis of Beliefs and Assumption
Following table shows comparison between personnel management and human resource management on basis of
beliefs and assumptions
Dimension
Contract

Personnel Management
Human Resource Management
Careful description of written Aim to be beyond contract or
contract
else can do

Rules

Importance of planning

Impatience with rule

Guide to management plan action

Mutuality procedures and clear


Business-need
rules

Behavior referent

Norm / Customs and practice

Value/mission

Managerial task vis-a vis Labor

Monitoring

Nurturing

Nature of relations

Pluralist

Unitarist

Conflict

Institutionalised

De-emphasised

Table 1.1 Comparison of personnel management and HRM on the basis of beliefs and assumption
1.3.2 Comparison on the basis of Strategic Aspects
Following table shows comparison between personnel management and human resource management on basis of
strategic aspects
Dimesion

Personnel Management

Human Resource Management

Key Relations

Labor management

Customer

Initiatives

Piecemeal

Integrated

Corporate Plan

Marginal

Central

Speed of decision

Slow

Fast

Table 1.2 Comparison of personnel management and HRM on the of basis strategic aspects

3/uts

Human Resource Management

1.3.3 Comparison on the basis of Line Management


Following table shows comparison between personnel management and human resource management on basis of
line management
Dimension

Personnel Management

Human Resource Management

Management Role

Transactional

Transformational leadership

Key managers

Personnel/IR Specialists

General/ Business/ line managers

Communication

Indirect

Direct

Standardisation

High(e.g. parity an issue)

Low(e.g. parity not seen as relevant)

Prized management

Negotiation

Facilitation

Table 1.3 Comparison of personnel management and HRM on the basis of line management
1.3.4 Key Levers
Dimension

Personnel Management

Human Resource Management

Selection

Separate, marginal test

Integrated, key task

Pay

Job evolution(fixed grades)

Performance-related

Conditions

Separately negotiated

Harmonisation

Labor management

Collective bargaining contracts

Toward individual contracts

Thrust of relations with


stewards

Regulated through facilities and


training

Marginalised(with exception of some


bargaining for change models)

Job categories and grade

Many

Few

Communication

Restricted Flow

Increased flow

Job design

Division of the labor

Teamwork

Conflict handling

Reach temporary truces

Manage climate and culture

Training and development

Controlled access to courses

Learning companies

Focus of the attention

Personnel

Wide ranging cultural

For interventions

Procedures

Structural and personnel strategies

Table 1.4 Comparison of personnel management and HRM on the basis of key levers

1.4 Importance of the Human Resource Management


Following points describes the importance of HRM

Lawrence aptly describes the managers job as a human relations job that functions through several major
activities and that human relationship is beginning and the end of the management job.

Human Resource Management doesnt produce any profit or neither can it earn any revenue, but it can have a
hold on the organisation that can improve productivity. Whereas, it can also produce rules and regulations by
which they can motivate workforce to improve their performance.

Human resource is an essential support function.

HRM has to manage money, market, material, machines and men.

4/uts

1.5 Role of the Human Resource Management


Following points describes the role of HRM

To enable the management to achieve organisational objectives through its workforce.

To ensure that the organisation fulfills all the government and social obligations.

To assist the organisation in building right number and type of employees to fulfill its goals.

To maintain performance standards and increase productivity through effective job design.

To provide an adequate orientation, training and development program.

To provide performance-related feedback and ensure effective two-way communication.

To utilise people to the fullest capacity and potential.

To create a climate in which employees are encouraged to develop and utilise their skills to the fullest.

To create and maintain a safe and healthy work environment.

To establish and maintain a harmonious employer and employee relationship.

To help the organisation to retain productive employees.

1.6 Human Relation Theory


Human relations management theory encompasses a rich and diverse tradition of models, ideas, techniques and
research findings that often trace their roots back to the Hawthorne Experiments conducted during the late 1920s.

Researchers putting into practice experiments at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric (in Cicero, IL) placed
two groups of employees doing the similar work into separate rooms.

One group was treated as the control, and the second was exposed to a variety of experimental motivations such
as decreased lighting, rest pauses, increased lighting and so on.

The researchers, F.J. Roethlisberger of Harvard and W.J. Dickson of Western Electric management, predicted
the experiment to guide different levels of the management for the investigational group.

This philosophy was in vogue for the day, where traditional organisation theory conceived the organisational
system as a mechanism that could be influenced or readjusted to influence employees.

To the astonishment of the researchers, both groups increased their performance. Following analysis of these
surprising results led Roethlisberger and Dickson to conclude that the new design was tricky, which allowed
inappropriate factors to enter the design that led to these surprising results.

What happened was that employees in the control and experimental groups were treated as special.

They were given attention by management, separated from other employees, and encouraged to perform.

The basic lesson that emerged from this early research suggested that employees who are given attention by
administration, who are treated as special, and who perceive their work as important can become highly motivated
and thus become more creative.

Employees were not treated as special but rather as expendable cogs in a machine irrespective of their
performance.

The need to motivate the employees to perform better was not part of the decision-making equation at that
point of time.

Needless to say, the results of the Hawthorne Experiments, once the reasons for them were better understood
by managers and academicians, served as a launch pad for panoply of new theories and come up to the
management.

This new way of thinking that gained momentum in the 1930s and 1940s can be broadly labeled Human
Relations Management.

5/uts

Human Resource Management

1.7 Revolution of the Human Resource Management


The revolution of the Human Resource Management is held in the world long back, since from the time of the
Egyptian. Let us discuss revolution of the Human Resource Management from all over the world.

By 1920, psychologists and employment specialists in the United States started tracking the human relations
movement, which viewed workers in terms of their psychology rather than as exchangeable parts.

During the middle of the last century, larger companies, typically those in the United States that emerged after
the Second World War, recruited people from the US Military and were able to apply new selection, training,
leadership, and management development methods.

Similarly, some leading European multinationals, such as Shell and Phillips developed new approaches to
personnel development and drew on similar approaches already used in Civil Service training. Gradually,
this spreads more sophisticated policies and processes that require more central management via a personnel
department composed of specialists and generalist teams.

The role of what became known as Human Resources grew all through the middle of the 20th century. Anxiety
remained between academics who emphasised either soft or hard HR. Those professing so-called soft HR
stressed areas like leadership, cohesion, and loyalty which play important roles in organisational success. Those
promoting hard HR championed more quantitatively rigorous management techniques in the 1960s.

In the later part of the last century, both the title and conventional role of the personnel function was progressively
superseded by the emergence, at least in larger organisations, of strategic human resources management and
sophisticated human resources departments. Initially, this may have involved little more than renaming the
function, but where transformation occurred, it became distinguished by the human resources having a more
significant influence on the organisations strategic direction and gaining board-level representation.

1.8 Human Relation Concept


The Human Relation plays a major role in any organisation. The human resource program represents an attempt to
improve employee morale and motivation through an improved three-way communication and through employee
participation in the decision making processes. Human relation seeks to emphasise employee aspect of work rather
than technical or economic aspects. It seeks to make employment and working condition less impersonal. The human
relation approach emphasises policies and techniques designed to improve employee morale and job satisfaction. It
is believed that this is accompanied by increased employee efficiency and reduction in employee unrest.

1.9 To Understand Human Behavior


It assists the manager to develop a better realisation of how his/her attitude and behavior plays a part in everyday
affair.

It assists him/her to develop a keener sensitivity towards other people.

It helps him to develop an improved understanding of the problem reconciling his/her own interest and capability
with the needs and goals of the organisation of which (s)he is or will be a part.

This enables him/her to anticipate and prevent problems, or at least to resolve more effectively those that cannot
avoid.

6/uts

Summary

Human Resource Management is the strategic and logical approach of every management system.

Human Resource Management has replaced the Personnel management, as it brings together the most
valued asset of the organisation i.e. the employees of an organisation which contribute to the achievement of
the objective of the business

Selection process is carried out by taking interviews of candidates and examines their qualification and
ability

Training an individual is carried out by recognising the area where the candidate has to be trained.

Career development ensures that the employee will stay back with the organisation and it also gives job
satisfaction to the employee.

HRM has to manage money, market, material, machines and men.

References

Rao, P. S., 2010. Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations. Himalaya Publishing
House.

Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A. & Dennison, P., 2003. A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency
Frameworks.

McNamara, C. All About Human Resources and Talent Management [Online] Available at: <http://
managementhelp.org/hr_mgmnt/hr_mgmnt.htm> [Accessed 28 September 2010].

Evolution of Human Resource Management [Online] Available at: http://www.articlesbase.com/training-articles/


evolution-of-human-resource-management-1294285.html> [Accessed 14 September 2012].

2010. Human Resource Management-I Video Lecture Course, Nature and Scope of HRM, [Video Online]
Available at: <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fa8E3tCDIpo&feature=player_embedded> [Accessed 14
September 2012].

2010. Human Resource Management-I Video Lecture Course, Analysing and Designing Job: I, [Video Online]
Available at: <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S_1FyWMYBoo&feature=player_embedded> [Accessed 14
September 2012].

Recommended Reading

Suri, R. K. & Chhabra, T.N. Industrial Psychology, Sun India Publications, New Delhi.

Singh, K. & Duggal, B. R. Human Resource Management, Sun India Publications, Delhi.

Chhabra, T. N. Human Resource Management, Dhanpat Rai & Co., Delhi.

7/uts

Human Resource Management

Self Assessment
1. The Human Resource management doesnt produce any profit or neither can it develop any revenue, but it can
have a hold on the organisation that can improve the _____________.
a. productivity
b. process
c. procedure
d. power
2. Which of the following is one of the roles of the HRM?
a. To enable management to achieve organisational objectives through its workforce.
b. To ensure that the organisation fulfills all the government and social obligation.
c. To train an employee for improving communication.
d. To form the workers union.
3. The Human Resource management is the strategic and logical approach of the _________________.
a. organisation
b. institute
c. administration
d. management
4. The Human Resource management has to look after the performance of the employee and __________ them
accordingly.
a. help
b. punish
c. reward
d. compensate
5. Which of the following factor affects an organisation?
a. Poor management
b. Incompetency of the employees that can degrade the quality of the product
c. Lack of the time
d. Lack of the space
6. What are the Responsibilities of the HRM?
a. To achieve profit.
b. To enjoy work.
c. Recruitment and selection of candidate.
d. To earn money.
7. Why human Relation is necessary?
a. To develop good relation among employees and employers
b. For planning strategy
c. To avoid confusion
d. To solve the problem

8/uts

8. Role of Human Resource Management is to create and maintain a _____________work environment.


a. tense and disciplined
b. safe and healthy
c. confuse and sad
d. dominating and indiscipline
9. The managers job as a human relations job that function through several major activities and that human
relationship are beginning and the end of the management job. Who said these lines?
a. F.J. Roethlisberger of Harvard
b. Roethlisberger.
c. Dickson
d. Lawrence aptly
10. Assist the manager to develop a better realisation of how his own ______________ everyday affair play a part
in
a. attitude and behavior
b. time and money
c. strategy and planning
d. Power and status.

9/uts

Human Resource Management

Chapter II
Human Resource Management in India
Aim
The aim of this chapter is to:

elucidate the history of the Indias development in human resource management

explain how HRM in India is different from the rest of the world

highlight the scope of human resource management in India

Objectives
The objectives of this chapter are to:

elaborate the key factors that have developed the human resource management in India

elucidate the human relation movement in India

explain the concern of the human resource management department

Learning outcome
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

understand Indias history of human resource management

identify the significance of human resource management in India

recognise the scope of human resource management in India

10/uts

2.1 Introduction
The India story for organisation success is one that is deeply rooted in its history and culture. Human Resource holds
a key position in any development process. It is the sum total of our productive effort, guided, managed and executed
through our human resource. India realised the importance of HRM in various organisations and vigorous effort is
to the break the shackles of all economic barriers. Social constraint through the application of HRM concept and
practices has also been realised by India. Nowadays, Human Resource is the only factor that can facilitate effective
use of science and technology. HR development helps to incorporate high level of skills and knowledge. This not
only improves the quality of the product but also reduces the cost of production.

2.2 Concern of the Human Resource Management Department


The Human Resource department has taken some measures, so that it can provide better opportunity for the
employees.

By carrying out job analysis

By providing equal employment opportunities for everyone

By forecasting the human resource necessity

By arranging orientation and training of the employees

By recruitment and Selection

By designing and implementing management and organisational development programs.

2.3 Significance of the Human Resource Department


Following points describe the significance of human resource department

Career management and succession planning

Managing employee relationship

Performance appraisal

Training and development

Managing employee welfare and social security

Managing change and developing organisation

Industrial relations.

2.4 History of the Human Resource Management in India


In 50s -Workers were not allowed to ask any question but they only had To do their job. That was the time
when worker were treated like salves.

In 60s - Terms like manpower, staff and personnel came into existence. This year changed the employeeemployer relationship. They were treated and served well during this phase.

In Late 70s - People realised that, productivity depends on people.

1940s-1960s - The HR technique was introduced and since then administration was managed by the group
of people.Since then, IR, administrative leave, bonus, retirement and many other facilities were given to the
employees.

In 1970s-1980s regulatory managerial housing, medical leave etc. came into existence.

In 1990s union of the worker were formed.

After that, some other policies and programs were carried out by the union such as:
Productivity through people executive formulating policies; T&D programs.

In 1948 - Indian Institute of Personal Management (IIPM) at Kolkata was started. This institute started the
practice of HRM.

In 1950 - Another institute of management known as National Institute of Labor Management (NILM) at
Mumbai laid the foundation.
11/uts

Human Resource Management

In 1990 - Milestone was achieved by renaming of American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA) as
the Society for Human Resource Management. This instituted gave new face to the HR management.

2.5 Indian Management is Unique


HRM in Indian organisation is indubitably unique.

There are some points which have favored their own organisation. They are as follows:
Hiring practices
Compensation standards
Benefits
Statutory governance
Performance linked reward
Payouts

The Indian culture is deeply rooted in its society and the collective values in it provide an open collaborative
approach at the workplace.

Hard-work, long working hours, purveyances and the need to earn money impact the HRM policies.

Availability of the educated mass of different caliber and skill allow the country to undertake different nature
of the work.

It includes lower skilled activities such as BPOs (Business Process Outsourcing) and gradually moves up the
value curve to far more advance and complex activities as KPOs (Knowledge Process Outsourcing).

Lower wages with high quality work makes India a lucrative and preferred business destination for many
MNCs.

2.6 Human Relation Movement in India


Events
Kautilya
Author
of Artha
Shastra

Description
Kautilya provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources during 4th century
B.C.

This treatise titled as Artha Shastra.

This describes the logical procedures and principles with respect to labor organisation. Such
as shreni or guild system and cooperative sector.

Kautilya provides an excellent discussion on staffing and personnel management.

This books has following terms that helped in managing the entire HRM process:
Embracing job descriptions
Qualifications for jobs
Selection procedure
Executive development
Incentive systems (Sarasa-saama-daana-bheda-danda-catura or carrot and Stick approach)
and
Performance evaluation.

12/uts

Trades based
on caste

The group of society who is engaged in following activities were designated as Brahmins:
Teaching
Sacrifice
State management.

Those specialising in fighting were termed Kshatriyas.

Individuals engaged in the areas of trade, business and agriculture were called Vaishya.

Those devoting themselves in manual work were known as Shudras. Later on, these professions
emerged to be hereditary, the transfer of skills and training from one generation to another were
practiced such as:
Goldsmiths
Weavers
Potters
Blacksmiths
Carpenters

British
Rules Era

During British rule, the Laissez-faire policy was introduced.

From the evidence of the Indigo commission, it has been seen that:
Working conditions were terrible
Living condition were subhuman and
Several abuses prevailed in Indigo plantation.

Several inhuman cruelties caused to the worker during tea plantation.

In addition to this, the Plantation Act of 1863 makes provisions that if the workers failed to
complete their period of contract they should be imprisoned for period not exceeding three
months.

Furthermore, the working conditions in the tea plantations were extremely bad.

The laborers who attempted to run away were subject to imprisonment, whipping and allied
extreme punishment.

The workers were entirely helpless in the face of the organised and powerful European
planters.

The above conditions prevailed till the performance of the Factory Act of 1881.

According to the Act, the workers employed in the factories were allowed a week off day.

As well as, provisions were also made for inspection as well as limiting the hours of work for
women workers to eleven per day.

The act further provided that the minimum age of children for employment should be seven
years.

Furthermore, that the maximum working hours for the children should not exceed seven hours
a day and that too in the dayshift.

13/uts

Human Resource Management

Movement
After First
Labor

Organisation

In 1890, the first labor organisation designated as Bombay Mill Hands Association was
established.
Subsequently, in 1905, the printers Union at Calcutta and in 1907, the Postal Union at Bombay
was established.

The Madras Labor Union was organised thereafter in 1918.

In the same year, the Central Labor Board was established to federate the different unions in
the Bombay city and the All India Trade Union Congress was organised.

It may be noted that the reliable statistics of trade union growth are not available for the period
before the formal implementation of the Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926, a landmark in the
history of industrial relations in this country.

The early thirties witnessed a highly weakened trade union movement.

However, the conditions prevailing five years before as well as during the Second World War
were conducive to the rapid growth of the trade unionism.

Between 1939-40 and 1944-45 the number of registered trade unions increased from 66.6 to
86.5 (i.e., by 29.7 percent).

There was a large scale expansion of the trade union movement after the Second World War
especially after the independence.

As Subramanian observes, there existed fourfold reasons for this rapid growth. These were
as follows:
The cumulative impact of the acute economic distress stemming from war conditions and
the removal of the wartime restrictions on strikes.
The development of three more central labor organisations and the competition among
them.
The labor policy of the Government based on adjudication rather than collective
bargaining.
The growth of the spirit of trade unionism among the workers. Accordingly, during the
period 1947-1960 while, industrial employment rose by 2.8 times.

G r o w t h i n
the industrial
sector

The total claimed union membership also went up by 2.3 times.


In 1960, 45 percent of the total industrial workforce was claimed to be unionised.
Today, the total membership is estimated to be around 4.3 million i.e., 28 percent of total
workforce.

Explicitly, during post independence period, the activities of Personnel Department in different
public and private sectors have multiplied.

According to the provisions of section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948, it became obligatory for
the employers to employ a Welfare Officer in a factory employing 500 or more workers.

Likewise, section 58 of the Mines Act, 1952, empowers the Government to specify employment
of welfare officer/officers.

It does not mean that the functions of Personnel Department are entirely limited to welfare
activities.
Table 2.1 Human relation movement in India

14/uts

2.7 Scope of Human Resource Management in India


The scope of HRM is very wide:
Personnel aspect:
This is concerned with following term:

Manpower planning

Recruitment

Selection

Placement

Transfer

Promotion

Training and development

Layoff and retrenchment

Remuneration

Incentives

Productivity

Welfare aspect
It deals with working conditions and amenities such as:

Canteens

Rest and lunch rooms

Housing

Transport

Medical assistance

Education

Health and safety

Recreation facilities

Industrial relations aspect


This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary,
procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.

15/uts

Human Resource Management

Summary

HRM in India has been impacted both by its own history as well as multinational companies that came and
establish their operations in the country.

The countrys culture has played a critical role in building value for the country globally.

Kautilya Author of Artha Shastra: This treatise describes the logical procedures and principles with respect to
labor organisation. Such as shreni or guild system and cooperative sector.

Trades based on caste: In this people who belong to the special caste and tribe follows the profession from
generation

The caste system and the way it was structured to differentiate between different categories of the jobs remains
a basic frame work for the way work is distributed at the workplace.

The coming of the British to India and the technique of their administration brought immense insights into the
country on how to mange labor work.

References

Rao, P. S., 2010. Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations. Himalaya Publishing
House.

Sharma, A., 2006. Historical Development of HRM in India Final, [Online] Available at: <http://www.slideshare.
net/rajeevgupta/historial-development-of-hrm-in-india-final> [Accessed 28 September 2010].

Ten Hurdles Faced by the HR in India [Online] Available at:-<http://www.chillibreeze.com/articles_various/


hurdles-faced-by-hr-1211.asp> [Accessed 17 September 2012].

Discuss the evolution of Human resource management by drawing References from the Hawthorne Studies.
[pdf] Available at: <http://www.respawngamingcafe.com/mba/Human%20Resource%20Management.pdf>
[Accessed 28 September 2010]

2010. Human Resource Management-I Video Lecture Course, Human Resource Planning - I, [Video Online]
Available at: < http://learnerstv.com/video/Free-video-Lecture-10027-Management.htm> [Accessed 17
September 2012].

2010. Human Resource Management-I Video Lecture Course, Human Resource Planning - II, [Video Online]
Available at: <http://learnerstv.com/video/Free-video-Lecture-10028-Management.htm> [Accessed 17 September
2012].

Recommended Reading

Beardwell, L. & Holden, L., Human Resource Management, Jacrnillan, Delhi.

Frnch, V., The Personnel Management Process, Houghton Co., Boston.

Chhabra, T. N., Human Resource Management, Dhanpat Rai & Co., Delhi.

16/uts

Self Assessment
1. Kautilya provide a systematic treatment of management of human resources as early as 4th century B.C. In his
treatise titled_____________.
a. bible
b. artha-shastra
c. ayurdeva
d. vedas
2. From the 14th century B.C. to the later half of the 10th century A.D., the relationship between employer and
employees were marked ______________.
a. by justice and equality
b. by law
c. by punishment
d. by harassment
3. In Varnashram or caste system ,those devoting themselves in manual work were called as____________.
a. Brahmin
b. Goldsmiths
c. Barber
d. Shudras
4. During early British rule, there prevailed a _______________ policy toward the business.
a. Laissez-Faire
b. Non-judgmental
c. Unfair
d. Welfare
5. The Madras Labor Union was organised in_______________.
a. 1918
b. 1981
c. 1891
d. 1819
6. The professional those who transferred their skills to next generation are____________________.
a. Weavers, potters, blacksmiths
b. Contractor and managers
c. Politician and doctors
d. Extremist and union leaders.
7. Between 1939-40 and 1944-45 the number of registered trade unions increased_____________.
a. From 66.6 to 86.5.
b. From 89.9 to 86.5
c. From 66.6 to 70.5
d. From 50.6 to 76.3

17/uts

Human Resource Management

8. Availability of the____________of different caliber of the knowledge and skill allows the country to undertake
different nature of the work.
a. plenty of money
b. educated mass
c. ample of land
d. effective organisation structure
9. Hard-work, long working hours, purveyances and the need to earn money impact the ____________.
a. HRM policies
b. HRM discipline
c. HRM Regulation
d. HRM Rules
10. ____________ covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and
disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.
a. Industrial Relation Characteristic
b. Industrial Relation Aspects
c. Industrial Relation Programs
d. Industrial Relation Plans

18/uts

Chapter III
Human Resource Planning
Aim
The aim of this chapter is to:

explain human resource planning

enlist the objectives and elements of human resource planning

describe the systematic process of recruitment, selection and induction

Objectives
The objectives of this chapter are to:

highlight the need and importance of human resource planning

explain the activities in human resource planning

enlist the applications of human resource planning

Learning outcome
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

understand the concept of human resource management

recognise the role of human resource planning in an organisation

identify human resource planning in the organisation

19/uts

Human Resource Management

3.1 Definition
Human Resource Planning is the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number and kind of
people, at the right places, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will
help the organisation achieving its overall objectives.
Definition According to Geisler, Manpower planning is the process which includes forecasting, developing and
controlling by which a firm ensures that it has:

The right number of people

The right kind of people

At the right places

At the right time, doing work for which they are economically most useful

3.1.1 Human Resource Planning


According to the Gordon McBeath, Human Resource Planning is concerned with two things:

Planning of Manpower requirements

Planning of Manpower supplied

3.2 Benefits of HRP


HRP can benefit at both national and company/ unit levels:

At the national level it will be concerned with factors such as population, economic development, provision of
the facilities for educational and geographical mobility and it will be the government responsibility

HRP studies can even be undertaken at the trade associations level for a particular industry

3.3 Uses of HRP


Following are the uses of HRP:

Improve the utilisation of the Human resources

Match human resource related activities and future organisation objectives efficiently

Coordination between various HR programs such an employment equity plan and hiring needs

3.4 Activities Involve in HRP


According to Wickstrom, HRP consists of the following series of activities:

Forecasting future manpower requirements

Make a list of manpower resources

Recruit the correct candidate

Anticipating man power problem

Planning necessary programs for required section like


Candidate selection
Training and development of the candidate
Utilisation of the manpower as per the requirement
Transfer of the employees from one workplace to another
Promotion of the employees according to their experience, their qualification etc.
Time to time motivation of an employee
Whereas, compensation has to be given to the employees wherever any mishaps take place

The above points will ensure that, future manpower requirement are properly met

20/uts

3.5 Need for HRP


To meet with the changing needs, manpower planning is must. Every organisation has to plan for human resource
due to following reasons:

The shortage of certain categories of employees and/ or variety of skills.

The rapid changes in the technology, marketing, management, etc., resulting in to the need for new skills and
new categories of the employees.

Changes made in the organisation design and structure affecting manpower demand.

The demographic changes like the changing profile of the workforce in terms of age, sex, education etc.

The government policies in respect to reservation, child labor, working conditions etc.

The labor laws affecting the demand for and supply of labor.

Pressure from trade union, politicians, sons of the soils etc.

Introduction of computer and robots etc.

The involvement of lead time in managing the job with most suitable candidate.

3.6 Process of HRP


The term Human Resource involves human capital that operates an organisation:

The human resource planning process is defined as, a course of action that the human capital takes up for a
methodical achievement of predetermined goals.

The term includes, its management, which primarily involves issues related to the workforce

The Human Resource Planning process, demands the HR manager to first understand the business
requirement.

When the manager comprehends the nature and scope of the business, (s)he will be able to employ those who
will deliver the required performance.

When it comes to engaging the manpower, the manager should have a keen eye for spotting talent.

It ensures that the workforce is competent enough to the meet the assigned targets.

Additionally, the existing talent pool in the workplace should be taken into consideration, so that skilled people
can be employed.

The work of the HR manager is to assess the currently employed workforce and their shortcomings.

Identifying these shortcomings goes a long way in choosing an efficient workforce.

While recruiting the new employees, the HR manager must calculate the expected workload.

21/uts

Human Resource Management

For better understanding refer the block diagram given below:


Block diagram:
Long range
objectives
and plans

Short term,
Goals, Plans,
programs and
budget

Overall
requirements
for human
resources

Inventory of
human
resources

Workforce
requirement
by
occupational
categories,
job, skills
demographic
characteristics

Inventory by
occupational
categories,
job skills,
demographic
characteristics

Net new
Human
Resources
requirements

Needed
Replacements
and Additions

Action
programs for
recruiting
and selecting
needed
personnel

Procedures
for evaluating
effectiveness
of human
resource
planning

Plans for
developing,
upgrading,
transforming
in recruiting
and selecting
needed people.

Fig. 3.1 Block diagram of HRP


3.6.1 Benefits of HRP
Following are the benefits of HRP

At the national Level, it is generally done by the government and cover items like:
Population projections
Program of the economic development
Educational facilities
Occupational distribution and growth
Industrial and geographical mobility of personnel.

At the sector level, it may be done by the government central or state. It may cover manpower requirement of
the
Agricultural
Industrial
Service sector.

At the industrial sector, it may cover manpower forecast for specific industries like:
Engineering
Heavy industries
Consumer goods industries
Public utility industries.

At the level of the individual unit, it may relate to its manpower need for various departments and for various
types of personnel.

22/uts

3.7 Human Resource Planning System


HRP fulfils individual, organisational and national goals


According to Sikula, The ultimate mission or purpose is to relate future human resources to future enterprise
needs, so as to maximise the future human resource to future enterprise needs, so as to maximise the future
return on investment in the human resources. In effect, the main purpose is one of matching or fitting employee
abilities to enterprise requirements, with an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements

The objectives may be laid down for short- term estimating the future organisational structure or forecasting
the manpower requirements.

Auditing Human Resources is next step after manpower estimation. This is done by skills inventory

Skill inventory contain data about each employees skills, abilities, work preferences and other item of information
which indicate his overall value to the company

HRP involves job analysis process as well. This step involves job description and job specification

Developing a Human Resource plan is also most important. As in this phase, development and implementation
of the planning are carried out.

3.8 Responsibility of Human Resource Planning Department


Framework for Procurement
Recruitment Programe

Applicant

The Individual Sales


Forecast

Job Analysis

The Individual Sales


Forecast

Job Description

Employee
Requisition

Job Specification

Screening Devices

The Individual

Application Blank
Referance Check
Interviews

Tests
Physical Examination
Medical check

The Organisation

Induction
Fig. 3.2 Flowchart of HRP

23/uts

Human Resource Management

According to Geisler, responsibilities involved in the Human resource planning are as follows:

To assist, council and pressurise the operating management to plan and establish objectives

To collect and summarise data in total organisation term

To ensure consistency with long-range objectives and other element of total business

To monitor and measure performance against the plan

To inform about the current scenario to top management

To provide the research necessary for effective manpower and organisational planning.

24/uts

Summary

Human Resource Planning is the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number and kind
of people, at the right places, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that
will help the organisation achieve its overall objectives.

The human resource planning process is defined as, a course of action that the human capital takes up for a
methodical achievement of predetermined goals.

HRP fulfils individual, organisational and national goals.

Skill inventory contain data about each employees skills, abilities, work preferences and other item of information
which indicate his overall value to the company.

Human Resource Planning involved two things, planning of manpower requirements and planning of manpower
supplied.

HRP is deemed necessary for all organisation.

There is various responsibility of HRP department like assisting, counsel, pressurise the organisation.

References

Rao, P. S., 2010. Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations, Himalaya Publishing
House.

Bandt, A. & Haines, S. G., 2004., Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. Centre for Strategic
Management.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Reference Tools [pdf] Available at: <http://www.exec.gov.nl.ca/exec/pss/


publications/HR_Resource_Binder.pdf> [Accessed 18 September 2012].

The Role of Human Resource Development and Management [pdf] Available at: <http://www2.aau.org/wghe/
gender/toolkit/Toolkit-module3.pdf> [Accessed 18 September 2012].

2010. Human Resource Management-I Video Lecture Course, Recruitment and Selection, [Video Online]
Available at: <http://learnerstv.com/video/Free-video-Lecture-10029-Management.htm> [Accessed 21 September
2012].

2010. Human Resource Management-I Video Lecture Course, Performance Evaluation and Appraisal - I, [Video
Online] Available at: <http://learnerstv.com/video/Free-video-Lecture-10030-Management.htm> [Accessed 21
September 2012].

Recommended Reading

Evans, P. & Pucik, E., The Global Challenge- Framework for International Human Resource Management, Tata
McGraw-Hill Irwin.

De Cenzo D.A. & Robin, S. P, 1997. Personnel/Human Resource Management, McGraw Hill.

Ashwatappa, K., Human Resource Management, 5th ed., TMH.

25/uts

Human Resource Management

Self Assessment
1. Human Resource Planning is the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number and kind
of people, at the right places, at the right time, capable of____________________completing those tasks that
will help the organisation achieve its overall objectives.
a. properly and precisely
b. effectively and efficiently
c. happily and efficiently
d. willingly and effectively
2. Match the following.
Column I

Column II

1. It is generally done by the government and cover item a. At the industry level
like population projections, programme of economic
development, educational facilities, occupational
distribution, and growth, industrial and geographical
mobility of personnel.
2. It may be done by the government-central or state b. At the sector level
and may cover manpower needs of agricultural,
industrial and geographical mobility of personnel
3. It may cover manpower forecast for specific industries, c. At the level of the individual unit
such as engineering, heavy industrial, consumer goods
industries, public utility industries, etc.
4. It may relate to its manpower needs for various d. At the national level
departments and for various types of personnel.
a. 1-d, 2-b, 3-a, 4-c
b. 1-a, 2-b, 3-d, 4-c
c. 1-d, 2-c, 3-a, 4-b
d. 1-c, 2-b, 3-a, 4-d
3. Which of the following statements is true?
a. HRP fulfils individual, organisational and national goals.
b. HRP fulfils only individual goals.
c. HRP fulfils organisational goals.
d. HRP fulfils national goals.
4. Whose postulation is The ultimate mission or purpose is to relate future human resources to future enterprise
needs, so as to maximise the future human resource to future enterprise needs, so as to maximise the future
return on investment in the human resources. In effect, the main purpose is one of matching or fitting employee
abilities to enterprise requirements, with an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements?
a. Gandhi
b. Sikula
c. Rattan TATA
d. Geisler

26/uts

5. __________ contain data about each employees skills, abilities, work preferences and other item of information
which indicate his overall value to the company.
a. Skill inventory
b. Skill research
c. Skill recovery
d. Skillful guidance
6. What does job analysis process involves?
a. Job description and job specification
b. Job proof and job skills
c. Job documentation and job assistance
d. Job profile and job description
7. ___________ provide the basic premises on which the manpower planning is built.
a. Forecasting
b. Developing
c. Planning
d. Summarising
8. To____________the operating management to plan and establish objectives.
a. assist, counsel and pressurises
b. forecasting , developing and preparing
c. guiding, assisting and punishing
d. training, interacting and reacting.
9. To _____________against the plan and keep the top management informed about it.
a. provide an inadequate data.
b. provide correct data
c. provide a improper data
d. provide the research necessary data.
10. To _______________in total organisational terms and to the total business-plan.
a. monitor and measure performance
b. measure and manipulate work
c. collect and summarise
d. motivate and guide.

27/uts

Human Resource Management

Chapter IV
Recruitment and Selection
Aim
The aim of this chapter is to:

explain the concept of recruitment and selection

elucidate the complexity of recruitment and selection

explain the process of recruitment and selection

Objectives
The objectives of this chapter are to:

explain the general practices that organisations use to recruit and select employees

determine which recruitment and selection practices are most effective

describe how the recruitment and selection practices affect organisational outcomes

Learning outcome
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

understand the critical role of recruitment

identify appropriate recruitment sources

understand the selection tools and methods

28/uts

4.1 Introduction
Better Recruitment and Selection strategies result in improved organisational outcomes. The more effectively
organisations recruit and select candidates, the more likely they will get a satisfying job done from them with
sustain quality.

4.2 Concept of Recruitment and Selection


Recruitment is the process of identifying and attracting potential candidates from within and outside an
organisation. The candidate must be capable of doing allotted work in present as well as in future.

Once candidates are identified, an organisation can begin the selection process.

Before starting the recruitment activity, organisation must consider whether recruitment should be done locally,
nationally or internationally.

The Recruitment process includes the following steps:


Collecting
Measuring and
Evaluating information about candidates qualifications for specified positions.

Organisations use these processes to increase the likelihood of hiring individuals who possess the right skills
and abilities to be successful at their jobs

There are certain steps which have to be carried out in this entire process. Those are as follows:
Manpower Planning
Job analysis
Identification of vacancies
Preparation of budget
Preparation and publication of information
Reception of the application from
Recruit
Select
Induct

We will discuss the above mention point in this chapter in detail.

4.2.1 Manpower Planning


It defines what resources the organisation needs to meet its objective. It must specify the quality of manpower
needed at a particular date in future.
4.2.2 Job Analysis Method
The Job analysis process consists of following:
Job description
It is a statement of the component tasks, duties, objectives and standard of performances expected from the
employee.
Job specification
It is a specification of the skills, knowledge and qualities required to perform the job.
Personnel specification
A reworking of the job specification in terms of the kind of person needed to perform the job.

29/uts

Human Resource Management

4.2.3 Identification of Vacancies


The requirement of the manpower plan

By job requisition from a department, branch or office which has a vacancy.

4.2.4 Preparation of Budget


The company must decide the amount to be spent on recruitment process

The method of recruitment would depend on the time available and budget allocation.

4.2.5 Preparation and Publication of Information


To bring in correct candidates to the organisation, we need to do proper publicity. Hence, it is carried out in following
way:
Advertisement

It is an effective way of seeking recruits.

It must be clearly worded, mention all the requirements and must appear in the right newspapers that are likely
to be read by potential applicants.

Job description and job specification must provide all the information required to draft the advertisement for

respective position.

Internet

It has become popular method of recruiting people.

Many organisations have their own web pages where perspective applicants can obtain data about the
company.

Moreover, the companys other information that gives the applicant idea of scope of the company in the market.
This are like
Product and service
Employment opportunities and
Application procedures.

4.2.6 Reception of Application Form


Once the application forms are received, they must be screened for eligibility criterion. Those forms, which do
not meet the minimum required standards, must be rejected. The minimum criterion are as follows like:
Age
Qualification
Experience
Legal issues
Salary expectation
Lag of certificate

A formal interview must be conducted for the remaining students by properly communicating to them the
following things:
The date
The day
Time of the interview and
The place of the interview.

These candidates should pass through the selection procedure before their final placement.

30/uts

4.3 Other Methods of Recruitment


Employment agencies and head hunters:

Recruitment through outside agencies is generally undertaken as follows:


When the company does not have the time or human resources to spend on the process
When the company wishes to maintain confidentiality
When the company feels that they would be able to attract a wider range of people.

Employment agencies and head hunting firms are retained by the organisation to identify the suitable candidates
for their company.

Employment agencies normally recruit at lower and middle management levels whereas headhunter concentrates
their effort on higher-level managerial position.

The recruitment agencies are paid a certain percentage of the incumbents salary as recruitment fees.

There are some other sources as well that can fulfill the requirement. Those are as follows:

4.3.1 Campus Recruitment


Organisations visit campus to recruit for entry-level position

The procedure is to give a brief talk about company to the interested candidates

Then held group discussion

Personnel interview.

4.3.2 Walk-In Interview


On urgent basis, the recruitment may be conducted by walk-in interviews

The date and time is specified in the local newspaper

Potential candidates are asked to report for the interview along with their documents.

4.3.3 Employees Referrals


If the company feels that they can obtain candidate by word of mouth, they place an advertisement on the
companys notice broad stating their requirement

Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn

When the labor market is very tight, large employers frequently offer their employees bonus or prize for any
referrals that are hired and stay with the company for specific length of time

Some companies keep the record of the former employees whose record was good

Whenever there are new job openings for which they are qualified, then these former employees are informed

This process has a drawback that is known as nepotism which means, when a person of ones community or
caste are employed, who may or may not be fit for the job

Because of this the eligible candidate may lose the opportunity and undeserving candidate gets a job.

4.3.4 Labor Unions


Firms with closed or union shops must look to the union in their recruitment efforts

Disadvantage of a monopolistically controlled labor source are offset, at least particularly, by saving in recruitment
costs

With one-fifth of the labor force organised into union, organised labor constitute an important source of
personnel.

31/uts

Human Resource Management

4.3.5 Indoctrination Seminars


The colleges professors are arranged to discuss the problem of companies and employers

Professors are invited to take part in these seminars

Visit to plants and banquets are arranges so that the participant professors may be favorably impressed

They may later speak well of a company and help it in getting required personnel.

4.3.6 Unconsolidated Application


For position in which large number of candidates are not available from other sources

The companies may gain keeping files of applications received from candidate who make direct enquiries about
possible vacancies on their own or may send unconsolidated applications

The information may be index and filed for future use when there are openings in these jobs.

4.3.7 Nepotism

The Hiring of relatives will be an inevitable component of recruitment programs in family-owned firms

Such a policy does not necessarily coincide with hiring on the basis of merit

But interest and loyalty to the enterprise are offsetting advantage.

4.3.8 Leasing

To adjust to short-term fluctuation in personnel needs

The possibility of leasing personnel by the hour or day should be considered

This practice has been particularly well-developed in the office administration.

The firm not only obtains well-trained and selected personnel but avoids any obligation in pensions, insurance,
and other fringe benefits.

4.3.9 Voluntary Organisations


Voluntary organisation such as private clubs, social organisations might also provide employees

The following resources also can be considered that can give helping hand in recruiting the employees for the
organisation:
Handicaps
Widowed or married women
Old persons
Retried hands

4.3.10 Computer Data Bank


When a company desires a particular type of employee job specifications and requirement are fed into a computer
where they are matched against the resume data stored therein.
The output is a set of resume for individual who meet the requirement. This method is very useful for identifying
candidates for hard-to-fill positions, which call for an unusual combination of skills.

32/uts

4.4 Recruitment and Selection Policy


4.4.1 Selection Policy

In order to initiate the procedure for selection, we must satisfy the three preliminary requirements:
There must be the authority to select, which comes from the employment requisition, as developed through
analysis of the work load and work force
We must have a standard of employees with which we can compare prospective employees
This is done by job specification as developed through job analysis
A planned recruitment programme provides us with these applicants.

The selection procedure is essentially a series of methods of securing relevant information about the
applicant
The information obtain can be compared with the job specification and standard of personnel if the applicant
qualifies, he or she is advanced to next step. Thus, the job specification and job applicant are interrelated at
each step in the selection procedure.

4.4.2 Recruitment Policy


After determining the human resource requirement, the recruitment and selection process can begin very often,
recruitment is misunderstood as filling in of vacancies

The real purpose of recruitment is not to fill up a vacancy but to add a person to the staff whom the management
expects to become important in the future scheme of the things

Dale Yoder and others point out: Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the
requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting manpower in adequate
number to facilities effective selection of an efficient working force.

In term of the Stahl, "Recruitment is a corner stone of the whole personnel structure".

Sources for recruiting should be periodically checked

For this purpose, the criteria may be the cost per applicant, the applicant/ hiring ratio, tenure, performance
appraisals etc.

Recruiting should take into consideration ethical practices, such as use of truth in hiring i.e. telling an applicant
all about the firm and its position both good and bad so that the candidate can decide whether or not to join the
firm.

A successful and effective, recruitment program necessitates a well-defined recruitment policy, a proper
organisational structure, and procedures for locating sources of manpower, suitable methods, techniques for
utilising these and a constant assessment to achieve improvement.

4.5 Recruitment Practice In India


The different sources for recruitment in India have been classified as below:

Within the organisation

Badli or temporary workers

Employment agencies

Causal callers

Applicants introduced by friends and relatives in the organisation

Advertisement and labor contractors

All public sector enterprises are required to consider candidates sponsored by the employment exchanges

In most cases, confine the selection to these candidates

However, the private sector is not under any such formal obligation

33/uts

Human Resource Management

Under the apprentices Act 1961, young craftsmen having received pre-employment training in industrial training
Institutes have to be employed by specialised industries during training period as a percentage of the total
number of regular employees

Reservation of 25% of vacancies for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes candidates and preferential treatment
of displaced persons is a part of statutory requirement of government and public sector employment in India

The requirement of supervisory personnel in all organised industries is generally by promotion from within the
organisation

Some industries first recruit a number of young persons as management trainees and after 2 or 3 years absorb
them completely. Executives too are mostly promoted from within.

4.6 Selection Technique


Employee Selection is the process of putting the right men on the right job

It is a procedure of matching organisational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people

Effective selection can be done only when there is effective matching

By selecting best candidate for the required job, the organisation will get quality performance of employees

Moreover, organisation will face less of absenteeism and employee turnover problems

By selecting right candidate for the required job, organisation will also save time and money

Proper screening of candidates takes place during selection procedure

All the potential candidates who apply for the given job are tested. But selection must be differentiated from
recruitment, though these are two phases of employment process

Recruitment is considered to be a positive process as it motivates more of candidates to apply for the job

It creates a pool of applicants. It is just sourcing of data, while selection is a negative process as inappropriate
candidates are rejected here.

Recruitment precedes selection in staffing process.

Selection involves choosing the best candidate with best abilities, skills and knowledge for the required job.

4.7 Evaluation and Selection Criteria


The criteria usually can be best summarised in the following categories:

Education

Experience

Physical Characteristics

Personal Characteristics

34/uts

4.8 The Selection Process


The Employee selection process takes place in following order:
4.8.1 Preliminary Interviews

It is used to eliminate those candidates who do not meet the minimum eligibility criteria laid down by the
organisation

The skills, academic and family background, competencies and interests of the candidate are examined during
preliminary interview

Preliminary interviews are less formalised and planned than the final interviews

The candidates are given a brief up about the company and the job profile and it is also examined how much
the candidate knows about the company

Preliminary interviews are also called screening interviews.

4.8.2 Application Blanks


The candidates who clear the preliminary interview are required to fill application blank

It contains data record of the candidates such as details about age, qualifications, reason for leaving previous
job, experience etc.

A specimen of a Short Application Form for Unskilled is as follows:


Manual Employees
ENISION GRAPHICS PVT. LTD
BANGLORE-XXX XXX
Date: Name: Address:
Date of Birth:
Single/ Married/Widowed/Divorced: Position Applied for:
Detail of previous jobs, including present one, if still employed:
Name and
Address of
the Employer

Type of Work
Done

To

From

Reason for
Leaving

1
2
3
Table 4.1 Application blanks
Physical Disabilities:
Have you ever worked for this concern before? : Yes/ No
Engaged/ Not Engaged. Department
Due to start..
interviewer..

35/uts

Human Resource Management

4.8.3 Check of References


The use of references is common in most selection procedures

It involves minimum of effort and time/money

The objective is to obtain evaluation of prior employers and professional colleagues, who have known the
candidate in a professional capacity

Checks on references are made by mail or telephone, and occasionally in person, and by using a reference
form

4.8.4 Written Tests


Various written tests are conducted during selection procedure like


Aptitude test
Intelligence test
Reasoning test
Personality test

These tests are used to objectively assess the potential candidate.

They should not be biased.

4.8.5 Employment Interviews


It is a one to one interaction between the interviewer and the potential candidate

It is used to find whether the candidate is best suited for the required job or not. But such interviews consume
time and money both

Moreover the competencies of the candidate cannot be judged

Such interviews may be biased at times. Such interviews should be conducted properly. No distractions should
be there in room. There should be an honest communication between candidate and interviewer.

4.8.6 Medical Examination


Medical tests are conducted to ensure physical fitness of the potential employee

It will decrease chances of employee absenteeism.

4.8.7 Appointment Letter


A reference check is made about the candidate selected and

Then finally he is appointed by giving a formal appointment letter.

4.8.8 Informal Interview


This is the type of interview that is conducted in an informal setting

The interview can be held at the residence of the managing director for the post of a legal consultant

Similarly, many senior level job assignments are finalised during dinner at some hotel or restaurant.

4.8.9 Formal Interview


This is the interview that is conducted most commonly for recruitment of personnel

In such interviews the candidate is called for an interview at a particular location and time

The candidate is required to answer questions asked, based on the outcome of which he is rated for selection.

36/uts

4.8.10 Patterned Interview


To maintain a uniform approach there are few interviews where a set pattern of questions are asked

In such patterned interview the choice of person conducting the interview is restricted and the selection criteria
are also limited within a set frame.

4.8.11 Depth Interview


In such an interview, questions are based upon a specific area of the interviewees interest and the person has
to answer in detail

The academic competence and knowledge is tested thoroughly in such type of interviews.

4.8.12 Stress Interview


For the selection of supervisor and executive positions, it is of equal importance to judge the suitability of
individual competence based on stress endurance along with knowledge and intelligence.

Therefore a candidate is required to appear for the stress interview.

In such interviews a person is required to respond to a tress situation and the assessment is done on the basis
of the response.

4.8.13 Group Interview


When we are required to perform a task in a group the selection is done in a group interview and the candidate
along with a group is asked to solve a particular problem.

The performance and behavior is, however, assessed and rated individually.

4.8.14 Panel Interview


For a senior level position selection, a panel of experts selects the candidate

Personality and behavior traits are very important for performing well in such interviews

Interviews, at times, become a hurdle between success and failure for persons just out of college

One has to present ones competence for a particular job within a short period

The candidate is assessed for his/her


Behavior
Mannerism
Attitude
IQ
Stress enduring
Capability
General awareness
Knowledge of the subjects studied and mental frame of mind to take up the position for which (s) he has
applied.

For a young student it is important that (s)he prepares well for crossing this hurdle

(s)He must be ready for the competitive written examinations as well as for the face to face interview.

37/uts

Human Resource Management

4.9 Approval by Manager


In executing the recruitment unit screening functions, the emphasis tends to be more on formal qualifications
and general suitability

When the manager takes over, the emphasis tends to switch toward more specifically job oriented worker
characteristics such as training and relevant past experience.

4.10 Medical Examination


The medical examination is an employment step found in most businesses

It can vary from a very comprehensive examination and matching of an applicants physical capabilities to job
requirements to a simple check of general physical appearance and well-being

In the selection procedure the physical examination has at least three basic objectives:
First, it serves to ascertain the applicants physical capabilities
The second objective of the examination is to protect the company against unwarranted claims under
workerscompensation laws, or against lawsuits for damages
And the final objective is to prevent communicable diseases from entering the organisation.

4.11 Induction

Induction is concerned with introducing or orienting a new employee to the organisation

Organisations could have induction programs of duration of 1-3 days and even up to 1/3/6 months.

Common objectives of an Induction program can be listed as covering:


Overview of the organisation, its history, its heros and important stories in the life of the firm so far like
mergers, acquisitions, JVs, expansion in new countries etc.
Organisation Vision / Mission and Objectives statement, its structure, hierarchy of the top and the senior
management, structure of the teams/divisions, focus on the division the employee/s is/are joining
Overview of the HR policies and processes and introduction to the Facilities team, IT team and other relevant
teams per the location of joining
Handover to the manager and induction at a team level on specificities related to the job and its
responsibilities
Organisations also build processes by which the new employee provides feedback on the on-boarding
experience and use this information to improve the Induction process
In as much as various firms report that over half of their voluntary resignations occur within the first 6
months, proper orientation can do much to reduce this problem and its accompanying costs.

38/uts

Summary

Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for the job
in the organisation.

Recruitment or manpower selection process is the first step in the employment of labor.

Sources for recruiting should be periodically evaluated.

Recruitment is the process of identifying and attracting potential candidates from within and outside an
organisation. The candidate must be capable of doing allotted work in present as well as in future.

Organisations could have induction programs of duration of 1-3 days and even up to 1/3/6 months.

A successful and effective recruitment program necessitates a well-defined recruitment policy, a proper
organisational structure, and procedure for locating sources of manpower resources.

References

Rao, P. S., 2010. Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations, Himalaya Publishing
House.

Bandt, A. & Haines, S. G., 2004., Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. Centre for Strategic
Management.

Gusdorf, L. M., Recruitment and Selection: Hiring the Right Person [pdf] Available at: <http://www.shrm.
org/education/hreducation/documents/09-0152%20gusdorf_instructor_notes.pdf> [Accessed 21 September
2012].

French, R. & Rumbles, S., Recruitment and Selection [pdf] Available at: <http://www.cipd.co.uk/NR/
rdonlyres/01F95685-76C9-4C96-B291-3D5CD4DE1BE5/0/9781843982579_sc.pdf> [Accessed 21 September
2012].

2010. Human Resource Management-I Video Lecture Course, Performance Evaluation and Appraisal, [Video
Online] Available at: <http://learnerstv.com/video/Free-video-Lecture-10031-Management.htm> [Accessed 21
September 2012].

2010. Human Resource Management-I Video Lecture Course, Training and Development, [Video Online]
Available at: <http://learnerstv.com/video/Free-video-Lecture-10032-Management.htm> [Accessed 21 September
2012].

Recommended Reading

Parweek, U. & Rao T. V., 1999. Designing and Managing Human Resource Systems, Anmol Publishers.

Dessler, G., Human Resource Management, 10th ed., Person Publications.

Patnayak, B., 2005. Human Resource Management, PHI 3IE.

39/uts

Human Resource Management

Self Assessment
1. Recruitment is the process of ____________________potential candidates from within and outside an
organisation.
a. spotting and grabbing
b. convincing and testing
c. identifying and attracting
d. motivating and spoiling
2. ____________ a specification of the skills, knowledge and qualities required to perform the job.
a. Job specification
b. Job description
c. Job development
d. Job analysis
3. The candidates should pass through the selection procedure before their
a. final placement

b. final result
c. final exam
d. final revision
4. ________ traits are very important for performing well in interviews.
a. Manners and communication
b. Education and attitude
c. Personality and behavior
d. Experience and qualification
5. For the selection of supervisor and executive positions, it is of equal importance to judge the suitability of
individual competence based on along with knowledge and intelligence.
a. stress endurance
b. stress giving
c. stress creating
d. stress increasing
6. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Recruitment is considered to be a negative process.
b. Recruitment is not a negative process
c. Recruitment is positive process
d. Recruitment is most important process
7. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Selection is not a negative process
b. Selection is a negative process
c. Selection is positive process
d. Selection is effective process

40/uts

8. ___________ creates a pool of applicants.


a. Recruitment
b. Selection
c. Interviewing
d. Inducting
9. Once a determination of human resource requirement, the
a. recruitment and selection

process can begin.

b. advertising and interviewing


c. planning and managing
d. advancing and balancing
10. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Recruitment is misunderstood as filling in of vacancies.
b. Recruitment is understood as filling in of vacancies.
c. Recruitment is filling of vacancy.
d. Recruitment is not just filling in vacancy.

41/uts