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REPORT: Discuss the importance of

Quality Management in Mauritius.

Prepared by: Nadia Nosheen Nunkoo (1420106)

Submitted to : Dr A K Seebaluck
Submiitted on: 30 September 2015
Word count: 2,464 words

Table of Content

Introduction to quality

Total Quality Management (TQM)

ISO Certification

Importance of quality management The international Dimension

Quality Management in the Fish Processing Sector of Mauritius








1.1 Quality and Quality Management (QM)

Everyone talks about quality in everyday life. What is quality? Quality is perceived differently by
different people and yet everyone understands what is meant by the quality. The denition of quality
depends on the role of the people dening it. Some people may define quality as being linked to price; the
higher the price the higher the quality. Others may argue that quality is based on what the customers want.
Today, there is no single universal denition of quality. In the manufacturing industry, the quality of a
product may be determined by its features, performance, reliability, durability, conformance,
serviceability and aesthetics. In the service industry, quality is mostly related to customer satisfaction.
W. Edwards Deming, Philip B. Crosby and Joseph M. Juran are quality experts who are recognised all
over the world. One cannot define quality without referring to these three quality gurus. According to
Deming, a quality is defined as a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability, at low cost and
suited to the market. Juran defines quality as fitness for purpose. Another quality guru, Crosby,
explained quality as being "conformance to requirements.
1.2 Components of Quality Management
QM can be described as a group activities and functions that ensure consistency in a companys services
and goods. There are four main components in QM described as follows:
(i) Quality Planning
Quality planning involves a quality plan which specifies the quality standards, practices, resources and
defines the objectives to be attained, the allocation of responsibilities and the resources during the
different phases of a project.
(ii) Quality Control
Quality control is needed to review the quality of the product or service. For instance, inspection and
testing is necessary to identify problems and defects that need correction.
(iii) Quality Assurance
A company needs to ensure that mistakes are avoided in the manufacturing of a product or delivery of a
service. In fact, quality assurance guarantees consistent results.
(iv) Quality Improvement
There is always room for improvement. Through quality improvement, the results can be measured and
possible improvements in products or services can be made.




Since the 1970s, competition based on quality has grown in importance. Nowadays, companies in every
business sector are forced to improve on quality. The term used for todays new concept of quality is
called Total quality management (TQM). TQM is defined as an integrated effort designed to improve
quality performance at every level of the organization.
In fact, TQM is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to
improve the quality of products and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous
feedback. TQM requirements may be defined separately for a particular organization or may be in
adherence to established standards such as the International Organization for Standardizations ISO 9000
series. As per the Chartered Quality Institute, the eight principles of TQM are as follows:
(i) Customer-focused organisation
Under this principle, it is believed that customer requirements should always be met and customer
expectations should always be exceeded.
(ii) Leadership
Leaders establish unity of purpose, direction and the internal environment of an organisation.
(iii) Involvement of people
Full involvement of people at all levels of the organisation enables their abilities to be used for the benefit
of the organisation.
(iii) Process approach
When activities and resources are managed as a process, the desired result is achieved more efficiently.
(iv) System approach to management
When all departments work together, it contributes to the effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation
(v) Continual improvement;
Continuous improvement is the organisations permanent objective.
(vi) Factual approach to decision making
Effective decisions are made based on facts.
(vii) Mutually beneficial supplier relationships
Mutually beneficial relationships between the organisation and the suppliers enhance the ability of both
organisations to create value.




Internal standards bring technological, economic and societal benefits. They help to harmonise industry
more efficient and breaking down barriers to international trade. Conformity to International Standards
helps reassure consumers that products are safe, efficient and good for the environment.
The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 9000 family addresses various aspects of quality
management and contains some of ISOs best known standard.
The ISO 9001 quality management systems standard offers a wide variety of benefits to an organization.
The quality standard is applicable to companies of any size or sector who is seeking to improve their
internal management and operational processes.
The main benefits of ISO 9001 standard are listed below:
(i) Enhanced customer satisfaction and improved customer loyalty leading to repeat business;
(ii) Increased revenue and market share obtained through flexible and fast responses to market
(iii) Integration and alignment of internal processes which will lead to increased productivity and results;
(iv) Enhanced business performance and better cost management;
(v) Providing confidence to interested parties as to the consistency, effectiveness and efficiency of the
(vi) Increased credibility and competitiveness in the market;
(vii) Consistency in the delivery of the product and service;
(viii) Lower costs and shorter cycle times through effective use of resources; and
(ix) Improved communication, planning and administration processes




Quality management involves a company changing its processes to improve its customers' experiences. In
other words, quality management ensures that the product or service is planned, designed and delivered in
such a way that the customers requirements are met.
(i) Product quality
Product quality includes performance, reliability and durability. Through the use of a quality management
program, the company can produce a product that meets its stated promises.
(ii) Customer Satisfaction
By conducting customer satisfaction surveys, a company can understand the qualities of the product
important to the customer and also those who are not the company's customers. Such customer surveys
might also target those features of a product or service that need improvement. Therefore, the company
will produce such products that meet requirements of customers and therefore lead customer satisfaction.
(iii) Increased Revenues
Quality products and services give the company recognition in the industry. This recognition allows the
company to gain new customers and sell additional products and services to existing customers. A quality
management program also removes inefficient processes within the system. By removing unnecessary
processes, productivity increases. Therefore, the employee is spending less time on activities that do not
contribute to the product's quality.
(iv) Reduce Waste
A quality management program helps companies reduce waste. Quality management means that there is a
systematic approach to keeping inventories at acceptable levels without incurring waste. Therefore, the
company can work closely with suppliers to manage inventory using a Just-in-Time (JIT) philosophy.
(v) Teamwork
Quality management systems promote teamwork. Different areas of the company become reliant upon
one another to produce a quality product that meets and exceeds the customers' expectations. A quality
system incorporates measures that affect sales, finance, operations, customer service and marketing.




The fish processing sector is economically very important to the Mauritian fishery industry. It is also a
source of earnings in terms of foreign currency and provides employment opportunities to people. The
major part of the processing sector is dominated by tuna processing and canning which is export oriented,
while small scale industries focused on the local market. The raw materials for processing are obtained
through imports and to a lesser extent from the local production.
According to a work carried out in relation to the Mauritian fish processing industry, the sector shows that
the current inspection and quality control system has some limitations and weaknesses giving a false
sense of security for the following reasons:
(i) Quality control is based on examination of end product testing which is also known as traditional
quality control program.
(ii) The existing legislation is too broad to cater for highly specific fishery products.
(iii) The prerequisite programmes are not being applied as per specifications.
(iv) Food safety aspect has been ignored by the processors.
(v) There is no legal framework for implementation of food safety management programme such as
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point ( HACCP)
Four problem areas have been identified in the fish processing sectors that need urgent attention of all the
stakeholders as well as the government. The problem areas consist of:
(i) The environment under which the industry is operating
(ii) Lack of skills in the production practices
(iii) Inefficient quality control system
(iv) Lack of a food safety management tool
Importance of quality
Nutritionally, fish is a very important source of easily digestible, high quality protein, vitamins and fats
not obtainable in such high concentrations elsewhere. Nonetheless, fish is a highly perishable foodstuff
and spoils very fast unless appropriate preservation and processing techniques are applied. In addition,
fish as any other foodstuff pose the risk of becoming unsafe due to hazards or contamination along the
food chain. Fish in their natural environment is relatively safe food but food-borne disease and illness
may occur due to infections or intoxications.


(i) These food safety hazards are closely linked to hygiene, sanitation, processing or preparation
operations and marketing of fish. Thus, there is the element of risk in consumption of processed fish.
(ii) The Mauritian fish processing sector is confronted with challenges of seafood safety and quality
standards at both the national and international level. At the national level, the tourist industry is very
important to the country. Visitors from EU and other countries come to Mauritius for the sun, sea and
(iiii) An outbreak of food-borne illness due to consumption of fish and fish products could jeopardise this
industry which represents one of the three pillars of the economy. Moreover, the Mauritian consumers
also have the right to have safe, quality, wholesome and unadulterated seafood for consumption.
(iv) Fishery products from the small scale industries cannot accede to the international market because
they do not satisfy the food safety standards. Thus, food safety and quality assurance programmes are
needed to satisfy the emerging domestic market and for exports.
(v) Food safety is an important aspect of the need to protect fish consumers and to ensure the
sustainability of the industry. Without consumer confidence in the safety of fish as food the demand can
collapse having a knock-on effect on the rest of the industry.
The aim is therefore to improve the overall quality and safety of fish and fish products offered for sale on
the local market and at the same time to increase market opportunities for the producers.
Quality Measures
The main objective is to help the fish processing industry attain a level of assurance in fish safety and
quality using internationally recognised food safety management system such as HACCP that will
promote food safety and sustainable development of the industry.
Thus to achieve food safety and quality in the fish processing sector in Mauritius there is need for a food
safety management tool. HACCP is one such preventive food safety management system that has been
successfully applied in seafood industries in Iceland and many developed countries. Furthermore,
HACCP is becoming increasingly important for all food businesses as an effective tool for ensuring food
quality and as means of complying with legislation.
Several methods are available to ensure safety and quality of seafood products. These include good
hygienic practices, good manufacturing practices, HACCP, QA/QM ISO 9000 standards and total
quality management (TQM). These methods are considered as food safety management tools used by
industries to manage quality and safety
The needs highlighted above are bound to have an effect on the whole fishery industry and in particular
the fish processing sector and conscious of the implication of funds, the state role should be to provide an
acceptable level of health safety to the consumer. The food safety management strategy is aimed at:
improving the general health of the public by focusing on the cause of disease;
reducing food borne illnesses and preventing them before they occur;


producing safe and good quality fishery product;

promoting compliance through improved communication between government body and private sector;
Government Measures
In order to improve and sustain the overall quality level of the fish processing sector, the following
measures have been proposed:
1. Government is committed to making Ocean economy an important industry to sustain economic
diversification, job creation and wealth generation.
2. A new ministry has been created and the Mauritius Institute of Oceanography as well as all ocean
related activities has been pooled together under that Ministry.
3. A legal framework and a unified regulatory body will be put in place to license, supervise, monitor and
regulate the activities of ocean related economic operators.
4. Technical co-operation and financial assistance will be sought from international organisations and
donor countries to ensure that the new industry starts off on a sound foundation.
5. A new Fisheries and Marine Resources Bill incorporating international norms and practices for
modernising the fisheries sector will be introduced.
6. Government will put the fishermen community at the centre of development and will ensure their
capacity building and training for improved livelihood.
7. A Marine Pollution Bill will be introduced in line with the International Maritime Organisation




Governments objective is to transform Mauritius into a truly forward looking, environmentally

sustainable, economically vibrant and innovative country with modern infrastructure, global connectivity,
high skills and technology. Government will improve quality of life, accelerate social integration,
strengthen democracy and ensure the independent functioning of institutions. The ultimate aim is to shape
a second socio-economic miracle in the interest of one and all.
Considering the importance of the tourist industry, the health of consumers and the risks associated with
seafood consumption, implementation of HACCP is highly recommended for the Mauritian fish
processing sector. An effective food safety and quality assurance system is the basis for protecting both
the health of the consumers and the interest of the industry. Specific seafood safety legislation is needed
to cater for the fish processing industry. It is of paramount importance to ensure that the prerequisite
programmes are in place as a good starting point for HACCP implementation. The regulatory body
should also ensure that there is an efficient education and training programme on HACCP designed for
both the processors and the competent authority.


TOTAL QUALITY LEADERSHIP OFFICE, 1992, Three Experts on Quality Management: Philip B.
Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M. Juran, Arlington: TQLO, 92-02
Government programme 2015-2019 achieving meaningful change Address by the President of the
republic of Mauritius on Tuesday 27January 2015
Critical view of the fish processing sector in Mauritus with particular reference to seafood safety and
quality assurance, 2003, Parmanand Daby, Ministry of fisheries
Http:// (Accessed on 26 September 2015)

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