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# Circulatory Systems II

Q = P / R

## Flow rate = volume of fluid that moves

past a given point per unit time (L/min)

Poiseuilles Equation:
Q = P r4 / 8 L

## Small changes in radius result in

large changes in resistance.

Controlling Flow

Vasoconstriction:

Vasodilation:

## Small changes in r result in large

changes in resistance and flow.

Total Flow

## Law of conservation of mass:

The flow through each segment of the
circulatory system must be equal.

## Total flow is constant across all parts of

the circulatory system.

Total Flow

Total Flow

Series :
RT = R1 + R2 + R3

Parallel :
1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 +1/R3

## Circulatory systems have both series and

parallel arrangements of blood vessels.

Total Flow

Velocity of Flow

## Velocity of blood flow in a given blood

vessel is inversely related to the crosssectional area of the blood vessel.

## Blood velocity = Q/A

A= summed cross-sectional
area of channels.

Velocity of Flow

## Regions of the circulatory system

that are involved in the exchange of
materials have very high total crosssectional areas, so they have very
low velocities, which aids diffusion.

## Pressure within walled chambers exerts a

force on those walls.

## Blood pressure within walled chambers

(heart or blood vessels) exerts a force.

law of LaPlace.

Law of LaPlace:

T = aPr

= Pr/w

thickness

stress on wall

## As thickness increases, stress in the wall

decreases, therefore:
BVs such as the aorta, which must withstand
very high pressures, are thicker and stronger.
Arterioles which are subject to lower
pressure are thinner.

Circulatory Systems

## Vertebrate circulatory systems contain

one or more pumps in a series:

## Single-Circuit Circulatory System:

Water breathing fish

## Double-Circuit Circulatory System:

Mammals and birds

## Double-Circuit Circulatory Systems

Tetrapods:
amphibians, reptiles, birds, & mammals

## Double-Circuit Circulatory Systems

Systemic system:
Oxygenated blood from heart to tissues.
Deoxygenated blood from tissues to heart.

Pulmonary system:
Deoxygenated blood from heart into lungs
Oxygenated blood from lungs back to heart

## Mammals & Birds:

Completely separated pulmonary & systemic
systems.

## Amphibians & Most Reptiles

Incompletely separated pulmonary & systemic
systems.

## Double-Circuit Circulatory Systems

Vertebrate Hearts

Main Function:
Pump blood throughout body

## Complex walls with 4 main parts:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Pericardium
Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

Myocardium

Compact Myocardium
Tightly packed cells arranged in a regular
pattern.
Vascularized

Spongy Myocardium
Meshwork of loosely connected cells.
Not vascularized
Often arranged into trabeculae

Fish Hearts

## 4 chambers arranged in series

Bony Fish:
Bulbous Arteriosus
Non-Contractile

Elasmobranchs:
Conus Arteriousus
Contractile

## Antarctic cod swim in 0-3C water

Have antifreeze protein in their blood
Have a low heart rate
Stroke volume 6-15x predicted for their size

## Typical fish heart = 0.2% body mass

Atlantic cod heart = 0.6% body mass

Amphibian Hearts

3 chambered heart

## 2 atria supply blood to a single ventricle

Mixing of oxygenated & deoxygenated blood

## Spiral fold helps direct oxygenated &

deoxygenated blood to correct systems

Amphibian Hearts

Amphibian Hearts

## Most reptiles (non-crocodilian) have 5

chambered hearts:

2 Atria

## Single ventricle divided (by septa) into 3

interconnected compartments:
1. Cavum venosum
2. Cavum pulomnale
3. Cavum arteriosum

R-L shunt =
direct blood to
systemic system

L-R shunt =
direct blood to
pulmonary system

## Reptile Hearts (crocodilian)

Crocodilian reptiles:
crocs, alligators, & caimen

## Completely divided ventricles:

4 chambered heart

## Pulmonary and systemic circuits are still

connected and can shunt blood between
them.

## Foramen of Panizza: small opening

located at the base of aortas

## Allows for R-L shunt:

bypass pulmonary system

## Allows them to remain submerged for

several hours without perfusing their lungs.