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[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT


On

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PLC-SCADA AND AUTOMATION

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of

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Bachelors of Technology
In
Electrical and Electronics Engineering

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[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

2012-2016

Submitted To
Er. PAWAN PUNIA-HOD,EEE

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Submitted By

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

JASKAWAL SINGH-12ETSEX009

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Saraf Institute of Engineering & Technology


Hanumangarh, Rajasthan

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CERTIFICATE

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[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

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ABSTRACT

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An Industrial SCADA and PLC system is used for the development


of the controls of machinery. This report describes the SCADA &

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PLC systems in term of their architecture, their interface to the

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process hardware, the functionality and the application

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development facilities they provide.

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Some attention is also paid to the industrial standards to which


they abide their planned evolution as well as the potential benefits

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of their use.

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[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

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CANDIDATES DECLARATION

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I hereby declare that the work presented in this report entitled


PLC-SCADA & Automation, submitted in EEE Department of

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Saraf Institute of Engineering and Technology, affiliated to

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Rajasthan Technical University, Rajasthan, is an authentic record


of my own work carried out during my degree under the guidance

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of Er. Pawan Punia (HOD, EEE Deptt.)

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The work reported in this has not been submitted by me for award
of any other degree or diploma.

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Signature of Candidate:

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Jaskawal singh

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12ETSEX009

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This is to certify that the above

statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my

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knowledge.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Er. Pawan Punia (HOD,EEE Deptt.)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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It gives me immense pleasure to express my deepest sense of


gratitude and sincere thanks to my highly respected and esteemed
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guide Er. Pawan Punia (HOD EEE Deptt.) S.I.E.T, Hanumangarh

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for their valuable guidance, encouragement and help for


completing this work. Their useful suggestions for this whole work

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and co-operative behavior are sincerely acknowledged.

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I would like to express my sincere thank to Mr. Manoj Sharma,


Founder, C.E.O & C.T.O ,Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. for

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giving me this opportunity to undertake this training.

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At the end I would like to express my sincere thanks to all my


friends and others who helped

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me directly or indirectly during this project work.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

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TITLE PAGE........................................i

CERTIFICATE....................................ii
ABSTRACT..........................................iii

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CANDIDATES DECLARATION....iv

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...................v
TABLE OF CONTENTS....................vi
LIST OF FIGURES.............................ix

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LIST OF TABLES................................x

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PAGE

1.

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AUTOMATION....................................11

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1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

Introduction to automation.....................12
Block diagram of automation.................14
Application.............................................14
Advantage and Disadvantage.................18
Automation tools....................................20
Limitation of automation........................21

2.

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CONTROLLER.....................................22

2.1
2.2

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What are Controllers.............................23


Types of Controllers.............................23

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CHAPTER NO.

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TITLE

PAGE NO.

2.

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2.2.1 PID Controllers..................................23


2.2.2 CNC Controller..................................25
2.2.3 PC based Controller..........................27
2.2.4 PLC based Controller.......................29

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2.2.5 DCS..................................................30

3.

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PLC....................................................... 31

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3.1 Introduction to PLC..............................32


3.2 History and Origin................................35
3.3 PLC Vendors.........................................36
3.4 Block diagram.......................................37
3.5 Major components of a PLC................37

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3.6 Classification of PLC............................38


3.7 PLC operation.......................................39
3.8 Scan Cycle.............................................39
3.9 Circuit isolation in PLC.........................41
3.10 Sinking and Sourcing concept.............43
3.11 Communications..................................43

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3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17

Programming Language......................46.
Ladder logic .......................................47
Timers ................................................49
Compare instructions..........................50
Counter................................................52
Compute/Math ...................................53

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3.18 Move/Logical .....................................54


3.19 Softwares.............................................56

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CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

4.

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SCADA.....................................................59
4.1 Introduction to SCADA...............................60
4.2 What SCADA can do for you......................61

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4.3 SCADA software.........................................62

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4.4 Functionality...............................................63
4.5 Automation.................................................70
4.6 Application Development...........................71
4.7 Application of SCADA...............................72
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4.8 Communication ..........................................76

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CONCLUSION....................................77

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REFERENCES....................................78

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LIST OF FIGURES

S NO.

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1.
2.
3.
4.

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NAME

PAGE NO.

Block Diagram of Automation.................14


Block diagram of PID Controller...............25
Computer Numerically Controlled.............27
Allen Bradley PLC....................................32

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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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Block diagram of PLC...............................37


Scan Cycle of a PLC..................................40
Circuit Diagram of PLC.............................42
Sinking and Sourcing Concept...................43
Ethernet Cable............................................44
PMO2 Cable...............................................45

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11.
12.
13.
14.

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Trending.....................................................64
Alarm Handling..........................................65
Logging and Archiving...............................66
SCADA Systems........................................75

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LIST OF TABLES

S NO.

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NAME

PAGE NO.

PLC Vendors.........................................36

2.

Allen Bradley Data File Description.....57

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1.

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Chapter - I

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Automation

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1.1 Introduction to Automation

Automation is the use of control systems such as computers to


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control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for

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human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation


is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided
human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical

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requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for

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human sensory and mental requirements as well. AutomationIs


Basically The Use Of Control Systems (Such As Numerical
Control, Programmable Logic Control, And Other Industrial

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Control Systems), In Concert With Other Applications Of

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Information Technology (Such As Computer-Aided Technologies


[CAD, CM, Cax]), To Control Industrial Machinery And
Processes, Reducing The Need For Human Intervention. In The

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Scope Of Industrialization, Automation Is A Step Beyond

Mechanization.

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Whereas

Mechanization

Provided

Human

Operators With Machinery To Assist Them With The Muscular

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Requirements Of Work, Automation Greatly

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reduces The Need For Human Sensory And Mental


Requirements As Well. Processes And Systems Can Also Be

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Automated.

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Automation Plays An Increasingly Important Role In The


Global Economy And In Daily Experience. Engineers Strive To
Combine

Automated

Devices

With

Mathematical

And

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Organizational Tools To Create Complex Systems For A Rapidly

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Expanding Range Of Applications And Human Activities.


Specialized Hardened Computers, Referred To As Programmable
Logic Controllers (Plcs), Are Frequently Used To Synchronize The

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Flow Of Inputs From (Physical) Sensors And Events With The

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Flow Of Outputs To Actuators And Events. This Leads To


Precisely Controlled Actions That Permit A Tight Control Of
Almost Any Industrial Process. Human-Machine Interfaces

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(HMI) Or Computer Human Interfaces (CHI), Formerly Known

As

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Man-MachineInterfaces,

Are

Usually

Employed

To

Communicate With Plcs And Other Computers, Such As Entering


And Monitoring Temperatures Or Pressures For Further

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Automated Control Or Emergency Response.

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1.2. Block diagram of automation

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FIG:01

1.3. Applications
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Automated video surveillance:

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The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)


started the research and development of automated visual
surveillance and monitoring (VSAM) program, between 1997
and 1999, and airborne video surveillance (AVS) programs,
from 1998 to 2002. Currently, there is a major effort
underway in the vision community to develop a fully

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automated tracking surveillance system. Automated video


surveillance

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monitors people and vehicles in real time within a busy


environment. Existing automated surveillance systems are

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based on the environment they are primarily designed to


observe, i.e., indoor, outdoor or airborne, the amount of
sensors that the automated system can handle and the
mobility of sensor, i.e., stationary camera vs. mobile camera.
The purpose of a surveillance system is to record properties
and trajectories of objects in a given area, generate warnings
or notify designated authority in case of occurrence of

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Automated highway systems:

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As demands for safety and mobility have grown and


technological possibilities have multiplied, interest in
automation has grown. Seeking to accelerate the development
and introduction of fully automated vehicles and highways,

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the United States Congress authorized more than $650


million over six years for intelligent transport systems (ITS)
and demonstration projects in the 1991Intermodal Surface
Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). Congress legislated in
ISTEA that the Secretary of Transportation shall develop an
automated highway and vehicle prototype from which future

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fully automated intelligent vehicle-highway systems can be


developed. Such development shall include research in
human factors to ensure the success of the man-machine
relationship. The goal of this program is to have the first fully
automated highway roadway or an automated test track in

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operation by 1997. This system


installation of equipment in new and

shall

accommodate

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existing motor vehicles.Full automation commonly defined as


requiring no control or very limited control by the driver;

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such automation would be accomplished through a


combination of sensor, computer, and communications
systems in vehicles and along the roadway. Fully automated
driving would, in theory, allow closer vehicle spacing and
higher speeds, which could enhance traffic capacity in places
where additional road building is physically impossible,
politically unacceptable, or prohibitively expensive.

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Automated manufacturing:

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Automated manufacturing refers to the application of


automation to produce things in the factory way. Most of the
advantages of the automation technology has its influence in
the manufacture processes.

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The main advantages of automated manufacturing are higher


consistency and quality, reduced lead times, simplified
production, reduced handling, improved work flow, and
increased worker morale when a good implementation of the
automation is made.

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Home automation:

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Home automation (also called domotics) designates an


emerging practice of increased automation of
household
appliances and features in residential dwellings, particularly

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through electronic means that allow for things impracticable,


overly expensive or simply not possible in recent past decades.

Industrial automation:

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Industrial automation deals with the optimization of energyefficient drive systems by precise measurement and control

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technologies. Nowadays energy efficiency in industrial


processes are becoming more and more relevant.
Semiconductor companies like Infineon Technologies are
offering 8-bit microcontroller applications for example found
in motor controls, general purpose pumps, fans, and ebikes to
reduce energy consumption and thus increase efficiency.

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Agent-assisted Automation :

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Agent-assisted Automation refers to automation used by call


center agents to handle customer inquiries. There are two
basic types: desktop automation and automated voice
solutions. Desktop automation refers to software

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programming that makes it easier for the call center agent to


work across multiple desktop tools. The automation would
take the information entered into one tool and populate it
across the others so it did not have to be entered more than
once, for example. Automated voice solutions allow the agents
to remain on the line while

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disclosures and other important information is provided to


customers in the form of pre-recorded audio files. Specialized
applications of these automated voice solutions enable the
agents to process credit cards without ever seeing or hearing
the credit card numbers or CVV codes.

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The key benefit of agent-assisted automation is compliance


and error-proofing. Agents are sometimes not fully trained or
they forget or ignore key steps in the process. The use of
automation ensures that what is supposed to happen on the
call actually does, every time.

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1.4. Advantages
The main advantages of automation are:
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Increased throughput or productivity.

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Improved quality or increased predictability of quality.

Improved robustness (consistency), of processes or


product.

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The following methods are often employed to improve productivity,


quality, or robustness.

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Install automation in operations to reduce cycle time.

Install automation where a high degree of accuracy is


required.

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Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard


physical or monotonous work.[3]

Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments


(i.e. fire, space, volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.)
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Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size,


weight, speed, endurance, etc.

Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy


of enterprises, society or most of humanity. For example, when
an enterprise invests in automation, technology recovers its
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investment; or when a state or country increases its income due


to automation like Germany or Japan in the 20th Century.
Reduces operation time and work handling time significantly.

Frees up workers to take on other roles.


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Provides higher level jobs in the development, deployment,


maintenance and running of the automated processes.

Disadvantages
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The main disadvantages of automation are:

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Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated system


may have a limited level of intelligence, and is therefore more
susceptible to committing errors outside of its immediate
scope of knowledge (e.g., it is typically unable to apply the
rules of simple logic to general propositions).

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Unpredictable/excessive development costs: The research


and development cost of automating a process may exceed the
cost saved by the automation itself.

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High
initial
cost:
The
automation
of
a
new product or plant typically requires a very large initial
investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product,
although the cost of automation may be spread among many
products and over time.

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1.5. Automation tools

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Engineers can now have numerical control over automated


devices. The result has been a rapidly expanding range of
applications
and
human
activities. Computer-aided
technologies (or CAx) now serve the basis for mathematical and

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organizational tools used to create complex systems. Notable


examples of CAx include Computer-aided design (CAD software)
and Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM software). The
improved design, analysis, and manufacture of products enabled
by CAx has been beneficial for industry.

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Information
technology,
together
with industrial machinery and processes, can assist in the design,
implementation, and monitoring of control systems. One example
of an industrial control system is a programmable logic
controller (PLC). PLCs are specialized hardened computers which
are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs from

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(physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators


and events.

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An automated online assistant on a website, with an avatar for


enhanced human.

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Human-machine
interfaces (HMI)
or computer
human
interfaces (CHI), formerly known as man-machine interfaces, are
usually employed to communicate with PLCs and other

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computers. Service personnel who monitor and control through


HMIs can be called by different names. In industrial process and
manufacturing environments, they are called operators or
something similar. In boiler houses and central utilities
departments they are called stationary engineers.

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Different types of automation tools exist:


DCS - Distributed Control System

HMI - Human Machine Interface

SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition


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PLC - Programmable Logic Controller

Instrumentation
Motion control

Robotics
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1.6. Limitations to automation


Current technology is unable to automate all the desired
tasks.
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As a process becomes increasingly automated, there is less


and less labor to be saved or quality improvement to be gained.
This is an example of both diminishing returns and the logistic
function.

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Similar to the above, as more and more processes become


automated, there are fewer remaining non-automated processes.
This is an example of exhaustion of opportunities.

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Chapter II

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Controllers

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2.1. What Are Controllers?

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In control theory, a controller is a device which monitors and


affects the operational conditions of a given dynamical system.

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The operational conditions are typically referred to as output

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variables of the system which can be affected by adjusting certain


input variables.
For example, the heating system of a house can be equipped

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with a thermostat (controller) for sensing air temperature (output

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variable) which can turn on or off a furnace or heater when the


air temperature becomes too low or too high.

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2.2. TYPES OF CONTROLLERS

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There are many types of controllers. Some of them are as follows:

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2.2.1 PID Controllers

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A proportionalintegralderivative controller (PID controller) is a


generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used
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in industrial control systems.

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PID controller attempts to correct the error between a


measured process variable and a desired set point by calculating
and then outputting a corrective action that can adjust the process

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accordingly and rapidly, to keep the error minimal.

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The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three


separate parameters; the proportional, the integral and derivative
values. The proportional value determines the reaction to the
current error, the integral value determines the reaction based on
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the sum of recent errors, and the derivative value determines the

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FIG:

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2.2.2 Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC)

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Computer Numerical Control (CNC) controllers, working as a


brain for manufacturing automation, are high value-added
products counting for over 30% of the price of machine tools.

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CNC technology is generally considered as a measure for the level

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of manufacturing technology of a nation. Often referred to as


"The Flower of Industrial Technology", the development of CNC
technology depends upon the integration of technologies from

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computer, hardware, machining, and other industries, and

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requires strategic long-term support, mostly on a governmental

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level.

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Today, computer numerical control (CNC) machines are found


almost everywhere, from small job shops in rural communities to

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Fortune 500 companies in large urban areas. Truly, there is hardly

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a facet of manufacturing that is not in some way touched by what


these innovative machine tools can do.
The most basic function of any CNC machine is automatic,
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precise, and consistent motion control. Rather than applying

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completely mechanical devices to cause motion as is required on


most conventional machine tools, CNC machines allow motion
control in a revolutionary manner. All forms of CNC equipment

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have two or more directions of motion, called axes. These axes can

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be precisely and automatically positioned along their lengths of


travel. The two most common axis types are linear (driven along a

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straight path) and rotary (driven along a circular path).

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FIG:03

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2.2.3 PC Based Controllers

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The days of the PC being used just for visualization and


production

data

acquisition

in

control

and

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applications is rapidly becoming a thing of the past.

automation

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The PC is now increasingly recognized as an open and


powerful hardware platform, which can provide effective and

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reliable control, with no requirement for additional processors

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or complex hardware additions. Traditional automation and


control systems typically comprise a number of hardware and
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software elements; a PC for process visualization, hard PLCs with

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coprocessor cards, coprocessor PLCs, I/O via field bus, motion


control via parallel cabling and a selection of software operating

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systems and programming languages.

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PC-based controller system is often used in the factory where


it resists the adverse environmental factors such as dustiness and
extreme temperature. Under this condition, PC-based controller

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system must meet the requirements of reliability, durability, strong

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vibration, and extreme temperature. Since industrial products do


not require high level of math functions, appropriateness is much
more important than the performance.PC-based system is also

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used in the medical care industry.

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The disadvantages of this approach being high hardware and


software costs, complexity of system design and build plus, in

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many applications, limited functionality.

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2.2.4 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

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Programming Logic Controller or PLC as it is universally called is

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the work horse of industrial automation. The PLC,

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being a microprocessor based device, has a similar internal


structure to many embedded controllers and computers. They
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consist of the CPU, Memory and I/O devices. These components

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are integral to the PLC controller. Additionally the PLC has a


connection for the Programming and Monitoring Unit, Printer
and Program Recorder.

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Basically PLC is used for following applications in industry:

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1) Machine controls.

2) Packaging, loading uploading and weighing.


3) Palletizing.

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4) Material handling and similar Sequential task

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2.2.5 Distributed Control System (Dcs)

A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system


usually of a manufacturing system, process or any kind of
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dynamic system, in which the controller elements are not central

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in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the


system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more
controllers. The entire systems of controllers are connected by a

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network for communication and monitoring.

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DCS is a very broad term used in a variety of industries, to monitor


and control distributed equipment like Electrical power grids and
electrical generation plants, Environmental control systems,

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Traffic, water management systems, Oil Refining plants, chemical,

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Pharmaceutical manufacturing, Dry cargo and bulk oil carrier


ships.Distributed control systems (DCS) use decentralized elements
or subsystems to control distributed processes or complete

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manufacturing systems.

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Chapter III

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Programmable Logic Controller


(PLC)

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.1. Introduction to PLC

PAGE

A PLC is an industrial computer or control system that


continuously monitors the state of input devices and makes

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

decisions based upon a custom program to control the state of

PAGE

output devices.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:04

A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable


controller

is

digital

computer

used

for

automationof

PAGE

electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

factory aassembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures.


PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-

PAGE

purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

inputs and output arrangements, extended temperaure ranges,


immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and
impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored

PAGE

in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

a real time system since output results must be produced in


response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise

PAGE

unintended operation will result.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

A PLC (i.e. Programmable Logic Controller) is a device that was


invented to replace the necessary sequential relay circuits for
machine control. The PLC works by looking at its inputs and

PAGE

depending upon their state, turning on/off its outputs. The user

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

enters a program, usually via software, that gives the desired


results.
PLCs are used in many "real world" applications. If there is
PAGE

industry present, chances are good that there is a plc present. If

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

you are involved in machining, packaging, material handling,


automated assembly or countless other industries you are probably

PAGE

already using them. If you are not, you are wasting money and

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

time. Almost any application that needs some type of electrical

PAGE

control has a need for a plc.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PLC controllers are low cost, compact, versatile units based on the
standard microprocessor architecture used in the control of
PAGE

machines or processes. They are designed for ease of

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

programming and maintenance. The plc systems replace the old


relay logic control systems in automated manufacturing and are
designed to provide an easy and efficient replacements for the

PAGE

bulky relay logic controllers. The PLC, also known as

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

programmable controller (PC) is defined by the National


Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) in 1978 as:
"A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a
PAGE

programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions for

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

implementing specific functions, such as logic, sequencing, timing,


counting and arithmetic, to control through digital or analog

PAGE

input/output, various types of machines or process".

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

They essentially operate by detecting the on/off (logic) or analog


inputs and depending on the control programs - the ladder

PAGE

diagrams - outputs of the same type (usually logic) are produced.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

In PLC implementation, field wiring between the logic elements


remains unaltered, but there are no more hard wired connections

PAGE

between the devices. Instead, the connections are

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

stored in computer memory. This allows the programming of these


connections, which is in turn made easier as they are entered in

PAGE

ladder logic.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PLC systems have considerable advantages over the old relay logic
systems. They include:

PAGE

1 all the capabilities of the earlier systems,

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

2 dramatic performance increase over the relay logic systems


3 greater reliability

PAGE

4 little maintenance due to no moving parts

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

5 no special programming skills required by maintenance


personnel
6 physical size of the PLC system is much smaller than the
PAGE

conventional relay based logic

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

7 and most importantly much lower cost

3.2. History and Origin


PAGE

Developed to replace relays in the late 1960s

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common
choice for manufacturing controls.
The first PLC, model 084, was invented by Dick Morley.

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

The PLC was invented in response to the needs of the


American automotive manufacturing industry (primarily
General motors).
Costs dropped and became popular by 1980s
PAGE

Now used in many industrial designs.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.3. PLC Vendors

PAGE

S.N

Company

Country

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

3.4. Block Diagram of PLC

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:05

3.5. Major Components of a Common PLC


POWER SUPPLY
PAGE

Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC components.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

I/O MODULES

PAGE

Provides signal conversion and isolation between the internal


logiclevel signals inside the PLC and the fields high level
signal. The I/O interface section of a PLC connects it to external
field devices. The main purpose of the I/O interface is to condition

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

the various signals received from or sent to the external input and
output devices. Input modules converts signals from discrete or
analog input devices to logic levels

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

acceptable to PLCs processor. Output modules converts signal


from the processor to levels capable of driving the connected
discrete or analog output devices.

PAGE

PROCESSOR

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Provides intelligence to command and govern the activities of the


entire PLC systems.

PROGRAMMING DEVICE

PAGE

Used to enter the desired program that will determine the sequence
of operation and control of process equipment or driven machine.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

3.6. CLASSIFICATION OF PLC

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Based on physical assembly-

PAGE

1. Compact - In these types of PLC the number of input and output


is fixed and these are very purpose specified.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

2. Modular - In this type of PLC the input and output modules are
used and thus the number of the I/O ports is variable n depend
upon the number of slots available and modules used.

PAGE

Based on number of I/O ports-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

1. Small-It covers units with up to 128 I/Os and memories up to 2


Kbytes.
These PLCs are capable of providing simple to advance
levels or machine controls.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

2. Medium- has up to 2048 I/Os and memories up to 32 Kbytes.

PAGE

3. Large- the most sophisticated units of the PLC family. They


have up to 8192 I/Os and memories up to 750 Kbytes. can control
individual production processes or entire plant.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.7. PLC Operation

Basic Function of a Typical PLC

PAGE

Read all field input devices via the input interfaces, execute the
user program stored in application memory, then, based on
whatever control scheme has been programmed by the user, turn

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

the field output devices on or off, or perform whatever control is


necessary for the process application.

PAGE

This process of sequentially reading the inputs, executing the


program in memory, and updating the outputs is known as
scanning.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.8. Scan Cycle

PAGE

While the PLC is running, the scanning process includes the


following three phases, which are repeated continuously as
individual cycles of operation

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:06

PHASE 1 Input Status scan

PAGE

A PLC scan cycle begins with the CPU reading the status of its
inputs.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PHASE 2 Logic Solve/Program Execution

PAGE

The application program is executed using the status of the inputs.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PHASE 3 Output Status Scan

PAGE

An output status scan is then performed, whereby the stored output


values are sent to field output devices. The cycle ends byupdating
the outputs. As soon as Phase 3 are completed, the entire cycle

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

begins again with Phase 1 input scan. The time it takes to


implement a scan cycle is called SCAN TIME. The scan time
composed of the program scan time, which is the time required for
solving the control program, and the I/O update time, or time
required to read inputs and update outputs. The program scan

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

time generally depends on the amount of memory taken by the


control program and type of instructions used in the program. The
time to make a single scan can vary from 1 ms to 100 ms.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.9. Circuit Isolation in PLC

PAGE

In PLC, isolation is provided using optocoupler in its internal


circuit thats why it is also known as optical isolation. Optical
isolation means that there is no real electrical connection between

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

the input device and the processor. This eliminates any possibility
of the unwanted (high surge or malfunctioned) input line voltage
from coming in contact with and damaging the low voltage DC
section of the Processor.

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:07

PAGE

3.10. Sinking and sourcing concept

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Sinking Concept (NPN)- When the current direction of


any signal is inwards to the PLC input or output port it is
known as the Sinking.

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Sourcing Concept (PNP) - When the current direction of


any signal is outwards to the PLC input or output port it is
known as the Sourcing ..

PAGE

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:08

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.11. Communications :

PAGE

PLC can communicate or connected to PC through Ethernet,RS232,RS-422 or RS-485 cabling.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Ethernet

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Ethernet introduced in 1980.Ethernet divide a stream of data into


individual packets called frames. Each frame contains source &
destination address & error checking data so that damaged data
can be detected & re-transmitted. Data rates were periodically

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

increased from the original 10 megabits per sec to 100 gigabits per
sec

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:09 Ethernet cable

RS-232

PAGE

It can transfer-20000 bits per second. It is commonly used in


computer for serial port RS-232 port has feature of a personal

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

computer for connected to modems,printer,mice,UPS & other


peripheral device. PM02 cable is used for this type of
communiction.it has 9 pin on PC side and 8 pin on PLC side.

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:10 PM02 cable

PAGE

RS-485

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

RS-485 can be used effectively over long distances. it can transfer35M bits per second up to 10 meter 100 Kbits/sec 1200 meter.

PAGE

RS-422

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

It can transfer-10 Million bits per second. It can used as long as


1500 meter.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.12. Programming Languages


Ladder Diagram (LD)

Functional block Diagram (FBD)

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Sequential Functional Chart (SFC)

Structured Text (ST)

Instruction List (IL)

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Ladder Diagram- It is a graphical programming language.

PAGE

Initially programmed with simple contacts that simulated the


opening and closing of relays, Ladder Logic Programming has
been expanded to include such functions as counters, timers, shift
registers, and math operations.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Function Block Diagram A graphical language for depicting

PAGE

signal and data flows through re-usable function blocks. FBD is


useful for expressing the interconnection of control system
algorithms and logic.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Sequential Function Chart A method of programming

PAGE

complex control systems at a more highly structured level. A SFC


program is an overview of the control system, in which the basic
building blocks are entire program files. Each program file is
created using one of the other types of programming languages.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

The SFC approach coordinates large, complicated programming


tasks into smaller, more manageable tasks.

Structured Text A high level text language that encourages

PAGE

structured programming. It has a language structure (syntax)

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

that strongly resembles PASCAL and supports a wide range of


standard functions and operators.

Instruction List A low level assembler like language that is

PAGE

based on similar instructions list languages found in a wide range


of todays PLC.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

The language which we used in the PLC for writing any logic is
Ladder language.

PAGE

3.13. Ladder Logic

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Ladder logic is a method of drawing electrical logic schematics. It


is now a graphical language very popular for programming
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). It was originally
invented to describe logic made from relays. The name is based on
the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders,

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

with two vertical "rails" and a series of horizontal "rungs"


between them.

PAGE

Generally Used Instructions & symbol For PLC Programming

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Input Instruction

PAGE

This Instruction is Called XIC or Examine If Closed.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

i.e.; If a NO switch is actuated then only this instruction


will be true. If a NC switch is actuated then this

PAGE

instruction will not be true and hence output will not be generated.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

This Instruction is Called XIO or Examine If Open

PAGE

i.e.; If a NC switch is actuated then only this instruction will


be true. If a NC switch is actuated then this instruction will not be
true and hence output will not be generated.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Output Instruction

PAGE

This Instruction is called OTE and shows the States of


Output.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

i.e.; If any instruction either XIO or XIC is true then


output will be high. Due to high output a 24 volt signal is
generated from PLC processor.

PAGE

Retentive output instruction

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

OTL (output latch):


If the rung is true, turns ON a bit and it remains ON even the rung
gets false. The bit stays ON until the rung containing an OUT with

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

same address goes true.

PAGE

OTU (output unlatch ):If the rung is true, turns OFF a bit. The bit
stays OFF until the rung containing an OTL with

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

same address goes true and the rung containing OUT with same
address remains false.

3.14. Timers

PAGE

1. TON-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

This is an ON timer , in this we set the time base and can give the
time delay.

PAGE

2. TOF

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

This is an OFF timer, here we need to enable as well as disable the


timer.

PAGE

3. RTO-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

This is called Retentive Timer On, here the timer is not reset once
we disable it, so we need to use the RES (reset) function. This
timer can be paused easily.

PAGE

3.15. Compare instructions:

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

1. LIM (limit test):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

The Rung goes true when test value in between lower and higher
limit.

PAGE

2.EQU (Equal):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

The rung goes true, when source A equal to source B.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

3.NEQ (Not Equal):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

4.LES (Less Than):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

5.GRT(Greater Than):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

6.LEQ( Less Than or Equal):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

7.GEQ( Greater Than or Equal):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

3.16. Counters

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

1. CTU-

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

This is Counter Up, here we set the preset and whenever the signal
is given the accumulator is increased, to reset the counter we have
to use RES.

PAGE

2. CTD-

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

This is Counter down, here DN bit is on initially and as the


accumulator decreases and becomes less than preset it becomes
off.
PAGE

RESET Function-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

This function is used to reset the counters and the timers.

PAGE

3.17. Compute / Math:

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

1.ADD (Addition):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

When the rung goes true, value stored in source A is added with
value stored in Source B and the resulted value is stored in
Destination.

PAGE

2.SUB (Subtraction):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

3.MUL (Multiplication):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

4.DIV (Division):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

5.SQR (Square Root):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.18. Move/Logical:

PAGE

1. MOV (Move):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

When rung goes true the value stored in source move to

destination.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

2.AND (Bitwise Logical AND):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

When the rung goes true, value stored in source


A is Logically ANDed with value stored in Source B and the

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

resulted value is stored in destination.

PAGE

3.OR (Bitwise Logical OR):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

4.XOR (Bitwise Logical NOR):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

5.NOT(Bitwise Logical NOT):

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

6.CLR(Clear):

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

When rung goes true, then destination becomes


PAGE

empty.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3.19. Software for PLC

PAGE

For Allen Bradley(Micro) :-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Simulator: - Logix Pro

Communication software: - Rslinx classic

PAGE

Programming software: Microstarter Lite

Rslogix500 OR Rslogix

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Allen Bradley Data File Description

File

Type

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Description

#
O0

Output

This file stores the state of output

PAGE

terminals for the controller.

I1

Input

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

This file stores the state of input


terminals for the controller.

S2

Status

This file stores controller operation

PAGE

information useful for troubleshooting


controller and program operation.

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Chapter IV

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

SCADA

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.1. Introduction to SCADA


SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. As the
PAGE

name indicates it is not a full control system, but rather focuses on

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

the supervisory level. As such , it is a purely software package that


is positioned on the top of hardware to which it is interfaced in
general via programmable logic controllers (PLCs ), or other

PAGE

commercial hardware modules.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

S- supervisory (we can see process on monitor)

C- control(when setup is complete we can also control the

PAGE

process )

A- and

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

D- data( database can also be saved in plc or pc memory)

PAGE

A- acquisition

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

SCADA programs are used in industrial process control


applications for centralized monitoring and recording of pumps,

PAGE

tank levels, switches, temperatures etc. SCADA systems are also

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

referred to as HMI (Human Machine Interfaces), or the less


politically correct MMI (Man Machine Interfaces).
A SCADA program normally runs on a PC and communicates
PAGE

with external instrumentation and control

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

devices. Communications methods can be via direct serial


link, radio, modem, field bus or Ethernet links. If a mixture of
PAGE

instruments with differing communication interfaces and protocols

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

need to be connected, then converters can be used. SCADA is often


used on remote data acquisition systems where the data is viewed

PAGE

and recorded centrally.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Its an optional device used in automation for continuous

PAGE

monitoring.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.2. What SCADA can do for you:

PAGE

SCADA is not a specific technology, but a type of application.


SCADA stands for Supervisory
Control and Data Acquisition any application that gets data
about a system in order to control

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

that system is a SCADA application.


A SCADA application has two elements:
1. The process/system/machinery you want to monitor a control
this can be a power
Plant, a water system, a network, a system of traffic lights, or
anything else.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

2. A network of intelligent devices that interfaces with the first


system through sensors and
Control outputs. This network, which is the SCADA system, gives
you the ability to
Measure and control specific elements of the first system.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

A SCADA system usually consists of the following subsystems:

PAGE

1. Human-machine interface or HMI is the apparatus which


presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the
human operator, monitors and controls the process. A supervisory
(compute) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process and
sending commands (control) to the process.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

2. Remote terminal units(RTUs) connecting to sensors in the


process, converting sensor signals to digital data and sending
digital data to the supervisory system.

PAGE

3. Programmable logic controller (PLCs) used as field devices


because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and
configurable than special-purpose RTUS.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system


to the remote terminal units.

PAGE

4.3. SCADA software:-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Allen Bradley RSView 32

PAGE

Wonder ware InTouch

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Siemens Win CC

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.4. Functionality
PAGE

4.4.1 Access Control

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Users are allocated to groups, which have defined read/write


access privileges to the process parameters in the system and
often also to specific product functionality.

PAGE

4.4.2 Trending

The

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

products

all

provide

trending

facilities

and

one can summarize the common capabilities as follows:


1) the parameters to be trended in a specific chart can be
PAGE

predefined or defined on- line

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

2) A chart may contain more than 8 trended parameters or


pens and an unlimited number of charts can be displayed
(restricted only by the readability)

PAGE

3) Real-time and historical trending are possible, although

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

generally not in the same chart

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:11

4) Historical trending is possible for any archived parameter


PAGE

5) Zooming and scrolling functions are provided

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

6) Parameter values at the cursor position can be displayed


The trending feature is either provided as a separate
module or as a graphical object (ActiveX), which can then be

PAGE

embedded into a synoptic display. XY and other statistical analysis

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

plots are generally not provided.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.4.3 Alarm Handling

Alarm handling is based on limit and status checking and


performed in the data servers. More complicated expressions
PAGE

(using arithmetic or logical expressions) can be developed by

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

creating derived parameters on which status or limit checking is


then performed. The alarms are logically handled centrally i.e.,
the information only exists in one place and all users see the

PAGE

same status (e.g., the acknowledgement), and multiple alarm

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

priority levels (in general many more than 3 such levels) are

PAGE

supported.

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

FIG:12

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.4.4 Logging And Archiving

The terms logging and archiving are often used to describe


the

same

facility.

However, logging can be thought of as

PAGE

medium-term storage of data on disk, whereas archiving is long-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

term storage of data either on disk or on another permanent


storage medium. Logging is typically performed on a cyclic basis,
i.e., once a certain file size, time period or number of points is

PAGE

reached the data is overwritten. Logging of data can be performed

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

at a set frequency, or only initiated if the value changes or


when a specific predefined event occurs. Logged data can be

PAGE

transferred to an archive once the log is full.

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

FIG:13

The Logged data is time-stamped and can be filtered when viewed


PAGE

by a user. The logging of user actions is in general performed

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

together with either a user ID or station ID. There is often also a


VCR facility to play back archived data.

PAGE

4.4.5 Networking

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

1. In many application, we have to use more than one SCADA


software / operator stations. This can be achieved by taking
the SCADA node on network.

PAGE

2. In many cases Ethernet TCP/IP is commonly used for

networking.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3. In certain cases the SCADA software use propriety

PAGE

networking protocols for networking.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.4.6 Device Connectivity

1. Every control hardware has its own communication protocol


for communicating with different hadrware / software. Some
PAGE

of the leading communication protocol include Modbus,

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Profibus, Ethernet, Dh +, DH 485, Devicenet, Control net

2. The SCADA software needs device driver software for

PAGE

communication with PLC or other control hardware.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

3. More the driver software available better is the device


connectivity. Most of the SCADA software used in the
industry have connectivity with most of the leading control

PAGE

system.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.4.7 Database Connectivity

PAGE

1. In many plants, it is important to download the real-time

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

information to the MIS. In this case the database connectivity


is must.
2. Many SCADA software dont have their own database. Hence

PAGE

for storage and reporting they use third party database like

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

MS Access or SQL.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

4.4.8 Script

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

1. Script is a way of writing logic in SCADA software. Every


SCADA software has its own instructions and way of writing
PAGE

program.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

2. Using scripts, one can develop complex applications. You can


create your own functions to suit the process requirement.
execution.

PAGE

3. Various types of scripts make project execution simpler for

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

programmer.

PAGE

4.4.9 Report Genertion

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

One can produce reports using SQL type queries to the archive,
RTDB or logs. Although it is sometimes possible to embed
EXCEL charts in the report, a "cut and paste" capability is in

PAGE

general not provided. Facilities exist to be able to automatically

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

generate, print and archive reports.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.5 AUTOMATION
The

majority

of

the

products

allow

actions

to

be

automatically triggered by events. A scripting language provided


PAGE

by the SCADA products allows these actions to be defined. In

general,

one

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

can

load

particular

display,

send

an

Email, run a user defined application or script and write to


the RTDB.

PAGE

The concept of recipes is supported, whereby a particular

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

system configuration can be saved to a file and then re-loaded at


a later date .Sequencing is also supported whereby, as the name
indicates, it is possible to execute a more complex sequence of

PAGE

actions on one or more devices. Sequences may also react to

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

external events. Some of the products do support an expert


system but none has the concept of a Finite rate Machine

PAGE

(FSM).

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.6 Application Development

PAGE

4.6.1 Configuration

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

SCADA is not a specific technology, but a type of application.


SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and DataAcquisition
any application that gets data about a system in order to control

PAGE

that system is a SCADA application.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

A SCADA application has two elements:

1 The process/system/machinery you want to monitor a control


this can be a power plant, a water system, a network, a system of
PAGE

traffic lights, or anything else.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

2 A network of intelligent devices that interfaces with the first


system through sensors and control outputs. This network,
which is the SCADA system, gives you the ability to measure and

PAGE

control specific elements of the first system.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

The development of the applications is typically done in


two

stages.

First the process parameters and associated

PAGE

information (e.g. relating to alarm conditions) are defined

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

through some sort of parameter definition template and


then the graphics, including trending and alarm displays are
developed, and linked where appropriate to the process

PAGE

parameters.

The

products

also

provide

an

ASCII

Export/Import

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

facility

for

the configuration data (parameter

definitions), which enables large numbers of parameters to be


configured in a more efficient manner using an external editor

PAGE

such as Excel and then importing the data into the configuration

database.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

On-line modifications to the configuration database and the


graphics are generally possible with the appropriate level of
PAGE

privileges.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

4.7 Applications Of SCADA

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

We can use SCADA to manage any kind of equipment. Typically,


SCADA systems are used to automate complex industrial processes
where human control is impractical systems where there are

PAGE

more control factors, and more fast-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

moving control factors, than human beings can comfortably

PAGE

manage.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Around the world, SCADA systems control.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.7.1 Electric Power Generation, Transmission And

PAGE

Distribution

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Electric utilities use SCADA systems to detect current flow and


line voltage, to monitor the operation of circuit breakers, and to

PAGE

take sections of the power grid online or offline.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

4.7.2 Water And Sewage

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

State and municipal water utilities use SCADA to monitor and


regulate water flow, reservoir levels, pipe pressure and other
factors.

PAGE

4.7.3 Building, Facilities And Environment

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Facility managers use SCADA to control HVAC, refrigeration

PAGE

units, lighting and entry systems.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

4.7.4 Manufacturing

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

SCADA systems manage parts inventories for just-in-time


manufacturing, regulate industrial automation and robots, and
monitor process and quality control.

PAGE

4.7.5 Mass Transit

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Transit authorities use SCADA to regulate electricity to subways,

PAGE

trams and trolley buses; to automate traffic signals for rail

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

systems; to track and locate trains and buses; and to control


railroad crossing gates.

PAGE

4.7.6 Traffic Signals

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

SCADA regulates traffic lights, controls traffic flow and detects

PAGE

out-of-order signals.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

SCADA systems provide the sensing capabilities and the


computational power to track everything thats relevant to your

PAGE

operations

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

FIG:14- SCADA SYSTEMS

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

4.8. Communications

PAGE

Between Rsview32 and Micrologix :-

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

Communication between Review 32 SCADA and Micrologix


PLC done with Direct Driver. For this First of all communicate
PC with PLC and then go to Rsview32 and make channel, after
this go to node and make a node with Direct Driver.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Between Rsview32 and EXCEL:-

Communication between Rsview 32 SCADA and EXCEL done


with DDE.

PAGE

Between Intouch and Micrologix: -

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Communication between Intouch SCADA and Micrologix PLC


done with DDE.

Between Intouch and EXCEL:

PAGE

-Communication between Intouch SCADA and EXCEL also done


with DDE.

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

CONCLUSION
All the different languages have the function of providing the easy
PAGE

programming, program modification and allowing the user the

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

choice of a most appropriate language for a particular application.


In this way the ease of use and maximum functionality is achieved
without placing any constraints on the possible application of a

PAGE

PLC system. The standardization of the PLC languages and the

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

programming styles has meant that the common set of languages,


the subject of this report, is supported by all the manufacturers of
the PLC systems. Together with all the other advantages the PLC
systems have over the relay logic systems, they have assumed a
PAGE

dominant position once held by the relay logic controllers in the

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

PAGE

REFRENCES:

[1]

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Madhuchhanda

Gupta,Programmable
Automation,penram

PAGE

Ltd.,Third Edition.2005

Mitra

Logic

and

Controllers

International

Samarjit
and

publishing

Sen

Industrial

(India)

Pvt.

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

[2] Stuart A. Boyer, Scada:Supervisory Control and Data


Acquisition,2nd Edition, April 2006
[3] S.Brian Morriss, Programmable Logic Controllers Prentice
PAGE

Hall Publication, Eighth Edition, July 1999.

[4]Nebojsa

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]

Matric,

Introduction

to

PLC

Controllers,

http://www.aarkstore.com/reports/Home-Automation-Solutions-

PAGE

and-Business-Issues-2009-18434.html

PAGE

[PLC , SCADA & AUTOMATION REPORT]