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lecture on matrix structural analysis using global coordinates equations

lecture on matrix structural analysis using global coordinates equations

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Analysis Equation
s

Prepared by : Oscar Victor M. Antonio, Jr., D. Eng.

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Introduction

Force-displacement relationship

Element

forces

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Eternally

applied forces

Element stiffness

matrix

Element

displacement

{F}= [k ]{}

Global stiffness

matrix

Global degrees

of freedom

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Complete set of force-displacement relationships for a

framework element with n degrees of freedom (global axes)

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

- number 1, i, n identify the DOF at the joints of the element,

and correspond to a global numbering system

direct stiffness method, all the DOF appear in each of the rows

numerically evaluated for all members of the structure,

application of the direct stiffness method consists of their

combination in an algebraic form that satisfies the requirements

of static equilibrium & joint compatibility at all the junction points

4

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

the force-displacement

equations of the point q

in the global x direction

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

For junction point equilibrium, the applied load must be equal to the

sum of the internal forces acting on the bars meeting at the point

x-direction internal

force components

F internal force

P external force

6

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

The force-displacement equations for the elements yield

expressions for FiA FiD in terms of the corresponding

element DOF iA 9D

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Satisfying compatibility condition: iA = iB = iC = iD = i

If the subscripts of the coefficients of two or more different

elements are identical (common DOF), such coefficients

are added to form one coefficient of the stiffness

8

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

When an additional member (H) is added into the structure,

a force FiH is added and is supplemented by stiffness terms

KiiH , Ki2H , Ki10H , Ki11H

important to satisfy

joint equilibrium

joint displacement compatibility

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.1

For the system shown :

1. Write the member force-displacement relationships in global coordinates

2. Assemble the global stiffness equations

E = 200,000 MPa

10

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.1

11

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.1

Recall: Stiffness Equations

cos 2

F1

F

2 EA sin cos

=

2

F

L

cos

F4

sin cos

sin cos

sin 2

sin cos

sin 2

cos 2

sin cos

cos 2

sin cos

sin cos u1

2

sin v1

sin cos u2

2

sin v2

12

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.1

Consider member ab

13

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.1

Consider member bc

14

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.1

Consider member ac

15

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.1

Global stiffness equations in matrix form

16

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.2

The truss of Example 3.1 is supported and loaded as shown.

1. Calculate the displacements at a and b

2. Calculate the reactions

3. Calculate the bar forces

17

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.2

18

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.2

19

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.2

20

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.2

21

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.2

22

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.3

The truss shown is the same as in Example 3.2 except for the addition of

horizontal tie ad.

1. Calculate the displacements at a and b

2. Calculate the reactions

23

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.3

24

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.3

25

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.3

26

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Automatic approach in calculating the applied load versus

displacement equations for the complete structure

1. Each element stiffness coefficient is assigned a double

subscript (kij). i force & j DOF

2. Provision is made for a

square matrix whose size

is equal to the number of

DOF in the complete

system, with a possibility

that each force will be

related to every

displacement in the

system.

27

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

3. The procedure of step 2 is continued until all elements have

been reached. Each time a coefficient is placed in a location

where a value has already been placed, it is added to the latter

until the final value is achieved.

K1i = k1i

4. The process of steps 2 and 3 is repeated for all other rows in

order (assembly process). The result is a complete set of

coefficients of the stiffness equations for the entire structure

(global stiffness equation).

28

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

5. The support conditions are accounted for by noting which

displacements are zero and then removing from the equations

the columns of stiffness coefficients multiplying these DOFs.

383.0

321.4

0

Ryb

Rxc

Ryc

0

29

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Solve for the unknown DOFs after removing columns 4, 5, and 6

determined by back substitution of the solved DOFs in the element

force-displacement equations.

30

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Modified approach for doing steps 5 and 6

Recall: global stiffness equation

{P}= [K]{}

conditions and those relating to the remaining DOFs

conformable

31

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Expanding the partitioned equation and noting that {s} = 0

[D] : global flexibility matrix

32

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

After solving the vector of displacements at all unsupported nodes

{f}, the support reactions {Ps} are then computed

To obtain the internal force distribution in the ith element [Fi], the

calculated DOFs {i} for that element is multiplied by the element

stiffness matrix [ki]

33

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

For the system shown:

1. Write the force-displacement

relationships in global coordinates

2. Assemble the global stiffness equations

3. Show that the stiffness equations

contain rigid-body motion

E = 200,000 MPa

34

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

Define the coordinates, DOFs, and external forces

35

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

Member force-displacement relationships

Member ab

36

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

Member force-displacement relationships

Member cd

37

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

Member force-displacement relationships

Member ac

38

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

Member force-displacement relationships

Member bd

39

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

Member force-displacement relationships

Member bc

40

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

Global stiffness equations in matrix form

41

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.4

Rigidity motion: If it can be shown that the stiffness matrix is singular

by performing Matrix Row Operations, thus the displacements are

indefinite there may be rigid body motion.

determinant is zero

42

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.5

The truss of Example 3.4 is supported

and loaded as shown:

1. Calculate the displacements at b, c,

and d

2. Calculate the reactions

3. Calculate the bar forces

E = 200,000 MPa

43

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.5

Boundary conditions: 1 = 2 = 4 = 0

44

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.5

45

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.5

46

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.5

47

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.5

recall

48

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.5

49

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.5

50

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.6

The truss of shown is the same as in Example 3.5 except for the addition of

horizontal constraints at b and c. Calculate the displacements at c and d.

51

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.6

52

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Example 3.6

53

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Reference:

Matrix Structural Analysis Second Edition by William McGuire,

Richard H. Gallagher, and Ronald D. Ziemian

54

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