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The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE

)

Vol. (2) – No. (1)

Improving Voltage Profile in the Egyptian
National Power System (Enps) Using
Simultaneously Three Specific Remedial Actions
for Reactive Power Compensation (Part 1)
N. M. Abdel-Gawad A. S. H. Hamza
Benha University

H. M. Hassanin S. A. Mahmoud
Ministry of Electricity & Energy

Abstract-This Paper deals with the problem of voltage
instability that leads in some cases to voltage collapse and
complete blackouts. Voltage instability, being the absence
of voltage stability, results in progressive voltage decrease
(or increase). A power system at a given operating state
and subject to a given disturbance undergoes voltage
collapse if the post-disturbance equilibrium voltage is
below acceptable limits. Voltage collapse may be total or
partial blackout.[1]
Many major blackouts throughout the world have been
directly associated to this phenomenon, e.g. in France,
Italy, Japan, Great Britain, USA, etc. The analysis of this
problem shows that the major causes is the system’s
inability to meet the reactive power demands. The main
objective of this work is to find the most favorite methods
to assure the security of the system in terms of voltage
stability.[2]
In most case studies, using of one remedial action is not
enough to solve the voltage instability problem. This
paper declares that the usage of combined remedial
actions, specially during the peak load hours is a must
solution in most cases. Also it is declared that the usage of
normal capacitors to add reactive power together with the
other suggested methods helps much as being a cheap
tool.
It is known that the improvement of voltage levels on a
power system reduces the losses. In the present case,
specially at peak load, it is gained that the same energy
demand could be fulfilled with less power generation. In
addition to securing the voltage levels on a power system,
a feasible return is achieved.
I. INTRODUCTION
The voltage instability problem in power systems has been
demonstrated to be related to the overall stability of the
system and is closely associated with the proximity of a
system to a voltage collapse condition. as the system
approaches a voltage collapse point, its stability region
becomes smaller, resulting in a system that is less likely to
survive contingencies. Considering the continuous
development in the Egyptian Electricity Power System during
the past twenty years and the rapid increase of the electricity

Reference Number: JO-0002

S. El-Debeiky
Ain Shams University

demand, which was clearly shown by the technical studies to
predict the loads as a result of the continuous increase in
population, urbanization, industrial and service projects, the
problem of voltage stability gains more and more importance
and studies as in everywhere [3],[4],[5]. Special emphasis has
been given to the following items:
• Designed capacity to secure loads under standard (N-1)
contingency operation.
• Raising the voltage level of the electric grid or enhancing
the voltage levels in the grid.
• Reducing the losses in the grid.
The values of allowed voltages for the Egyptian national
network under different operating conditions (normal and
contingency) for the different voltage levels are shown in
Table (1):
Table (1) The Allowed voltage values for the Egyptian
National Network
Voltage in case of
Voltage in case of
Voltage
ordinary operation contingency disconnect
level
Higher
Least
Higher
Least
(K.V.)
Voltage Voltage
Voltage
Voltage
500
525
475
550
450
400
420
380
420
360
220
231
209
242
198
The criteria for (N-1) is used for studying the cases of
contingency disconnect for the Egyptian national grid. i.e.
disconnecting one element of the grid elements (transmission
line- generation unit) taking into consideration the following
factors:
• The power transferred through the transmission lines be less
than the rated capacity of these lines.
• The level of voltage for the various voltages should be
within the allowed values for operation, Table (1).
• Preventing any reduction for frequency levels in order to
prevent load shedding equipments from working.
• Preserving the stability of generation units while operating
within the range of their capability curves.

177

933 0.957 0. The program contains a set of modules which handle a number of different power system analysis calculations.904 0.888 0. Complete analysis of the N-1 situations has been carried out for both 500 K.905 0.954 305 0.977 0.957 0.001 0.) Bus Normal No.972 0.901 0. (2) – No.935 0. ENPS contains 44 power stations with a total installed capacity of about 25000 MW.913 0.976 0.963 306 0.932 0.977 178 .u.939 0.877 0.V.943 0.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) II.896 0.911 0. III.930 0.Zabbl (B#233) .914 0. some unforeseen.938 0.915 192 0.V.908 0. IV.961 0.911 0. Case 2: Another case.955 0.u voltage levels calculated in case of outage of one circuit of 500 K.969 229 0.969 0.Bassous500 (B#180) causes small voltage drop in the 500K.858 0. As well.V line on the 500 K. Fig.the second one.918 292 0.953 0.894 0.968 0. Voltage (p. the convergence of load flows is existing in this case. This contingency causes a generalized low voltage profile in Upper Zone in Egypt too.906 0.917 0.916 0. changing the tap points on the transformers on the nodes near the sub-stations and injection of reactive power at selected buses in various areas along the system capacitors. The three remedial actions are the optimal usage of the reactive power produced from generation units on the nodes near the power stations. The simulation tool used in this paper is the Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSS/E) as an known software package. unscheduled outages of network elements.968 0.962 0. PROPOSED SYSTEMS FOR APPLICATION AND SIMULATION To apply the recommended remedial actions. (1) of limits.924 0.947 0.945 0.914 180 0. Case 3: The third case.912 0.THE RECOMMENDED SIMULTANEOUS REMEDIAL ACTIONS A study and analysis of the most widespread methods to solve the voltage instability problem were carried.911 0.999 1. Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 condition 30 0.V.V Circuit Tripped Table(2) presents the voltage levels calculated in case of outage of one circuit of 500 K.918 233 0. CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS System Static Security encompasses the ability of the power system to withstand steady-state conditions.914 0.000 1. This case also cannot be analyzed due to non-convergence of load-flows.and as it is an interactive program for simulating.950 0.987 0.[7] IV. (1): presents the single line diagram of the network parts under study.907 0. but reasonably expected.Moussa (B#305) . with the minimal disruption of the service or its quality.V.912 0.V. Based on these and on the experience of dealing with the Egyptian National Power System (ENPS) and its technical and economical conditions. the outage of one circuit of 500K. line Assuit (B#291) – nag hammdi (B#292). network so.V.V network. 220 K. line for 500 K.918 0. Using these remedial actions could be used in cascading or combining manners according to the requirements of the system.V.956 0.917 0. especially in the grand utilities in the field of electricity as similar as the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC). out.968 0.961 0.958 0.931 0.909 0. The network constraints and violations have been detected and reported giving the number of overloads for lines and transformers and the number of nodes with voltage levels out Reference Number: JO-0002 Vol.V. analyzing and optimizing power system performance. Case 4: The outage of one circuit of the 500 K.920 0.974 0. The first one is the known (IEEE)-30 bus system [6].944 0.977 0.924 0.938 0.V.945 320 0.916 291 0.926 0.914 0. three remedial actions have been recommended to apply on the two selected systems in this paper. Table (2): The p.937 0.001 303 0.V.957 0. This contingency causes a generalized low voltage profile in Cairo and Delta Zones.928 0. nodes the following results are obtained: Case 1: The outage of one circuit of 500 K.920 0.V.967 0.Suze500 (B#303) causes small voltage drop in the 500K.953 0.909 0. line High Dam(B#293) – Nag Hammadi(B#292) caused many critical 500K.938 238 0. This contingency causes a generalized low voltage profile in Upper Zone of Egypt.957 950 0. This package was preferred due to its wide usage in the world.911 0.966 0.935 235 0. It is cannot be analyzed due to non-convergence of load-flows.917 0.948 0. Contingency analysis method is based on simulation of element outages by a deterministic approach.894 0.Cairo 500 (B#30) causes small voltage drop in the 500 K.902 0.976 0.V. line O.V.000 1. contingencies that lead to post contingency situations characterized by very low voltage levels with probable risk of widespread voltage collapse.952 0. two power systems were proposed.900 0. Case 5: The outage of one circuit of 500 K. 14 substations of 500 KV and 134 substations of 220 KV The total number of buses are 25 and 275 on the 500 and 220 KV respectively[3]. cases of generation units contingencies have been studied.V. line A.907 0. network.907 293 1. line SAML 500 (B#235 .975 0. the outage of one circuit of 500K.1 Transmission Line Contingencies: Case Of One 500 K. transmission networks for the Egyptian National Power System (ENPS) for each target year and for selected characteristic hour load conditions.913 0. line Nobaria (B#192) .942 0. the main power system under study is the Egyptian National Power System (ENPS) of Extra-High Voltage 500 KV and High-voltage 220 KV levels. Case 6: The outage of one circuit of 500 K.961 0.816 0.944 0. nodes.911 0.Cairo 500(B#30) cannot be analyzed due to non-convergence of load-flows.990 0.

V.954 0. as the voltage is not within the permissible limits such as SHARM 179 .001 1. the analysis for the effects of (N-1) for the same cases in the previous sections are repeated in the presence of the remedial actions. nodes for different cases.967 229 0.CW. substations are still suffering from low voltage levels.972 0.V.931 0.888 0.966 0.917 192 0.913 0.W. All 500 K.KURIM (B#538) which.V networks are presented. V.978 1.912 0.933 292 0.901 0.941 0. Case 4: The outage of Generation unit 330 MW at bus GN. In this case. substations located in the Canal Zone will suffer from low voltage levels such as SHARM SH (B#915).W.905 0.S. changing the tap points on the transformers on the nodes near the sub-stations and injection of reactive power at selected buses in various areas along the system.960 950 0.964 0.918 0. is located in the Delta Zone with maximum active power of 250 M. In this case.958 305 0. is changed to produce more reactive power to improve the voltage profile as possible as can.906 0. Reference Number: JO-0002 Vol.973 0. the ENPS losses the Generation unit at GN. it is difficult to lose generation unit(s) as the Power reserved is so little. (1) Table (3): The p.906 0.915 180 0.949 0.V.937 0.) of certain generation units of the ENPS.NOBAR (B#538) of 250 MW.938 0. In this section.002 0. NABK (B#917) and GHARD (B#804). Changing Vsch.G(B#206) which is located in the Canal Zone with maximum active power of 340 MW. There are some 220 K.911 0. the ENPS loses the Generation unit at bus GN. Case 1: The outage of Generation unit at bus North West South Gulf (N. SAFAGA (B#5051) and QENA220 (B#5046) and other 220 K.V. NABK (B#917) and GHARD (B#804).962 0. profiles of the ENPS.1 Impact of the recommended Remedial Actions The three remedial actions are the optimal usage of the reactive power produced from generation units on the nodes near the power stations.903 0.906 0.S.946 0.904 0.928 0.918 291 0. Table (3) presents the voltage levels calculated in case of outage of Generation units on the 500 K.945 320 0.the Egyptian power system losses the Generation unit at GN.916 0. In this section.904 0.952 0. substations which are suffering from low voltage levels are going to be in the permissible limits.927 293 1.909 0.937 235 0.907 0.952 0.957 0.912 0.883 0.946 0.965 0. and 220 K.V.907 0. These Remedial Actions have been selected to improve the voltage profile. which have reserve in the reactive power.KURIM (B#530) of 625 MW.V. Case 2: The outage of Generation unit at bus GN.921 233 0.WALID (B#507) which is located in the Upper Zone with maximum active power of 320 MW.907 0.005 1. In the previous sections.916 0. The results and the improvement in the voltage profile are shown in the following subsections. Once again.V.) Bus No.WALID (B#507) of 320 MW. In this case.W.KURIM (B#530) which is located in the Upper Zone with maximum active power of 625 MW.966 0.996 0.938 0.970 0. Case 3: The outage of Generation unit at bus GN.1 (B#516) which is located in the Cairo zone with maximum active power 330 M. There are some 220 K.930 0.935 0. 220 K. This contingency causes a generalized low voltage profile in Cairo and Upper Zones.901 0.921 0.924 0.977 0. nodes for different cases of outages. In this case. line on the 500 K.906 0.892 0.V. In this case .2 Optimal Usage Of Reactive Power Produced From The Generation Units The schedule voltage (Vsch. Case 5: The outage of Generation unit at bus G. as it is one of the largest units in the ENPS. (2) – No.V. V. substations suffering from low voltage levels such as SAML220 (B#5038).907 0. Voltage (p. Loss of generation unit(s) need re-dispatch the output power from all generation units which have reserve active power to compensate the loss of generation.933 0.917 0. the outage of Generation units is carried out in different zones in Egypt and recording of the effects of these events on the Voltage Profile on both the 500.957 0.898 0. has the largest effect on the 500 K. nodes for different cases. the selected remedial actions will take place. nodes for different cases.W.949 0. substations that suffer from low voltage levels such as SHARM (B#915).975 Figure (3) illustrates the voltage profile in case of outage of Generation units on the 500 K. the ENPS loses the Generation unit at bus N. Base Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 30 0.V.957 0. IV.908 0.1 (B# 516).V.957 0.920 0.948 238 0.924 0.871 0. The outage of GN.915 0.V.u voltage levels calculated in case of outage of Generation units for 500 K.2 Generation Unit Contingencies At Peak Load conditions.KURIM (B#530) unit cannot be analyzed due to non-convergence of load-flows.u.CW.944 0. the ENPS loses the Generation unit at GN.914 0.969 0.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) Figure (2) illustrates the voltage profile in case of outage of one circuit of 500 K. the analysis for the effect of losing one element of the network (N-1) were carried out in case of normal conditions without using any remedial actions.010 303 0.963 306 0.972 0. which may lead to voltage collapse.952 0. Some of the 220 K.923 0.938 0.G) (B#206) of 340 MW. which may lead to voltage collapse. REMEDIAL ACTIONS V.

925 0. transformers on the 500 K. nodes.015 441 525 240.962 0.924 0.926 0.4 Qgen (MVA) at base case 227.944 0.015 1.969 1.85 to 0.957 0.924 0.042 303 0.7 330 1.988 V. nodes Bus No. nodes after improving the power factor from 0.u.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) (B#915).958 233 0.935 0.938 0.8 1.916 0.916 0.92 to avoid the voltage collapse Case 3: Change the tap of Bassous 500 (B#180) Reference Number: JO-0002 180 .V.944 0.V.V.914 1.943 0.957 0.957 192 0. nodes in different cases.1 1.976 320 0.962 0.1 330 1. NABK (B#917). transformers on the 500 K.1 326 400 0.935 0.951 0.3 Changing the Tap Points of Transformers Case 1: Change the tap of Cairo 500 (B#30) Case 2: Change the tap of Cairo West 500 (B#238) Vol.968 0.03 140. transformer on the 500 K.998 950 0.935 0.939 0.947 0.) base case 1.985 0.965 0. Table (6): The voltage levels calculated in case of changing the tap ratio of a certain 500/220 K.003 0.977 1.003 0. However.970 0.03 140.916 0.9 330 127.V.7 330 443 525 240.98 359.V.4 330 127.956 0.918 0.1 200 1 1.015 442 525 240. Figure(5) illustrates the voltage profile in case of changing the tap ratio of certain 500/220 K.983 0.946 0.963 0.954 0. QENA220 (B#5046) and GHARD (B#804).917 0. and 220 K.4 Injection of Reactive Power at Certain Nodes According to the System Requirements Thus.984 305 0. networks. Table (4): The changing of Vsch.923 0. Table (7) shows the optimal locations of the reactive power which will be added to improve the power factor from 0.988 306 0.937 0.957 0.933 0.938 0.929 0.) New Qgen (MVA) New 1. Different scenarios of changing the tap ratio are carried out. To improve the average power factor.977 292 0.V.974 235 0.962 0.944 0. Table (5): The voltage levels calculated in case of changing Vsch at certain generation units of the ENPS on the 500 K.969 0.930 0.V.914 0.V.906 1.918 0.95 0. Figure (6) illustrates the voltage levels on the 500 K.85 to 0. nodes. (pu) 30 0.04 306.000 0.002 0. nodes.04 306. transformers is changed to control the reactive power flow in order to get the most suitable voltage profile for the 500 K. nodes in different cases.988 Case 5 0.957 0.921 0.1 200 1 1.920 0. (1) Case 4: Change the tap of Nobaria 500 (B#192) Case 5: Change the tap of kurimtt 500 (B#320) Reactive power limits on generators and the tap limits on tap changing transformers have a significant effect on voltage collapse.963 0. (2) – No.005 0.907 1.98 359.962 0.987 Case 4 0.914 0.929 0.04 306.957 0.7 530 600 531 600 624 625 Vsch (p. it is important to select suitable locations for adding capacitors in order to obtain good results[10].961 0.915 0.001 0.001 1.015 1.917 0.943 0.940 0.912 1.924 0.925 0.92.988 0.944 0.965 0.944 0.963 0.922 0.4 326 400 0. The tap ratio of certain 500/220 K. at certain generation units of the ENPS Bus No.968 0. Pgen (MW) 440 415. the reactive Power output from generation plays a very important role in assuring successful transactions of electric energy[9].V.919 0.9 Qmax MVA) Table (5) reports the voltage levels calculated in case of changing Vsch at certain generation units of the ENPS on the 500 K.938 0. 30 180 192 229 233 235 238 291 292 293 303 305 306 320 950 Voltage (pu) Actual Tap 0.925 0.989 Case 2 0.936 0.920 1.85 at the peak load which causes low voltage level at many substations.V.V.970 293 1.922 0.920 0.942 0. This agrees with previous findings[8].021 229 0. The experience with the ENPS shows that the average power factor is 0.u.983 0.939 0.983 0.907 0.957 180 0.977 Case 1 0.V.957 0.958 291 0. Bus Vsch (Base case) Vsch (New) (pu) No.954 0.920 0.04 294. Table (6) reports the voltage levels calculated in case of changing the tap ratio of certain 500/220 K.988 Case 3 0.960 0.V.917 0.992 238 0.3 315 Vsch (p.917 0. Table (4) illustrates the Changing the schedule voltage at certain generation units of the ENPS. V.017 Figure (4) illustrates the voltage profile in case of changing Vsch at certain generation units of the ENPS on the 500 K.947 0.912 1.95 0.

911 0.920 0. After applying the remedial actions.935 0.. Voltage (pu) Bus No.V.935 0.V.V.957 0.V.996 238 0.988 0.920 0.V.009 1. 6.979 0.021 Figure (7) illustrates the voltage levels on the 500 K.028 0.029 0.1).907 0.977 1.993 192 0.001 1.990 180 0.022 292 0.914 0. nodes.031 293 1. change tap Base Case ratio and add reactive power 30 0.953 0.935 0. V.997 180 0.947 1.V.022 0.V.938 1.V.957 0.918 0.029 0.N.984 0.977 1.026 0.L with and without remedial actions.997 0. This case has been repeated after applying the remedial actions. shown in subsection (4.962 1.961 1.049 1.027 229 0. Normal condition Bus (B#293)–(B#292) No. changing tap ratio and adding 950 MVAR.945 1.020 0.029 1.997 0.944 1.990 1.935 0.V.020 950 0.944 1.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) Vol.88 PF=0. Table (9): The voltage levels on the 500 K.019 305 0.918 1.969 1.957 1.946 0. however not to the desired values.917 0. Cases of One 500 K.944 0.1. CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS AFTER APPLYING THE RECOMMENDED REMEDIAL ACTIONS VI.021 0. • In addition to changing the tap ratio of CAI500(B#30) 500/220 K. Table (8) shows the results of the voltage levels on the 500 K.001 1.982 0.938 0.916 0. (2) – No.969 292 0.994 1.023 305 0.900 0. transformers in subsection (5. networks has occurred.V.928 0. the ENPS can deal with this outage and there is no low voltage problem.KURIM (B#530) is the most critical Generation outage in the ENPS.976 0.974 0.956 1. This improvement helps to reduce the value of the reactive power injected by added capacitors.947 180 0. Bus Voltage (pu) No PF=0.962 1.2). changing tap ratio and adding 950 MVAR.126 320 0. Circuit Tripped In between the contingency cases of one circuit 500 K.957 0.984 233 0.938 1.2) from step No.968 1. nodes in case of tripping one circuit 500 K.018 1.028 303 0.006 1.048 320 0.931 0.011 950 0.977 1.993 1.010 1.015 292 0.91 30 0. Table (8): The improvement of the voltage after changing Vsch.816 0.957 1.969 235 0. T.952 192 0.L.993 291 0.038 1. Voltage (pu) Trip of one ct.029 238 0.990 0.V.L with and without remedial actions. nodes in 181 .026 293 1.989 Voltage (pu) Change Vsch. 14 to step No 9".981 229 0. nodes after changing Vsch.) is the same as in subsection (5. Generation Unit Contingencies The outage of Generation unit of 625 MW at bus GN.050 0.993 0. change tap Base Case ratio and add reactive power 306 0.T.949 0.907 0. the most critical case is the outage of H.970 0.938 0. According to the above scenarios the voltage profile on the 500 and 220 K.916 0. nodes in case of tripping one circuit 500 K.H.048 303 0.917 0.916 0.928 0.025 306 0.914 0.V.990 235 0.017 1.942 293 1. VI.942 0.90 PF=0.938 0.049 303 0.957 1.918 1.T. VI. without with without with Remedial Remedial Remedial Remedial Actions Actions Actions Actions 30 0.920 0.020 In this case taking into consideration the following: • The value of (Vsch.914 0.2.988 950 0.914 0. in case of tripping one circuit 500 K.964 0.987 291 0.039 1. nodes after changing Vsch.5 Using One or More of The Recommended Remedial Actions In A Combined Manner. (1) Table (7): The impact of improving the power factor on the voltage levels on the 500 K.979 0.945 0.930 0.010 238 0.069 1.935 0.044 320 0.(B#293) .001 1.023 0. Change Vsch. Changing tap ratio and adding reactive power.944 0.048 0.V.985 1. Figure (8) illustrates the voltage levels on the 500 K.L with and without the remedial actions.977 0.907 1.987 192 0.858 0. 2 to step No.995 1.029 229 0.(B#292).977 0.028 Reference Number: JO-0002 Bus No.89 PF=0. changing the tap ratio of Bassous(B#180) 500/220 K.917 0.85 PF=0.D.963 233 0.978 0.985 0. transformer from step No.962 0.969 1.907 1. .971 0.V.025 1.990 233 0.996 1.T.972 1.951 291 0.993 0.957 1.001 1.V. Table (10) shows the voltage levels on the 220 K.036 305 0.046 306 0.997 235 0. and there is no low voltage problem. Table (9) shows the voltage levels on the 500 K.969 0.911 0.

Figure (9) illustrates the voltage levels for 220 K.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) case of tripping Generation unit of 625 MW at bus GN. The ENPS was put under many contingency cases for outages of extra-high voltage 500 K.943 0.e.821 0.956 0. raising the schedule voltage Vsch. A comparison between the voltage profile in the base case and the cases of using remedial actions verified the necessity of using remedial actions to improve the voltage levels in ENPS.e.818 0.86 p. three remedial actions have been recommended in this paper to be applied simultaneously. increasing the power factor to 0. The following are some specific results: • Increasing the reactive power produced from generation units (i..u.872 0.05 p.975 VII.841 0. however redistributing the qualified reactive power caused all the voltage levels to be maintained.92 causes an increase in voltage with permissible values above the critical voltage collapse limits (about 0.801 0.).986 0. injection of reactive power to raise the power factor to 0.909 0.802 0.943 0.805 0. • Changing the tap ratio on all transformers to 0. These remedial actions are the optimal usage of reactive power produced from generation units.837 0. (1) conditions relevant to ENPS.988 0. an economical analysis carried out in this work verified that the optimal localizing and qualifying of capacitors is a most feasible mean to reactive power compensation beside the other two.).99 p.781 0. Table (10): The voltage levels on the 220 K.768 0.V in case of tripping the generation unit of 625 MW at bus GN. analysis of the methods used in the world to avoid voltage instability and from the background about the technical and economical Reference Number: JO-0002 Vol. Also. • Using combination of the recommended remedial actions simultaneously presents an effective remedy to the voltage instability problem.810 0.790 0.977 0.966 without remedial actions 0.862 0.826 0.952 0.985 0. changing the tap points of transformers and the reactive power compensation at certain locations in the power system.KURIM (B#530) with and without the remedial actions.804 with remedial actions 0.801 0. 182 .991 0.981 0.995 0.954 0.011 0.832 0.970 0.952 0.841 0.808 0.825 with remedial actions 0.822 0.972 0.946 0.950 0.996 0.u.972 0.869 0.KURIM (B#530) with and without the remedial actions Voltage (pu) Bus No. • Injection of reactive power at certain locations (i.KURIM (B#530) with and without remedial actions. From 0.852 0.980 0.005 0.) causes an increase in the voltage levels but not to the desired values.867 0.91 did not solve the problem of over voltage.783 0. • Once more.852 0. ≤ voltage level ≤ 1.958 1.985 0.u.791 0.794 0.983 0.957 0.05 p. CONCOLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: With reference to the previous studies. Base Case Tripping M/C at (B#530) 804 915 917 5038 5039 5040 5042 5043 5044 5045 5046 5047 5049 without remedial actions 0.963 0.944 0.837 0. however there is one node has an over voltage (V> 1.955 0. transmission lines and grand generation units.818 0.982 0.838 0.985 0.819 0.V.807 0.V nodes in case of tripping Generation unit of 625 MW at bus GN.829 0. the main application was on the ENPS.966 0.988 0. The voltage profile for ENPS in normal conditions clarified that the voltage level in many locations is under the permissible secure limits (0.u.u.952 1. Benefiting from the obtained results.98 to 0.).95 p. (2) – No.766 5051 5052 5053 5062 5070 0.90) causing a discrete improvement of the voltage profile.

(2) – No. (1) Figure (1): Single Line Diagram of The Network Parts Under Study Reference Number: JO-0002 183 .The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) Vol.

Figure (3): The voltage profile in case of outage of Generation unit on the 500 K. line on the 500 K. at a certain generation units of the ENPS on the 500 K. nodes Reference Number: JO-0002 184 . nodes for different cases.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) Vol.V. (2) – No.V.V.V. (1) Figure (2): The voltage profile in case of outage of one circuit of 500 K. nodes for different cases of outages. Figure (4): The voltage profile in case of changing V sch.

85 to 0. nodes after changing V sch & changing tap ratio and adding 950 MVAR Reference Number: JO-0002 185 . nodes after improving the power factor from 0.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) Vol.V. transformers on the 500 K. nodes for different cases.V. Figure(6): The voltage levels on the 500 K.V. (1) Figure(5): The voltage profile in case of changing the tap ratio of certain 500/220 K. (2) – No.92 Figure(7): The voltage levels on the 500 K.V.

V. (1) Figure(8): The voltage levels on the 500 K.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) Vol. (2) – No.L with and without remedial actions. in case of tripping generation unit of 625 MW at bus GN.V.V. T. Figure (9): The voltage levels on the 220 K. Reference Number: JO-0002 186 . in case of tripping one circuit 500 K.KURIM(B#530) with and without the remedial actions.

Vancouver. BC. 15.L.1994.A. M.washington. April 2009) Page 29 of 43. Bonneville Power Administration . "Contingency Ranking for On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Taylor "Power System Voltage Stability" The EPRI Power System Engineering Series. Seifossadat1.. no.doc [8] Stefan Johansson & Fredrik Sjögren "Voltage collapse in power systems The Influence of generator current limiter. [2] Benabid R. [9] I. 3. C. Canizares "Voltage Stability Assessment Concepts. International Journal of Innovations in Energy Systems and Power (Vol. Saniei1.ee. Vol. Dobson.iastate. M. C. Venkatasubramanian. Overbye. DeMarco. William Rosehart.G.edu/research/ pstca/pf30/pg _tca30bus. [5] Claudio Cañizares. Reference Number: JO-0002 Vol. Alberto Berizzi.htm [7] http//www. [3] Annual Report " Egyptian Electricity Holding Company "Ministry of Electricity and Energy 2008-2009.edu/~jdm/EE457/PSSE_Fault_ Intro_Instructions. August 2000. C. [4] Zhihong Jia and Jeyasurya B. Cristian Bovo "Comparison of Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow Techniques " IEEE – PES Summer Meeting. No." Optimal Location and Size of SVC and TCSC for Multi-Objective Static Voltage Stability Enhancement" Nuclear Center Research of Birine . [10] S. and boudour M. T. A. (2) – No.4.The Online Journal on Power and Energy Engineering (OJPEE) REFERNCES [1] Carson W. Van Cutsem. Practices and Tools "IEEE Power Engineering Society Power System Stability Subcommittee Special Publication IEEE product number SP101PS August 2002.ee. Raeszadeh and Shahid Chamran "Reactive Power Pricing in Competitive Electric Markets Using a Sequential Linear Programming with Considered Investment Cost of Capacitor Banks. Vournas. (1) [6] http//www. July 2001.1. on-load tap-changers and load dynamics" Chalmers University of Technology 1995. T. 187 .