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Formation of the Global

Analysis Equation s
Prepared by : Oscar Victor M. Antonio, Jr., D. Eng.

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Introduction
Force-displacement relationship
Element
forces
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Eternally
applied forces

Element stiffness
matrix

Element
displacement

{F}= [k ]{}
Global stiffness
matrix

Global degrees
of freedom

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Complete set of force-displacement relationships for a
framework element with n degrees of freedom (global axes)

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


- number 1, i, n identify the DOF at the joints of the element,
and correspond to a global numbering system

- when the global analysis equations are formed using the


direct stiffness method, all the DOF appear in each of the rows

- once the element force-displacement relationships have been


numerically evaluated for all members of the structure,
application of the direct stiffness method consists of their
combination in an algebraic form that satisfies the requirements
of static equilibrium & joint compatibility at all the junction points
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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations

Consider the formation of


the force-displacement
equations of the point q
in the global x direction

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


For junction point equilibrium, the applied load must be equal to the
sum of the internal forces acting on the bars meeting at the point

x-direction internal
force components

F internal force
P external force
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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


The force-displacement equations for the elements yield
expressions for FiA FiD in terms of the corresponding
element DOF iA 9D

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Satisfying compatibility condition: iA = iB = iC = iD = i

Kii , Ki1 , Ki2 , Ki3 ,, Ki9 are global stiffness coefficients


If the subscripts of the coefficients of two or more different
elements are identical (common DOF), such coefficients
are added to form one coefficient of the stiffness
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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


When an additional member (H) is added into the structure,
a force FiH is added and is supplemented by stiffness terms
KiiH , Ki2H , Ki10H , Ki11H

important to satisfy

joint equilibrium
joint displacement compatibility

O.V.M.Antonio,Jr.

Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.1
For the system shown :
1. Write the member force-displacement relationships in global coordinates
2. Assemble the global stiffness equations
E = 200,000 MPa

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.1

Define the coordinates, degrees of freedom, and external forces:

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.1
Recall: Stiffness Equations

cos 2
F1

F
2 EA sin cos
=
2

F
L
cos

F4
sin cos

sin cos
sin 2
sin cos
sin 2

cos 2
sin cos
cos 2
sin cos

sin cos u1

2
sin v1

sin cos u2

2
sin v2

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.1
Consider member ab

Member force-displacement relationship

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.1
Consider member bc

Member force-displacement relationship

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.1
Consider member ac

Member force-displacement relationship

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.1
Global stiffness equations in matrix form

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.2
The truss of Example 3.1 is supported and loaded as shown.
1. Calculate the displacements at a and b
2. Calculate the reactions
3. Calculate the bar forces

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.2

Define the coordinates, degrees of freedom, and external forces:

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.2

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.2

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.2

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.2

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.3
The truss shown is the same as in Example 3.2 except for the addition of
horizontal tie ad.
1. Calculate the displacements at a and b
2. Calculate the reactions

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.3

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.3

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Direct Stiffness Method - The Basic Equations


Example 3.3

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Automatic approach in calculating the applied load versus
displacement equations for the complete structure
1. Each element stiffness coefficient is assigned a double
subscript (kij). i force & j DOF
2. Provision is made for a
square matrix whose size
is equal to the number of
DOF in the complete
system, with a possibility
that each force will be
related to every
displacement in the
system.
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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


3. The procedure of step 2 is continued until all elements have
been reached. Each time a coefficient is placed in a location
where a value has already been placed, it is added to the latter
until the final value is achieved.

K1i = k1i
4. The process of steps 2 and 3 is repeated for all other rows in
order (assembly process). The result is a complete set of
coefficients of the stiffness equations for the entire structure
(global stiffness equation).

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


5. The support conditions are accounted for by noting which
displacements are zero and then removing from the equations
the columns of stiffness coefficients multiplying these DOFs.

383.0
321.4
0
Ryb

Rxc

Ryc

0
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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Solve for the unknown DOFs after removing columns 4, 5, and 6

Solve for the unknown support reactions

6. The internal forces acting on the ends of the elements are


determined by back substitution of the solved DOFs in the element
force-displacement equations.
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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Modified approach for doing steps 5 and 6
Recall: global stiffness equation

{P}= [K]{}

Partition the equation by grouping quantities relating to support


conditions and those relating to the remaining DOFs

conformable

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Expanding the partitioned equation and noting that {s} = 0

The general solution is obtained symbolically by

[K] : global stiffness matrix


[D] : global flexibility matrix
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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


After solving the vector of displacements at all unsupported nodes
{f}, the support reactions {Ps} are then computed

To obtain the internal force distribution in the ith element [Fi], the
calculated DOFs {i} for that element is multiplied by the element
stiffness matrix [ki]

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
For the system shown:
1. Write the force-displacement
relationships in global coordinates
2. Assemble the global stiffness equations
3. Show that the stiffness equations
contain rigid-body motion
E = 200,000 MPa

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
Define the coordinates, DOFs, and external forces

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
Member force-displacement relationships
Member ab

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
Member force-displacement relationships
Member cd

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
Member force-displacement relationships
Member ac

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
Member force-displacement relationships
Member bd

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
Member force-displacement relationships
Member bc

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
Global stiffness equations in matrix form

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.4
Rigidity motion: If it can be shown that the stiffness matrix is singular
by performing Matrix Row Operations, thus the displacements are
indefinite there may be rigid body motion.

Adding rows 1, 5, and 7 of the global stiffness matrix gives a vector

which is the negative of the original row 3, therefore the


determinant is zero

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.5
The truss of Example 3.4 is supported
and loaded as shown:
1. Calculate the displacements at b, c,
and d
2. Calculate the reactions
3. Calculate the bar forces
E = 200,000 MPa

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.5
Boundary conditions: 1 = 2 = 4 = 0

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.5

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.5

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.5

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.5
recall

Substitute the last two equations

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.5

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.5

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.6
The truss of shown is the same as in Example 3.5 except for the addition of
horizontal constraints at b and c. Calculate the displacements at c and d.

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.6

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Direct Stiffness Method - The General Procedure


Example 3.6

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Reference:
Matrix Structural Analysis Second Edition by William McGuire,
Richard H. Gallagher, and Ronald D. Ziemian

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