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The viscosity of liquids

Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of liquids to deform under shear stress.

This resistance occurs in all the liquids, but the ideal one. The ideal liquid is defined as

incompressible and perfectly fluid in its motion, i.e. without resistance. However,

(perfect) ideal liquids do not actually exist, and different (real) liquids have the different

properties of fluidity. For example, glycerin flows more slowly than water under the

same conditions. The reason for an imperfect fluidity is a friction between the layers

inside the liquid, acting against their relative movement. This interaction is similar to the

friction between the two surfaces of solid objects, while instead of the surface it takes

place in bulk in a case of liquids. Viscosity is a physical property describing this inner

friction. Bigger the liquid's viscosity is, more the flow speed of this liquid is reduced

and/or more the movement of an object is slowed down in this liquid.

Figure 1 shows a schematic describing the mechanism of viscosity. The liquid is

enclosed in between two parallel plates, which are apart from each other by the distance

y. The bottom plate is fixed, while the top one moves with a speed v horizontally. On

both solid plate - liquid interfaces, there is a thin layer of liquid attached firmly to the

plate by adhesive forces. Thus, the very top layer of liquid moves together with a moving

plate, while the very bottom layer does not move at all. The inner friction of liquid then

causes the division of bulk liquid into several layers moving with a speed that changes

from zero to v linearly.

Fig.1. The division of bulk liquid into several layers caused by the movement of the top

plate. The speed of different layers varies linearly from zero at the bottom to v at the top.

The continuous movement of the top plate must be enforced by a tangential force

F, which cancels the inner friction inside the liquid. Assuming the low speed v and small

thickness y, it can be approximated by

F = S

v

y

(1)

viscosity, called also dynamic viscosity. According to equation (1) it is expressed in

units

[] = [F] [y] = N2 m 1

[S] [v] m m s

= Pa s

The inverse value of viscosity is called fluidity

1

.

(2)

The ratio of the liquid's dynamic viscosity to its density defines the kinematic

viscosity

=

(3)

[] = [] = Pa s3

[ ] kg m

= m 2 s 1

temperature (see Tab.3).

Most liquids, such as water, satisfy equation (1) and are known as Newtonian

liquids. Non-Newtonian liquids, on the other hand, exhibit a more complicated

relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient than simple linearity. Also it

should be noted, that according to the definition of the ideal liquid, its viscosity is equal

to zero.

The falling-ball viscosimeters are based on the fact that the viscosity of liquid

modifies the speed of ball falling through this liquid. When the ball of volume V, radius r

and mass m is allowed to descent through the liquid, it is affected by the forces shown in

Figure 2. Downwards acting force is the weight of ball

G = m g = V S g =

4

r 3 S g

3

(4)

the ball is pulled up by the buoyant force, FVZ, according to the Archimede's principle.

This force is equal to the weight of liquid displaced by the ball

FVZ = V L g =

4

r3 L g

3

(5)

where L is the density of liquid. Finally, real liquid with dynamic viscosity generates a

resistance against the movement of ball. This resistive force F can be derived from the

Stokes' law

F = 6 r v

(6)

where v is the speed of ball. While the two previously mentioned forces (G a FVZ) are

static and do not depend on the speed v, the resistance F increases with the speed. Thus,

the speed of the falling ball will be increasing only until the net force is zero

G FVZ F = 0

(7)

Fig. 2. The forces experienced by the ball falling through the liquid.

v=

L

2 2

r g S

9

(8)

from the speed of a ball descending through this liquid. Such an approach is employed in

Hppler viscosimeter. The studied liquid is contained in a glass tube with the two marks

that are apart from each other by the distance L. The measurement then consists of the

determination of time during which ball moves from one mark to another. The calculation

is based on the modified equation (8)

L

L 2 2

= r g S

t 9

(9)

2 r2

= g ( S L ) t

9 L

(10)

We combine the constant coefficients from equation (10) into a single coefficient

K=

2 r2

g , which simplifies this equation into a form

9 L

= K ( S L ) t

(11)

The viscosimeter constant K can be determined using measurements carried out with

distilled water, as its viscosity is well-known, according to

K=

( S L ) t

(12)

Equipment:

Hppler viscosimeter, stop-watch, studied solutions, distilled water, sifter, glass container

for waste.

Experimental procedure:

1.

Fill the tube of Hppler viscosimeter with distilled water and insert a ball carefully.

Add water such that there are no air bubbles in the tube. Close the tube.

2.

Turn the tube by 180 (upside down) and watch the ball falling down. Measure the

time during which the ball is falling between the two marks. Repeat measurement 3

times.

3.

Empty the tube such that you capture the ball using a sifter. Rinse the tube with a

studied liquid and empty it again. Finally, fill the tube with this liquid, insert the

ball and measure the time of its fall 3 times. Repeat this step for all of the studied

liquids.

4.

Rinse the viscosimeter with distilled water after finishing all the measurements.

5.

Write down the density of the ball S and those of the studied liquids L. Calculate

the average t for distilled water. Calculate the viscosimeter constant K (equation

12) using the previously determined values and the dynamic viscosity of water

corresponding to laboratory temperature (Tab.3).

6.

Calculate the average falling times t for studied liquids. Determine their dynamic

viscosities using equation (11) and kinematic viscosities according to equation (3).

7.

Draw a graph of the dynamic viscosity of liquids versus their densities, include also

water.

Tab. 1: The falling time t of the ball in distilled water, average time t , dynamic viscosity

constant K.

t [s]

H2O

t [s]

[Pa.s]

Tab. 2: The falling times t of the ball in studied liquids, average times t , and calculated

liquid

t [s]

t [s]

[Pa.s]

[m2s-1]

t [C]

[Pas]

15

1.13910-3

16

1.10910-3

17

1.08110-3

18

1.05310-3

19

1.02710-3

20

1.00210-3

21

0.977910-3

22

0.954810-3

23

0.932510-3

24

0.911110-3

25

0.890410-3

References:

1.

2.

3.

Kopeck, F.: Physics for Students of Pharmacy I. Bratislava, UK 1999. 184 s. (in

Slovak).

Edition of Department of Physical Chemistry: Laboratory Practice in Physics for

Students of Pharmacy. Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University, Bratislava, UK

1991.

Oremusov J., Vojtekov M.: Viscosity of liquids. Manual for laboratory practice.

(in Slovak)

English version prepared by N. Kuerka, PhD.

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