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PracticumEighteen:

Installingthe Nut, Frets,and Strings

Photo1. The lute nutismade fronbone, ebon),ol


other hard m aterial. Iloryhrd beenthc materialof
chocesincethe end oflhe 16thcentury,but is not
normallyanacceptablcchoicetod,y.Markand cut the
nutblanklo length. ForRcnaissancelutesthe rough
x5Mvlx80rM.
blank sholdbc approximately5,lM
Photo2. Flattenlwo sideswith I flat sandngboatd or
file and seethat it ils tjghth into the nut rebate

Photo3. Tracethe shapeof the fingerboarclonto lhe


nut usinga 1.2\4shim or spacel.
Photo4. File or sandthe nut down to this traccdllne
and roud over- Thc nul shoulLlbc ascloseto ar cxacl
quartcr roundsectionaspossible.Thishepsthestr'ings
sideolcr it. The finall1cstrokesshouldbealongthe
lengthol the blank.
226

Photo5. Sandthc blank with 22i:gdt uril snoorh.


The endsshould bc roundedslightli'and alsosandcd
smooth. Then sandthe enlire nut wirh dry4ll0 gdr.
Photo6. Polishtbe nutwith a har.l cottonbullng
$heel adlire compound.Poishoff ary Nbbing
conrpoundresi.lue with a cleanrag.
Photo7. Using"vonutspacing
tcnplate.
markrhc
nnngspacingonlo thc nut at the aporofdre radius,
Nhereths srooves\\,illbe filed. Thc groovesof a lulc
nul. unlikc thosefor agrirar orviolin, do not erirendIo
rhebreak ovef pont olthe string,but arejust shallo$
notchesmidwayin the curvedsuceofrhe nur_The
e\hemepegheadnee ofthc lute makesa dccp notch
on the top of lhe nut unneccssa.r'.
Photo8. Wilh averyfine mouserailile,cut short,
jhallow srovesinto the nul. Iuse nythumb asa gride
hefeto makelhcgrovesmatchthe templatccxacdv.
hecausee1nsligbtdistanccs_
which one ighrnot
nolice,cansignificantlyalterrhe fring spacing.
Photos9 and 10. Polishthe grooveswilh a fine liren
threadand ine polishingcompound.Waxrhe nut with
n icrocll,slallinewa\ and ir is finishcd. The lute nut is
notgluedonto placeb ul held wirh slrirgpressureonlv.

Photo11. Using the fretdistanccconstructionorthe


fret faclolsbelow,makea charl o the fiet distances.
Lay out thedistanceson the figerboard and markthesc
locationswitha tily pin prick. Ever illhe lutenistplays
in mean-tonetemperamcnttheywill be grtefillbr
thesereircncepoints.

Photo 12. Markwithasoft leadpenciltlelocalionsof


the bod],fretsif uscd. Using the ruler ergeasa guide,
placethe outsidemrh lo locatethe exactpositioDofthe
end ofeach fteL thcrcbyassuringalignment.These
n1arks,although alhcmaticallt'correct,will suallyr.lbund a little sho of their tonally coect position. ln
order not to soundflat,the bodyfretslvil need
locatcdby ear.
correctedpositions

Determning Fret Positions


luteis, ifpropery
The neckofthc Renassance
proportioned,long enoughto be te.lwith eightiiets
p l - c e L l .. e m io n r i n r c n r l . .O t e r ' h ec e r t t ti t. .
t r < r ch - \ e h e e n| " r \ l ' , r m ud . r n d m ( . l n d ' e i \ e l
for layingou! fretson lutesand guilars,al involving
mu\rbl( lrJrsmrLlelr^r .\, 'rI pi(cesfgul .l rirg
tied aroundtheneck. Sincetheywerc not i\ed,
theycouldbe sljd a little up ordown the neckto
changethe tenrperamentofthe insument. The
authorsolsomc tutors,asin RobertDowland's
l/aietie o Lute Lessotls(London, 1610),and some
composerssuchasHansGerlcinhist-va ren,n seJ'
ldinslichsLauenbuch,(Nrremberg,1552)give
specificiDstruclionson the placingof someor all of
the frets. Of morc scientficnatureare the
instructionsby Juan Bermdoin Dcckracinde
Instrumentes
Musicales,(Osuna,1549,1550).The
moderntemperedscalemakesanytotallyaccurate
+rPrnl r.em-niimn,..ihP

Surelythe mostelegantofthe ancientmethods


fo1detemining ftet locationis "The Ruleof
-lb
Eighteen." constructis, onc drawsthe IineAB,
lhe lengthofwhich is the opcn srjng lengthofthe
lute. ,Aperyendicularis constructedat A whichwill

be the nut position.An arc,with a radius1is of AB


is drawnfrom 4 andwill intersectAB at D nndtlre
pcryendicularatC. AD is thc dislancefrom the nut
to the irst et. Lne BC isthen drawncreating
triangleABC. ConstructDE perpendicularto AB.
An arcis dftwn fiom Dwith a radiusequalto DE.
Thiswill interscclAB at F,whichis the positior of
thesecondlrcl. This confruction is repeaicduntil
the numbcroilietpositions neecledaremadc
The fbllowingftet factorsfor equaltemperament
are givenby Stanle],Buclensin hsexcellentarhcle
"On Frctling a Lute,"/LS,4 III, 1970,pp.53 63. To
usethis methoLl,shlply multiply the stringlengthb)
( c \ a c t n rt , a r r i \ ( : , ct : r . hf i e lp o \ t i o n .T \ e
semitoneswill,in all probabiiiry,be alittle sharp. A
tor
descriptionof what is happningand suggestions
i
.
L
1
F
t
t
g
.
n
e
a d j r . r i n rgh ( . . . r . a . c u r J i - g
e
n
e
t
1
Domboisin his article"Coect and EasyFrel
Placement"l|.S:M,1973, pp.30 32.
1) .05613 7).3325E

13) .52806 19) .66629

2).10910
3).15910
,r) .20630
5) .2s084
6) .29289

1,r).ss45s
1s).5795s
16) .6i3i5
1',7)
.62542
18) .64615

8).37004
9) .40539
10) .43876
11) .47027
12) .s0000

20).68s02
21).70270
22) .71e38
23) .13514
24) .75000

The eightfrets on a Rcnaissance


lute are gencallv
arrangedso thal theydescendin diametertowardsthe
body. I would qpicallyusethe follolviDgdiameresl
i) 1.00Nrvi
2) .90Mr{
i) .85MM
,l).82MNr

5).79NrM
6).76NiM
7).73NrM
8).70MM

I lolvever,g1vades,so don'tworry abo tbeingrea11y


e\act.ThemiinpointstoconsidcrarethaftheIstiicr
sho!ldbe large,the 2ndfretshould drop considerablvin
dameter,and oachofthe restshouklbe about.03NlM
sn1allerthan
thcprecednglf the lutehas avery high action,that is, if thc hoight
ofthc strirgsabovethe fingcrboardat theneckorly
join is,lbr eample,n tle vicinityof 5N[,! then itwould
be better to tie onletsofa more constantsizeor cvcn
rhesaesize.lI. or the other hand,the actionis low.
thena larger1l fret together$'i a biggerdrop
betweenliets and endingwitha.66MMmight help.
The ultm-sirplefret knot I usewasshownto e by
Jacob\andc Geest,who presumablyfirstusedit.
Photo l3. tseginbyburningthe cnd ofthe pieceofgur
shich you intend for thc lst liet. This fuscsrhe strands
of sut togetherso theywon tuntwist, and swellsup the
end so the knotwo'l slip. Iuse a soldcringifon but a
matchoralcoholflamowill
alsowork.Trf a 1.10M\a
for
the 1l iict.
Photo14. With thc lute standingon irs trebeside
facingawayfrcm you,passthebumed end ol rhe iier
nderthe sldngs(if it hasstdngson it) and pull it free
ofthe neck. Tie an overhandknor (sinply rhc iilsr half
oi a "gran , knoC'or a "squareknor") and run the knot
out to near tho erd of the el cut. Passihe olhcr end of
helengthol frct g tthroughthcoverhandknot.

Photosl5 and 16. Slidethererto theplaceor rhcneck


shere the nexthigherfret will bc. Pinch rhe frer lighrty
to the neckand pull down on thc lengthofgur unril rhe
knottightensup. Continuetopulluntilyou thinkthe
gut mjght bek and rhenreleaseit. lt shoukl.lraw
slightll,backth rough the knot. Clip rhc extra lenglhot
ct olllcavinp a stub abouttwo diancters in lergth.
229

Photo 17. Bur'lthe little stub endsuntil lhcy swellup


and are brown. Thiswill preventthe end iiom slipping
backlhroughthe knot.
Phofo18. w}en they are cool,about rwominutes,the
liets canbe slidinto thcircorrect positions.

Photo19. Anachronific thoughtheybe.bodyftetsate


usuallyrequestedby contempoaryllrtenists.
T
completethe octavein aRenaissance
lute wouldrequire
lbur. If used,theseftcts shouldbe narrow and tlin and
madeofavery hardwoodsuchasebonyor boxwood.
Photo20. Beginby planinga pieceofebony to.68MM
thick. Then. holding it in the benchvise,planeone
edgeuc, thatis,flatand sqLrare.
Photo21. Using a kdfe an.l straightedge.
cut offa strip
about l.5N{Mwidc.Replanethe edgcadcut another
strip. Continueuntil a dozenorso stdpsare made-

230

Photo22. llind that itworks bestto cul lhlj srip


partialry'.with
the kdfe. saytwo or threecuts.and thon
!o breakil thc restof the wayoff- The cul cdec tcndsrc)
be straightcltlis wal'.
Photo23. Holcl the stdpscdgewisein ashallovcroove
salvninto a srxx)th, hardmapeboard. Thc groove
mrstbeeriactly1.20MN{
dcep and.70\4Nr
u'ide. One of
the ebonystripsisplaccdin the groove.cut sidep.
Planeit dowll until theplnejust glidesover the block.
Photo24. Thenlile il to cxactlyl.20NrM.

Phofo25. Bevelthe end with i'our knife and cut the iicl
io length.
Photo26. tseveltheolhcr cnLandthen,withaven
sharpscraper,round the lop edgcofthe fret.
Photo27. Prepareall the iiclsou are goingto use. I
decrease
the lengthftol11sixcourseswideat the 9thlicl
downtojust lhrce courseswideat the 12thlct. These
hgherfretsaremost
oftenneededorthciitrwo

231

Photo28. Hold eachiier in placeand rrl, it, with rhe


chantrelletuned up topitch, to checklhe intonation.
AJ'u he ^.J(.uIrntrrk
T ] c n u. . i rq .
thinnrier asa gidelbrocation and to ensure
str.ightness,
glue the ftets down to lhebelly. Hold thc
fret firmlv agairsttheruler and downonto thebcllylor
aboutfifteenseconds.
Photo29. Then lift the ruler ancl,placingir overthe
liet, pressdownfor an additionalfift-vto si\ty seconds.

Photo30. Immediatelyceanofftheglue squeeze-oul


with the end ofthc ruler.

Photo31. Thelinishedfreh shoukberelarivelvorderh


lookingandmoreorlessflat.
Someheightadjustmenl
or levelingto eliminateanybuzzingis to be cripectedin
the final adjustmentsater lhe lute hasbecnstrungup
andtuned.

l'n sureTdon't needto tcllyou that


historcallLrtes
wereoricinal! strungwirh
gut Strings-From arcient admcdieva
timesup urtjlthe Rcrissanccperiftl the
compassof strirgedinstrumer!s
wasljmited
to five oi si\courses,ndyou canbe sure
that thc lastrasscoursecouldn'thr,e
soudcLswell
asthe othe^l During tho
Latc Renaissance
periodscveraltechniques
lveretried to makelhcweak soundofrhe
bassstrjngsstronger.Plain gul. cvenhigh
ristgul, which is a little nore llc\ible for
itscliamelcr
thanlow twist,jusldocsn,t
wofk rrJ wcll by oLLtsrandards.
Catlinesare conjcctured10havebeen
sonc lhing of an answer. 'Iday.rhesearc
ndebytwistingthree(somerimestwo or
n)url separatcwer gut srdngstogelherinto
a ropelikc string$'hiclcanel]d Lrpwirh
quitelargcdiameters.
Theyseem
to have
beenusedbeginnlnglarein lhe 1rlcenrry.
lor. asexample,
the 1581Venele
7 course
haslring boesvhichwoukl accepr
catlincs
(it is.ofcourse,
possibe
rhallhe
stringholcswereddllcd out largcrata
liler date). Dudrgthe earlyBaroqueo ry
L1i 1620allcasr,catlincswefecertainl)n
1rvor.anclespociallyirFrarce.renlainedso
urtil the end oflute plaling there.
Clurrent researchbyVlimlno Perutlo
(AquilaUS^ PO. Box8276l.Ponland.OR
97282)suggcsrs
thar"loadedlrrings mighr
alsohavebcona possibilit_!.
Finl usedn rhe
late l6th orearly 17thcentul1.theseloadc.l
frinqs hale beenchsmicalhrcared !obc
hea\'jer(a net gahh nass).fts rsdonebI
ioakrrethemin a bathoflerw meral
rrhrions\!lichwouldatach nlccularlvlo
rheprolcin fibers. Thjs acldilionat .r\,
eiht
(massperunitlcngth)
wouldalkrwrhcsame
Lli.rnete
r slrircs to be 1une.1o$rer.
By thc middleofthe l7 century,
insumcntswerobeingbuilt with srring
lenglhandconlpsscombin!rions\\,hjch
rolrld onll solrndusingovclspunst ngs.
Ihesencw stligs rvouldlarc beennrado
wilh a coreofsilk fbss overspunwjth iine
coPpcr,srhr.o gold$irc. These
ovefspunstftngsrernaincdrhe tavoriteof
l1oststringplaversunlil and includingthe
prcsenttime. Usualll,.lhecorel1l:rterialot
nodorn stringsis nvlonflossard tle
co! crnp$,ire is silver,plaredcoppcr.
Ihcre is considerablecontroversr
cocerningthe useofsul\,crsus pla;tic
1n)'.lor)strir gsor histoticali'-based
influments which.unifiLrnately,often
ovorshadows
the realproblen which is thc
\,aryingDecdsofdi crentplaycrsplayingir
divel1se
siluations.Conve.rionLt
$ isdonr

Dcrcrmi ing Srring Tension


Thefollowingformulalion Dr. I lclmut Hemrinshausis useflrl
t t".In\,,r, gr' .-,,r.
. de nr Ii grle(n.i..r.,T
rt. c,r. .nb''cter.r^).t,rer.pu .lri-j.i..r.,,rfl(\
mathematicaoperati andwill rotbe coYcredlere.)
fxlxd=cxl
c=constant(1orgutuse 49 and for nylon use54)
f=frequec,-in Hefiz (H,
l=vibratinglengrholstring in mclers (N,r)
d=diametcr
ofstrngir millimerers
(,rNr)
k=ten\ion' of string in kihgrams (KG)
E-amplc:What $ould be the con.eddianeter of a nvlon
c ' r " - r . . v l i c -r \ t . \ e l ! - ( ! r , , c t . . ' 2 r . . . u l r q l r i . h . , .
stmg lens of62.Nr(.62ju)and a proposeclrensionof.l.0Kct
fx lxd = c: ':1,rk
392x.62!,:= 54: ra?

- 1:lzxo:y
a =1s+''],r+1

'l'he
iollowingtctors.alsoiom Dr. I{ermirghaus.areuscful
lbr deterntiningtensionclrnges\thenptchcrargc! arc maoe.

Intenal
lrst
ml1or third
majorthird
louh

lncrease
1.000
1.122
1.26L793
l.415
r.-5EE
1.780

Decrase
1.000
.891
.701
.630

Example:A sfig hasa tensionof p=2.000K.r


ar D'. What is
the tcDsionlthe pitch s raisedro f'? As rhe tore F is a mjnor
third higherthnrhe torcD', the tctor. accordingto tho table
abovc,is 1.:115.
Pr - 2.000((;
= 2.ti0(c
', = 1.000r(cx1.415
E-\ample:The tensionofrhe entire stringirg is 6[KG.What is
the increasein tcsionif thc runineis raisedby a se itone?
Pr = 60(.
= 67.300r.c
P. = 6f)KGxl.222
.\other rNclul formulalionl t|c good Dr. Herminglaustejls
us lhe changcn tensionwhenrhc st ng lengthchangcs.
P.= P:(L.1Lr)l
Eranplc: Wha! is the changein tersion ofar idcnricatsring
\\'hrchat a lengthof62.iNr(.62M)hasa tensionof2.000KG?
P,=Pr!(.rjs\J1.2M)l
P. = 2.00[KGx
1.2-- ].,100Kc
The tensionhasincreasecl
i.om 2.000KG
to 2.400KG
with thc
changein strnglcngrhto 6.qcNr
(.68r).
\

i.,,

thesenetul
"tu5inrlell(

l,res Ad.|

:33

sa_!s
that lutessoundberrer\\,hcnslnrngandpl:.-edwith
gut slrirgs, and nrostlutenists$ ould. I believe.agtee
wjth this. There are.ofcourse,exceptionsto thisrulc
b r r e \ e r - . r c n ^ r r . n r h . r h (e e . r \ c . a l _ . . u l
drawracks
to usingor1,!sut fri gs. Cul sldgserc
expensive.Theycanbe hlo to threetimesthe costof
plain nllon strings(or more).and callincscof
ant$,hereftoln $111oS38cacll Ar a rule, gut strings
do'1lasl asong.crceptingfbr c:tiine\,u'lich don't
cverseemto losetheir nuscal qutllitics.lrcccntN
heardsomecatinesI radein l9lJl whichharu ouer
constantl,\,
in tule ard regularlyplayctl,ami horvcver
ursightlythet mght be.the-r'fll soundLrcat. .Also.$t
sldrgsarc leLTsusceptible
to changesin lempcralurc
and humidlt\. makingthcn 1r more .lificult to keep in
Thc choccofstings for lute! is toda],greatcrthanit
lasreenfor perhapsthe lasill0lcar. Cood overspun
stings rre nradebr Savarezhon1
f ncc(Savarez,B.P
4356.69212LlonCedex.+.Frincc) and Pyramidffonl
Ccrlnan! (Satenud StnlmpieilLnidbrikJungel
CmbH. PO. Box 6. Il-910ltEBtbcmcuthErlangen.
German]).
I useLa Bella L te nyontrebleswhcharc lar
superiortuanvotherl've11ic.l
anLllcss
expensive
tool
The La Bella o!cpun bas\esIfind ratherinfcrior to
theS.rlarczrnd
P\'r'amid
anddon'trecom cndthcm.
Asampleofstringingfora 22rV (i.9c\t 8 course
lute alA=:1.10H2.
would be aslllorl,s.Thisis,r
medium hgh tnsionwhchis the lensionI plrn ior
$'henI dcsignmy utes:
l)

2) rl',rl'
3) alir
1) 111
5)cic
6) Gis
8)

CrC

La Bcll
La Bella
LBella
Pr-ramid

.,13N,iv
. 5 l N r \ ix l
c)05x l

t(x)ii5x 2
r0l_5IEllgAl
ryram.1 L0l8i 1011A1
T\ ramd
1028i 9075

ryram

Pyramid

Photos32 and33. I beginbytyingallofthe sldrgs


ontothe lutebrdgc.Makethepegboxasncats
pos\ible,and be ccrtaintlLtnone ofthe strirgsovert:rf
anvof the olhers. Cut off rhe lefroversting
rne the lute abouta lLlfsteplow for thc ti$r fe\\
loursor so-then bdng it up to full rension. I lind thfu
thislittleperodollowertensroIr
helpsthc lutefjnd ilt
!ice soorer than it otherwisewoukl.

Robet Lundberg
t91B-2001

ErlangenSeriesLute Plans
Thc lollowirgscvclule planswcre dmwnbyRoberl
Lundbergto accompanythe "Historical Lute
sereswhen it nn inAnaican Lutheie.
Clonstruction"
Eachofthese plansis avaiiabefron the Guildof
Acrica Lulhic$ asa Iull sizcblacklhe pinl. Conlacl
the CAL ollcc or wcb pagclbr lull inibrnation.
Thcscdawingsdo notncccssadlydcpictany
( \ n I r I r \ r r un i r r . L \ i , . r l \. - p J r ( r r . ' n i . . ' n f' n
thc originalinstrumcnlsmaybe projcctedom availablc
evidence.Somelatitudehasbeen takent(r makethem
practical,workable
instrumentssitabletomodern
players-Peasealsonotetlattle drawjngsareoot
presentedhereat anyparlicularscalc,

Theseplansare designe.lto be sedin connectron


$'ith the inftnation containedin thisbook. Each
drarvingpresentsthe essentialinformafion neededto
makea particularnodcl o lu lc. A nunbcr of details
will not appearon the drawings,becausethe]'are
develope.tfion principlesandrelationshipswhich
are
erplaine.lin the text. Someofthesemissirgdeiailsare:
the outlineofthe cap,thejunctureofthe ribsandcap.
thewa],the ribs flow togeiherat the neck,the patternof
the rosette,detailsofthe treble andbassbals,fine
pointsof bdclgeconstruction.pegs,consructionof
fbrlls,matials-thicknesses,
andfinishes.

23',7

6-csRenaissance
Lute,H. Freica.1530
GALInstrumentPlan#17
ErlangenLectureSeriesPlan#1

J
s

J
^J

ri
?
3
_{ ,_{93
Jt

{r.

h I I {" - ;

*$ : :j
- t J*,cl +

2:!

-Z:1.8-!:-*.-

t\---I

6-csDescantLute,Venereca.1580
GALlnstrumentPlan#18
ErlangenLectureSeriesPlan#2

m]
ilII
'il]l

8-csBassLute,Dieffopruchar
ca.1600
GALInstrumentPlan#19
ErlangenLectureSeriesPlan#3

fi1
ililt

10-csRen.Lute, Dieffopruchar1612
GAL lnstrumentPlan#20
ErlangenLectureSeriesPlan#4

'T'T
r ff
!+[

7-csRenaissanceAlto
Lute,Venere1592
GALInstrumentPlan#21
ErlangenLectureSeriesPlan#5

13-csBaroqueLute,Dieffopruchar
ca.1600
GAL InstrumentPlan#22
ErlangenLectureSeriesPlan#6

ni:'o
.ff" pa ct^i k

14-csArchlute,
M.Sellas1639
GAL lnstrumentPlan#23
ErlangenLectureSeriesPlan#7

II

AncientLute Makers
LauxBoss(Bosch):Arelativeof LauxMaler. He
workedin Maler'sshopin Bolognaabout 1530,but
nearFssen.
apparentlylater returnedto Schongau,
Several(altered) lutesby him survive;he is mentioned
in the Fuggerinventory.

MichielleHarton (MichaelHartung): Padua,flourished


at the end of the 16th century. Severalwonderful lutes
in original condition survive. Tiained in Veniceby
Leonardo Tieffenbrucker,the father of Wendelinus
Tieffenbrucker.

Magno Dieffopruchar (MagnusTieffenbrucker):


Venice,flourishedin the secondhalf of the 16th
century.Dated instrumentsrangefrom L516to 1670.
The first known luthier namedMagnusTieffenbrucker
settledin Venicein 1519and died there in 1560.His
luthier sonMagno died in Venicein1576. At leastone
other Magno Dieffopruchar headedthe famous
workshopearly in the l7thcentury. Many other family
membersby different names(for instancePaolo,the son
of Magnojunior, and Mois,brother of Magnojunior)
alsoworked in the shopbut their instrumentsappearto
havebeenmadeand soldwith the "Masno
Dieffopruchar"label.

Johann Chrstian Hoffmann: b. 1683Leipzig, d. 1750.


One of the mostimportantviolinmakersof his time.
Builder to J.S.Bach. Violins and lutes.

to
JosephusJoachimusEdlinger: Sonand successor
ThomasEdlingerII. He trainedasaviolin makerin
Italy, and rebuilt Renaissancelutes in the Weissstyleas
hisfatherhaddone.
ThomasEdlingerlI: d.1729. Aviolin makerin Prague
who wasperhapsthe most important converterof fine
Renaissance
lutesto 13-courseconfiguration.He likely
wasinspiredby the lutenist SilviusLeopold Weissto
createthe bass-riderbox for the 12th and 13th courses
of strings,and probablybuilt the first examplefor Weiss
in 1718.
Hans Frei: Bologna,flourished in the middle of the
16thcentury. Known from severalextant instruments
and various authorsincluding John Evelyn in his
famousdiary. Recentarchivaldocuments(summaryin
the recentbook by PasqualandRegazzi,Le radici del
dellaliuteria a Bologna)revealhim to be a
successo
Germanwhom the Bolognesecalled Giovanni Franchi.
His two sonstook over his shopafter his death and
madeFrei lutes,aswell asguitarsand theorboes,well
into the 17th century.

Martin Hoffmann (father of Johann Christian):


b. 1653Leipzig,d.1719. Maker of violins,gambas,and
lutes.
\
Hans Jordan: Markneukirchen,Saxony.The most
prominent 20th-centuryGerman lute maker before the
revival of lute making accordingto historicalprinciples
in the 1970s.
Laux Maler (Luca Maler, Laux Maller, LucasMahler):
Alute makerworkingin Bolognabeginningca. 1518,
who died thereJune 5th,1552.One of the mostfamous
and important lute makersof all time. Built 9-ribbed
luteson the "pearl mold" shape.Formedan association
of mastersand pupils in 1530which built well over a
thousandinstruments.
Matteo Sellas(MathusSeelos):Venice,flourished
during the first half of the 17th century. Many
extravagantinstrumentssurvive,built of ivory, or ivory
and ebony,or snakewoodwithinlaid necksand
pegboxes.Theorbos,archlutes,and guitarssurvivefrom
this very activeworkshopor association.
LeonardoTiefenbrucker: Brother of Magnus
Tieffenbruckersenior,father of Wendelin (Vendelio
Venere),andfounderofthe greatPaduanVenere
workshop.
JoachimTielke: Hamburg,b. L64L,d. l7 79. Maker of
violins, gambas,lutes, and guitars. Many of his extant
instrumentsare made of preciousmaterialssuchasivory
and are lavishlyinlaid.

GeorgGerle: Innsbruck,flourishedfrom 1569to 1589.


His singleextant instrument is signed(in German),
"Georg Gerle,His RoyalHighness'Accountant
in
Innsbruck." Court recordsshowhe built several
instrumentswhile in Innsbruck.

Marx Unverdorben: Venice,flourished first half of the


16thcentury. Teacherand relative of Laux Maler.
Severalbeautiful lute bodiesby him survive,particularly
in London andBarcelona.

Magno Graill: ApprenticedwithRomanluthier


MagnusBuchenbergand took over the workshopwhen
the elderluthier died after 1600.Severalvery fine, large
Romantheorboesbyboth makerssurvive.

WendelioVenere(WendelinTieffenbrucker): Padua,
flourished from 1560o 1620. The first Wendelin
Tieffenbrucker-whose namethe Italians apparently
couldnot pronounceandthusbecameVendelioVenere
- probablyapprenticedand eventuallytook over his
fatherLeonardo'sshopin Paduain the middle of the
245

century.He died before1591,but the Venerelabel


continuedto appearin lutesmadeby his successors
(his
nephewChristophoroEberleandgreat-nephew
WendelinEberle) until at least1611.More lutes
survivefrom this workshop than any other, with many
examplesin fine originalcondition;alsotheorbosand
bowedinstrumentswere made. An associationof
severalmastersandpupils.

A Noteon the Spellingof Makers'Names


The text containsa numberof inconsistencies
in
the spellingof ancientmaker'snames.There are
referencesto LeonardoTiefenbruckerand
WendelioVenere,but there is alsoa facsimileof a
label (p. 28) which saysVvendelio Venerede
Leonardo Tiefembrucker,plus there is a Vendelinus
Tieffenbrucker,and a Magno Dieffopruchar. The
authormentionsaVenere associationseveral
times,and alludesto the possibilityof therebeing
three Magno Dieffopurchars.What'sgoingon?
Sincewe couldnot consultMr. Lundberg,we asked
his friend and fellow lute historian DouglasSmith
to help us through this tangle. Here is someof
what he had to say.
Somemakerswerenot consistentin spellins
theirownnames.and thisis complicated'by
archival
documentswhere anotherindividual,perhapsfrom
a different country,refers to the lute maker with a
different spelling(or misspelling),or a different
name altogether. It wasalsocommonfor the lutes
of a particular shopor associationto carry the name
of the founderof that shopregardlessofwhich
builderor buildersmadethem. The reasonis
probablythat the founder'sname,like Henry Ford's,
had establishedthe imageof the workshop,and it
mayhavemadegoodeconomicsenseto continue
usingthe namelong after the founderdied.
Furthermore,a typicalshopmayhavehad at least
one apprenticeor family memberworking alongside
the master,doingless-skilled
work suchasturning
pegsor makingcases,andin somedocumentedcases
(VenereandMaler) therewerefour or more,so
many luteswere likely to havebeen the result of a
collaborativerather than a solo effort.
Our examplesaboveare the luthiers of the
Tieffenbruckerfamily. Leonardo and Magnus
Tieffenbrucker I were brothers,sonsof Ulrich
Tieffenbruckerwho emigratedfrom Fssento

246

Venicein 1519.Magnusstayedin Venice,probably


takingoverdad'sshop- he wasprobablythe older
son- and Leonardowent to Padua,whichwas
ruled by Venice.
Over a periodof abouta century@a.7520-1620),
therewere at leastthree different Masno
Dieffoprucharsin Venicewho would havecalled
themselvesMagnusTieffenbrucker in a German
environment. The Italians couldn't pronounce
Tieffenbruckersothey createdDieffopruchar.
Mang is the Germanname(there'sa monasteryof
SaintMang,the patron saintof Fssen,by the castle
on the hill at the top of the town). Magnusis the
Latinversionoften usedby Germans,and Magno is
the Italian version. As noted in Lundbers'slist of
ancientlute makers,other luthiersprobalybuilt
under this labelaswell.
As for the Tieffenbruckerswho lived and worked
in Padua,WendelinTiefenbrucker,son of
Leonardo, appearsin one placein the text,with a
Latin version of his first name,asVendelinus
Tieffenbrucker. The Paduanscreateda different
namefor him altogether,VendelioVenere. (This
renamingphenomenonwasnot uncommon.In
Bologna,for instance,archivalrecordsshowHans
Frei to havebecomeGiovanni Franchi.) Lundberg
rendersVendelioVenereasWendelioVenere,for
the mostpart,but thereis alsoVvendelioVenere,
andthe labelwhichreads"VvendelioVenerede
Leonardo Tiefembrucker." As it turns out, all of
theserefer to one builder,and to an association,
or
school,of makerswhoproducedinstruments
bearinghis name.
Rather than trying to tidy up an inherently
messyorthographicsituationwehavedecided,for
the most part, to usethe namesand versionsof
namesastheywerepresentedin the original
Am eic an L utherie articles.

Tht folot,u1glitt wa\ RoheLutldbet!s catalogofrhc


antiquelutesthath(:hdtl tramin (or m a few casesv,as
ttwt,lt ofbu hadnot)at amine)os ofSeptembet/988.
Siru:ethit timasomco tllemhare bcenmowd to new
insifinions(mostof haPais insnmenLtarc now
ontolitlated in fhe eu Museda la Musique,Iol

i , y o n . . I n J , , . 1 t l o - . . t t n t1\ , , o t .. h o E . h , . .
nt ct1otts,Nstems
arc u4ated, bltt to awid potenaI
conlltsion we haw lel! lrc lo<:ato arul uuseum&talog
stL!lu\a\ ltet werewhtn th( auhor conpiledthe l]'lt. Oul
salfce ws a dotmutrt pinout hat sonrtinles [ailed
(lea jj k) recorclnumben or lcten. Funhe\ originallabels
h museum i$nmos are oJen |ery flicull to dec|rc];

soLu .lbery's
ofthograplry
shouldbecons|lercd
npryhis

218

besincryrctatiot1. Detpite a fetr possibb fkr,.! tir lrrl ir


publtshedllts a
oneolthe nnst (:omplee
und signiicont
muselotlh6, d lasngla<acy
thtttLunhergouLllnre
wishedotothe^ o subs,:quentl):
imprct'eupon 1d
untpth.
The tul( of rcntens wtrll which nth cntalogbeginsis
a bit confusingatist gktncu.Museun\ and colle(tia s
arc lisen alphabeliclotll.ro thengh,and theRL#
(Rohe LuttrlbetY
nutnber,hisov,nidoiitry sequence,
presunabll refenn:<roughl\ to the oftler in $hic h hc
en( ounteftrlfha inshumants). wh trhi clt ea( h @Llectio
n' I
enrybegitls,t onthe le[l. In thecatulogth( insrrumentl
urc list lnlrc RL# sequene.
l he E.liots

t-\1t^'r-r

uatalogoI nclent LuropeanLutes


September
1988
This is a listingof all the lutefamiyinskuments
at I havepersonallyseenand measured.
Additioral instrumentswhichlhave onlyseenor
an awareofare markedwith "I" after the RL#.
Instnrmentsseen
on mote Lhanoneoccasion
orbv
othor'S
mavhavethe obsen'alionscombined.

Kcy:
E - eal{r
M=mld
L = latc

C = convertcd
M = modiicd

RL#
195 Bachhaus,Eisenach
96
Brceora, MuseoMunicipal
'76 Bayerisches

NationalMusetrn, Munich

275 Berlin, MuskinslrumentenMusem


199 BoomkampCollecton
I l 3 BoStonMuseu ofFine Arts,Boston
1 3 3 tsrescia,ClonsenatorioVentud
5
Brussels,BrsellesMuscum
290 Carl ClaudiusColicction,Copenhagen
307 Copenhagen,
Musikhistorische
Museull
125 DolmetscheClollection
3 1 9 EdinburghUniveftiq' Collection,Edinburgh
55
Fentor House.Lonclon
95
FolgerLibrar], Washington,D.Cl.
211 FrcibergDo m,Freiberg
84
GemeenteMuseum,re Hague
21
CcnanischesNationalmuseum,Nlremberg
3 1 5 HndelHauses,Hal1c
108 HaNard Univemity,Boston
90
Hessisches
Landsmuseum
3
Kunsthistorisches
Museum,Vienna
180 Leipzig,Museun dcr Karl-Marl Unielsitate
112 Lundberg,Robert,Rrrtland
1 0 7 lvletropolitrr Mlrseum of Art, New York City
1 2 t Milan. Museodel Clonsenalo o
119 Milan, PdvateCollection
I 5 l Musede Cluny
1 5 3 MusedesAs Decoratii!
201 MuseInstrxmentaldu conscr',atoirede Palis
129 MuseoBardini,Florence
136 MuseoCivico,Bologra
t44 MuseoDegli StlumentiMusicalli,Rome
|],l MuseoLlelConseatodo Ligi Cherubin,Florence
t62 Nadiri Museum,Prague
17,72 RoyalCollegeofMusic,London
l0l
14

SmithsonianInstitulc,Washington.DC
Spenser,
Robert,London
1r-5 SternsColection,'Al1n
Arror
1
VictoriaandAlbcrl, London
124 WarwickMuseum
11,1 Witten,Lally, Southport
1 1 9 YaleUniversiq,Colection,New Haven

\'ctoria and Alberf luseum,London


I
2
3
,1
5
6
7
8
9
1O
1l
L2
13
11
15
16

ANON. FlTc,ltalian
Laux Maler,r,l6c,Bologna
Mari Unverdorben.rI6c,
Venice
Matteo Sellas,1637,VeDice
ChristopherChoco.rf17c,Vcnic!
ANON
Michacl Rauche.1762.London
J.H. Goldt, 1734.Hambwg
ANON
ANON
Matteo B echenberg,1619.Roc
lvfatteotsuecherrberg,1614.Rone
AndrcaTus,121,Sicna
ANON, ?1626,Italian
VvenLleln)
Venere,1592,Padua
ANON

C
C
C
M
M

l lcs hte
hte back
lute back
14csarchlute
1,lcsarchlute
lheoo

l2cstheoo
l4cstheorbo
l2cslhcobo

Swedishthcoro

11251869
1941882
1931882
11261869
77561862
196-t8t2
9-1871
42741856
231,1882
324,1935
218-1882
190-18E2
5980-185i)
77551862
v,t6,1940
212-r8t2

RoyalCollegeof Music, London


17
VTT I
19
20

Vverdelio Venere,1600,Padu
Vp_rce
M.. ' Di.|"p .r( . . 1,108.
DomencoSeas,vi7c.Venice
Adam Ulman,Nr16c,
Venice
.Alsosee#12 and #73 below

C
cl

l4cstheorbo
Gerlbo

RC]M203
RCM 26
??

Gcrmanisches
Nationalmuseum,
Nuremberg
21
22
23
2,1
15
'o
27
2lj
'q
3t
31
32
VII 33
34
35

MichielleHarton.1599,Padua
Michielle Harton,E17c,Padu:r
PietroRailich. 16,14,
Venice
Martinus&AgustinusKejser, 1737,Dsseldod
Ma lthis.Aban,1704,Bozen
J o l - : r rf B l a . i u . \ \ e r gf l, . l - ' n . | ' 1 l
MartrHoffnann, 1692,Leipzg
JoachimTielke, 1696.Hanburg
I h . s t l ' p r c rH u . h . . c . \ e r i . e
SympertNiggel,1754,Fssen
Sebastian
Schele,1721,Nuremberg
Sebastian
Schelle,1744.Nurernberg
LeopoldWidhaln.lT55,Nurcmberg
Laux Maler. Fl6c. Bologna
Michielle Harton, l6[2.Padua

C'
C
C

C
C

11csGer dn)
I lcs lute
I lcs lute
I :lcsthcorbo
l lcs lulc
l3cs Ccr tbo
I ics lulc
llcs Ccr lbo

l3csGer tbo
13csGer tbo
lutebody
scsOct bass

MI 56
MIR iJ99
MI 45
N,IIR897
M I R9 1 1
MIR 898
M I 2,15
MI 394
MI55
MtR 895
MIR 902
Mt 46
MtR 903
MI 54
MI 14

Kunsthistorisches
Muserm, !ienna

T
III

IV
llI

III

36
37
38 RL?
39 RL?
40
,11
42
43 RL
4,1RL
45
46
47 RL
,lli

"LauxMalle,'116c.
Italian
Hans Frei,E16c.Bologna
HansFrei,El6c.Bologna
GeorgeC cre,Ll6c, Innsbruck
LeonhardlPradter,1689,Prague
Hans Burkhollzcr,1596,Fssen
VenereShop,r.lc.Padua
VenereShop,Ll6c.Padua
Wendelio Vencre,1582,Padua
"MagnoDiciiirpruchr" lJ.J.Edlirger. l7i2,Praguel
VvcndelioVenere.1587,Padua
VcnereShop,Li6c. Padua
VcndelinusVenere,126,Venicc

C
C
C
M
C

I lcs lute
llcs lute
11cslule
6cslute
13cslute
l3cslute

M
C
C

7cslutc
l3cslule
13cs
11cslute

28 8433C32
29 8433C33
30 8434C34
314075A35
45 101rNE49
144056NE48
35 8438C39
36 8439C40
32 8435C36
(AR) 969
GdMNR.56
378440C4l
(AR) 616

50
5l
52
53

MagnoDleffopruchar.r 1lc. Venice


VvcndclioVenere.1611, Padua
"Magno Dieffopruchar"lT Edlirgcr. 1728,Praguel
VendelinusTieffenbrucker.116c.Padu
MatthiasFur. 1685,Weir
Cius.Langenwalcler.
1625.Fsscr

l4cstheorbo

cl
C
M
M

13csle
13csIe
13cslute
l4cstheorbo

4t 8444C45
:li 84,15C17
On Loan
On Loan
On Loan
GdMNR.59

FentonHouse,London,EngLnd
55

Marx Unverdorben,N.r16c,
Vcnicc

13csGer lbo

MuseInstrumentalConseNatoieRoyaldMnsiqude Bruxelles

56
57
58
59
60
VII 6I
62
63
65
61
6iJ
69
70
'71

Maleu Holmans,l605, Arvers


"Sellas'shop?,
\r17c.Italian
J.C.Hoffnann
Matteo Scllas,vl7c. Venice
Claudc.Allard,169i
J.C.Hoftmann, 1716,Leipzig
VvcndelioVenere.1619,Padua
Martino Kaiser,r I7c, Venicc
ANON [Venereshop],Ll6c.Italian
PietroRalich.Nrl7c,Padua
Matteo Scllas,Nr17c,
Vence
GiouaneHieber,Ll6c, Venice
PetroRailich.Ml7c, Verice (?)
MalhcusBuechenberg,161i.Rome

9cslute
l4csarchlute
13cslute
l4cstheorbo
Tcsmandora
M
M
C
M

ANON??

ics lhcorbo
lcs lulc
lcs lulc
l5cstheorbo
l4cstheorbo
7cshte
l4cs theorbo
l4csthcorbo
I7csangelique
l2cs archlute

r-556
1564
3188
255
3179
1559
1563
1560
1562
l56l
1596
1570
541

RoyalCollegeofMusic, London

72
73

Venerelopenin collection]
VendelnoTieilcDbrxcker

???

RobeSpencer,London (PrivateCollection)

III
14
15

PicsofBreglian Vcnice(b^ss)thi\ is itl littlesloppyhndwnnng


VvendelioVencre,1584,Padua
C
lute
VvendcioVenere,1585,Padua
C
lics Ger tbo

Bayerisches
Nationalmusum!
Munich

'76
'71
78
79
80
81
82
83

MatteoSellas.1640,Venicc
.loaclim Ticlke. 1678,Hamburg
JacqresHollhan denJonghen,rlTc
LeonhardtPradter??.
L1c
ANON, lTc,Italian??
Grcgorj Wenger.1757
JacobWeiss.l741,Salzburg
Rudolph Hoess.170!1,
??

Gmente
Museum,DnHg

81
85

c
C
C

11cslute
I3csGer tbo
I lcs lute
lurebelly

5cs?nandora

#295
#16

Darmstadt
Hessisches
Landesmuseum!
90
91
a2
93
94

GeorgiusCrcif, 1590,Fssen
MagmrsHelmcr. 16[9.Fssen
V ' e r J c i u v r n . r ( , l 0 1P J r d u .
Pic[o Railich, 1655,Padua
Mark sWeis,?1666,?lccrlan]

C
C]

i 2csute
10cslute
I2csarch?

cl

14cslheorbo

llics ute

M
M
M

l4csarchlutc
17csarchute
10cslute
7cslrJte
1[cslulc

C
C

tute

Kg 67:103
Kg 67:104
Kg 67:106
Kg 67:107
Kg 67:108

FolgerLibrary Washington,D.C,
95

Michillc Haon, 1598.Padua

n.n.

MusoNlunicipatde Musica,Barcelona
96I
4 |
981
99I
l00I

Matteo Selas,1641,Veice
\4apnoDieffofnhhb-.v l-.. Ven'ce
llans Ilovb Muler. 16c.lta1ian
MaIx Unvcrdorbcn,116c,
Venice
MatteusBucchcnbclg, l 13,Rome

#403
#404
#107
#408
#409

SmithsonianInstitution,Washington,D.C.
l0
102
103
104

U r i c hD i e m' f - u r d r . a ( . V c n i . r
?Uldch Dieffopruchar?,M16c,Venice
GiuseppeMascotto,Rore,1631
Martino lndelang,1639,Genoa

mandora

60.1341
60.1343
95.307
65.592

StearnsCollection,Universityof Michigan,Ann Arbor


105
106

Wendelio Venere.l60t),Padua
MichielleHarton, 1602,Padua

Ml

12cstheorbo
??bodv

ll cs iute

3cslute
13cslute
15cs
theorbo
1,lcstheorbo

1044
1045

Mtropolitan Mlrseum ofrt, NewYork City


107

"HansFr...,"lanonL17cl

89.4.1008

Harvard Univrsity,Boston
loc
109
110
111

\,lan Ur\ e-d,'rqen,r 6c,Venice


VvendelioVenere?,116c,
Padua
VvendelioVenere,1599,Padua
ANON, l?c,German

c
C

#19 or #8
#11

RobrtLundber,Portland(Privatecollection)
112

Magno Graill,1635,Rone

I4cstheorbo

BostonMuseumofFineArts, Boston
l ll

M - g n D i . b p r u . h .1. r5. 8 ( . V ( r i . (

l3cstheorbo

#262

LaurcnccWitten,Soutport,Conn.(Priv,teco ection). Housedat:


The Shrineto Music Museum,yermillion,SouthDakota.The instrumentnumrersare theirs.
\'I

vll

l11
115
ll118

"MasterD.G.,"? l, ll
Andreallarton, E17c,Vcnicc
M . . f l ( .\ c l l . . s..L , t . \ e n i c e( R l i l c r . ' )
MagnoDieftbprxchar,El7c,Venice

M
M

5cslute
l0cs basshte
14csarchhte
14cstheorbo

3381
3381
3383
3382
1283

YaleUniversity,NwHaven,Conn.
VII

120
121
122
123

VvendelioVcnere,1592,Padua
ANON, M17c,Venice
ANON
Sebastian
Schel1e,
1726,Nuremrerg

lTcsFrenchtheorbo
l3cs archlute

#256

13csle

#260

I lcs lute

67/r965

M
C

lute
| 2csteorbo?

WanrickshireMuseum,Warwick
124

HansFiei, r16c,Bologna

DolmetschCollection,H:rslemre(PrivateCollection)
125
126

FranciscoPresbles.lT60.MilaD
VvendelioVerere,1609,Paduil

#8

Meseodel Conservatoriodi Milno, Milan


127
128

ANON,lTc??,Ilaliar
ANON,r.16c?,ltalian

I 2cstheorbo
3cscolasciore

# 262
# 263

MuseoBardini, Florence
129
130
l.1l
132

Magno crail, 1627.Rome


GiovanniTsle1,
1621,Ancona
\4:rgnoDi(ll,,fr,chat lDUu.\LI cr
MatheusBuechenberg,
1608,Rome

M
C?

14cstheorbo
lutc
lute

14c

theorbo

C
M

scsmandora
scsmandora

# 154
# 144
# 142

Consenatorio"A. Venturi," Bresci


I.l

M J g n o D i r l l , , p r L c h lrl..r. V c - r . \

Conservatoriodi mrsicLuigi Cherubini,Florence


134I
l.5T

StefanoFrancho.1692,Florenccl
\ \enJ.I o V(n(re. hn , Padu-

# 81
# 82

Musro Civico,Bologn
136
137
lle
139
I40
111
142
143

Matteo Sellas,1639,Vence
Mgno Steghel,Vcnice
\41gno
D < l l , , p r - c h al rL., l 2\.< r ,( r
MichielleHarton,1599,Padua
'HansFrei," laie 16c,Ilalian
OtavioSnidt, 16I2, Pama
ANoN,ltalian
GiorgioSthoas,l1c, Bologna

M
M

I4cstheorbo
l0csbass
7cslute
8cslute
lutcbody
lutebody
lutebody
lutebody

#1',748
#1806
??2
#1813
#181,t

MlrseoDegliStrumentiMusicali!Rom
144
l,l-5
146
141
148
149

MagnoGraill,1631,
Rome
Magno Graill,1628,Rome
Vcndelinuslieffenbrucker
M athcusBuechenberg,
16l T,Rome
Mareo Sellas,1636,Venice
Malteo Sellas,1649,Vcnice

M
M

l4cstheorbo
l3cstheorbo
lutc

# 23',7
#1226

Musede Chrn$ Paris

150
151
152

Matteo Sellas,1654,Venice
Laux Boss,EI 6c,Schoenga*
MagnoDieffopluchar,1600,Venice

C
C

12csarchlute
4cstoy lutc

#7688
#1642
#2092

MusedesArts Decoratits,Paris

153
154
155
156
15',7
158
t59
161
161

JacobHcs, 1586,Vcnicc
M
"WendelinusTiel'fenbIuckerVenere"? Mltic.?Venice C
JohannBlasiusWeigert.1743,Ljnz
David tsuchstetter,
1746,Regensburg
David Tecchler,1707,Rome
"Perou,"lanon,Ll6cyewbody]
ANON. f l9c ivory lutel

7cslute
13cslute
scs ??lute

5cslute

ANON,U9civoryharpl

40381
32032
40382
3266',7
23460
n.n.
n,n,

ANON, [19civo] rebecl

Narodni Muzum,Pragu

162 LauxMaler, 116c,Bologna


1 6 3 Laux Maler, 116c,Bologna
164 MarcusU nverdorben,116c,
Venice
165 MagnoDiellbryruchar.M16c,Veice
1 6 6 Magno D iefforpruchar. 1604,Venice
16',7 VvendeloVenere,116c,Padua
1 6 8 Vvendelb Venere,Ll6c.Pa,:lua
1 6 9 J ?? kamer, 1641,Vienna
l'70
ANON ?l6c?,Italian
l'71 ThonasEdliDger,1700,Prague
l'72
ThomasEdlinger',1728,Prague
173 J-M. Guettler, 1709.Wroclav
1 1 1 J.O.Eberle,1745,Pgue
t'75 TO. Hulinskt, 175,1,
Pregue
t'76
C.E Pard, 1770,Vienna
1',77 M. Stoss,n.d.,Vienna
17lJ M. Brunncr, 1764.Olomouc

C
C

lte
lte
lute
lute
lute

C
C
lute
lute
lute
lulc
lute
lule

r 93i E
1408E
110iJE
1187
E
1409E
1303E
635E
1522E
439E
151
IE
11',76
E
1173E
118E
5
lIB2E
7 1 0E
607E
,150E

PrivateCollection,
Nlilatr.U985Brscian
Exlibitionl
1'79

VvendelioVenere,r16C,
Padua

Musikinsfrumenten
MuseumderKarl-Mall-Unilersity,
I-eipzig
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
tBl
188
189
190
191
192
t93

vvendelioVenere,??1551,
Padua
VvcndclioVenere,1613,Padua
MagnoDieffopruchar,116c,Venice
MicheleAttore, 1620,Vence
Matteo Selas,vL7c,Venice
JonasSte. d.. m,1596,Algcnl
Barl. Ebelspachcr.L16c,Florence
Joachin Tielke, 1676.Hanburg
TobiaFischer,1710,Sienna
J.C.Hoffmann, 1720,Lepzig
ThomasEdlinger.E18c,Prague
ThomasEdlinger,El8c, Prague
A-n Mal'er,1735,Saltzburg
? Thonas Edlinger ??

C
C
M

C
C
C

C
C

l3cslute
l4csGer tbo
l4cslhcoo
1,lcsarchlute
12csFlemish
l2cs Ger tbo
lutebody
12csarchlute
14csGer tbo
13cslute
13cslute
5c Lute
utebody

192
3357
512
513
495
,198
196
502
506
497
3319
504

Bachhaus,Eisenach
195
196
t91
198

J.J.Lindner, 1697.Drcrlen
JohannCo berg.17,11,
Danzig
A.S.Posch,1749.Viema
^ndreasJauch,1751,Dresden

M
C
C
C

11cslute
lutebody
lutobody
13csGerlbo

Carelian LeeuwenBoomkampCollection,Bussun, lPrivate]


199
200

Matteo Sellas.1637,VeDice
Sebastian
Schclle.1735,Nruemberg

l4cs archlute
lutebody

Muselnstrumentldu ConservatoireNationalSuDerieurde Music. Pas


Generi(\e Tlibault deChambure
Le\.colleclion
I

201
202
203
201
205
206
207
2t8
209
210
211
212
214
215
216
211
218
219

lcan Desmoulins,1644,Paris
JeanNicolasLantbe,1765.Paris
ANON llabel.VcrrlelinusTieffenbruckerl
E16c,?Ilalian
Matteo Scllas,1640,Venice
Ma$o Stcghor,17c,
Vence
MagnoDicfibpnrchar,158. , Venice
ANON. v17c.Itaian
MatheusBuechenberg,1604.Rome
JacobSladlcr.1613,Naples
VvendelioVeDere.E17c,Padua
Giorgio Sellas,1626,Venice
ANON,M17c,Vcce?
MatteoSelas.Nfl7c,Venice
ChrietoloroClochs,
1654,Venice
ANON,Nrl7c,Vcnicc
MartinusKaiser. I609,Venice,?
ANON, rul8c,German
CeorgAman, 1739,Augsburg
J.C.Hoffmann, 1720.Leipzig

gcslute
6csmandolin

C
M
C
C

bod!
12csarch
l(cslute
l3csGer tbo
13csarch
l3cstheorbo

M
C
C]
M

l4cstheorbo
l5cs arch
1scstheorbo
l4cstheorbo
I4cs arch
l4sctheorbo
theorbobody
13csGer tbo

E.9',79.2.54
E. 979.2.5
E. 180.2.320
E. 980.2.375
E. 980.2.332
E. 980.2.321
E . 2 5 ?. ?
E . 1 5 5 7?.?
E . 2 6 ?. ?
E.548.??
E . 1 5 5 6?.?
E. 528.?l
E.5,17.
??
E.5,16.
??
E.514.??
E . 2 4 t. 1
E. 118,1.
??
E.234.?1
E . 5 2 9?. ?

220to 230other"Chanburc" lues

23r
232
231

ANON, Ml7c,ltalian
Mathijs Hontan,1619,Ou{len
LaLxBoss,E16c,Schongaw
JeandesNloulins,16,11,
Paris

C
C

c
C

I 1csute
13csGer tbo
8cslute
scsute

989.2.0
980.2.0
9',79.2.69

235to 270othcr "Co$eNatoire" lutes


Beera(bni\l,apellede.
FreibergerDom,
Freiberg!
DDR

271
2',72
2',73
214

JorgeKlel11,
Ll6c, Rancleck
JorgeKlen, Ll6c, Randeck
Jo1gcKlem,Ll6c,Randeck
ANON,L16c,?? Randeck

5csalto lute
5csalto lute
5csalto lute
5csalto l te

Musik InstmmenteDMuseumBerlin,Berlin
ChristoftKoch, 1650,Venice

216 GeorgAmaq 1707.Augsburg


27',1 J.Cl.IIollmann,1?17,Leipzig
278 JohannAndreasKaembl,1757,Munich
279
280

M
C

tcorbo
tllcorbo
13csGer tbo

3581
1661
129
4529

281
282
283
284
285
286
287
PfarrerKrause,Aum,DDR[Priiatecollction]
337

DomenicoSpt'lma,15... Venice

l4cstheorbo

CrlClaudius'Samling,
Copenhngen

290r HansFre]'?,1478?,Bologna
29lI
2921

293r
294r
295I
296r
291r
299r
300I
301I
302I
303t
301r
305r
306I

CasparDuiffopruchaf,M16c,Lyon
'J oanesFlorcnusGua eri," I590?
SixtusRa!1volf,1599,Argsbug
VvcDdelioVenere,116c.Padua
Matteo Sellas,Ml7c,Venice
Cbistofolo Cocho.Ml7c,Vence
?AntonioSiciliano?,Venice
Math. Griesser,1756.lnnsbruck
SimonSchocl]lcr,1762,Passau
Andrea Harton, F17c.Venice
MagnoDieopruchar,15f4,Venice
?MichaelHartug?,????
AadreasB. Caetz?,1734,??
SamuelDcmor,KlosterNoufift, IBrixenl 17,t1
JacobBossharl,1629,Augsb rg

5csato
12cslule
C
C
C?
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

1ocsute
lule

1ocslute
l(cslute
6csmandora?
6csmandora?
13csGertbo
13csGertbo
????body
locsGertbo?
13csGertboI

el (lel)
91A(7',70
)

e 2( 2 )

e3(3)
e4(1)
e6(1)
964 ( 769 )

ee(1)
eeA( 771)

1r0( 28fl)
t02A(712)
103(13)
10,r( 602)
10,14( 778)
1054(779)
108A( 773)

MusikhistorischeNluseum,
Copenhagen

307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314

Magno Dieffopruchar,1616,Veice
ParlusAlletsee,1714.Municl
AndreasJaisz,1743,Toclz
ANON, TI6c,ltalian
GarrielDavid Buchstetter,Rcgcnsburg,1750,??
ANON. ltalian, 18c
ANON, ?? ??
Josepbus
Riss,I719,Bamburg

c
Tcsllute

| 2csGer tbo

302(Cr90)
303( c 6 8
304( c '7'7
305 c 4 4
306 c 7 t
307 c32
308 c 1 5
311 c46

Haendel-Hauses,Halle.
DDR

315
316
31',7
318

JohanAmbrosiusWeiss,1621,tsasel
JohannArdreasKaembl,17.., Munich
kendelio Venerc,Ll6c, Padua
ANON, Ll6c,Italian?

C
M?
C

luteback
7cslute
l3csGer tbo
colascione

MS
MS
MS
MS

16-5
t61
r68
170

EdinburghUnirersityCollection,Edinburgh

319
320
321

MartinusHarz,1665,Rome
??ANON??.
??,??
Anon,??17c,
??

# 300
#1051

l4c

#r598

Glossary
Archlute: a lutewith a secondpegboxcarryingdorblestringbasscourseswhichare usuallyhalfagainaslong
asthe fretted courses,
gars (barring,struts,bracing):smallpiecesofwood
g u e dt o r h e , r n d e r . i d i r. h e L e l hr . a J d \ o n - e
structura
rigidit)-'to
the lteandto controlthetore.
Bassbar: heatbent-J-shapedasymmetrcal
bar used
to controI the bassresponse.
Blh (1op):the rNndroard ofthe lute.
Bodyfrts: non-moveable
woodenfretsgluedto the
bell) to extendthe frettir g rangethrougl the octave.
Bowl (shell,back): the completeunitwhich forms the
backsideof the lute.n1adeup ofthe ribs.spacen,cap,
counlel capandcckblock.
Bridger the piccc 1{rlvhichthe stringsare fastene.lthat
is glucd to tle belly.
Cap(capping
frip, endclasp):athin stripothe same
malclil asthe libswhichwrapsaroundthe lo\verend ol
I ' L b o J ' r J p ig , , b - , r . i J . , ' I r h e - r \ r . g e r h e - .
and augmentingthegluingsudacelorthe be1lv.

ftets: s allpiecesofgut stdng tied aroundthe neck


\\,hichsene to stoptheviblating fdng al tl givcnpoint
whcn that stdrg s presscdagaiNt the fingerboard.
Sirce thet,weretie.the,vcouldbe slidp and downthe
neckto changethe temperanentol theinsllumcnt,
Half-binding (purfling.binding.lacc): a thin strip of
wood inlaid into the outsidccdgcol thc bclly onc half of
its thickness.
LabL smallslip of paper gluedto the insideof the
lute.usuallvunderthe rosette.with the mater'snal11c.
paceanddate,
Linings (db reiilbrccncnt): pper or $metimes veUun
sllipsglucd lo thc dbjoirts insdethe bowl to rernlorce
thejoints.
N{aker'smark (brand): a smallbumed mark from a hot
imn, usuallyonboth thebelly and the borv,identiing
the makeror workshop.The useofmakc'marks
beganin the early 150[sadwasdiscontinuedrythe
endothe ansilion pcdod.
Nlultiribbedlutes: luloswitl lary nanowribs, usually

Chantrelle: lhe highct trcblc stdng.

Nail: the jo int betweenthe neckandneckblock,and


the joint betweenthe pegboxandncckwereusually
reinforced.clanped.andaligncdwith rails.

Chantrellepegrideri a sirglcstringpegbonholdingthe
pegfor the highesl11ebic
strirg. Origiral\rsetinto lhe
pegboxofolder lutesasa$ay lo add a couewrthout
seriouslymodiingthe pcgboxor'ncck.the chantrelle
riderbecall1ca standrdfeatureduringthe late Uaroque
period. Larger riderswerealsousedto addbasscoulscs.

Neck(handle): piecewhichcaics rhc stringsoverthe


bel,v,aroundwhichlhe fretsare tied. Usuallyofsoft
woodveneeredwitha harderonc.or sometimesi aid
wjlhwoods or ilory-

C o u n l r rc a p( r .i . r ri p .i " , . I i f . , , s . r i n c k ) : a t i e c e
ofspruccglucdto theinsi.leofthe bowl,oppostethe
cap.Io helpbird the endsofthe ribs together.

Neckblock(uppcrblock,top block,front bock): apiece


ofwood lo which the endsofthe ibs andthe narrow
endoflhcbel) are glued.and torvhichthe reck is
gluedandnaicdor screlved-

Course(choir): a sctofone ortwo frings tlrnedand


playedasa unit- Strirgs jn a courseare tuned rn unrson

Nu asmallqualtcr round pieceofivory- bone.ebony,


orolhcrhard nrterialwhichholdsthe stringsat the
pegboxendoftheneck-

Dipr patternt a $'ovenpattem ofsmall, corstantly


repeatedf igures,asdiamonds.

Peg(s)(turingpeg.lute pil): adcvicetowhich the


strjngis ted and wound. usedlc)taisc adlowe the
pitch ofthe string.

Fingerboard(fietboard): a thin pieceofhard\loocl


guedto thc topside ofthe neckwhichisplayedupon
whenstoppingthe strings.
lbrln (mold): thewoodenappliance,represertingthe
interior air spaceof lhc lurc, over$hicb the ribs are
attachedto eacholhelone atatime to makethe bowl.

Pgbo!(peghead,head): tle devicethat holdsthc


tuingpegs,which in the caseofthe theorboand
archlutearegreathprolongated.
Periodsofthe lute!sdvelopmentalthoughthe
contplcxhisloryofthe lute acrossthreecenturiesand
259

severalgeorusical
areasm akesprecisedvisions
impossibe,the followingpcdodsreconsideredir this

up to 1490
1490to 1550
LateRenaissance 1550to 1620
Tiansition
1620to 1660
Baroquc
1660
to 1750
Pre-Renaissnce

Points(beards):two smallpointedpiecesofwoodwhich
extendthefingerboardoDtothe frontblock. Points
wereoriginallyarcpair device-but developedinto a
sqrLsticfeature.
Ribs (staves)rlhc indivirlualpieceswlichmake up the
majorpartof lutebow.
Rosette(rose,knot,slar): decorativesoundho1ecafling
which,on alistorical lute, is carvedinto the soundboard
itself.
Scooping:a relief in sidcribsbetweenthe bddge and
the neckto provide extraclearancebelowthc sldngs,
and 1(rprestressand stabilizethe bclly againststring
Shadedyew: refersto the bicolor effectofusingyew
woodwidr both the hearlwood,whichis a darkbrown,
andLhcsapwood,whichs a mediumcream-yellow,
to
attectvisualdefinition in the ribs.
Spacers:th in stripsof hardwoodor ivorywhich are
placedin the joinls betweenthe ribs,usuallyola
contrastingcolorTheorbo:- lut( $ ir':r .econJoegb\c..rrlirgeig\l
basseswhich
arc single-stringcorsesabouttwcethe
lenglhof the tettcd counes.
Treblebrs: one,two,or morc smalldially-pacedbars
whicl are gluedunder the tleble sideof the bddgeto
controltrebleresponse.
Venetiarinc (V'): the unit of mesurement
apparently usedby earlylute m akersin Veniceand
Padua,it is aboul equalto 27.4M\a,
which iswithin 107,
ofastandard incl. Examiningancientinstrumentsin
viewof thisunit and its major fractionsrevealsmuch
aboutthe ancientmakers'sense
ofproportion and
pr ^c|icaliq (seelbru@rd ).

260

rractlcum)ummary
Practic[m One: Constructingthe Forn
7 ' Clopybellyoutline.longitudinalsection,and cross
scclionsolcxlanllulc. orwork iom plan.
> Developteplateflombelly outlire.
77 > Make basepatein shapeoftemplate> M akecenterpiecen shapeoflongitudinal
> Ct out inierior ofcentelpjeceto createmortise
t . - h o l dn g . r i c ( n r m . u n , g f o n a \ i . e .
Usewastematcal fron cuioul to makc holding
lick.
> Glue centerpiecetobaseplate.
78 > Arrangeard glueroughly-shapedwood
blocksto
baseplateandcenterpiece.
> Pefectshapeolform to matchbaseplate
^ u r l i rc .c e ne r . pe . ( . h d te .d n J .r o c .. e , l i o n
templates.
> Fhcetmold eaiing accuntc shapcsand anglcs1r
intcrded numberofribs. Createexct shapeand
angleofneck-joiningsurface(Preface,p. i{).
79 ' Dctcrminc sizeofneckblock. Sawcorresponding
sizeandshapefromneckendof form to allow
for placementof neckblock. Drillhvo holesin
the forn so neckblockcanbe screwedto for .
> Vrmishform.
Practcumlvo: Constructingthe Bowl
80 > Cleanandwaxform.
' Screwroughncckblockto lorm, andplanetop of
block (bclly gluingsurface)flushwith bse plate.
.9J > Transtrccnlcrlhc ofmold to block- Use
templaleto crtcnd bslly outline onto rlock,and
traceshapeomokl onloblock.
82 ' Removeeck block.sa,'vto roughsbpe.
' R ( r u r nI ( ( \ J , \ 1 r, , f , , r m . , r d
e . . a l - i .gh u ' r g
surfacefor neckrbodyjoint.
83 ' Cutdb littirg surfaceoneckbbckto final
shapc.oarefullyextendingfacets
from mod to
cnd ofblock.
8l > Bond centerrib,andattachtoform.
> Shapecentcrrib.
8J > Bcnd andltsecon{lrib to centerrib> Bcnd andfitspcer (ifused).
> Glue rib and spacerto centerrib andneckb1ock.
When glue is dry. run parting lool undcr ribjoirt
to free ribsfrom iotm.
8 > Repeatrib fittjng and gluingon allcrnatigsidcs
ofthecenter rib untilall dbs are assembled.
9-l > ]iill andfile ribsflushwith baseplateand end of
ncckblock. Removescrewfrom cenlerdb,
scrapeentirebowsmooth,andtapedbjoints.
> Constxctandfit capfor lower endofulc.
93 ' Adjustsurfaceof bowl or joint witl cap.
' Glue and clampcapinpositi(nl. When gueis dry
p l " 1 c .J g ( o l . d p l . . s r \ ' r h h - . e f j l | e .

Prcticum'fhre:ConstructingtheBelly
9f > Seectandpanebookmatchedbell),woodto
slartingthickncss.
9-i > Preparcandjoin tlvo halvesoltop.
97 > Planewhat rvill be the outsidesurfaceofbelly.
Sandandscrapesooth.
> (t bellytorough outlne.andplaneinsrdc
surfaceuntlthe bellyis roughlv th icknessed.
Scraperosetteareato about L0MM.
98 ' Scrapeinsiclesufacc to achicvcopfinum
flexibility.
Rosette
99 > Determinepositionofrosette.andgluerosellc
patten to insidesudaceofbelly.
' Usea compassto masreradiusof pattcrn,
Scrjbea circlewith a corrcspondhgccnterpoint
and radiusonthe oulsidcofbclly. Otherborder
lincsarc alsoscribcdwith compass.
/r, > Use sharpknife to cut olrt openareasofrosette.
1 r l ' T u r nh ( l l v . \ ( r
u p r n i t r ....l. ' u r g .
"r.lcl<"n
> Do chipcaNingto
createinteft\\,inedook.
' Dee \ n andLe\ell,^rJfr li (.. D^. hipcr \ ng
betweenborderlines.
> Sealcompletedrosetlelvith shellac(J1var'ish.
Bracing
/02 > Tiaceoutline ofbowl (still on lIm) onlo
udersideof bclly.
l0-l > Mrk locationsofrransverserarsonbely.
> Splitbar stock.Planebal1stothicknessand
height,sq aringup edges.Cut to rough lenglh.
lrl > Gluebarsto belly.
> Ghrereinforcingbarsto undersideof rosette.
> Plotpositionsoftreble barsand bassbar.
ir > Bendbassbar.
' Glue bassbar andtreblebalstobeilv.
107 > Plaretansvccba$ toheight, shpe theirtops,
and cut their endsto matchthe tracedoullic.
108 > 'liim edgeof bellyto abLrut 2Nrvoversizc.
' C i v eb . * 1 d u ( b l ( b a r . . p. r ( I I n . n . l : r p ' n g .
PracticumFour: The Bridge
7-10' llane bddgestockto pleliminaryshapc.
-l12 ' Mark stlillg positionsanddrill stdngholes.
ll-l > Planelont surlaccto properundercutange.
> Makc reliefcutsin frcnt and backsfaces.
l t 4 > Draw shapesof scrolhon endsof bridge.
lt5 > Shaposcrolls.
l t 7 > Cut dccorativeparel(s)on bridge.
1 1 8> Brand(J1slampsldng cou$ernakels.
> Algle endso[rclicfcuts.
> Clolorbridgewithblackvarnishor shelac.,App\r
clcarcort(s) of vamish.
119 > Pk)tbidge position,andgluebridgeto be1ly.

27r

PracticumFiv: Tuningthe Belly


/22 > Find andmark "sweetspot."
/2.1 > Holdingbell!'al s\\,cclspol.lap onbddge 1om
end to cnd sclcra iirlcs, carefullylisteing to
responseal cachlappingPosition.
/2? > Tiim treble.bass,andbddgc ba$ in a syslenutic
order,adjuslingbarsgradually iDheight,lengtl,
and shape,and checkingfor changesin tap
responseaftereachadjustment until desired
resultsareachieved,
PracticumSixi CompltingBowl and Fitting Nck
/3, > Drill neckblockforncck attaclurentscrew.
> Pefeclneck jonl sudaccol block.
/.1/ ' Fit neckblanl{to Deckblock.
1J2 > Removelutebowlfrom form> Attach neckblankto neckblocklvilh scrc$and
glue. Spotglue a ncckblank whichwill laterbe
remoYedtobc vcnccrcd.Colllpletell'gluea neck
blanklo1 an unvcnccredneck.
1.1-?> Preparebowl 1lrrcccivecountercap.
> Bed,fit, and gluc countercap.
/.14 ' Plancupperedgeofcounter capflush with ribs.
lji > Do final scrapinginsideofbowl.glue in papcr
stdpsto leinforcedbjoints,.nd installlabe.
PracticumSeven:Fitfingthe BellyandPlaringthe Neck
l-l > Mark centerljeon neckblockard cdgeofcap.
1J7 > Planeoffoverhangofneckblanl( at rcckblock.
> Eend boc\r'scenterlne onto loP suricoof neck
rlank. Aign beuywith cenlerlinc,and clanp and
tapebellytemporarilyin position.
1.1.9> Checklit o endsof all transverse
balsto sidedbs.
' Tiim orshimbarends tofit the sidedbs pedcl1)r.
Ribslllust conformto tracedoutline onbelhr.
/ ?a ' pt. n( siuup nt,,.iderih.
110 ' Wilhbcllytaped andclanpedin place,measure
to delerine how nuch materialneedsto be
plancdlom top surfaceofneck to achieveproper
stnngactlon.
-11l > Removebelly. Planctop suaceofthe neckto
conectalignment.
PructicumEight: Shaping!Vencring,AttachingNeck
/42 ' Clampandtapebellyin position,narkposrtion
of fint stringonto neckat neck/bodyjoinl.
14-t ' Plotstring ength.neckwidth.neckccntcrline,
nut dimensions,and thichcssofneck veneer
onto top surfaceoneck,
14-i > Taceshapeof bowl oto end of neckblank at
neck/b()dy-joinlend.
> Removeneckomncckblock.
l4 > Sawandplanesdesol neckto exactwiclthof
linishedneck,minusveneerthickncss.
> Prcpareunderforn forneckshaping.
> Tckglueneckblankto undcbnn.
147 > Shapeneckblank.
148 > Cut veneerslightl),oversize,andbendto shape.
719 > Gluevenccrto shapedneckblank.

212

/5, > Cut and file venccrflushwith neck6od],-joining


l5J > Renoveveneered
neckfromunderfom. trim
veneeroverhangsfl ushwith lictboard gluing
surface.an!:lscrape
awaypapetandglueresiclue.
152 > Checkfit ofreckjoint.
> Ghe neckto bowl.
1-5-?
Pr.rcticumNin:Attachingth Belly
15 > Tapeandcanp bellt'nplaceanddouble-check
neckalignmentandflt of lransvcrsebracesto
sideribs. Make adjustlcnlsesrecessary.
7-i8 > Glue ore sideofbelly to bowl at a time,workirg
from neckjoint towardcap.
' Spreadholgluea 1winchesat a time, adclamp
immediately.Use campsandclamp\!ood ovel
fingerboard;usetapefor clampingcve4 vhere
ese.Preheal,rehcat,andretapeareasasneedcd.
/59 > Glue andclampbr endsto sideribs asyou go,
usingsn1allblocksun.ler tapeto pllshribs against
barends,
/0 > Prehealand gluethe capare last. Trn lulc
upsidedownwhilegluedries.
PrcticumTcn: Installing the Pointsand Fingcrboard
J2 > Establi!h insidecornerso thc neckr/bodljoint.
> Seectfingerboardmaterial.Cutblanksfor
poitstiom onc cnd ofiirgerboard blank.
7.1> Clampblankslorpoints together.Shapebolhar
the sametrmelo assurcsymmetry.
/l > Positionthepoints,and draworscribetheir
shapcsonto the bellv.
> Make clrtolsi belll'for points.
J-5> Glue and clamppoilts in place.
lnstalling fingerboardon an unveneerd
neck
7 > Planefin gerboard10roughthickness.
> Mark end of belly andpointsperpendicularto
neckcenterlie.
> Sawbelyandpointsto lcngth-removewastewilh
chsel,and cleanneckbankand end obclly and
pointswith fie.
/ 7 > Fit endof fingerboardblank to bell]'/pointsjoinI
> Cut fingerboardto rough length.
/E > Hold 1ngcrboardin paceandmark bassedgeof
neckonlo it. Sawandplaneedgeol tngerboard
to thisline.
' Holdfingeoard inpositionagainandrnark
reblccdge. Sawandplanefingeoard rofinal
> Spreadglue. Poundtacksin eckblank to push
fngerboardagainstthe belly/pointjoint' C d - p f i r o e r h of.d i p l d c . ( S c ( P r c t : , c e r. fr .
ior notesor the lackoa desciptionfor the
shapingofan uDveneered
neck.)
Insfallingfingerboardon a veneeredneck
-l9 ' Fit fingerboardto bell]'/pointsjoinl.
> Cut fingerboardto mughlength.
> Use neckasaguideto l1arkfirgerboard'sshape.
> Sawfirgerboardto roughshape.

' Spreadglue.Usc tacksto pushfingerboard


againslbelly/pointjoint.
' Use clampingcaulsto clampfingerboadto neck.
' TurnL e utsde dnsn $hi e g u( d e.
' Repet necklayoutproce.lureon fi ngeoard.
Make necessary
adjustmentsif neck-edgelnesdo
not accurateycoincdewth actualedgesof ncck.
> Removefingerboardoverhang.Blcnd
f ingerboardandncckvenee770 ' Mark dnal lergth offingerboard.
' Sawiingerboardto final length- Remove
ihgerbord wastefrom neckwith chisel. Fjnish
cxposedsuIfaceswith file.
' Malk *idth ofDut onto end of neck. Sarvor
pl nereck to final length.Smoothwithf1c.
> Planefirgerboardllushwith pointsandbelly.
> Checkfingerboardshapewith
straightedge.
/ 7/ ' Plac and/orscrapefngerboardto createcoect
clcararceslbr strings.ardto createslight
cuNaturem crosssectlon.
' RadiusedSesof finCerboard.
PracticumEleven:Installing the Hlf -biding
17J > Trim bell]''soverharg$i1h sidebs andcap.
Corrcct slightirregularitiesin outline ofbelly.
> Correct inconsistencies
inbcl1]'sthicknessatits
edges$,ithscrapcl.
774 > Make cutsirwidlh ofhalfbindng rebatein
tnreeortoufpasscs.
' f j I i . h r h e . ec L , \n ( . . t , n r . $ i t l k n L .
> Cut rebateior hali bindirg in severalpasses
wirh
half bindingplne.
/75 ' Clopleterebte nearpoints$,tha chisel.
' Snooth rebatewithfile.
' Prepareandbend fivo half-bindingstlips.
, F | .d b,n.,nf,in. . iorn tor ea.hs| p.
/7 ' Cluc one half-bindingstrip in place. Bcgin at
poinl, wolk in shortsectionstorvardcap. Clanp
wilh tape.presswithroler asyou go.
> Gue secondhalf-bindingsLrip.
> Ft joint wilh first stip Glue. tape.androll.
177 ' Allow glueto dry. Carefullyrenovc tape.
Pracficumlr|ler Nfnkingthe Pcgbox
178 ' Arsemblecheeksofpegbox,sansebonyveneer.
/79 ' Saward planecheeksto
lnalheighl.
18 ' Clue eMnyveneerto top edgeolcach cleek.
> Tiim veneeroverhangsl1ush.
> ClamppegboxfolLtowolkboard. Assemble
cheeksontoforl11.
181 > Prepareandinstallblockin lower end of pegbox.
182 > Prepareand intall vcneeredrlockin pperend
ofpegbox.
> Adjust heightofcheeksifneccssarJ.
l,9J > Laminatetwo-plybackplatelrombecchwoodand
ebonyveneer.
l8l > Guebackplate10chcek ard-blockassembli'.
> Planebackplatcovcrhangflushwith cheeks.
7,95> Prepareandglue ebonvveneers
!o outsidechcok

18

187

/86
189

> Planecheekveneer overhangsllush.


> Scrapcall ebon],sudacessmooth.
> Cutst ng-clearance
reiefsin cheeks.
> Mark endsofpegboxwithslidingTbevel.
> Sawoffsmall end. Cleanup sawnarks with fle.
> Lamiate eronyveneeron snallend ofpegbox.
> Tiiln andfileveneeroverhangsflush.
> Mark anddrillpegholes.
> Reamholesto lough se,ch:rnfr edgesofholes
in cheeks-andcut awa]'oosefibersinsidechceks
> Scrapepegror
andbeveI cornerswth lle.
> Vanishinsides rfacesofpegbox.

PracticunThifen: Making the Pgs


191 > Selectpegtenpate,andsecurcinproperly
aligned positionon lathc.
> Preparclumigbiarks.
> Mountturningblankon lathe.
'Irough
-192>
shape.
> 'Irr peecollar.
> 'Irrpegshaft andfile it smooth.
> 'Irr rulb.
'Irn
I 9J >
areathat will be pip to firal ,:limeter.
' Sandpcg,avoidingdamagetofinedeta
s.
>'Irn andlghtysandpip.
/9+ > Removepcgftom lathe. Sawoffends.
' Shapcbulbon.lrum sander.
l9-t ' Roundpipwith file ard sandlghllv.
' Scrapcbulrsmoothamdbevelcomers.
> Polishwitlbee
swax,thenbuff. (Noteonp. 212:
thisis done aftershaftsare shapedtofinal|aper.)
PracticumFoueeni Prcp,Finish,and Rub Out Bolrl
79 > Resolveneck/bodljoirt ard smoothneckwilhllc
796 > Smoothandclcanodgeofhalf-bindingwitl file.
> Scrapeawayllc marksaroundneck{o-bodi'join1.
799 > Performlnal scrapingof bowl.
2r, > Burnishbowl wjth nylon nctting.
> Maskneckveneer.
2rl > Brushon scalercoatofshellac. Sandlightly
whend1,.Repeatif necessary.
2r2 ' Apply vamishwitl artist'sbrusharoundedgcso
padwill not rcech.
caplvhcrcFrench-polishing
2rJ ' Flcnchpolishone rib at a time until entircbowl
ispolishcd.thenhanglute to dry.
2r4 > Wipe bowl'ssudaceclean.Lightlysand.
' RepeatFrcrchpolishingprocedureasnecessanr,
ightl) sanLling
betweencoats.
> Hang lute untilfinsh is hard enoughto polish.2ri > Polishbowl.

PracticumFifteen:Installingthe Pegbox
2r ' Mak anglcof joining surfaceonto fiont, back.
andchccksofpegbor..
' Sawoff excessm aterial.File surlaccsmooth.
2r7 > Measureheghtsofcheeksand tlnslr
measrements
onlo ncck.
> Ifastr n1eascmcrrof m:uimun ,dlh ol
pegboxonlo cnd of Deck.
)71

> Connectmarksonnecktoplot rebatefor pegbox.


> Cutrcbatc with saw,chsel2rE ' Perf(clfir o p(gt\r\'rhJha.JrJiil2rq > Do dry run ofpegboxglLring.
> Do fhal gling.
PracticumSiIten: Fittingthe Pegs
Shapingpegs
211 ' Soapshaftofpeg.
> Using a pegshaperwiththe propertaper,begin
shpingin the largestholein which the peg does
not .uitefit.
> Resoappeg.Usingappropriateshaperhole,
graduallyshapeshaftuntil collarofpeg contacts
shaper'sblade,
and a shavingthe tullwidth of the
trladeisproduced.
' Resoappcg, andape smallendofshalt urtil
b.,'( j. .t t'arc!t egir. ri, cur i \ e I ire en!rh.
;
.?/.1 shJp<p<gsin gfLp.t t.rrr^r ti' e ^f \ame.i/e.
' Polishpegbulbs,collars,andapproximatelyI0N,rM
ofshat.(Seep.195.)
Fittiq pgs
212 > Fit krngestpeg in hoenearestfingerboardfirst.
Soapreaner. cleanholc wlh a twistortwo, ancl
checktt opeg.
> Reamhole until about 10MMof shaftis left
erposed.
2/J ' Bumishholc by tuning reamerbackward.
' Fit rcmainingpcgs,workiDgtowardsmallendof
pegDox.
2ll ' Mark pegslor cuttingto firal length.
-21-5' Mark shaftsfor stringhoes.
> Removepegs,
keepn order.
> Beveledgesof holes.
> Sawpegstolength.
27 > Drilstringholesinpegs.
> Fjnishendsofpegswith tilead sandpapcr.
> Countersinkedgesof stringholesin pcgs.
.217> Setpegsasidein orderfor laler installation.
PracticumSventeen:
FnishingtheBellyand Neck
Waxingthebelly
2/8 > Washbel1yad rcmovc aryglueesidue. Allow
bellyto dry thoroughlt.
' Scrapebelly.
279 > Burnishbellywith nylon netting.
' Apply wa.{to be1ly.Bumishwith netting.
22, ' Polishbclly with solt cleancloth.
' Rcmovew\residuearoundbridgeandrosette.
' Repeatw:xing.Threecoatsworkswell.
Oilingtheffngerboard
221 ' Do fial checkoffingerboard shapeand aLignncrt.
Adjust asDecessary.
2.22> Do finalscnping offingerboard.
' Apply oil lo tingcrboard.Sandoiedsurfacewith
60i:grit paper.
' Wipe off ercessoi. Poishfingerboardwilh clcan
cloth.
> BurnishfingerboardwlhnylonrcttiDg.
> Repeatoilingasneccssary.
2',71

oiling the neck and pegbox


22J > File anLlscrapeto adjustpegbox/neckjointas
necessary.
Removeanyglueorwatermarks.
> Scrapebackof neck.
224 ' Apply oilto neckandpegbox. Rub inwellwith
1 ngers.
' Sandoiled neckwith 600 g1itsandpapcr.
> Thoroughlywipe awayanyoilresidue..Allowoil
todry.
" j ' B u - i . n e c k r n d p e g b o \ \ i l h n \ l n n J u m g .
> Waxbo$'I,neck,tingerboald,andpcgboxwith
thrce light coatsof nicrodlstalline waxthinned
with mineralspidts. Buflbctwccn coats.
PracticumEighteen:Nut, Frts,and Stringing
Making the nut
22 > Mark and cut nut blank to length.
' Fit nut to rebalc.
' Tiaceiingerboardshapeontonut' Shapenul.
227 ' Polishnut.
' Mark stdngpositionson nut.
> File st ng groo\s.
> Polishstringgrooves.
Insfalling fiets and stringingthe lute
228 > Plot ftet positions.Markpositionson
fingerboardwith tiny pin pricks:on bellymarl
exactpositionsoftreble end ofeachfretwith
soft-leadpencil.
229 ' Bum onc cnd ofa lengthofgut.
> Tie first fet tightynexttopegbox. Gutlbr fiets
shouldgetprogrcssively
snallerin diameteras
fretsgetcloserto thebody.
> CIip extlalength.
' Reoe"rburninggur.r)mg Lr(rs.-nLlclipfi g
excesslength. Eachelis ticd onefret space
lowerthan its final position.
2:0 ' Burn clippedendsoftied liets. Allow to cool.
andpusheachfret up into position.
> Preparebodyfrets.
2J2 > Glue bod!'frcts.
' Stringup ute.

Indexof ErlangenLectures
A massdistribution.SeeBowl
Allard, Claude,42,12, 67,67
Al'ud, 3,26,30,53
Alto lure, 8, 10,57,72
poemaccompanying
lutemakerwoodcut,70,7]
Arabicinfluences,
3,26,30,53
in rosettes,40.42,12, 43,43, 44,44
Archlute
Tiansition,5
shape,5, 21
anoymous,with 1]picalfeaturcs, 12,12
asdistjnguished
ftom tleoo, 15
tlpical bellythickesspatterns,.14,35,38,38
bridge,52
fingerboard,
61
plan,Sellas,
1639,244
definition, 59
Amault,Henriof Zwolle,2-4
Prc-Renaissance
luteconstruction
diagmm,e 4,30
Dutch manuscriptof, 3
bowlshapeandcrosssection,5,19
countercap,26
proportions,30,30,32
neck, 53
fhgerboard, 53
formforbowl,70
Baroqueperiolllure.. 2.2f . Seeal!? Bjidg..
Fhgerboad; Neck;Pegboxandpegs
bowlshapealdcrosssecto[,5,27,22
Dieffoprucha,
modfied,1t 15
charactedsticsol,
15,17
conve$onsftom Renaissance
lutes, 15-17
HofftnannwithlaterBamqueconversion,
74 17
tone quality()1,17
Holimarn example,27,21,22, 22
airmassdistribution,22
woodsusedfor bowl, 23
cap, u
spacers,
25
countercap,2T
paperliningstdps,27
parchrnent,
27
labelsandmaker's
marks,28,28
borrowedconceptsfromviolin making,38
belybarringIayoutandthickness
patterns,38,38,
39,39
Dieftbpmchar\rith Barcqueconversionbelly, 39,J9
rosettes,examples01, 40,4l , 42,12;
cut from outside, 45
plan,Dieffopruchar,
ca.1600,213

BaIIng,30 34
layout,2,30-33,30 39,35,3'739
proportionconcepts,
3,30
geometicalmodel,31,3J,32,32,33,,13
MeIsenne's
q,picl Late Renaissance
andTfansition,34,35,.t5
Rdlchbelly,ca.1600,35,3,37
Railichbelly,1644,38,J8
Hotrmannbelly,38,38,39
Dieffopmchar
withBaroquebelly,39,J9
woodsusedfor, 40
definition, 259
Baschenis,
Evaristopaintings,48,9
Bassbar, 33,40,259.,teea/.oBaring
Basslute,7,9, 10,21,J2.33,33,35,44,51,51,
57,58,%0
Belly, 30-4'7. .teeaho Baing;Rosette
barringlayout,2,30 33,30 39,35,3'7-'rr
tonequalit, 30
sustain,30
pfoportions,30,35
thicknessgraduationsof, 3l -19
geometrjcalmodel,
Mersenne's
32,33
woodsusedfor, 40
Bibiogaphy,261-270
articles,26l-269
histodcalbooks,269
modembooks,
270
Block.SeeNeckblock
Body. ,teeBowl
Boethius,5
Bologna.S'eeBoss,Lax;Frci, Hans;Maler,Laux
Boss,I-au\, 5, ,24,245
Bourgoin,J.
drawings
ofluterosettepattems,40,40
"StarofDavid"pattem,40,4,
Le: Eltmentsdefatt arube:le tratdesentrclacs,40
rosettepattem,hteockingrings,42,42
Bowl, 18 29
Anault'sdiagram,2,2,-lr, 70
shapeandcrosssection,2, 5, 6,'7,8, 9, 10-12. 15,
15 22,1',l-22,'70
air massdistribution,18,18,19,
19,21,21,22,22,'70
longitudinalsectioll 22,22
dbs,woodsusedfor,6,7, 12,15,23;s;z;r'tg
of,22:,
shapingof, 23
"alsebelly''concept,
Mersenne,
23
cap, 24,21
spaces,U 25,21
neckhlock, 25,25, 26,26
corunrer
cap,26,2'7,27
lhngs, 27
paperliningstdps,27
parchment,
27
labelsandmaker's
marks,28,28
Merse leon useoffotmlor, 70
delinition, 259
2',75

Bracing. ,Se?Baing
Bidge, 48-52
iconographyfor identifying,,18
Pre-RenaissanceandRenaissance,cerle,
48,49
earliestsurviving,18.49, 19
Late Renaissance
origina1s.49,19, 50,50
starsor coursenarkeIson,49,49
woodsusedtbr, 49,51,52
Latc RenaissaDce
stdngholesandspacing,50,J/
typicalTransitionbridgeconve$ion, 51,-51
capof ivory and ebon]',-51,-tl.52,52
for archlte, 52
Baroque(Edlinger/Hoffnan). 52,52
defiition, 259
Burkholtzer,Hans
conversions
of: neck, 59,59; fingerboard,621
pegbox,65.5,66;pegs,68,68
Cap, bowl 24,21, 259
Cap,bridge, 51.51, 52,52
Catrlogof AncientEuropeanLutes 24f 256
Celtic knot influcncein osettedesign,44
Centerlineconcept, 19,,{0,57.70
Chantrelle
tuning,mosl common, 8, 10
beconleslandard latre,,lE
drawingol, 6l
conversions
wilh. 65
designconsiderations
with, 72, 73
definilion, 259
Chitarone. .See
Theorbo
Constnction sequerce,70,71
Cosmologicalmodelsof the univelse
Pythagoras,4
Plato, 4
Boethius,5
Pacioli, 5
Countercap, 26.21,27, 259

De Divina Proportione(Pacioli)-5
Descantlte, 8, 10,42,12, 239
Dicffopruchar,Magno
bowl shapeand crosssectlo, 5, 79.I 9, 20, 21,2l
typicaloflate Renaissancc,6,7, 7
modifiedby Edlinger, 15,75
consistencvofcrosssectionoverninetyyears,
21,21
ivorybow1.cap,spaces,24,24
abelandmakcr'smark, 28,28
bell]' thichess Pattern, 33,-i.l
Dewbelly(Bamquc) for, 39,-19
msettepattern, 40,1l , 13,13
b dgebyEdlinger,
54 i2
neck dimensions,53
neck inlal,s,floralpattern, 56,5
fingerboardbyEdlinger, 62,2, 63
pegbox,64,4
plan,bass,ca. 1600,24,
276

plan,Rcnaissance,
ca. 1612,24l
plan,Baroque,ca. 1600,213
bio, 215
note on namevar:iations.246
Drawjng. seedo Plans
Arnault'sconstructiondiagram,Z J0
designfor makinga lute, 70,72, 73
slringsasstartingpoint for , 10,12, 72
considerations
for. 72
expodedviewol lute with labeledparts, 258
Ebony- SeeWood,lbr bowl:Deck;bridge;fingerboardr
pegbox
Edlingel JosephusJoachimus,28,28,J0. 52,52, 245
Edlinger,Thomas
neck,fingerboard,pcgbox,bridgeon D ieffopruchar.
15,15,62,62,63
useofspaccls,25
label,28,28
conYelsionofBurkholtzer, 59,.t9,60,62
bio, 245
'lFalsebclly,"Mersenne.23
Familvoflutes
conceptof, 2, 10,15
Renaissance
iamily, 8, 9
Fuggerinvenlory,sevensizes,l0
in Praetorius.l[
Transitiontheoo famil],,l2- l5
Fillets. SeeSpacers
Fingcoard. .teealro Neck
woodsusedfor, 54,-54,59,61
gut for frets, 6l
Pre'Renaissance
and Rcnaissance,
6l
Late Renaissance,
61
oD, 61,/
Points
'Iiansiti(]n,61
Baroqueconversions,62,2,63
Baroquc, 63
definition,259
Fir, 26,40,59,60
Form, 259; Seerho Bowl
Frei,Hans
Renaissance
lute example,5,6,
bowlshape
andcrosssection,5.7, 18,18,19
label,28,28
one of earliestsur,,iving,31.31
bddge conversion,50,.t0,51,-5-l
neckconversion,58,J8
plan, ca. 153[,2J8
Renaissance
bio, 2,15
note on namevariations,246
Flets. SeeFingeoard
Frgger, Rayrond, 10,2,1

GaHeo, 10
Geomusicalareas
concepto1, 2, 3, 11
Baroquebddgesvaryin, 52
necksvaryn, 58,59
fingerboards
varyin,6l
Gerle,Ceorg
replicaof antiquelure,4.4,6
rosette,40,47
bridge,48,49
rech s3,, 58
pegbox,63,J
bio, 245
Glossaryolterms,
258-260
Cutfrets,6t
Half binding,27,259
HamlonieUnivetreLle,
Menenne, 23,3l
Harton,Andrea,
25,44,4i
Harton,Michielle
LateRenajssance
bowlshape,5, 21,21
in Padua,7
tenorlute,9
basslute, 9
arrmassdisldbution,21
nosp.cenonshadedyewbowls,
25
basslutebalringandthickness
pattem.-12 J-1,35
coniormitywithMersenne,32,J2,33.J-l
rosette,40,11,41,41
Drroge, JU, Jl

neck,54,55,56,5,58
lingerboardandpoints, 61,61
bio, 245
Holfinann, J.C.
Baroquelute,original, 17,j2
bowl shapeand crosssection l't,21,21,22,22
bely balling layourandrhickresspaems, 38,jq 39,-19
rcsettepattem, 40,4l
bridge, 52,-t2
neck, 60,l]
linge$oard, 3
bio, 245
Hoffinann, Martin
exampleofmodificationsovertime, 2
Baroquebowl shape,j, t5
Baroqueconve$ion1()theotboedlute, 16,66,66,6.1
bio, 245
Iconogmphyusedto determinehistoricaldesgns,3, J,
4,48,53,60,61,65,9
Ivory. .teeabo, Wood
1vorydbs, bowl, 6, 7, 24, .24
veneerfor neckandpegboxefension, i2,15
spacers,24
lining stripsusedon bowlsof, 27
parchmentreinforcementonbowlsof,27
bddgecaptrim, 51,51, 52,52

d e c o r r l i \ e . t r i p e pl e r n n nn e c l , a n r l p e g b 5, ,5r . 5 o
o i c i r r q r r \ Jo r x l p r I e m n ( c L a n d p c g h ^5\ .0 , J o
1ngerboardinlaidwith, 61,6l
Label 28,28, 259
Late Renaissancc
period lutes, 2,260. .te,ra/soBridge;
Furge.b^ar.l:
\ecl: Pegbo\andpeg\.Ro:e.(
chdrdctefisti(\of, 2,o-1U
bowl shapeand crosssectio, 5, 18 27,19.21
Dieffopruchar,cxamplefpical ofperiod, ,7, Z
lone quali6/of, 7
proportions,7
woodsusedfor, 7, 23
lute famiy, 8, 9, t0
Praetoriusassourcefor, 10
ai| massdisrriburion,19,t9
cp, 24,24
sp.cers, 24, 25
cornter cap, 26, 2'7, 27
paper lining strips, 27
abelsandmaker'smarks, 28,28
Alnault's ideasexprcssed,31
Ver.ennes idease{nres.cd.I t . J.. J_',J.r,.J
tlpicalb\ tu.kness
Da|l(.n.. J.t.J.s.J-)
plan,descantVenere,ca. 1580.2j9
Lautenmacherde4woodcutandpoen, 7l
Liepzig. ,teeHoffmann,J.C.;Hoffnann. Marrin
Lillines, 27,259
Lute family. SeeFamily of lutes
Lutemakers
woodcutandpoem, 70,7/
list ofancient, 245 246
Le plan, 70,12,72,73.73. Seeatso plansof tures
Lutes,cala.logofancient, 248 256
Maker's marks, 28, 28. 29, 25g
Maler, Laux, 2, 5, 6, 17,3 1, 31, 245
Mandora
lutesconvertedt(r, 2, 67
Mcple. Jcc WooLlfor bL,wl:neck;legbdx
Mctteson.Johann, {r8
Measuremerrslstems,
(onceptof
Neu Brunswrckoot, ln, 7l
Venetaninch, l0
Mcmling,Hans
del"il froruPre-Rqndi*anre
prmring J
Mersenne,Madn, 23,31, 32,33,'t0
Museums,list of, 2,19
"Music ofthe Spheres,"4
p.rintingsrfle..
4E ou
"Naru-a mona. Ba.chcnis
Nc(k, 5l hl
in Memling painling, J,53
radiograph of block/neck jofit, 25,25, 26
Pre-Renaissance
andRenaissance,
Gerle 53,jJ
Dieffopruchar, 53,56.j

Ncck(continued)
woodsusedfor, includingveneers,54,54, 55,5)-,56,
57, 59, 60
Venere, 54,-t4.57,-i7
Harton, 54, 5i 56,J
Late Renaissance,
earliestsurviving,51,54,55.55;
dimensions.57,58
decoratcd,withsripcs,
5J,56,5;with{loral
pattems, 56,5; methodused, 56,57
tit towardsbass.57,59,6l
Transition,58,58,59
Baroque,59,.t9,60,0, 61
definition.259
Neckblock,25,26
radiographofblocllneck joinl, 25,2)-,2
Scllas,26 2
cutawalr, 26, 2
definition,259

Octavel te, 8, 10,57,57


Organizations,25T

Pacioli, 5
\y' riclle;Tiei'fer5-ucker,
Padua.\,1 H:r11n,
Vendelinus;Venere,Wendelio
Paper lining strips, 2'7. SeeaLtoBo]'rl
Parchment,27. ,teer/so Bowl
Pearwood.,tWoodfor bridge;peebox;pegs
Pegboxandpegs-62-68
woodsused
for, 54 56,-tO61,64 6,6
decoratedwith stripes ard lloral paltcrs, 55,56,56,57
anglesol, 2
closedback,63
Gerle asexamplcoI Pre Renissance,
63,3
Renaissance
andLatc Rcnaissance,64.,1
dimensions,
63.64,4,65
coversions
ovcl lime, includingchantrelles,4,6566,66
'Iiansition,65
Bamquc, 65,5,66
pegwoodsandproportions,68,6
dcfhition, 259
Perjodsof lutc conshuctionarddevelopment
SeeBaroquepedodluies:Lite Reaissance
pedod lutes:Prc-Renaissance
periodutes;
pe od lutes;ansition periodlutes
Renrissance
Philosophical
considerations
of proportion,symbolism,
hamony, 4, 30
of Plato, 4
ofPythagoras,
1,8,I0
ofPacioli, 5
Plan,deveopingyoul own, '70,'72,72,/3,73
Pansofules. Erlargen Seies, 23'7-244
6 csRenaiss.ce,
Frei, ca. 1530,2.18
6-csDescant,Venere,ca. 1580,2J9
8-csBass,D ieffopruchar , ca. 16u0, 210
10-csRenaissance,
Diellbpruchar,c..1612,247
7-csRenaissance
alto,Verr'ere,7592.
242
2',78

13 csBaroque,Dieffbpruchar,ca. 1600,243
l4-cs Archlute,Sellas,1639,2?4
Points,bridge, 50, 51,51, 52,52
Points,fingerboard,48,61,-1,260.
See..,o
Fingerboard
Poplar.SeeSpacen,wood usedlor;Wood, fbr neck:
Wood, for neck block
Practicum,slepby stcps mmaryo,271 274
Prrdter, LeoDhardt,42,42
Praetorius,Michael, 10,11
pedodlutcs, 2,260. Seudho Bridge;
Pre-Renaissance
FingerboardtNcck;Pcgboxandpegs;Rosette
Arnaull'sdiagra, a J,
characteristics oi. 3 5
Memlingpainthg detail, -l
propoons, 3, 3, 4, 1.30. 30
Gerle built as replica, 4,?
bowlshape,i
countercap- 26
lone qua.litl,,30
bclly design,30,J,
Publicationslist, 257. SddlsoBibliography
Pythagoms
"Musicofthe Spheres,"4
rythagorcan
proportions, 8, l0
tu ng, 8, 10

Railich. Pictro
tansition archlutebowl shape,5
countercap, 26,.27
Late Renaissance
theoo bellythichess pattern,
35,36,37
TiansitioarchlutebelybaIIing layoutand
pattem 38,38
thick-ness
Renajssance
pcriod lutes, 2,260. .tre dlsoBridge;
Fingerboard;Neck;Pegboxandpegs;Rosette
bowlshapeandc1osssection,-1,18,18,19
()1,6
charactedstics
Frei example,6-
woodsusedfor dbs, 6,23
pmporlrons,b
lute lanily, 8, 9, l0
cap, 24
countercap, 26
paper lining stlips, 27
labelsand maker'smarks, 28,2E.29
bellybarring layoutand thickncsspatlern, 31
plan,Frei, ca. 1530,238
plan,Dieffopruchar,ca.1612,241
plan, alto, Venelc,1592,242
Ribs. .leedLroBowl
rationalefor sizing.22,23
shaping("scooping"),23,260
woodsusedfor,23
definitun, 260
Rosette-40-47
Venerepattems. 40.42,43,40-15
"Starof David," most comnon pattern, 40,4f,
Valiationson "Starof David" pattem, 40,11, 42,12

Bo rgoin pattens- 40.10,12.12


Cerlc pattern, ,10.4/
Harton pattern, 40,I l, 14,41
Hoffmnn pattern, 40,71
Sellaspatternir theorbo. :l(,4/
Dieftbpnrchar, 40,11.13, 13
.Allardpattern, 42,42
Pradterpatten. 42.42
Tieffenbrucker.43.43
hcxagonpattern, 43,4.1
"Knot ofLeonardo" paiten. 44.4?
Burkholtzerpattern,44,4f
Harlon triple, ,14,45
culling tcchniques,45,4-5
chip car"'ing,45
patternstocopyand use, 46,47
definitlon, 260
Roservood.SceWooclfor bowl; neck;fingerboard;pegbox
RoyalCollcotionof Curjosities,,l

"Scooping" rbsconcept.23,260
Sells,Matteo
Tiansitionarchlulcshape,-i
arcl1ute,
schoolofSeas,72
theorbos,J2 14, 15
neckblock, 2
rosettepattcm, ,ll
plan, archlulc,1639, 241
bio, 2,{5
Sides.Se. Ribs;Bowl
Snakcwood..tecWood for bowl; neck ingerboard:pegbox
Soundboard..See
BarringtBeily;Roscltc
Spacers
purposeof, 24
wood and ivoryusedfor, 24,24,25
definiton,260
Spruce,26,40,59, 60
"StarofDavid" rosettepattem, 40,40
Stegher,Magno. 51,51
Sldng legtl. .tczdho Strings
Amalt igrorespdmarylclationip, 4
tuningsochane1lc, 8. l0
Pythagorean
relationships,10,30
comparedin New Brunswickinches,
Venetiar
inches,and centimetets,10
Tiansition,greatesldivcit\rin, 10
in differenl geomusicalareas, I I , I 2
shorteronbassside, 57
rclalionshipto neckdilnensions.57,58
slarfing poirt for drawin g desigr. 70, 72, 72. 73
Strings.SeualsoStringlength
how atlachcdonal'Ld, 3
tersionot, 12,23, 38,54
only straightthingson a lute, 19,57,70
holesforcourscsonbddge, 49-52. 19 52

gur,52

ovcpun,52
catliDes,52
SfntagnaMuticum , DeOry nogaphia.10

Tenor lute, 8, 9, 10,12,41,57


Theorbo
Lalc Renaissarcc,withfl atte.edbowl shape.7
Transilion,12 15
Sclascxaplcs. 1J,-14
asdslinguishcdliom archlute,15
theorboedB roquelute, 1
rowlslupe andcrosssection,2l
lining stripson bowl. 27
lypicalbclly thiclnesspattern, 34,35
Railichbclly barringlayoutandthicknesspattern,
35,36,37
Scllasroscttcon. 40,l-i
fingerboard,l
theorboedpegbox,66,
definition,260
'7
Tiefenbrucker,Leoard o. , 23,49,245,246
Ticlfcnbrucker,Venrlelinus,43,73, 245,246.
Scer',hoDiefipmchar,Magno;Venere,Wendelio
Ticlke, Joachir4 5. 15,245
Timc periodsof lute development, 2. .See
ao Baroque
periodltes;Late Renaissance
period1tes;
Pre-Renaissanceperiod
period
lutes;Rcnaissance
lutes;Tiansitionpeio,:lfutes;
Tinctoris, 5
Tone quaiity, 3t)
incrcascin sustiDovertime, 3,30
Rcnaissance,6
Latc Rcnaissance,6, 7
Tlasilion, ll, 12
Baroque,17
ftp. .tec Barring;Belly;Rosette
Tortoiseshell,inlavon necks, l
'lian
sitionperiod lutcs, 2,260. .SredlsoBridger
Fjngerboard:Neck;Pegboxandpegs;Rosette
bowl shapeand oss section, 5, 19, 2 I
characteristics
ol, 10 15
archlute,eamplerypicalofperior, 12,72
woodsusedfbr, 12,15-23
Scllastheorbos,12, I 3. I 1, 15
c:p,24
spacers,25
countcrcilp, 27
paperlning strips, 27
labclsard maker'snarks,2B,28
Me$enne assourcefor, 31,32
bclly barringlayoutand thicknesspatterns,J4 J8.
35,38
pan,archlure,Sellas,139,244
Tning. Seallo Stringlength St ngs
Renaissance
andLale Renaissance,
8
chantrelle.8, lt
Pythagoreanrelationships,8, l0
in clifferentgeomusicalareas,11
with overspunstrings,52
pegs, 68
Matthesonon, 8
Consiclerations
lbr drawjngdesign-70,72

Unverdorben,
Marx, 5, 6, 15,245
Veneer. SdeWoodfor bddge;eck; fingerboard;pegbox
VenereAssociation.SeeVenere,Wendelio
Venere,Wendelio-Seea/soDietlbpruchar,Magro;
Tieffenbrucker,Vendelirus
bowlshapeandcrosssection,5,'1,20,21,21
association
of maken,'7,2I,25,28,49,54,64,245,
246
ute familt 8
useofspacers,
a5
labelsandmaker's
marks,28,28,29
rcsettepanerhs,40,41,42,12, 44,41
bndge,49,19,50,50
rcck, 54,54, 57, 57
pegbox,64,64
pan,descant,ca.1580,239
pan,Renaissance
alto, 1592,242
bio,245,u6
noteon namevadations,24
Venetiariich, mrcept of 10,260
Venice.SeeDieffopruchar;Haor! Railich;Sellas;
Tiefenbrucker;Unvetdorben;Venere
Wood
lbr bowl,6,7,15,23
for neckblock,25,26
ot cnr']tercap,27, 27
ibr bely andbaring, 40
or bidge, 49,19, 5L,51, 52,52
forneck, 54 5'7,54. 55,59,60
for ingeoard, 54,51, 59,61
for pegbox,54-56,54 61,64-66,6
forpegs,68,8
Woodcuts,11,70,71
Yew Seeabo Bowl
tonequalitiesof, 7
in Dieffopruchar
lutes,7,2,21
shaded,
ir Sellas(schoolo0archlute,12,12
shaded,
in Sellastheorboatrly,1Z 13,14,15
in M. Hafion lute, 21
preferredLateRenaissance
woodfor bowls,23
whereitgrows,23
other uses,23
dbsletthickerthanfotharderwoodsorivory,
23
usedasandwith space$, 25
shadedyewinpaintirys byBaschenis,48,9
shadedyewdefinitio, 260