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E N G I N E E R I N G.


w~nds charged with moisture, is frequently so was subsequently raised to 28 centimes per car


BY C. S. Du R w uE PRELLER, ~LA., Ph.D.,
A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E E.
THE town of Marseilles now contains, with its
suburbs, close upon half a million inhabitants, and
in spite of the narrowness, the sharp curves, and
the steepness of many of its older streets, possesses one of the largest tramway systems in
F rance. The system, whose aggregate length is
upwards of f01ty miles of double line, is owned
and worked by the Compagnie Geoerale Francaise,
which also owns the tramways of Tours, Orleans,
Havre, Nancy, and Genoa (Italy); and the con-

shppery that a great deal of the useful energy of the

horses is l~st; so much so that the average work
per horse 1~ only about twelve miles per day, as
compared w1th twenty-two in some of the other
large towns mentioned. Under these circumstances
the company tried, on the new suburban exten~
sions constructed since 1890, various systems of
mechanical traction, such as R owan's steam cars
Me~arski's compressed air cars, and tramway loco~
mohves. The steam cars did not give very satisfactory results and were diticontinued, one of t he
principal reasons being that the consumption of
coke, which was about 3 kilogrammes per car kilometre (10.6 lb. per car mile) as long as the boiler

kilometre, or 4. 28d. per car mile. Both the electrical installation and the working of the Jine had
to be adapted to the peculiar and capricious traffic
of Marseilles; and the railway, therefore, presents
not only several characteristic, but, as regards
working experience, some very instructive features.
L ine.-The railway (4ft. Si in. gauge) is 6 kilometres or about 4 miles in length, and, with one
exception, is double throughout. I t starts (see
map, Fig. 1, and section, Fig. 2) from the wellknown central thoroughfare of Marseilles, the
Cannebiere, about 6 metres or 20 ft. above sea
level, and runs up the narrow Rue d' Aix with



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cession was granted for fifty years, the municipality

having the right of purchase on the principle of
valuation by experts. The older lines- viz., those
in the town itself, have always been, and are still,
worked by horse traction, the cost of which (40
centimes per car kilometre, or 6.12d. per car mile)
exceeds, however, considerably that in other large
towns in the South of Europe, such as Lyons
(35 cents. per kilometre, or 5.35d. per mile),
Bordeaux (32 cents. per kilometre, or 4. 9d. per
mile), Toulouse (30 cents. per kilometre, or 4.6d.
per mile), Genoa (29 cents. per kilometre, or
4.43d. per mile), Turin (27 cents. per kilometre,
or 4.13d. per mile), Milan (25 cents. per kilometre, or 3.82d. per mile), and Florence (25 cents.
per kilometre, or 3.82d. per mile).
The comparativ~ly high rate at ~Iarseilles is
owing, to some extent, to the unevenness of
the ground, but, more especialJy, to the fact of
the town being paved exclusively with porpbyrit!c
granite, which is not only exceedingly hard, but,
under the influence of the prevailing south-easterly

t ubes were clean, was dvubled when, after a fortnight or three weeks, the tubes became incrustated, so that the expenditure for fuel alone
amounted to 25 centimes (3 8d.) per car mile ; while
the compressed air cars, in order to accommodate
the traffic, had to be made so large and heavy
(14 tons) that in the crowded and narrow streets of
Marseilles they were not considered sufficiently
A third suburban extension in Marseilles is worked
with fairly eatisfactory results by tramway locomotives hauling three or four carriages ; but for the
most recently constructed extension, that of a road
railway from the centre of the town to the much frequented locality of St. Louis, n orth-west of Marseilles, the company adopted electr~cal traction by
motor cars with overhead wires, and let the contract for the construction and equipment to Messrs.
Sautter, Barle, and Co., of Paris, and the Oerlikon
\Vorks, of Zurich, the contractors guaranteeing that
the cost of traction should not exceed 22 centimes
per car kilometre, or 3. 36d. per car mile, which limit


grades of 5 to 6 per cent., then falling, traverses

the industrial suburb of St. Lazare with inclines of
2 to 4 per cent. , and then passing through the
suburbs of Les Grottes and La Cabucelle, rises
again to St. Louis, a station on the Lyons and
Paris Railway, with maximum grades of 3 to 5 per
cent. The rise thus represents altogtther 70 per
cent. and the fall 30 per cent. of the entire length,
throughout which there is not a single level section.
On the other hand, the curvature only constitutes
8 per cent. of the total length, while the radii vary
in the open line from 113 to 44 metres (5. 6 to 2. 2
chains), and only at the central depot descend to
15 metres or 0. 75 chain. There are nominally
three intermediate stations, but the motor cars
stop whenever required to pick up or set down
passengers. With the exception of the terminals
and fixed stations, the two lines are placed throughout in the centre of the roadway, which is 10 to 12
metres (33 ft. to 40ft. ) in width, while in the Rue
d' Aix- viz., the most crowded part of the line, the
roadway is only 7 metres or 23ft. in width. In
this section, about 350 metres (385 ft.) in length,
the line is only single, with pas~ing places at both
P ermanent 1Vay.- The granite pavement used in
the town and suburbs of Marseilles is of the unusual depth of 18 centimetres (7 in.), and this
necessitates a special type of permanent way
(see Figs. 3, 4, and 5), which, under similar conditions, has also been applied at Genoa. The
steel girder rails are an adaptation of the Phrenix
rail, but lighter, with a somewhat deeper groove
(3. 6 centimetres), and instead of the flange,
have a thickened web at the base. They are 10
centimetres (4 in.) in depth, 9.5 centimetres
(3.75 in.) wide at the head, 3 centimetres (1.18 in.)
at the base, and the web is 0 95 centimetre
(0.37 in.) in thickness, the weight being 27
kilogrammes per metre, or 54 1b. per yard
lineal. In the usual Phrenix permanent way, the
rails, generally 16 centimetres (6. 5 in.) in depth,
rest direct on the gravel or concrete bed, and are tied
by flat iron bars every 10ft. At Marseilles, on the
other hand, the rails are supported on chairs which
are bolted to Zores cross sleepers. The rails are 10
metres (32ft. 9. 7 in.) in length, and are laid not with
opposite, but with alternate joints. The distance
between centr5 of sleepers is 1 metre (3. 28 ft. ),
and 0.5 metre (1.64 ft.) at each alternate joint, so
that there are five sleepers to every half length of
rail. The sleepers, "hit:h are 1.7 metre (5. 5 ft.) in
length, weigh 17 kilogrammes (37.4lb.) each, or 29
kilogrammes (64 lb. ) with chairs, and the angle fish
joints, 44 centimetres (16.3 in.) in length, have nu
less than six bolts and are of peculiar form , clamping the rails at the base, as shown in the illustration. The permanent \vay is thus entirely of steel,
and weighs complete 85 kilogrammes per metre, or
170 lb. per yard lineal, as against only 82 kilogrammes or 164 lb. of the ordinary Phrenix girder
permanent way.
The steep grade section in the Rue d' Aix,
where a ~lippe r brake is used, is laid with 27



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54 lb. flange steel and guard
rails, resting on longitudinal ..JI- metallic bearings which are bolted to Zore's cross sleepers.
This permanent way costs as much as 70 fr. per
metre, or 51s. per yard. The girder-rail permanent
way, as described, is known in France as that of
M. Humbert, the general manager of the company.
It is certainly very substantial, but more complicated, and also more costly, than the ordinary
Phrenix 8ystem, its cost being, including laying,
but without paving, 20 fr., as against 16 fr. of t he
former per metre, or 14.5s. as against 11s. per yard
respccti vely. It possesses, however, for electric
traction in urban and suburban districts, the great
advantage of constituting a complete metallic
system which materially conduces to insure the continuity of the circuit through the rails.
Cent1al Station.-This is situated at 2.2 kilometres from the Marseilles and 3. 8 kilometres from
the St. Louis terminus, and forms part of the company's great "Lazaret" depot. 'l'his depot (see
Figs. 6 and 7, page 500), erected in 1891, and
covering no less than 8000 square metres, or
9560 square yards, comprises a three-storey frontal
building for offices, dwellings of the staff, and
stores ; a machine house, engine, and car sheds,
repair shops, two water tanks of a capacity
of 200 tons ; a coal shed for 1000 tons, and
two outer buildings at present used as stables for
200 horses. The depot serves at present for some
of the horse lines, for the line worked by steam
locomotives, and for the electric railway ; but it
will ultimately be exclusively used as an electrical
central station and depot of 1500 horse-power.
Original l ustallation. - ln accordance with the
original traffic estimate of the St. Louis line, the
steam and electrical plant, as at first put down,
comprised (a) three multitubular boilers of Nayer's
type of 90 square metres (968 square feet) heating
surface, each provided with heaters of 70 square
metres or 753 square feet, the maximum pressure
in boilers being 12 atmospheres, the working pressure 10 to 11 atmospheres, or 147 lb. to 160 lb. per
square inch, and the boilers being fed by a steam
pump and three injectors ; (b) three vertical and compound non-?o.ndensing H offmann_ engines m~de at
Oerlikon, g1vmg, at 275 revolutwns per mmute,
and 11 atmospheres pressure in boiler, 100 effective
horse-power each; a~d (c) three direc~ coupled
continuous current b1polar dynamos w1th drum
armature of the Oerlikon type, whose output at 550
volts was 66 kilowatt or 90 horse-power each.
N ew I nstallation.-For reasons which will appear
hereafter the oriainal plant of 300 horse-power
and a.f ter s1x
mon th s '
proved quite
working experience had t o be e~t.trely re!llodelled.
In the new installation, the ortgmal botlers have
been retained, as they easily vaporise up to
2000 litres, and on an average 1600 litres, or 3500 lb.,
..of water per hour each, or 4. 8 tons per hour total,

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E N G I N E E R I N G.

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and are thus capable of giving, at a consumption of

12 kilogrammes, or26.4lb., steam per horse-power
per. hour by the engines, a total of 400 horse-power,
whilat the ordinary maximum required is 300

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horae-power. A fourth boiler for reserve is, however, to be put up shortly .

The three vertical high-speed Hoffmann engines
have been r eplaced by three hori zontal singleacting condensing Corliss engines (two large and
one small) made at Van der Kerchove's works at
Ghent. The diameter of cylinders of the larger
engines is 56.9 centimetres (22 in.), that of the

smaller 40.6 centimetres (16 in.); the stroke is 121.9

centimetres (48 in.) and 106.7 centimetres (42 in.),
t he number of revolutions 80 and 85 per minute
respectively, and t he weight 33 and 22 tons respectively. At six atmospheres pressure in cylinders, the larger engines develop 250 horae-power at
11 per cent., and 300 horse-power at 16 per cent.
admission; the smaller 125 horse-power at 12 per



cent., and 160 h or se-power at 17 per cent. admission. With the H offmann engines, the m ean
consumption of fuel varied from 2 .5 to 4 ki~o .
grammes, or 5.5 lb. to 9 lb., and that of steam as
much as 20 kilogrammes (44 lb .) per hour per
horse-power, so that here, as in some cases elsewhere, the work done by these high-speed engines
was by no means economical. The Corliss engines
are guaranteed at twelve atmospheres pressure in
b oilers to work with a consumption of steam not
exceeding 9 kilogra mmes (20 lb.) per horse-power
per hour from full to no load. As will be seen
later on, the variations of load on such a line as
t~at of M l\rseilles are enormous, and in view of
this the Corliss engines are further guaraateed
not to vary in speed more than two revolutions
from full to quarter load within two minutes.
The condensed water, on leaving the condensers,
is collected in a small tank from which two suction pumps, a ctuated by toothed gearing from
the shaft of the small steam engines, drive it
into a Sec refrigerator (see Fig. 7). This latter
consists of a series of pipes arranged in a horizontal plane on the top of a reservoir, and provided with spray jets through which the water is
forced up to a height of 3 to 4 metres (10 ft. to
. 13 ft. ), its temperature being, by simple contact
with the air, r educed from 45 deg. to 25 deg. Cent.
(112 deg. to 76 deg. Fahr. ). This refrigerator is
con structed for a m~ximum refrigerating capacity
of 150 cubic metres or tons of water per hour, and
surmounts the sheet-iron r eservoir of 300 cubic
metres or t ons caplcity, supported by iron columns
and placed on the top of the coal sh ed.
The three 100 horse-power bi-polar directdriven dynamos have been replaced by beltdriven four-polar Oerlikon dynamos (Fig. 8) whose
drum armatures are series and compound wound
with cross-connections in the commutator, the
double winding being inserted in m i~a pld.t~
insulations fitted in grooves or slots of the
armature core, while the commutators are, not
of bron ze, but of hard laminated copper. Th e two
large dyna mos give at 300 revolutions per minu te
and 550 volts, a mean output of 206 kilowatt or 280
horse-power, whilst the smaller machine at 350
revolutions and t h e same voltage gives a. mean of
103 kilowatt or 140 h orse-power, total 700 h orsepower, equ al to 93.5 per cent. of the engine power.
The disadvantage of belt driving is thus fully compensated by the greater e fficiency obtained as
against the original dynamos driven on the same
shaft by engines not adapted to the extremely
variable loads. The dynamos also drive a small 5
h orsepower motcr of the repair shop. In the cables
between the dynamos and the s witchboard a fusible
wire is introduced to protect the dynamos in case
of short circuit.

in the south and west, under 30 in.

areas receiving under 46 in. and 54 in. r espectively ar e infinitesimally small, and situated in isolated patches n ear the southern coast, while only
one small patch n ear Table Mountain receives over
54 in.
Natal and the east coast generally are
better provided with forests and rain than the southwestern, or Cape portion, of South Africa. The
water difficulty for railway purposes is n ot ijO acute,
but the rains are chiefly summer rains. The major
portion of the Transvaal, British Bechuanaland,
and the northern third of the Orange Free State,
belong to a dry r egion similar in respect to r ain to
the n orth-western portion of the Cape Colony, and
the occasional. absence of water is a serious d ifficulty. On the whole, the effect of the climate of
South Africa. is such that the se1sons consist of
long-protracted droughts, interspersed by brief
p eriods of serious storms and floods. The rain,
being all bottled up, so to speak, for long periods,
falls, as it were, all of a heap . No ordinary water
openings along the railways can possibly provide
for the escape of these avalanches of water, so
little of which can possibly percolate below the
barren and baked surface of the ground, and most
of which flows rapidly off as surface water ; hence
the railways in South Africa are perpetua11y exposed to being carried away, and new waterways
have constantly to be added at great expense. The
above are some of the physical difficulties with which
engineering has had to contend in rail way building
in South Africa, and there is no doubt that they
have generally b een surmounted admirably.
In the laying out of lines in South Africa a great
amount of engin eering skill has been evinced with
respect to avoiding work as much as possible, and
they are generally so economically laid out that
they might be dubbed contractors' lines. This
was no doubt done in the Cape Colony in view of
the Railway Department b eing its own contractor,
and this would n ot be a matter for regret, but rather
for congratulation, had t he average cost of the lines
been lower than it is ; but taking the earlier lines
- i. e., before 1887- a.t their actual cost, it seems
rath er curious that s uch careful economy in laying
them out should have been necessary when so little
pecuniary saving was effected.
The limits of
curves and gradients adopted to enable the engineers to adhere closely to the natural contours of the
heavier ground, avoid tunnels, and diminish earthwork and bridges, as well as the lightness of the
permanent way originally adopted, were all in
favour of economy of construction. The limits
adopted at various times were as follows:
Gauge, 3ft. 6 in. : Cape Colony (Governm~nt),
on lines sanctioned in 1874. Maximum gradient,
1 in 35; minimum curve, 5 chains; weight of rail,
45! lb. iron and 46t lb. steel.
Gauge, 3 ft. 6 in. : Cape Colony (Government),
(T o be continued.}
on lines sanctioned in 1881. Maximum gradient,
1 in 40 ; minimum curve, 8 chains ; weight of rail,
60 lb. steel.
Gauge, 3 ft. 6 in. : Cape Colony (Government),
on lines sanct ioned in 1888. Maximum gradient,
(Continued from page 328. )
curve, 10 chains ; weight of
THE configuration of South Africa, though at 1 in 40 ' minimum
first sight suitable for rail way purposes, consisting, rail, 60 lb. steel.
Gauge, 3ft. 6 in. : Cape Colony (private~, s~nc
as it does, mainly of vast plains, separated by
ridaes of hills, rarely risi ng to mountains, running tioned befor e 1877, e.g., Port Nolloth-0 Okiep.
p are:ulel for the most part with the coa~t lin.e, is First section : maximum gradient, 1 in 75 ; minireally far from suitable. For these plams he. at mum curve, 300 ft. ; rail, 18 lb. Second section:
various elevations in a series of steps, and the rise maximum gradient, 1 in 20; minimum curve,
Third section : maximu.m
from one to the oth er is generally very sudden and 150 ft. ; rail, 28 lb.
And the plains . themselves are. by n o gradient, 1 in 30 ; minimum curve, 250 ft. ; ratl,
m eans level plains, a nd the1: surfaces offer In ~any 28 lb.
Gauge 3 ft. 6 in. : Sanctioned since 1882, e.g.,
cases inclinations as rapid as the maxtmum
gradient. The peculiar dryness o.f the climate of Graham~town and Port Alfred Rail way and
the Cape is in rail way as well as agriCultural matters, Central Railway. Maximum gradient, 1 in 40;
. woes and wan t s. , minimum curve, 8 chains; weight of rail, 46! lb.
'' the cause' at once of all t h e1r
iron). .
The country has b een g radually denuded by bush steel (same section as older 45!
Gauge, 3 ft. 6 in. : N ~tal, on l~nes sanctt?n.ed In
fires and careless tree-cutting, and this has intensified the action vf the sun and the desert winds, till 1879. Maximum g radtent, 1 1n 30; minimum
the greater part of t he land of the colony is glazed curve, 300 ft. ; weight of rail, 4.6! lb. steel (this
with baked clay, from '!'hich t.he water .runs ?ff as since 1887 has been altered, hke on the Cape
fa<lt as it falh. There 1s n othmg to r etatn m01sture system, to 60 lb. steel).
Gauge, 3 ft. 6 in. : Dd1a~oa Bay .and Tl'ansvaal
and allow of slow filtration except in the neighbourhood of the Kings1nd and Anatola forests, and the system. Maximum grad1ent, 1 1n 50. except
of two to three miles on the Elansburg
few miles of territory that are moderately wooded. lenath
There is really no certainty as to water supply. (Devil's Contoor), which is 1 in 25; minimum curve,
About on e-sixth of the whole area of th e Cape and 12 chains ; weight of rail, 60 lb.
Gauge, 2ft. : Beira system. !dax1mu.m gradte~t,
Orange Free State combined, t.h e nort~-west corner
of the Cape, receive under 6 tn. of ram annually ; 1 in 40 ; minimum curve, 4 chains ; we1ght of rail,
three-sixths, viz. , t he central a~d south-wes~ern 28 lb.
On page 612 will b e found en~ravi n~s of some of
p ortion, receive
~nder 18 In., and chiefly
winter rains ; one-thtrd , the eastern and Orange the rolling stock on the Be1ra Railway. qur
Free St1.te, with a few detached sm1ll areas views comprise a locomotive and first and third


class carriages, all constructed to run on a line of

2 ft. gauge. The locomotive has cylinders 8 in. in
diameter by 15 in. stroke, and has six coupled
wheels. The boiler shell and frames are of best
mild steel, the firebox of the best selected copper,
and the tubes of solid drawn brass. The axles,
wheel tyres, and motion bars are of Bessemt-r
steel, the wheel centres of cast iron, and the connecting and coupling rods of Bessemer steel. The
chimney is of the spark-arresting type ; a cowcatcher
is fixed to the front of the engine. The following
are the principal dimensions :
. ..
2 ft.
Gauge of rails
Wheel base (engine)
9 ft. Gin.
(tend er)
. ..
4 ,, G ,
Diameter of cylinders . . .
. ..
8 in.
Length of stroke . ..
15 ,
Diameter of wheels (engine) ...
2ft. 8 in.
2 , 0 ,
Section of tyres . ..
. ..
. .. 3i in. by 2 in.
Size of axle journals (engine} .. ~ , , 4 ,
(tender) . .. 6 , p ~t 10.
Diameter of piston-rods ...
1 ~ in.
L ength of boiler barrel . ..
6 ft. 11 in.
(mean} . ..
2 , 9 ,.
Diameter of
Thickness of plates
S in.
copperfirebox plates,
crown, sides, and top . . .
. ..
Thickness of tubeplates where
.. .
i ,
tubes enter
Number of tubes, 75; diameter
1~ ,
Heating surface of tubes.. .
247 ?q. ft.
fire box
. ..
29 ,
Total heating surface
276 ,
Grate area . ..
. ..
. ..
4~ ,
O.a.pacity of tender water tank . ..
500 gallons
coal box
25 cwt.
.. .
9~ tons
Weight of engine (net} . ..
, (in working order)
11 ,
tender (net) ...
.. .
(loaded) ...
. ..
6; ,
The first-class carriage (Fig. 2, page 512) is
divided into four compartments 6 ft. 2k in. long by
4 ft. 9! in . wide by 6 ft. 5! in. high, all inside
measurements. Each of t hese compartments has
seating accommodation for six passengers. The
underframe is constructed of channel steel, with
solebars and bea.dstocks of 7k in. by 2! in. by {~ in.
section. The floor is of best red deal1 in. thick, laid
lon gitudinally, and covered with linoleum. The
whole of the body framing, outside panels and
mouldings, are of best Moulmein teak.
The r oof is made d ouble, with 3 in. air space
between inner and outer roofs ; the outer roof is of
r ed deal
in. thick, and covered with sailcloth ;
the inner r oof is also of red deal ~ in. t hick, t h e
underside teing covered with Lincrusta.- 'vValton,
made in panels to s uit the spaces between the r oof
sticks. The seats and backs are upholstered in
buffalo hide, stuffed with curled horsehair and
fitted with nest springs. The quarters, door panels,
and back panels above and below the parcel rack
are covered with Lincrusta-W a.lton, and borders of
satin walnut. The quarter lights and doors are
glazed with 26-oz. sheet glass, fixed in sliding
frames of teak, with spring fittings to prevent
rattling. Blinds of the venetia.n type are arranged
to slide in the same way as the glass frames. The
outer roof is made to overhang the side of the
carriage, to which are secured sun screens of r ed
deal, extending the full length of carriage. In
t his and other ways provision has been made to
meet the requirements of a tropical climate. The
side frame and cross-bars of the bogie are made of
angle iron 6 in. by 4 in . by i in., fitted with a castiron centre and steel pin. Th e wheels are of chilled
cast-iron 22 in. in diameter. The axle is 3k in. in
diameter at the centre, with button-ended journals
2 ~ in. by 5 in. The bearing springs are steel
coils, 3}; in. in outside diameter, and of rectangular
section."' The bogies are not fitted with brakes.
The dra.wgear is of the cent~al Norwegia~ typ~,
combined draw and buffers, w1th volute sprmgs ; 1t
is also fitted w1th two safety chains at each end.
The weight of the carriage in running order is 4!
The following are the ptincipal dimensions of
the third-class bogie carriage :
Ft. In.

Gauge .. .





. ..

2 0
24 6
29 7

Length of body inside

. ..
. ..
. ..
,. over platforms . ..
6 3
Width over body, extreme
. ..
Width of doorway . ..
. ..
. ..
5 1l
. ..
. ..
, from top of floor to underside of
roof . . .
.. .
. ..
. ..
G 5~
Bogie C',en tres.. .
. ..
. ..
. ..
. .. 19 0
Wheel base (bogie) ...
.. .
. ..
3 0
The carriage is constructed with one compartmen._, with a pa2sage down the centre and longitu-

OcT. 27, 1893.]

dina.l seats on each side, with a total seating
accommodation for thirty-eight passengers. The
platforms at each e_nd are 2 ft. 3~ in. long, with
entrances at each s1de protected by wrought-iron
gates of neat design, and strong wrought-iron handrailing. At t he centre of each platform provision
has been made for crossing from one car to another
by means of a hinged cheq uered plate.
The underframe is constructed of channel steel
of the same sections and general desian as the firstclass carriage before described. The bogies are
also of the same design as those of the first-class
carriige, with the addition of a brake acting on all
the four wheels on each bogie. The whole of the
body framing, outeide panels, and mouldings, are of
teak. The roof is made double, and with sun
screens extending the full length of the body. The
seats and backs are made in lath and space of pitch
pine and teak, got up with the natural grain
and varnished. The head panels over the windows ioside are of teak, with teak mouldings.
There are ele""Ven windows on each side, glazed with
26-oz. sheet glass fixed in sliding frames of teak ;
also blinds of venetia.n type made to slide the
same as the glass frames. Over five windows on
each side, hit-and-miss ventilators are provided ; a
small water tank for drinking purposes is fixed at
one end of the carriage at a suitable height above
the platform. Central hinged doors divide the
interior from the platforms. A powerful screw
brake is fixed at one end of the carriage, acting on
all eight wheels.
The whole of this r olling stock has been constructed by the Brush Electric Engineering Company, Limited, at th e Falcon Engine and Car
" ' orks, Lough borough.
(To be continued.)


(Continued jr&m page 478.)
SEVERAL paper.3 of an educational charac~er

E N G I N E E R I N G.
such instruction has risen from 173 to 788. Of the
scholars under the School Board of L ondon the
number of those joining the science classes has ~isen
from 2000 in 1891, to 2G 000 in 1892 and 40 000 in
1893. The miefortune of' all such deb'ates Pr~fessor
0. Lodge put in, is that the head masters' cannot be
compelled to listen.
A pa_Per by ~ord Ray leigl1, ''A Simple Interference
E~per1ment, may also be mentioned here. In
th1s apparatus, light from a single slit illuminated
by the sun or a lamp, passes down a tube a foot
long, and falls on two very fine slits, very dose to
one another. An eye placed at the back of the
slite sees beautiful bands. The eye replaces a lens.
In our eye we ha~e, afl Mr. Glazebrook remarked
after~ards, a lens and a screen, so that, in mA.ny
exl?e~1ments, a telescope can be dispensed with.
ThlS 1s a fact not generally recognised.

This is another question constantly forcina itself

upon the_ atte~tion of every man interested i~ pure
and apphed sctence. The discussion which a. paper
of the above title, by Mr. A. B. Bassett, F.R.S"
called forth in Section A, elicited, at any rate, t he
news that the R oyal Society is aware of the
urgency of the question, and ready to do something.
Mr. Bassett was not present. He deals with two
main schemes : firstly, all papers of importance
sh o~ld b_e p_ubli~h~d in a central organ- hardly
~eas1ble, 1n h1s op1n10n ; secondly, a digest containmg an abstract of such papers should, from time
t o tinu', be published. For this purpose authors
sho~ld append a headnote to their papers, briefly
settmg forth the object of the investigation. Such
headnotes should be copied and arranged every
three or four years, and a digest published. Mathematic_ians could ~uy their mathematical digest,
chemists the chem1cal one. This is what the Incorporated Society for Law Reporting has been doing
for years. Mr. Bassett thinks that an arrangement
could be made, perhaps, with Na tvTe , and suggests
a committee of the British Association. Mr. J ames
Swinburne wished t o bear in mind what amateurs
did for science, and alluded to the ueages of
societies. The actual reading of papers was unnecess9.ry, the expense cf publication was often
underrated ; he h oped the Physical Society would
take the matter up. Professor Fitzgerald repudiated
the idea of an index, abstracts were needed ;
a translation of Wiedemann's B eibliitte1, which
published excellent abstracts, might go a long
way towards solving the difficulty. Professor
Rucker concurred. Professor Carey F oster reminded the section t hat t he reports of the British
Association committees did a great deal of useful
work of this kind- the decriers of the British
Association often forget this. L ord Rayleigh agreed
that abstracts were needed. A translation of the
Beibliitte1 would, h owever, not satisfy him. The
chief difficulty in all such procedures was the exercise
of censorship ; the Royal Society, which he represented as secretary, had already appointed a commit tee. Mr. Glazebrook, in closing the discussion,
remarked that the problem was one for the whole
Association. It is indeed, and for the technical
press as well . Something like a thorough reform is
needed if scientists and practical men are not to
waste half of their time in searching for what may
be hidden concerning a particular subject in all
sorts of papers under all sorts of titles.

brought before the section. The most important
one was that by Professor Car ey Foster, F .R.S.,
Dean of University College, "Apparatus for Elem ~ntary Class \Vork in Practical Physics. " Profes~or Foster took the trouble to exhibit some of
his apparatus for the practice of his students, and
to demonstrate their use. The students, he emphasised, should take part in the experiments at an
early stage.
Hence we needed simple inexpensive apparatus readily multiplied. The designer of
such certainly deserves the greatest praise. Professor Carey Foster's demonstrations were highly
appreciated by the learned professors and less
learned mem hers.
Mr. \V. B. Croft's paper, "Physics Teaching in
Schools," dealt more with the general features of a
scientific and practical training. At his school in
\Vinchester the suggestions of the Duke of Devonshire's Committee of twenty years ago are acted
upon, according to which simple mechanics, heat,
and hydrostatics fall to the second year, chemistry
to the third and fourth, geology to the fifth, electricity to the sixth, acoustics and optics to the
seventh year. The curriculum requires seven years'
attendance, the two last years being essentially devoted to practical demonstration. In another
paper, read on a different day, Mr. Croft described
"Simple Apparatus for Observing and Photographing Interference and Diffraction Phenomena."
The photographs which he threw on the screen GRINDING .AND PoLISHING OF GLAss S uRFACES.
proved that his simple apparatus answered remarkLord Rayleigh's m ost interesting account of
ably well.
some of his recent work proves that grinding and
Mr. A. E . Hawkins, of Bedford, referred, in his polishing Are two entirely different operations. A
" Notes on Science Teaching in Public Schools," to properly ground glass should not show scratches,
the examination craze, which is now being abused at but detached pits, produced by the pressure of the
almost every meeting of teachers, and yet appears emery particles, both the glass and the emery
so firm ly established. There is a whole literature being disintegrated during the op(.)ration. Simple
living simply on examinations; we have examiners, grinding produces extraordinarily good results ;
fees, grants, prizes, and scholarships ; the system ground lenses, and even plane glasses, have reoffers too great advantages to some of all classes markable definition, the s un's edge appearing as
concerned. This, however, is not what Mr. sharp as when seen through a cloud, but there is
Hawkins said. He demanded ample time for the great loss of light from irregular reflection. Grindscience teacher to prepare his experiments ; appa- ing is comparatively easy and quick work; polishing
ratus for the boys, who should take comprehensive with tool, pitch, and rouge a very tedious and delinotes, &c. The discussion showed that competent cate task. But we cannot dispense with the latter.
men, Mr. Glazebrook, Professors Fitzgerald and 0. L ord Rayleigh ascertained, by weighing and interLodge, Mr. De J ones, Mr. Emtage, Dr. Glade ton(.), ference observations, how much of the surface
also differed from the Science and Art Department, depth can be and must be removed by polishing.
and would prefer inspection to examination. Dr. \Vhen 2. 5 wave lengths of the sodium line have
Gladstone gave some very interesting figures about been rubbed off, a good polish is obtained; four
the progress of elementary science teaching. During wave lengths give a complete polish. The polishthe past two years, the number of schools imparting ing wears down the surface to the bottom of the

pits. This is an almost molecular removal of surface molecules ; but Lord Rayleigh did not hold
out any h?pe to Professor Fitzgerald, who wished
to determme molecular dimensions by counting the
strokee, . &c. Hydrofiuoric acid may perhaps help
us to qu1cken the polishing process. The acid eats
away tho surface in so regular a manner that 0.5
and ev~n 0.1 wave length may thus be removed.
The aCld attacks the surface, and widens the pits
finalJy leaving a sort of cell structure. Anothe;
mathematical paper by LOJ d Rayleigh "The
Theory of Reflection from Corrugated S~rfaces,"
had reference to these investigat!ons.

~rofessor Safarik, of Prague University, sent

th1s _su~mary of the _r~sults of long continued investJgatwna to the Brttlsh Association-he was not
present-because the reflecting telescope is essentially an English instrument. A detatled account
will appear in the Transactions of the Royal
Bohemian Society of Sciences. We trust to
refer. to this work more fully on an earJy
occaswn. Dr. Safarik has tried silver specula
of F oucault's type, has addfd zinc recommended by ~ingsley, and tried a great number
of alloys, whtch he hard_ened by admixing arsenic,
phosph~rus (preferable tn many ways), antimony,
tron , mckel, cobalt, and lead. His best and late~:~t
alloys cannot be broken b~ the test apparatus,
and must be more than s1x times as strong as
Rosse's metal. These alloys should contain their
?Onstituents in ato_mistic proportions. The grindmg of such alloys 1s much more difficult than the
grindin~ of glass, as the all<,ys have a distinctly
crysta.lhne structure. Metallic specula must be
worked roughly on a convex tool of wet sandstone,
or turned on a lathe, and then finished on tools of
iron . ~r glass, exactly turned or ground to the
requ1s1te curvature, and equally pasted over with
emery paper or cloth of increasing fin(.)ness. The
author now prefers slabs of slate to iron tools nnd
P?lishes on pitch. The paper, which offers pra~tical
hmts on many parts of the work, contains a. table
of strengths of different alloys. Some doubt was
expressed in the section whether these strengths
signified the Young modulus.
A paper contributed by Mr. \V. P . Shaboldt,
''A New Artificial H orizon, " describes special
arrangements made for preventing evaporation of
mercury, and the disturbing influences of air
and moisture. The instrument is thus fitted for
tropical climates, and observations under very
small anglee.
Of the remaining miscellaneous papers, we can
onlr mention " A ~ew Form of Air Pump, " se1fac~mg and automatic, to be worked with sulphuric
actd when mercury vapours would be obnoxious,
by Professor J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. ; and Dr.
Trouton's "A Peculiar Motion Assumed by Oil
Bubbles in Ascending Tubes containing Caustic
Solutions." Last year, at Edinburgh, Dr. Trouton
showed the periodic effect which the size of bubbles
has on their velocity of ascent in vertical tubes
containing liquids. Whilst continuing these experiments in a tube accidentalJy impure with caustic
potash, he observed that peculiar spiral motions
result, if the alkalinity is not more than io ~00 . Incipient saponification affects the surface' tension,
and causes this motion ; if the solution is strong
enough to produce emulsion, no such motion is
observed. A long glass tube conlaining a bubble
of 3 in. length of sweet oil was inverted ; waves
begin to develop like the knots of a bamboo. Theee
waves are soon replaced by spiral waves, which are
more stable, because they allow t he water to pass
through. The bubble rises in a spiral, and when
the tube is inclined, in a slow caterpillar crawl.

Professor Emerson Reynolds, F.R.S., prefaced

his presidential address to Section B by a bt ief
r etrospect. 'Vhen the British Association met at
Nottingham in 1866, Dr. Bence Jones, then president of this rection, had dwelt upon ' ' Chmical
Science in Medical Education." Profeesor ReJ nolds,
himself an M.D., saw the nec~ssity of again emphasising the importance of the chemical portion
of that education. The last year has hardly been
marked by discoveries of popular interest. The
chi(_)f importance of Moissan's artificial diamonds
lies, perhaps, in the circumstance that these minute
crystals are t:imilar to those recoguiEed by K ren ig,

E N G I N E E R I N G.



(For Description, see Page 507.)


F ig. 1.

.. -- .

Fig. 2 .

F ig. 3.
Mallard, Daubree, and Friedel in the supposed
meteorite of the Canon de Diablo in Arizona.
Other events are Dr. P arkins' r esearches on
electro-magnetic rotatio~ ; Lord R~yleigh's .on the
density of gases ; Dewar s on chemical reactiOns at
extremely low temperature; Clowes' on flame-cap
measurements ; H orace Brown and Morris on the
chcmistry and physwlogy of foliage. These latter
investigators have come to the startling conclusion

that cane-sugar is the first sugar produced during

t he assimilation of carbon, and t hat starch is formed
at its expense as a reserve material. Important
are also the researches of Cross, Bevan, and Beadle
on the interaction of alkali-cellulose and carbon
bisulphide. The enumeration of these discoveries
brings Professor Reynolds to the burning question,
the utilisation of t he vast stores of facts laid up in
the various Transactions, Berichte, Annales, &c.

His own work on " Thiourea " has proved to him

how many times derivatives are re-discovered and
imperfec~ly identifi.~d. The remedy, or one remedy,
he finds In exhaustive monographs. Comparative
chemistry is a vast field. It comprises the colours
of certain compounds, and their constitution a
problem on which the controversy between A;mstrong, Hartley, and others may throw light.
The colours of cert! metals, gold, copper, <1tn d

E N G I N E E R I N G.



(Fm Desc1iption, see Page 507.)

Fig. 4


F ig. 5.

Fig. 6.
more so of nickel and cobalt, whose atomic weights
differ so slightly that the possibility of experimental
errors is not excluded (Ni 58.6, Co 58. 7), seem to
point to complex structure, and perhaps something
like isomerism. The Rev. Dr. Haughton has taken
up a sugge!tion which Mendeleieff made in his
Royal Institution lecture, May 31, 1889, and has

applied Newton 1s third law of motion to chemical

molecules, regarded as a system of atoms analogous
to double stars. He finds that Newton 1 S three
laws are applicable, " with this difference, that
whereas the specific coefficient of gravity is the
same for all bodies, independent of the particular kind of matter of which they are composed,

the atoms have specific coefficients of attraction

which vary with the nature of the atoms concerned. 11 Professor Reynolds then passes to the
comparative study of carbon and silicon. Carbon
whether combined with oxygen, nitrogen, or hydro:
gen, is the great element of organic nature whilst
Bilicon, in union with oxygen and variou~ 'metals

no~ only forms one-third of th~ solid earth crust,
but is unq uestionably the m~st 1mpo~tant element

of inorganic nature. The chtef functwns of carbon

are those performed at comparatively low temperature hence carbon is essen tially the ele ment of
the present epoch . The activities of silicon a:re
m ost m~rked at very high ; hen.ce 1ts
chief work in nature was p erformed tn t h e dtstant
past when the temperature of this earth was fa.r
bey~nd that at which the ca.rbo~ com.poun ds of
organic life co uld exist. Th~ . d1scuss1on of ~he
analogies between carbon and sthcon, some of yv htch
h ave lono- b een under stood, and to which Professor
Reynold; has made noteworthy additions, constitutes t he main pl.rt of the address. H e ha~
obtained an allyl thiourea, a singularly viscid fluid,
which req uires several days to regain its level w_hen
a tube containing it is inverted. The P!l-per brmgs
out an interesting analogy b etween nttrogen and
aluminium, m olten aluminium freely dissolving
Professor Reynolds regards the many
alumino-silicates as final oxidation products of
some silico-aluminium analogues to carbon -ni t rogen
compounds. Those silicates may be r egarded. as
t eleoxidised r epresentatives of substances whiCh
foreshad o wed, in terms of silicon, aluminium, and
oxyO'e n, the compounds of carbon, nitrogen, and
hyd~ogen r equired, at a later stage of t h e earth 's
history, for living organisms.
(To be continued.)


TnE very great succes. of chilled ca,t-iron car
wheels in America lends interest to an account of the
chief difficulties found in their manufac ture, and the
points on which their good service depends. . A per~ect
chilled car wheel should meet the foll<1w1ng requtrements: 1. The tread should be perfectly cylindrical.
~. The tread and inside of the flange should be per
fectly smooth, and free from any defect that would
impai r the integrity a..nd homogeneousness of the
metal forming the parts subject to abrasion against
the rail. 3. A section throug h the tread and inside of
th e flange should show a line conformin g accurately to
the chilling surface. 4. The wheel, when broken,
should show a shell of white iron about ft in. in thick
ness, extending inward from the parts subject to abrasion. This shell of white iron should be uniform in
thickness both around and across the tread. 5. The
wheel, considered as a. casting, should be free from
any of the defects incident to general foundry work.
In practice the above conditions are never realised,
the required perfection being more or less impaired by
the following defects : a. Lack of roundness. b. Chill
cracks. c. Rongh treads. rl. Slag in tread. fJ. . S weat
and depression in throat. f. Irregularity in the depth
and hardnes1 of the shell of white or cbille::l i ron on
which the durability of the wheel depends. r;. Too
great or too small depth of white iron. There are other
defects which are also common to general castings, but
th ese need not be discussed.
In order to fully appreciate the character and
importance of the defects mentioned above, a definite
idea should be obtained of what takes place as a
car-wheel mould is filled with molten metal. The
molten metal enters at the boss, distributes itself over
th e bottom of the mould, and gradually rises t o a leYel
with the point of the flange. It here first comes in
contact with the chill. It then gradually rises, covering the inside of the flange, the throat, the tread, and
finally fi lls the mould. The length of time consumed
in p ouring varies from 20 to 30 seconds, sometimes
falling below the minimum and often exceeding the
maximum . It will be seen from the above that between the time the molten metal first touches the chill,
and the completion of the pouring, an interval of some
10 or 15 seconds occurs. This is an important point,
and should be carefully borne in mind, for ex periments
show that when molten metal is poured against a
chill of cast iron a contact of 10 seconds is sufficient
t o form a solid shell about ! in. in thickness. We
have then in the ordinary process of pouring a wheel
at the instant the mould is filled tho following condition of things :
A shell of solidified metal still red hot, about i in.
i~ thickness, h~s been ! ormed against th e flange port10n of the ch1ll. Th1s shell gradually d ecreases in
thickness until at the top of the chill it is just beginning to form. As the co0ling operation proceeds, the
shell thickens, but it should also be borne in mind that
almost as soon as the shell formt:J again~t the chill it
commences to contract, so that t he shell formed at the
flange has made a notable contraction by the time
it is beginning to form against the t op of the chill.
The chill itself is r apidly ext racting heat from the
molten metal, and commences to expand. The mol ten
metal composing the body of the wheel exerts an outward pressure against the tender red -hot shell of metal

E N G I N E E R I N G.
and resists its contraction. The operations. d~scribed
above gradually continue until the wheel sohd1fies.
The phenomena just described should be clearly
borne in mind, as on th em depend nearly all.the d efects peculiar to wheels. These d efects comp.n se:
A. Lar/.; of Rounclnc~s. - of r oundness 1s a defect
which of late years has attractP.d a great deal of ?-tten
tion and is g rowing in importance as the capac1ty of
cars' and t he speed of trains ~ncrease. I ts causes a re :
(a) L:ick of ro und ness of ch1ll. (b)_ Irregular ex pl.nsion of chill. (c) I rregular contractwn of \>\:heel. . A
car wheel chill composed of a ring of cast 1ron. wtth
various lugs and trunnions attached , and subJected
daily t o the heat of !1 mass o~ rn olten . metal J?Oured
agains t it, s oon loses 1ts rot.un~1ty. I~ ts the~ Impossible to cast a round wheel1n 1t. Agam, the 1r~egul~r
expansion of a chill will produce a wheel defictent m
roundness, even though the chil1, when cold, se~ms to
be practically perfect. The irregu~ar contra~t10n ~f
the wheel appears to have some 10fluence. tn thts
respect. A careful inspection . of wheel~ w1ll of~en
show slight depressions from 6 10. t o 12 1n. o~ 15 w .
in length, extending around the. tread. It 1s more
than likely t hat these depress10ns a~e ! ormed .by
irregular contraction of the shell of sohd u on whtch
first forms against the ~hill.
B. Cltill Cracl.:s.-Tht s defect makes 1ts appearance
as a crack across the tread or flange, or acr oss both.
A chill crack in the flange is caused by severe contraction in much th e same way as a thin plate of hot met al
is cracked by the application o.f water . It is en.tirely
prevented by turniug a groove 10 the flange por t1?n ?f
the chill, as shown at A, Fig. 8 (page 501 ), an~ fillmg 1t
with sand. The chill crack across the tread 1s caused
by the pressure of the molten metal, composing the b~d y
of the wheel, against the tender red-hot shell wh1ch
first forms against the chill. In its origin it is properly
a tear, the s tren gth of the metal compoai~g the shell
being inadequate in its red -hot state to r es1st the pressure of th e molten metal against which it is contractiog.
H ot and fast pou rio g increases th e tendency to produce
chill cracks. Cold and slow pouring has a tendency
to prevent them. It is universally conceded that th e
hotter and faster a wheel is pou red the bet ter th e
quality, material being the same, and the princi pal
skill of the wheel moulder consists in pouring the
metal as hot and as fast as possible without incu rring
too great a loss from chill cracks. In t he endea ,our
to avoid chill cracks there is a constant tendency on
the part of the moulder to slow and cold potl ring.
This leads to the prod uction n.nd aggravation of the
defect s termed rough tread, slag in tread, sweat and
d epression in t hroat, and irregular ~ epth of white iron.
C. Rough 1'rPad.- Rough tread 1s caused by undu lations and bubbling of the molten metal as it flows
against the chill. It shades ofT from being so serious
as to condemn the wheel to waves and seams t hat are
almost imperceptible. Pouring th e metal at a. very
high t emperature, an d very fast, r educes this trouble
to a. minimum; cold and slow pouring aggravates it.
D. 1 1lag in 'l'read. -~ 'lag in tread occurs in genera l
as small depressed spots wi t h a minute cavity in the
centre. In wheels of ordinary good quality it is a
d efect of rar e occurrence. It, like rough tread, is
aggravated by cold and slow pouring, and reduced by
hot an d fast pouring.
E. 1 1 weat and D PJnnsion in Throat .- On inspecting
a wheel this d efect appears to the eye as a d epression
extend ing aro und the \\lheel in t he th roat. It varies
considerably in dep t h in t he same wheel. In the
deeper parts of this depression are frequently found
small beads of iron closely attached to the surface.
This phenomenon is designated by the t erm "sweat."
S weat and d epression in throat are closely allied, and
are caused as follows : The shell of the metal solidifying against the inside of the flange portion of the
chill, commences t o con tt-act before the p ouring of the
wheel is completed. In contracting it carries with it
the thinner shell forming against the t hroat. The
molten metal so nearl y r emelts the shell a t the throat
that it issues through in drops. Very slow pouring
aggravat es this defect, an d fast pouring greatly redu ces it.
weat is a sure indication that where it
occurs th e depth of white iron is very much less th an
at any other portion of th e tread. The dep ression referred to above may be observed in wheels in service
which often run many miles before wearing smooth i~
the throat.
. F. ]JTe(pdar~ty ~n Depth of }VhitP bon.-:-Irr:gularity
m d epth of wh1te 1rou exerts a most senous mfi ttence
on the service of wheels. I t is caused by irregular
separation between the chill and the wheel and occurs
in t wo forms. In the firat form the sh~ll of white
iron varies in depth around the tread, so that inst:ad of fo~ming a. ';lniform shell about t in. in
t htckness, 1t drops 10 places to t in. and less.
The second form shows itself as a redu ction in th e
depth of wh ite iron at the throat. This decrease in
the depth of white iron at the throat occurs in conjun~tion with sweat and depressions in throat. Expenmen ts demonstrate that if a block of cast iron be
formed against a chill, and the chill removed in less
than 40 seconds, the d epth of white iron will be less

[OcT. 27, 1893.

than if th e chill were allowed to remain until the block
had become cold. Many measu remen t s . mad_e of the
depth of white iron on wheels a nd o f pla.m c~1ll blocks
o f the same metal, have shown t hat the max tmurl'! and
minimum d epth of white iron, me~sured at the rr.rddle
of th e tread, is 70 per cent. and >0 p er cent. respecti \'ely of t hat of the block, and measured at the
t hroat is 50 per cent. and 33 per cent. The decreased d epth of w hite iron in th e w heel, ~s comar ed with the plain block, is due to se~a~at10n befween the chill and the wheel before the chtlhng operation is completed, t he variation around_ t he tread
being due to earlier separation a t some pomts than at
others. The decreased depth of white iro~ at the
throat, as com pared with that on the t~ead, ts due to
premature shrinkage of the sh~ll form10g the .fla nge,
as explained under the head1ng of dcp ~esswn at
throat. It, as well as sweat and d epre.s&lon at th e
throat is remedied by turning a groove m the flange
portio~ of the chill and. filli~g it with sand,. as ~how_n
at A , Fig. 8. Irregulanty m deJ?th of whtte Iron ts
Ycry much incr eased by slow pourmg.
G. 1'oo Great or too Smccll et, D e]Jlli of 1J late b on. This defect is a matter of the chilling quality of the
metal used although it may be modified, as shown
above, by the manner of pouring. In t_he first case,
brittle and unsafe wheels are produced ; m the second,
wheels which are deficient in durability.
T o r ecapitu late, t he following ~ ircumstances contmually militate against the productwn of~ perfect wheel.
First, the t endency to chill crack, for cmg the moulder
to pour molten metal a t too low a tem peratur e and
too slowly; second, slow and cold pouring ~rodu?es
r ough treads, slag in_tre~d, s wea~, ltLck of umfo:m 1ty
in the Cl epth of w h1 te 1ron ; th1rd, the expansion of
the chill a.nd the contraction of the wheel produce
lack of roundness variation in chill, and a red uction
in depth of white' iron, as compared with the normal
chilling q ualities of the iron used.
In order to obviate and reduce as much as p oss1ble
the difficulties peculia r to wheel making described above,
Mr. J. M. B1.rr, of \ Vest Milwaukee, has devised
wh a t is now genera lly kn own as the contracting chill.
Its constru ction is shown in F igs. 1 t o 9, on page 501.
The cope, drag, and bottom board are virtually the
same as are used in ordin ary flasks, a nd are made <J f
cast iron (Fig. 6). The contracting chilJ , instead of
being formed of a. continuous ring of cast i ron, is composed of a series of blocks wh ich are held rigidly
in position by an outside r etaining rin g ; these blocks
have spaces between th em to p ermit circumferen tial
ex pansion of the blocks when heated , a nd to overccme
any t endency to increase t he diameter of chill taken as
a whole. The outer hollow ring serves a dou ble p ul'pose. It sustains t he chill blocks rigidl y in p osition,
and also p erforms th e functions of a chuck, impa rtin g
to the chill blocks a. un iform, ec1ual, rad ial motion ,
both t oward a..nd from the cen tre of the chill. This
motion of th e chill blocks is obtaine<l by alteruately
and uniform ly hen.tiog and cooling the hollow rin g.
The agents used to effect the heating and cooling are
steam and cold wat2r. They are introduced through
one set of pipes, and allowed to escap e through another.
These pipes ar<:' each provided with eight openings
uniformly d istributed as shown. This arrangement of
openings insures a uniform d istribution of the heating
and cooling agent, and a consequent uniform expansion
and con traction of t he hollow ring (Fig. 6). As th e
chill blocks are rigidly attachecl to t he ring, a uniform
increase and decrease in the diameter of t he chilling
surface formed by the in~id e faces of the chill blocks are
The m.ocltu~ operancli of t he chill is as follows :
Twenty or tl1irty se ~ond s before pouring t he molten iron,
steam is introduced into t he hollow ring. This operation ex pands the hollow ring, and therefore causes a
definite increase in the diamet er of the chilling surface.
The mould is now ready for th e recepti<~n of th e
molten met al. As it fl ows into the mould th e steam
is turned off, and in its place a strong current of cold
water is caused to flow through the hollow r ing. This
operat ion causes a rapid cooling, and consequent cont raction of the r ing, with a r esulting decrease in the
d iameter of the chilling su rface formed by the inside
faces of the chill blocks. In th is way close and uniform
contact is maintained between the chilling surface
and the contracting surface of the tread of the wheel
The results obtained from the use of this device as
compared with the ordinary chill, are as follows : '
l. Chill cracks are ent irely pre,-ented . Iu five
months 15,2 8 wheels were recently made in these
chills, and not one was chill cracked. Table No. I .,
attached, shows the effect of the contracting chill on
foundry loss.
2. The resi~aints impo~ed by chill cracks being
removed, the ttme of pounng has been decreased fro m
between 20 and 25 seconds to an av erage of less than
10 seconds, and th e temperature at which the molten
metal i~ poured has b~en increased, so that practically
no cooh ng or t empermg of the metal whatever is req uired.
3. There is a.n entire aLsence of rough treads a.n d

E N G I N E E R I N G.

OcT. 27, 1893.]


swe1.t, a n d the p resen ce of slag is almost entirely prevented.

1 d
b f
4 There is a d ecided im provement m t 1e e pt o
white iron and in its uniformity arou!ld the tread,. t he
averacre variation around the tread b emg abou t 1'tr m .
5. ,<l 'he quality of the grey iron, its freedom from
slag or imperfections, a nd the general strength of ~he
wheel are enhanced by the h otter and faster p ourmg
which' is possible by the u se of this device.
6 Th e g reater and m ore uniform d e p th of white
' ron. on the t read affords a n opportunity fo r tru iog up
'd '
wheels wit h flat spots caused b y s l 1 10g, or Wl t. trea s
m'1de h ollow by w ear, at a small fraction of the cost
w wh eel.
Of a De
7. Th e actual m ileage results obta ine d from t h ese
wheels sh ow a very decided improven1ent as compared
with wheels of the same material made in the ordinary
chill. T o il 1ustrate, th e e h .ICago, M 1' l wauk ee, an d
St. Pcl.ul Rail way Comp any commenc~d. th~ use o f con
h'll h els in small qu a.nt1t1es m the latter
tractmg c l w e
put of 1885. The mileage obtained from all wheels
scrapped, except those made fiat by s lid ing, that were
in service under cars in p assenger train s, i s as follows:
Average Mileage.
45, 73l
7o, 468
106 ,9 16
1 03 , 95 ~
8. The wheels are al most p er ect y roun , a n
maintain thei r roundness in service.
TABLE I .-Statement of Foundry L oss at W est M ilwaukee
Foundr y, jrom J anuary 1, 188R, to January 1, 1893,
J8S 3

~~8 7
189 2

~ 2 .017

3l, '299


I Percentage
of Loss.




9 21
5. 53
l .M


Non.- During 1887 about half the wheels were c~t in the con-

tractio<T chill and in 18S9, and subsequently, practically all the

wheels .,were ~ast in the con tracting chill.
Figs. 10 ~o 13, page 501, show the wh?el grindin g
machine destgn ed by l\1r. Barr. The wheel1s supported
by t hree r ollera, on e n ear the bottom, and two a pplied
t o the u pper p ortion. The bottom roller is driv en b y
a belt and rotates the wheel. The grinding is effected
by an' emery rolle r moun ted on a carriage which can
be adjusted in two diredions at rig ht angles t o each
other. After a wheel has b een brought to true form,
it is clinched in a lathe and bored to recei ve the ax le.


I ~ t hree previous

issues (August 11, page 170;

August 25, p age 238; and September 8, page 300) we
have published v iews and detailed drawings of locomotives exhibited b y the B aldwin L ocomotive Works,
of Ph iladelphia, a t the Chicago E x pos ition. On pages
504 and 505 of this issue we illustrate six more engiues
out of thia most magnificent display.
The three locomotives on page 504, and the first
on p age505, were built for the B altimore and Ohio Railroad Compa ny. In the annexed Table w e give full particulars of the first, an express p assenger locomoti ve.
1'he second is v ery like the first. The third is a tenwheeled locomotive for freight purposes.
The fourth (page 505) is another t e n-wh eeled freight
locomotive, and is very simila r to that built for another
section of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and illustrated on p age 170 ante.
Fig. 5 sho ws a compound express p asRenger locomotive, American t ype, built for the Central Railway
Com pany of N e w Jersey. Fig . 6 is a compound freight
locomotive, '' Consolidation " type, for the Norfolk and
W estcrn Railroad Comp any. Full p a rticul ars of these
two a re given in t he annexed Table.

Oto AMERICAN L ocouoTIVES : ERRATUM.-In our account of some old American locomotives at the Columbia.n
E xposition (see page 478 ante), we stated that on e of them
drew l OO to 120 tons on an incline of 1 in 33 on the
Grand Junction Railway, at 14 t o 22~ miles an h our.
Tbe statement that the gradient was 1 in 33 was due to
a printer 's error ; it should have been 1 in 330.
BELGIAN B LAST F URNACES.- The number offurnaces in
blast in B elgium at the commen cement of September was
24, while there wer e ! 8 furnaces out of b last at the same
date. The total of 24, representing the number of furnaces
in blast in Belgium at the commencement of September,



---------- --


Com pound Expre.~s

Express Passenger Pa.ssen ger Locomot 1\e,
Locomotive, Am eri " American " Ty pe,
c1n " Type, for the for the ()en tral }tail
Baltimore and Ohio
road Company of
Railroad Company.
New J ersey.

--Weight and General Di mensions.

Total weight of locomotive in working o=der (actual)

.. on driving wheels (actual)

wheel base of locomoti ve . .
Di'~taoce between centre of front and driving wheels . . .
from centre of main driving wheels to centre of cyhnden
Leng'th of main connecting-rod from centre to centre of journa l~
Transverse distance from centre to centre of cylinders . .

CyUn.derJJ , T'alves, &c.

Diameter of oylinders

Stro_ke of p1st?n
.. . ..
.. . ..



Compound F rei~bt
Locomoti ve ''Con
solidation " Type,
for the Norfolk and
Western Railroad

------- -------

1- - -- - -- - -

116,360 lb.
75,210 ,,
2l ft. 11 in.
7 " 6 "
11 " 5 "

120,760 lb.
83,860 "
22 ft. 3! in.

7 H 5 'I
6, 1,

20 in.
2 ' ,

7,6 11
11 " 4~ "

7 " 2~ "

13 in. and 3 in.

24 in

- - -----1 3~,800

120,600 "
22 ft. 9 in.
1! , 10 "
14 11 3 "
10 )) ~


{ H.P. H in.
L P . 24 .,
24 in.

{ rinc s sprun~ Cast,-uon rt!lgs sprunf!

sprung into sohd
Kind of pil)to:1 packing

into solid head

m to sohd head
f . t
! in.
! in.
. 3! io . .
Diameter o p1s on-ro

. .3by 1.1 1.0

24 m. bv 1 ~ 10
19 ~. 1n. by 1 ~ io .
~ize of steha.m portsrt

19l , .
'! .~
,. 21 ,,
, , ex aust po s

51 10
6 10
Greatest travel of slide val ves . .

6 in.

{ H . ~. i io.
P. i 10
Outside lap otslide valves ..

1 ,
L. P. t ,.
L. P. ~ ,
; io. iuside
H . P. i io.
H . P . l ir.
Lead of slide valves in full stNke
!i":l ,. outside
L. P. ~ ,
l. P. ~ ,
Throw of upper end of reverse lever from full gear forward to fu ll
48 in.
61! in.
56! in .
gear backward, measured on the chord of the arc of the thro\\
Sectional area of opening in each steam pipe connected with
19.63 sq. in.
19.63 sq in.
19.63 sq. in.
Wheels, &c.
50 in.
78 in.
78 in.
Diameter of driving wheels outside of tyres . .

36 ,
30 "
truck wheels ..

36 "
by 8 in .
8 in. by 12 in .
8 in. by 9! in.
Size of driving u le journals, diameter and length . .

4 , , 8,
, , truck , ,

5! " " 8 ,
5 " , 10 "
5~ ,
, 6 "
il! , , 5! ,
main crankpin journals . .

f>~ , " 5t "


4t , 48" in.
4! "
31 io. and 34. in.
48 in.
Length of drid og springs, centre to cent re of hangers

Wagon top
Descript ion of boiler . .

58i iR.
56! in.
Inside diameter of smallest boiler ring . .
68t in.
Material of barrel of boiler. .
Thickness of plates in barrel of boiler . .
t'~I m .
Butt jointed, witb Butt jointed
with Butt joint, s1x rows
coreriog double
~overing of rh.ets, & ~ouble
Kind of h oriz~ntal seatr s ..
\ strips
covenog strtpe.
circumferential seams . .
Double rivet<. d
{ s;r;~:ednd double} Single and double.
Material of tubes
.. Iroo, No. 11 W.G.
c: 194
N u mb er
Diameter of tubes, outside .
2 in.
2 in.
l!J m.
Distance bet we: en cent res of tubes
2& .,
Length of tubes over tubepb.tes . .
l t ft. 10 in.
11ft. 10 in.
13ft. 7t in.
firebox, inside ..
107 H io.
131H in.
106li in.
33i in.
42~ in.
41t "
from und erside of crown-plate to bottom of j
F ront, 69! in.
F ront, 65 in.
Front, 63! in.
mud ring . .
Back, 54~ in.
Back, 55~ ,
Bac~~ 61t .,1 .
Water spaces, sides, back, and front of firebox
. . 3 in., 3 in., and 4 io. 3 in., 3 in., and 4 in. 3! in., 4lJ m., & 42 m.
Material of outside shell of firebo x
Thickness of plates of outside shell of firebox . .
{'11 in.
-l'u in.
t in.
'd e of fi rebox
a Iat ena1 of 1ns1

" .

d :. 10

Thickn ess of plates in sides, back, and crown of fir<:box . .
.. 1 0 in., ,'>11 in., and i in. {'a in., 1~~ in., and i in. 1"J m., H
an ~

Material of firebox tube-sheet

smokebox tube-sheet..
Thickness of front and back tubeplates .
~ in.
i in.
! in.
Radial stays 1 in. in
1i in. in diameter
1-in. parallel stay
Crown-plate is stayed with ..
radial stays
Diameter and height of dome
31! in. by 22 in .
31! in. by 20! iu.
31! in. by 30 in.
Working steam preesure per square inch
165 lb.
180 lb.
180 lb.
Ro ck .mg
Kind of grate . .
Diameter of tubes ..
21 in.
Width of bars . .
i in.
t ,
t in.
Width of opening between bars . .
H ,
24.75sq. ft.
38.59eq. ft.
30.95 sq. t.
Gratesurfa.ce ..
Heating surface in firebox . .
149 ,
166 ,
168.67 ,
Heating surface of tubes ..
1544 ,
1530 .,
1709.61 ,
Total heating surface
1693 ,
1696 ,
1878.28 ,
Kind of blast nozzle . .
Diameter of blast-nozzles (three sizes provided)
. . 3! ia., 3! in., and 3! in. 3t in., 3! in., 3f in.
6 in., 51 i!'J., 5~ io.
Smallest inside diameter of smoke-sta.ok
16i in.
18 in.
18 m ..
Height from top of rails to top of smoke-stack
14 fr. 101 in.
14ft. 4 in.
14ft. 11! m.
Extend ~ d .
with net- Extended, with net . Extended. Cromtiog n.nd deflecting
ting and d eflecting well's patent spn.rk

T ender.
35,600 lb.
34,000 lb.
32,500 lb.
Weight of tender empty (actual)..

80,906 ,
with fu el and water, full . .
72,080 11

77,998 "
Number of wheels under tender . .

33 in.
36 in.
36 in.
Diameter of tender wheels..

4 in. by8 in.

6 in. by 8 in.
Size of jouroals of tender axles, diameter and length
4! in. by 8 in .

16 tt. l Oin.
Total wheel base of tender . .
16 ft. 2 in.

Distance from centre t.o centre of truck-wheels of tender ..

60 in.
66 in.

4 " 10 ,
4000 gallons
8fi00 gallons
3500 gallons
Water capacity of tank (i n gallons of 231 cubic inches)

6.39 tons
4.5 tone
6.8 tons
F uel capacity of tender

Engine and T ender.

Total wheel base of engine and tender . .
47ft. 7 in.
49 ft. 2H in.
49 rt. H in.

Total length of engine and t ender over all
69 , 9-h ,
67 , 8ft ,

69 , 1! "

e-! .,

4! ,




was mad e up as follows: Cha.rleroi district, 8; L iege

PETROLEUM BRIQUETTES. -Briquettes made of solidified
district, 12; Luxembourg, 4 ; total, 24.
p etroleum on the system of Lieutenant Maestracci, of the
Italian Navy, have been tried on several tugboats ab
COAL IN B ELGIUM. -The production of coal in Belgium Mar seilles, and they have b een found to give out three
last y ear was 19,583,173 t ons. The imports of coal for the times the h eat of ordinary coal briquettes, while leaving
year amounted to 1,486,667 t on s; coa l made into coke no residuum b ehind.
was imported t o the extent of 265,518 tons ; and st ooks
t o the amount of 381,486 tons wer e brought forward from
1891, making an aggregate of 21,716,844 t on s. The h ome wa.ter, rece ntly struck a.t Coonambie, has incr eased to
con sumption for the year was 14,762,742 tons; coal was 200,000 gallons per diem. The importance of striking
exported to the extent of 4,538,118 t ons; coal made into water at this spot is that it proves that artesian supplies
coke was ex ported t o the extent of 376,428 tons; and coal exist south of the Darling, and that in all probability
made into briquettea was exp orted to the extent of supplies will be tapped over a. large area of country com351,594 tons; while 687,962 tons r emained on hand ab the prised in the watersheds of the Macquarie, the Castle
close of December, 1892.
reagh, and the Namoi.

[OcT. 27, 1893.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

'YE illustrate on the present page a very neat wormgeared belt elevator shown at the World's Columbian
Exposition by the Eaton and Pr~nce Company, of. 7~,
1Iicbigan-street, Chicago. It w1ll be seen that 1t 1s
driven by open and crossed belts in th e usual way, and
that the worm is inclosed in an oil box. Both the
worm and wheel are carefully cut. The end thrust of
the wormshaft is taken by a steel pin let into the end
of the shaft, and running against hardened steel
buttons in a special oil chamber. The drum is grooved
to take th e rope in a n orderly manner, and th e op posite end of the drumshaft carries a governor, which,
on the normal speed being exceeded, puts the handrope wheel in gear with the shaft, and shifts the belt
on to the loose pulley. In connection with the striking gear, there i3 a brake which acts on the foot pulley.
This is always in action vrhP.n both belts are on the
loose pulleys. There is also an arrangement, shown i_n
the engraving, by which the mechanism is st opped 1f
the hoisting rope becom()s slack.
The same firm show also the steam freight eleva.tor
illustrated in Fig. 4. It will be seen that the engine
drives the hoistin~ gear by means of a short be~t,
which is kept tight by a jockey pulley riding on 1t.
The hoisting drum is grooved to take th e wire rope,
and ha9 one flange extended to serve as a brake pull()y.
The brake can be applied by the hand rope, or by th e
hoisting r ope becoming slack, due to the cage sti_cking
in the well in descending, or by t he governor, 1f t he
normal speed is exceed~d. This governor is mounted
on a side shaft, and driven by a pitched chain. The
engine has two cylinders, and will start in any position, the steam being distributed by ordinary D







- ---

\VE illustrate on our t wo-page plate the bridge


I ~



over the River alado, recently erected near the city
of Santa F~ on the Buenos Ayres and Rosario Railway, a line for which Messrs. James Lh~esey anll
Son are the consulliing engineers. The total length
of the bridge between faces of abutments is 6733 ft.
9 in., or 1. 27 533 miles, and is divided into 80 approach
spans of 65 ft. 3 in. (Figs. 9 to 14), and 12 main
(Figs. l to 8) of 126 ft. 6 in. The approach spans are
carried upon cast-iron screw pile piers (Fig. 15), and
the m:tin spans upon wrought-iron cylinder piers,
filled with concrete (Fig. 16), the t otal height of
the former varying from 28 ft. to 34 ft., and the
latter from 59 ft. 4 in. to 49ft. 4 in. The main gird ers
in both spans are of the inverted " ' arren type, with
trough t op and bottom booms, and angle and t ee iron
diagonals ; the cross girders a re of plate and angle
iron, and t he rail bearers of channel iron , formed as
shown, a section that in t he event of derailment is
of the greatest possible service, as has already been
proved on th e bridge, by the wheel taking the inside
of the trough. Expansion is provided for at one end
of each spa.n. The gauge of the railway is 5 ft. 6 in.;
the rails are of Yignoles section, secured by coach
screws and clip washers to the wooden sleeper blocks,
they in their turn being bolted to the bottom of the
The wrought-iron cylinder piers are
8 ft. 6 in. in diameter below and 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter above the cones, the depth of the lower rings being
:3 ft. 4 in., and the upper 4 ft., the thickness of the
plating varying from ~ in. t o i in. ; the joints, both
horizontal and vertical, are covered with bar and t ee
iron, and the top and bottom rings are stiffened by
an internal angle iron. As previously stated, the
cylinders are filled with concrete on which the cast-iron
bedplates carrying the superstructure rest; between
each pai r of cylinders are two stiffening girders an d
brackets, and each cylinder is surmounted by an ornamental cast-iron cap of !-in. metal resting on a cast-iron
moulding bolted to 't he cylinder. The piers carrying
th e approach spans are formed of cast-iron piles
2ft. 6 in. in diameter in the shaft, and 4 ft. 1 in. in
uiameter of screw blade, they are of 11-in. metal, and
average 10 ft. in length ; each pair of piles is firmly
braced with a bracing formed of plate and angle iron,
secured by bands clipping the piles; on the top is a
pile cap, and on this rest the main girders, which are
bolted t o the cap. The total weight of ironwork in the
bridge is 4800 tons. The main spans and piers were
manufactured by Messrs. " "est wood, Baillie, and Co.,
of London Yard, Poplar, London, E., and the approach
spans and piers by 1\1essrs. Cochrane and o. , of \Voodside Iron Works, Dudley.
The line of railway is somewhat prolific in long
bridges, as, in addition to the one now under notice, there
is a five-span bridge at 606.235 kilometres, on masonry
piers, an eighteen-span one at 484.920 kilometres, on
screw pile piers, and a thirty-five span one over the
Sali Ri vcr, on masonry piera ; these are all 65 ft. 3 in.
span, and the total weight of ironwork in these three
bridges is 1250 tons ; they were all manufactured by
the Patent haft Company, of W ednesbury. There
is also the bridge over the Dulce River, ninety spans







' I ....



2DCI l

... . -15 ~ 1



Fro. 4.





- . . ;. .





- --:. ~


... .. ...


of 66 ft. 3 in., on cast-iron screw pile piers, of a total

weight of 2500 tons, manufactured by Messrs. Cochrane
and Co. , of Dudley. The last four referred to were
all" deck " bridges, and, including the subject of our
notice, were constructed from the designs and specification$ a.nd manufactured undet the personal super-

vision of :Mr. Jonathan Packma.n, ~1. Inst. C.E., 63,

New Broad-street, London.
CA.nal is proposed between Dortmund and Ems. The canal will pass vid Ruhrort, Duis.
b'urg, Mulheim, Essen, Bochum, and Herne,


OCTOBER 27, 1893.




(.For De.sc1'iption, see Page 508.)




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strong ~iagonally longitud inal bracing of the engines, and

tb~ hortzontal sta.~s at the top, the equalieation of tbe
wetghts of the movmg parts would increase the rocking
moti~n , sin~e the inertia. couple would be augmented,
espec1a~ly .wttb very long en~mes. ;Bebid~~, the working
of the engmes would be very defect1ve, sm ce the axis cf
the cylinders would not remain always perpendicular to
th ~ abaft.
No ~oubt the horizontal and longitudinal stays at top
of eng mes ar e very often used ; so are slight diagonal
braces; but in order to get a. good result the whole system
must be applied without any omission.

., J -

Fir'. 1.





H AND CARS find a widely extended use on American

ra ilways, owing to the immense d istances to be

patrolled, and t he wide intervals separating the stations. Hence very considerable pains are expen ded in
making them light a nd easy to drive, so that the men
may get to and from their work with a moderate
amount of exertion. There are sever al types on v iew
at the Ch icago Exposition, one of which we illus trate
on the present page. This is known as the Gyr us
Roberts combination walking beam ha nd -car, and is
constructed by Messrs. Roberts, Throp, and Co., of
Three Rivers, .Michigan. The driving is effected
by a. walking beam, with a hanrlle at each end
for two men to work. T he walking beam and
' ' gallows " frame can be removed in less than a.
minute, leaving a free surface for push-car purposes.
A clutch gear can be thrown out of gear to release
the propelling mechanism. This car is especially
serviceable f or track patrol, emer gency cases, washouts, &c. ; it is built with a. trussed frame, d iagonal
truss rods with turnbuckle attachments for imparting
rigidity to the frame and squaring the axles, a nd steel
pedestals with dust-excluding b r ass boxes fo r t he axle
journals. The car is mounted on the Gyrus Roberts
ligh t steel hand -car wheel shown in Figs. 2 t o 4.

'ro T ILE EmTon Ob' :BNa iNEERINc.
8IR,-In your number of September 11, 18!)1, s ix
months before the reading of Mr. Y arrow's important
paper on the balancing of engines, you d escribed an
arrangement which I intended to use in order to d estroy
vibrations on board over powered light vessels.
It may interest your r eaders to know t hat I have j ust
tested the arrangement for the first time on the doublescrew torpedo-boat the Chevalier, of 115 t ons displacement, officially tried at Cherbourg last week.
At all speeds~ up to 27.22 knots (mean of one hour, and
perhaps the highest ever recorded ) t he vibrations were
found to be u nusually small. As the valves and pumps
are not balanced, some slight motion (a. great .Part of
which is due to the screws} still r emains, but it Is quite
unimportant, and the writing on the notebooks s hows no
appreciable difference from what it would have been on
Ib may be wor th recalling the principle of the improvement. The engines are triple-expansion, with three cranks
at 120 deg.
The weights of the three pistons, piston-rods_, a.nd connecting-rods are identical and it is remarkable tba.t in
this case the sum of the three for ces of inertia is always

nil, 'Whatever be the length of the connecting rod.

Let F be the force of inertia. of the moving parts of
one cylinder in kilogrammes.

P the weight of these moving parts (piston, pist onrod, a.nd about on6- half of the connecting-rod )
in kilogrammes.
G the stroke in metres.
m the ratio of the length of the connecting-rod t o
that of the crank.
n the number of revolutions per second.
<P the a.nvle of the crank with the axis of the
F = -2.01 PG n2 ( cos <P +~ cos 2 <P )Now, if the angular distances of the three cranks are
120 d eg., the force of inertia Fl for the second cylinder
will be:
F '= -2.01PGn2 {cos(~+ 120deg.) +~cos (2<f> + 240deg. )}
and the force F" for the third cylinder :


- 2.01P Gn2 {

cos(~+240deg.)+ ~cos (2~+480deg.)}

Ib is easy to p rove that

Cos q> + cos (<P + 120 d eg.) + cos(~ + 240 d eg.) = 0,
Cos 2 1/> + cos (2 <P + 240 deg.) + eos (2 <P + 480 d eg.) = 0
So that the sum of the three forces of iner t ia,

+ 1!''

+ F " = - 2.01 P Gn!! ( 0 +

0) = 0

The same reasoning applies to four cranks at 90 d eg.

But as the three forces are not situated on the same
axis, ther e r emains a vertical couple :proportional ~ th_e
dist ance between the fore and aft oyhnders, and If thlS
couple were not destroyed, the engines would take an
oscillating or r ocking motion.
Now, a couple may be equilibrated by any other equal
couple s ituated in the same :plane, provid ed that the figure
of the w bole system is in van able.
In this particular case the principle is applied in the
following manner :
a. The engined are rendered mvana.ble by strong dta
gona.l braces D, connecting the cylinder:3 with the bedplates.
b. The vertlCa.l couple M M, wh10h would g1 ve t o the
h ull a. vertical undulatory m otion, is replaced by a. horizontal one N N, the strains of which are d estroyed by
horizontal stays rivet ed to the d eck, and by th e fa.stenings of the bed plates with the bottom of th~ sh ip.
It is evident that hor izontal efforts a.pphed len~hways
to the deck a.nd bottom plating ~roduce less m otion f:\nd
exer t leas strains on the ma.ter1a.l than would vertical
efforts applied perpendicularly.
. .
The figure shows also the g reat adva.nta~e of giving t o
the engines the shortest possible length, since the couple
t o be destroyed is reduc~d proportionately.
It is most important to s tate that, without the very



If we compare this m ode of destroying vibration with

that p roposed by Mr. Y arrow, we see that it offers the
following advantages:
1. It r equires no extra. moving parts.
2. The balancing strains are applied to the cylinders,
duly strengthened locally for that purpose, a nd not transversely t o the crankshaft, which is th e par t of the engines
most liable to br eak ing.
3. It does not increase the length of the engines.
Although our arrangement is specially designed for
very ligh t vessels, such as torpedo-boat s or catchers,
where the strength of the en~in es is greater than that of
t he hulJ, it may be applied also to large Yessels, but not
in the
same manner, in order to avoid d amage to the

engm es.
In the hope that you may find place for this letter, on
account of the increasing interest which attaches to
anything relating to the vibra tion of vessel~,
I r emain, Sir, yours sincerely.
J . A. NoRMAND, ~!. I. N.A.
Havre, October 18, 1893.

S m, --I notice in ENGINEERINO of the 20th inst. a letter
by Mr. Hora.tio Phillips, in which some allusion is made
to myself. Mr. Phillips refers t o me as "the principal
exponent of the large wide aeroplane.,
I did not commence experiments on a large machine
until I had tried a. great number of experiments with a.
small apparatus, and these experiments demonstrated in
the clearest possible manner that long and narrow areo
planes driven through the air edgewise wer e very much
more effective than very large planes ; nevertheless, I
found that lar~e a eroplanes would lift something. Had
I been desigmng a. machine to pe '?sed as a. torpedo,
which could be sent through the a.Ir With out any thought
of how it was to land, I should not have used a. large
aeroplane at all. M y large machine has be~n d esigned
with a. view of being a ble to land safely, and It appeared
to me that there was an element of safety in having one

large aeroplane attached t o the machine, so thab, no

matter what accident should occur, the machine could
not fall with sufficient rapidity to produce a destructive
shook. The large aeroplane will certainly prevenb a
rapid fall. It can also be made to do a portion of the
1 fting.
My machine is provided with both long and narrow
aeropla.ne3 for doing a part of the lifting, and a very
large aeroplane, principally designed t o prevent a t oo
rapid fall. Mr. :Phillips is of the opinion that a machine
might be so manipulated in the air as to prevent a. fall
even when the machina is not provided with a large aeroplane. I admit that this id quite possible, and I thiok
that Mr. Phillips must also admit that a m achine without
a. large aeroplane might, if stopped in the air, descend to
the earth at a very high velocity. I am the exponent of
a combination of narrow superposad planes and a large
A9 long ago as October, 1892, I wrote an article which
appeared in the Fortnightly Review, from which I quote
the following :
"In constructing a. flying machine which is intended
to be navigated by 11 ving engineers, precautions must be
taken to in ure their safety. A very large aeroplane has
to be provided t o prevent a t oo rapid fall in of a
atoppa.~e of the machinery, and this, of course, adds to
the we1ght and to the power required to drive it. But
should a flying machine be consid~red as only an a erial
torpedo for carrying high explosives and dropping them
at a. poinb 20 or 30 miles distant, then the bulky a eroplane C()uld be replaced by a large number of long narrow
blades or wings placed one above the other (superposed ),
which would lift much more for thei r weight, and the
power required to drive them, and would enable the
machine to fly much faster. A machine of thij:! kind
could be governed as relates to height above the earth,
after the manner of a common water torpedo, while its
direction could ha controlled with a great degree of
nicety by a magnetic needle operating upon automatic
steering gear constructed in such a manner that it could
instantly be l:iet to steer automatically to any desired
point of compass, and the machine could be made to let
go its bomb, or to fall itself with the remainder of its
naphtha., after the screw had made a. predetermined
number of turns."
This, I think. ought to set at rest for ever the question
as t o whether I am an ex ponent of a very large aeroplane
or of a. large number of long and narrow planes.
Y ours truly,
Bald wyn's Park, October 24, 1893.



SR,-Thedimensions of a. test piece comparable with the
bye-bar 2g in. by 10 in. by 50ft. long, instanced in your
article ot October 20, namely, a. sp~cimen ~ in. by ,~ in.
by 8 in., is a striking instance of the absurdity of the
atterppt to obtain geometrically similar, and, therefore,
comparable specimens.
The direct comparison of tests on specimens of an 8-in.
or any other 8tanda.rd length and of various cross sections
is totally misleading, as pointed out by yourself. The
error arises, however, wholly from th~ facb that the extension or elongation is measured and recorded in a manner
well calculated to disguise the truth.
The subject has been lucidly treated by Mr. J . H.
Wicksteed, in a. paper read before the British Association
at L eeds in 1890, and also by Professor Dwelsha.uvers-Dery,
of Liege. I will endeavour briefly to make plain the
method by which tests of different and dissiruilar specimens can be rationally compared.
The extension of a test-piece under stress is of two
kinds-firstt a. general elongation of the specimen over its
whole langtn between the shoulders, and which elongation continues up to the point of maximum load, and is
strictly pro portional to the length of the specimen ;
secondly, the local extension due to the "striction " or
contraction of area. about the point of fracture, and which
takes place under a decreasing load. This loca.l extension
is entirely independent of the len~th of the specimen,
and is dependent on the cross-sect10n of the specimen,
and is probably best expressed in percentage contraction
of area.. All that is necessary, therefore, is to record the
maximum load, and to record the two extensions
separately, namely, the extension up to the point of
maximum load, and that due to c ontraction of area.
This gives a.t once the results of a test immediately
and trul y comparable with ~very other test recorded
in the same way. The method of expressing the
total extension of a specimen in a percentage of the original length is b oth misleading and irrational, for that
portion due to local elongation has no relation whatever
to the length.
Yours, &c.,
L eeds, October 23, 1893.



StR-Your two courageous articles on this national
oalam'ity go far to checkmate the Admiralty authorities
in tactics of secresy a.nd delay, always adopted by them
when more than usually gross inefficiency is to be hidden
from view. The ordinary course (when such a. matter is
beyond pigeonholine-) is for official mouthpieces to
promise fullest inquuy and pe.r fect fran~ness tow~rds
the public. The popular press 1s thus sa.ttsfied, but 1f a.
more than ordinarily Jjersistent organ return to the subject, or if a member of Parliament ask a. que~tion, dozens
of exC'uses are ready to hand; the favourite, "delay a.t the

printer 's"-subterfuges so miserably flimsy, it is wonderful those pretending to pose a.s honourable men can father
them ; more wonderful to expect belief.
It is rumoured, darkly, the desiga of the Victoria. is to
be vindicated, in spite of her going dow n like a stona,
though h er captain and crew thou~ht she would keep
afloat, by the statement that watert1ght bulkhead doors
were open; the assumption left for the public to draw
being that this was altogether an unusual circumstance,
and that the doors should properly have been shut. Tbis
is an effort to shift blame from the shoulders of authorities
ashore to the backs of those afloat. The absent are
always wrong, and the sailor's b1ck is thought broad
enough for any burden, but I would like to ask if it be
not a. fact, though the order to close watertight doors may
be given with the call to general quarters, n evertheless,
the doors are immediately again opened, it i s p ract ically impossible to carry on duty w tth the doors closed!
If that be so in peace manreu vres, such as steam tactics,
far more impossible would it be to keep these doors shut
during the multifarious duties, t ogether with confusion
and exr.itement, of a sea. fight. In short, are not watertight d oors known by sea. commanders to be a sham, put
in for paper reasons, that the statement may be made,
"the shi p is divided into so many waterti ght compa.rt
menta, any, two, three, or four (or half a dozen, as the
ca~e may be) of which can be filled without the vessel
sinking., The Victoria as described, and the same illfat(\d vessel Rtrickeo by the ram of the Camperd own, is
an awful example of the difference between paper and
actual efficiency.-! inclose my card, but b eg to subscribe
Sm,- Your correspondent, Mr. W. Da.vid Archer, Rays
that my ca.lculatio::ts (~~NGINE&RING , Oc tober 14, 1893)
Sir, yours obediently,
''tend t o show m erely that the scale of time allowance
adopted by theN e w York Y acht Club does not sufficiently
October 21, 1893.
penalise an increase in the sailing length. . . . " If,
however, he again peruse m y letter, he will see that my
SIR,- I write on the a.nni versa.ry of the battle in which adaptation of R~nkin e's rules for the speed of steamships
every man was expected to do-and did - his duty, with- proved that time allowance should not be a constant
ou t fear or favour. Our immortal Nelson could at least quantity between any two yachts, but should vary with
depend upon the Victorys of his day keeping above water the time occupied on th e cour~e, or with the mean speed
for a. reasonable time in the worst eventuality. Surely it over the course made by th e winning yacht.
The time allowance und er either our own or th e
is not too much to ask of modern science a definition of
what is safe or not safe, within reasonable limits, in con- American system is quite independent of the time
n ection with prGtecti ve appliances on ships costmg hun- occupied.
Again, my calculations did not show that the A merican
dreds of thousands ?
Your two admirable articles on the above indicate time ecale had any considerable difference as compared
with truth that we must know the real deficiencies ere we with the Y . R. A . scale, in settling the success of Vigilant.
can devise a. remedy. If certain warships are not capable As a fact, it was not the case.
of bearing our colours and men without doubt of grave
danger, let us know it, and it may be possible to suggest L. W.L =85. 5 .. . S.A. = 10,0t2 ... Sailing L =- 93 ... Rating H3.
an effective remedy. If it be desired to ascertain how
few or many filled compartments of one ship of the doubt- L . W .L = 86. 19 ... S. A . = 11,272 ...S ailingL = 9G ... Rating162.
ful twelve (when water may have been admitted thereto
These ratings are Y.R.A. formula with t he Am erican
by structural deran gement) would capsize her, why not
place a. representative vessel, with full war weights on sail measurement. Now, although th e ratings differ more
boMd, over a shallow sandy bottom, and pump water in so in ratio than the sailing lengths, Mr. Archer should not
as to fill all or any such compartments, severally or have stopped in the middle of the problem, and com e t o the
t ogether, so as to test the really safe canting, &c., capa- hasty and inaccurate conclusion he did ; for had he taken
city of the particular type under all 1casonable conditions the trouble t o go a step further he would have discovered
that the two time cur ves set the m a tter nEarly square
and eventualities?
Means might be adopted to prevent complete overturn again. Thus the Ne w York time allowance for 9G, leES
while on trial, and appliances could be ready t o rapidly that for 93 saili ng length, is 2.93 seconds a mile=1.47
fill or pump out the several compartments. It would minutes on a. 30-mile course, a nd Mr. A rcher ! hould
give a large proportion of the int~ri or of one ship "a. therefore be scrprised to learn that the Y . R . A . time
wetting,, but this is better than a. wetting of another sort allowance for 1G2 - 143 ratin g, is only 3.45 seconds a. mile
for possibly the whole of the type. Who can ex pect men = 1. 72 minutes on a. 30-mile course.
I, for on e, ca.nnot agre ~ with Mr. Archer's sugges tion
to be oomfortable in- not t o say effectively fight- a ship
when they are doubtful of its stability even under com- that the problem as to the "determination for any gi ven
sailing length of the best ratio between the two
para.ti vely "holiday " conditions ?
ENGINEERING has a title to insist upon knowing really factors, length and sail area.," should complicate the
contest for international honours in the speed of racing
what is wrong. that it may help in putting it right.
L et us re-hoist the signal ordered eighty-eight years ago yachts. On the contrary, it appears only reasonable
t o-day. In matters essential to the welfare of England's that all problems should, as far as possible, be elimiNavy, "England expects that every man "-Admiralty nated from such contests . . . and that the resulb
should depend upon the reply t o the simple question . . .
or otherwise-this day " will do his duty."
vVhich country can produce the fastest yacht of a length
Your obedient S"r nl.nt,
previously agreed upon, and dri ven by a. sail area preR OBERT McG LASSON.
yiously agree~ ~pon ? I quite acknowledge that a " sailSelhurst, 8. E ., October 21, 1893.
mg length " hm1t would be far better than the existina
conditions, which amount t o a load-water line limit and
SIR,- In reference to your leader on the Victotia a. '' sailing length " time allowance, but for international
disaster, appearing in your last issue, in which you urge honours we ought t o stipulate for a. previ()US a.grc:ement
the desi rability of th e Admiralty making a public state- both as to limit of load-water line and as to limit of sail
ment showing the cause of the disaster, I venture to area.. What would your engineering readers t hink of an
think that such statement is unnecessary, M no beneficial international contest in st eam yachts, where one comresult can accrue from its publication. Apart from the petitor challenged and gave his length on water line at
policy of such a. proceeding, it may be urged that that 150 ft., brought his yacht ou t, st eamed about on th e
unfortunate occurrence can have no effect on future Solent measured mile, recorded his times, and even pubdesigns. Nor can anything new be adduced.
lished details of his en_gin es and their effective horse
When it is considared that the introduction of the ram P?Wer ? Then went t o New ""ork and raced against the
created a new arm of attack, and that numerous incidents ptck of four steam yachts bUllt purposely to beat him,
have occurred to t estify to its effectiveness, the recent each and every one of them carrying engines a nd boilers
disaster comes with no surprise, from a naval architecture of 10 to 20 per cent. more power than the challenger'! Yet
this is precisely what we Britishers are conceited enough
point of view.
The testimony of naval expert opinion, all over the to think thab we can do in the racing of sailing yachts,
world, is unanimous as t o the importance of this factor, their h orse-power being m easured by their effective sail
so much so that the American Navy, profiting by the areas. One word more. All Englishmen should protest
experiences of the E uropean navies, bes towed greatl atten- emphatically against a continuation of the present syst em
tion to this import method of attack.
of challenging, whereby any individual may challenge
In their corresJ?Or!ding ships the ram has been altered (through one of his clubs) for an international race. The
so as to increase 1ts efficiency, and, it is to be hoped, de challenge should be on equal t erms with the defence
crease the possibility of disaster to itself.
(except that its champion has t o cross the Atlantic which
The very existence of the ram presupposed that vessels is ~air an~ equal if th e cup a~so cross occasionally), and
could be disabled or sunk by ramming, and the recent thts aq ua.hty can only be obtamed by several yachts being
disaster further adds to the pile of t estimony as to its built to suit the ?hallenge_, and the best y<'lcht selected, as
immense influence.
has been done m Amert ca. for t he defence. S upposing
If, on the other hand, vessels can be con structed so we take the load water line of the Vigilant, which seems
that, under conditions similar t o the Camperdown-Vic- t o ha. ve increased from 86.2 t o 86.7, and her sail area
toria incident, they are unsinkable, it must be perfectly 11,272, as guiding the limits of length and sail for the
obvious that the ram is an unnecessary adjuncb to our next challenge. The limits might be 87 ft. and 11,300
fighting ships.
(American measurement), and 2 per cenb. excess of length
Sir E. J. Reed, you say, has declared he knows of would include Britannia 87.8 ft. Next year, if her august


2 7,

E N G I N E E R I N G.

r 893.]

owner would consent, another attempt could ba made

with her to capture th e <'UP without any undue effort. I,
for one. firmly believe that both of Mr. Watson's ships
can lick the Vigilant on cquat t erms, and until this be
attempted by increasing their sail area, and stipulating
for equal sail area on the d efender, the m or e costly, though
more thorough system of challenging above a.d vacat ed
might be postponed.
Yours t ruly,
.J. T. B ucKNILL.
P .S.-In your review of Mr. Miller's paper at Chicago
" On the Influence of Oil on Waves at Sea," I note th a t
the author assigns a. some what complicat ed theory t o
account for t he undoubted effects. I s it not more simple,
and more true, to assign the effect to the facts (1) that oil
floats on water; (2) that oil is m olecularly sm oother than
water and consequently that the wind has far less grip
0 0 tb~ oil than on the water s urface, the t enden cy .of the
waves to break being thereby lessened'?

J. T. B.



Sm,-It has been my good fortune, or otherwise, to

attend several meetings held by civil engineers for the
reading and discussion. of papers upon various professional subjects~ em bracmg docks and harbours, tunnels
and water works. Among other s ubjects that in variably crop up for d iscussion, is concrete.
I have obser ved, with mixed feelings of admiration
and perplexity, the almoM one th ousand and one different opinions held upon this vexed subject.
As a rule, the discussion upon a. paper-be it upon
harbour or tunnel-goes along smoothly and satisfactorily,
and the older memben of the profession attending an
engineering meeting, after a certain amount of persuasion, get up and d eliver moderate and impartial opinions
upon the subject at issue, and afterwards sit d own with
complacent smiles of satisfaction. But observe the effect
of tbe magic work " concrete" !
Probably a. younger man attending the meeting, in
deli vering an oration upon the paper that has been read,
indiscreetly, and in the heyday of his you th, m entions
concrete. Then the smiles of complacent satisfaction,
irradiating the features of the older m em hers, d hsappear,
and are rE'placed with looks of pain almost spasmodic
in their intensity. Alas ! eye3 of scorn and distrust are
turned upon the young man who has so preci pitately
and thoughtlessly introduced this bon e of contention.
F or, bAit remarked, it is thought to be incons ist ent with
professional etiquette for an engineer, unless be has seen
ab least twenty years' ser vice, to hold a.n individual
opinion upon concret e, though the fact r emains that the
Brunels and Stephensons in embryo, ages eighteen to
twenty, also have their secret con victions and opiniona
upon this vital question, and in moments of infantile
confidence, and at a safe dis tance from their elders, may
gently, very gently, air their views before a select circle
of contemporary acquaintance.C!.
As I have before remarked, the ffect upon the meeting
is magical. Whereas there bad been a difficulty in
getting a member to deliver an opinion upon the paper,
twenty now rise, a.nd assail the chairman with one voice.
A perfect babel is let loose ; a rush is made for the chalk
and blackboard, and even the walls are utilised for the
inscription of concrete formul ~.
Then ensues a heated discussion, and the different concrete mixtures ad vocated by several en~i n eers attending
the meeting are severely handled and cnticiaed (for, m etaphorically speaking, "many are the engineering friendsh ips split upon the rock of concrete ").
The component parts of some ~ncrete mixtures are die
sected with a. minuteness almost anatomical, and such
small and insignificant d etails as the introduction of sour
beer of October brewing, or sweet beer of March brewing,
into concrete mixtures, are discussed to infinity.
I ha.Ye sat at these meetings in a state of pathetic helplessness, and, after vainly trying, in my own mind, to
reconcile the conflicting s tatements and opinions expressed by many eminent authorities, whose practice
wit~ <;<>ncrete extends from "Greenland ,s icy mountains to
Indta s coral strand/' I have d ejectedly left the room,
and have afterwards taken heart upon the consoling,
though not altogether logical, r eflection, that after all there
is but little difference between Tweedledee and TweedleduUl.
I am, yours, &c.,
SrLEcrous B Loaas, E. C.



V essels." "Rule IlL (a),, . . . "For an approximat e

value of the resistance of . . . st eamers, . . . . multi ply
the square of the speed in knots by ,, . . . &c., and in
" Rule IV." . . . " T o estimate th e net or effective
horse-power ex pended in propelling the vessel, multiply
th e resistance by the speed in k nots and divide, , &c. . .
H ence, evidently, by Rankine . . . the effecti \'e horsepower expended in propelllng a. vessel varies as V 3. .. .
'rhe actual horse- power indicated is, of course, considerably greater, the efficiency of engines and pr opellers in
good st eamships being from . 6 to . 7 of the indicated horsepower. Arguments are only t oo often mad e confusing by
tbe lax mann er in which the t erms "power , and " work"
ar e used. Forgive m e, therefor e, if your patience be
sorely tried when perusing the follo wing lines :
W ork is th e product of weight into height,
The weight t o that height being lifted;
Done slowly or fast, the same it is, quite,
T o the" uuderconstamblers" and gifted.
Bun when time and its fractions are brought
into sight,
'!'ben wo'rk is the wrong word, and powe'r the
ri ght.
Thirty-three th ousand foot-pounds by a horse
In a minute ,s the usu al sum;
And sixty-six thou ~ and foot -pound s can, of course,
By that horse in two minutes be done ;
Then similarlee, bv the Ruling of Three,
Fifty-five in a second 's the tenth of a GEE.

J. T. B.




SIR,-Your correspondent Mr. A. H . Tyler seems t o
entirely misapprehend the problem under discussion.
Th e bearing he d escribes is clearly not suitable for a
shaft with an axial thrust, ag~inst which there is no provision, and the r esearches of cycle makers are not likely to
throw much light on the subject of marine engines or
heavy machinery.
The r eason that such a bearing has not been d escribed
by your correspondents is probably nob because they are
"quite in ignorance " of the usual arrangement, but
b ecause of its absolute unsuitability to the case in
As r egards the suitability of balls for heavy pressures,
as Mr. Tyler himself di sclaims it, th ere is no necessity t o
argue the point, although the admission naturally d etrac ts
from the value of his advice to Mr. to use them
for a marine thrust bearing.
Yours faithfully.
w. c. CARTER.
Mansion House Chambers, October 21, 1893.


THE steamer Pfa.l z, built and engined by ~1ess rEJ. Wigham, Richardson, and Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne, went on
trial on the 21st ins t. for a trial trip off the coast. The
Pfalz ha.s been built for the Norddentscher Lloyd, of
Bremen, and will run in their passenger ser vice between
Bremen and the River Plate, carrying first-class passengers, emigrants, and cargo. She is a steel screw
st eamer, 376 f t. in length by 43~ ft . beam, and has been
fitted with triple- expansion engines and boilers, wh ich
on the trial trip drove her at a. speed o f 13~ knots per
hour. The accommodation for the first-class passen~ers
comprises a large dining -saloon, entrance ball, smokmgroom , and ladies' r oom, together with the usual staterooms, baths, and la vatories, &c. Electric lightin g is fitted
throughout, the current being supplied by two engines
and dynamos placed in the engine-room. A r efr igerating
engin e is fitt ed in connection with the provision r oom.
Th e engines in this vessel are a duplicate of a set also
building by M essrs. Wigha.m, Richardson, and Co. for
the same company's new steam er Mark, which vessel \vas
launched a few weeks ago from the yard of Sir \V. G.
Armstrong, Mitchel1, and Co., Limited.
The s.s. Bullmouth, which is the six th of the
large oi l boats built by M essrs. Wm. Gray and Co.,
Limited, for M essrs. M. Samuel and Co., Limited, of
London, went on her trial trip off Hartlepool on Wednesday, the 18th inst. The dim en sion ~ are: L ength
over all, 358 ft.; breadth, extreme, 45 ft. 6 in. ; depth,
28 ft. 6 in. ; and her engines and boilers, which are fitted
in the after part of the vessel, are of the well-known type
manufactured at the Central Marine Engine Works. The
crlinders are 26 in., 42 in., and 70 in. in diam eter r espectl vely, and the stroke of all the pistons is 45 in. There
are three large sin~le-ended boilers working at 160 lb.
pressure. On the tr1al trip most of the vessel's oil tanks
were filled with water. EO that she was well ciown, and in
this condition she made an average of 10~ knots per hour
with the engines running eas ily at about 60 revolutions
per minute. The BuJlmouth carries about 5000 tons of
oil in her holds in bulk.

.StR,-C~uld any of your r eaders kindly oblige me
Wtth any mformation as to the bes t mean~ with band
or circ~lar saws, of the cheapest and most effective way
of sa~ng a n_umber 0~ a-in. square nuts, say six or seven
at a tune, With a 1\ -m. slot commencing at one of the
--corners of the nut, a nd running half-way acr oss in the
Th e new firs t-class gunboat Hebe, which was built and
depth of cut, the saw-cut to be about ! in. from the
engined at Sheerness Dockyard under the Naval Defence
bottom of the nut, and oblige,
A ct, was t aken tv sea on Tuesday, the 24th inst., for her
Yours faithfully,
official trial under forced draught. The Hebe was tested
N ewcastle.
w~r. ScoTT.
on a continuous run of three hours' duration with most
satisfactory r esults, the engines working smoothly withECONOMICA-L SPEED OF STEAMSHIPS. out bot bearings, and the boilers giving a good supply of
st eam without primin~. With a mean steam pressure of
. SI~t,- Your correspondent "B. Se. " cannot be correct 148 lb., and the engmes working 247 revolutions per
l D h1s "Partick "-ula.r inditement that . . . the energ:v minute, a m ean of 3544.42 horse-power was indicated,
expended on a voya~e is proportional to
and n ot
with a speed of 19 knots. These results were obtained
as stated by Mr. Mtllar.
with the use of 2.08 in. air prE'ssure. The H ebe returned
Rankine says, under the heading, "Propulsion of into Sheerness Harbour at the conclusion of the trial,
'l 'o 'l'HE E mTon m



and subsEquentl y compleh:d gun trials with satisfactory

r esul ts.
M essrs. Laird Brothers, Birkenhead, have completed
the construction of the new first -class battlePbip Royal
Oak, and will leave in a. day or two for Portsmouth to
prepare for steam trials. S he belongs t o the R oyal Sover eign class, which h:i s been frequently d escribed in ENGINEBIHNG, and it is probably only necessary her e to m ention
one or two of the principal particulars. The dimE'nsions
are: L ength, 380 ft. ; breadth, 75ft. ; m ean draught, 27.6ft.;
displacem ent, 14,150 t ons; freeb 1ard - forward 19.G ft.,
aft 18 ft. ; indicated horse-power - natural draught, 9000 ;
forced draug ht, 11,000; speed-natural 16 knots, for ced
17~ knots; coal carried at the d esignfd load draught,
900 tons; coal endnrance at 10 knot s, 5000 knots ; total
weight of armament, 1910 t ons ; height of heavy guns
above water l ine, 23 ft. ; len gth of th e belt or side armour,
250 ft. ; greatt'st th\<;kness, 18 in .; protecti ve d eck, 3 in.
- total weight of armour, bac:king, and including prot ecting deck, about 4500 ton s. There are two sets of
engine~, driving twin screws. The cylinders in each caEe
are 40 in., 59 in., and 88 in. in diamet er by 51 in. stroke.
They are macie of independtmt castings, and are bolted
together by bracket s. 'The valves of t he high-pressure
and intermedi a te cylinders are of the piston type, while
the low-pressure cylinders have fiat double- parted valve~.
The main condensers, wh ich are of brass, have a collecttive cooling s urface of 14,500 square feet. The water is
s upplied by four 18- in. A lien 's centrifugal pumps, each
driven by an independent engine. Suctions are also led
to the bilges from these pumps, which giv e a total bilgepump power of 4400 tons par hour. Th e screw propellers are four -bladed, th e blades and bosses being of
gun-metal. Steam is supplied by eight single-ended
cylindrical return -tube boilors, working at 155 lb. pressure per square inch. Each boiler is 15 ft. 4 in. in diameter by 9 ft. 4 in. long, and has four cort ugated furnaces ~ ft. 4 in. in diameter. Separate dampers are
fitted in the passage from each combustion chamber, and
th ese may be worked from the st okebold floor. The total
grate surface is 710 square feet, and the total heating
surface 20,174 square feet.


M essrs W orkman, Clark, and Co., Limited, Belfast,

launched on th e 25th inst. a s teel screw s teamer named
Ormist on, built for M essrs. R . and C. Allan, of GJa~gow.
The r egist ered d imf neions are: L ength, 361 ft. ; breadth,
44.5 f~. ; d epth of bold, 26 5 ft.; gros~ tonnag~, 3560. ~he
machmery has been constr ucted at the butlder's engme
works, and consist s of triple- expans ion engi nes. Steam
is supplied from two ~ teel boilers at a working pressure
of 180 lb , fitted with M essrs. James Howrlen and Co.'s
system of forced d aught.

--Dunlop and

Messrs. David J.
Co., Port-Glasgow,
launched on Saturday, the 21st inst ., a. steel steam screw
tug named White Rose, built to the order of Messrs. A.
and W. Dudgeon, L ondon, for service at th e Tilbury
D ocks, London. The fo11owing are the principal dim ensions : L ength, 63 ft. ; breadth, 15 ft. ; depth m oulded,
8 ft. 3 in. The engines, which are on the compound princi ple, have cylinders 15 in. and 30 in. in diameter by
18 in. stroke, the boiler being 10 ft. in diameter by
8 ft. 6 in. long. The indicated horse-power ex pected on
trial is 300.

--Messrs. R. N a pier and Sons, Go van, launched on the 21st

ins t., the first of two steel twin- screw stea.tners they are
building for the Campania sud Americana de Vapores of
V alparaiso. The vessel is for the company's Pacific
coa-sting trade, being intended to carry a large cargo on
a light draught of water, while comfortable accommoda
tion has been provid ed amidships for the passengers.
The principal dimensions are : L ength, 170ft. ; breadth,
32ft. ; d epth to awning deck, 17ft. 6 in. ; t onnage about
750 tons. The machinery consist s of two sets of tripleex pans ion engines and a single-ended st e&l boiler for a
working pressure of 150 lb.


The new first-class gunboat Speedy was order ed to

carry out a three hours' forced draught trial off Sheerness
on Thursday. We hope to give full det ails in nex t week's
issue. The Speedy has completed her gun trials, which
were very Eatisfactory, and has also bad a. successful preliminary trial under forced draught, her engines working
up to 4571 8 horse-power, which is 71.8 horse-power in
excess of the contract with Messrs. Thornycroft.
American Steam Navigation Company has just d ecided
on building a steamer of very large dimensions. Several
eminent German firms will tender for the construction
of this monster steamer.

S PB)IAIUNE B oAT .-A~ a result of comparative trials

of the Baker and Holland submarine boats, an American
B oard of Naval Exoerts has forwarded a r eport to the
Navy Department giving its recommendations in favour
of the H olland boat. The report recommends that the
Holland Company be instructed to have their proposed
boat built at some responsible shipyard, and that they be
awarded the contract at 27,000l.



experimen t s, the United States Lighthouse Board has
succeeded in establishing electric communication at a
distance of more than a mile from the shore. The diffi
culties which have hitherto prevented connecting with
the land by electric cable a vessel swinging at anchor at
sea are said to have been overcome by attaching the core
of the cable to the anchor chain, a nd making a conductrr
of the latter.

E N G I N E E R I N G.






(For Description, see Page 502.)

F ig. 1 .

F ig. 2.

E N G I N E E R I N G.
many times, and thus, strangled at ~ts outset, reI The New Cunarders ., CAMPANIA" and ., LU- main a silent monument to the perils that beset


those that adventure in untrodden fields.

I t must n ot be supposed, however, that an Act ~f
t h1s

Parliament enables its possessor o ca~ry ou

The Publl.sher begs to announce that a Reprint la plans with a reckless disregard of the 1nterests ?f
now ready of the Descriptive Matter and Illustra- others. On the contrary, he must use a_ll ~h? s~1ll
tions contained in the tasue o f ENGIN' o f and resources that are availa ble to av01 d InJurmg
Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus.
April 21st, comprising over 130 pages, with ntne his neibo-hbours, and it is on_ly when he _h as done so
Mulhouse : H . Stuckelberger.
two- page and four single. page Plates, printed
OLAsoow: Willia.m Love,
that he can claim exemption rom paymg comp INDIA Ca.lcutta: Thacker, pmk, a nd eo.
throughout on special Plate paper, bound in cloth. sation. It is hard enough that individuals should
' Bombay : Tha.cker and Co., Limited.
gUt lettered. Price 6s. Post free, 6s. 6d. The ordl
d b t th t th 8 h Id
-t suffer for the genera goob , U b a bl eyIt ?U a
JTALV . u. ll oepli, Milan, and a.n", post office.
nary edition of the lssue of AprU 21st 1s out ofpr.u&
L"'~RPOOL: Mrs. Taylol', Landmg- Stage.
suffer needlessly wou1d e un eara e.
Mc\KCII&sTER: J ohn H e.rwood, 143, D ea.nsga.te.

h tl
full advantage has
Nzw ouru WAL&S, Sydney: Turner a nd Ilenderson, 16 and 18,
questiOn or t e cour"s W e ler
Hunter-street. Oordon and Ootc h, Geor<6estreet.
CnESTERFa:Lo AND Mt DLAND CovNTIE INsrrrurroN ov ENotNRER . been taken of t he teachings of science and expenC(J~NSLAND ( ouTu), Brisban~: Gordon. and Ootch.
-SJ.turday, November 4, at Chesterfield, in the lec ture-r oom of ence and the answer will naturally depend some(NoRru), Towns' tile: T. Wtllmett and Co.
the Ste pbenson Memorial Hall, at 2.30 p.m. 'l he following what' on the capaci'ty of the J. udge _to understand
ROTTERDA~t : H. A. I<ran.ler and 'on. .
papers will be open for discussion : Papers contributed to the
ouru AusTRA.LLA, Adelatde: W. C. R:gby.
C hester field Institution and p rinted in the Transactions, t hat the question before him.
In the act10n brought ~y
UNIT&D STATES, New York: W. II . Wiley, 53, East fOths~re~t.
have not yet been discussed o r announced fo r discussion, viz.: the trustees of the Stockwell Orphanage to restra1n
Chicago: II . V. H olmes, 44, Lakestde Butldmg..
1 May, 1892-" Witwat.ersrand Goldfield, Transvaal, S.A. R.," b.v
y 1croRIA, ~hLBOURN& : Melvtlle . l\l.ullenand lade, 261/264, Colbns Mr. J . P. Hamilton . May , 18tH.- " Notes on Natal Ooldfic!ds," the City and South L ondon Railway ~ompa_ny front
street. Qordon and Gotch, Lnnt ted, Queen-street.
by Mr. J. P. Hamilton. December, 1892. - " Geological His tory w orkin~ the engines and dy_
n amos In the1! po~er
of t he Rawdon and the Boothorpe Faults in the L eicestershire
b t
1 Coalfield," by Mr. w. s. Orefley, F.G.S. Papers con tributed by station in such a way as to Inter ere, Y VI ra l Oll
We beg to announce t~at Am~ncan Subscnptt.ons to ENGtNRERtNG m embers or the Ch esterfield Instttntion to meetings of the Fede and n oise, with the occupancy of the orphanage,
may now be addres ed et the~ dtrect to the puhltsher , ~I R. CIIARI.J8S rated Institution, printed in the Transactions, and discussed at Mr. J ustl'ce Kekewich said that when powers were
GtLBKRT, at the Offices of thts J ournal, Nos. ~5 and 36, Dedford suc h meetingt~, viz : Fc:bruary, 1893.- " A Por table Safety Lamp
street, 'trand, London, W. C. , or to our accr edttcd Agents for the wir.h Ordinary Oil Illutninatin~ Flame, and Standard Hydrogen given to a public body by statute there. was a]Eo
United 'tates, Mr. W. Il. WILEY, 53, .East 1~t~street, .New York, F lame fo r Accu rate and Delicate Gas Testing," by Professor Frank given to it every incidental powfr_ whteh coul.d
and Mr. II. V.. II~lmes, 44, ~ake tde Butldmg, Chtc:lgo .. The Clowes, D.Sc. Febr uary , 1893.-' The EstimatiOn of the Actual
f h
prices of ub cnptaou (P.a.y able tn advance) for one year are. For Effective Pcessure or Water Gauge in the Ventilation of Mines," reasonably be required for the exercise 0 t e main
thin (foreign) paper edtttOn~ ll. 1~s. Od.; for thtc k (ordmary) by Mr. T. A. Southern. F ebr uMy, 1893. -" Experiments upon a powers.
He had, therefore, to consider whethc r
p:~.per edi tion, 2l. Os. 6d.,. or af rem1tted to Agents, 9 dollars for Waddle Fan aod a Capell Fan Workin~r on the same ~Iioe at the defendants' Acts had given them t he power
thin a.ncllOdollars for thtck.
equaJ Periphery Speeds, at Teversal Co1liery ," by Mr. J . C. B.
llend y. Jt'ebrua ry , 1$93.-' Spontaneous Combustion in Coal to do that which they said they were empowered
Mne~," Ly Professor Aroold Lupton. Febr uary, 1893. - '' A to do n otwithstandinoit created a nuisance. Aftt: r
The char~e for advertisements is three shillings for the first four New Method of Layin2' Coal Dust," by Mr . H . Richardson

lines or uuder, and eightpence for each additional line. The line Hewit.t. ,J unt>, 18n3._ .. Th e Support of BuildioJZ e:," by Mr. reviewina these Acts, he found that if, in carrymg
a\era....esse\'en words. Pa.y ment must a.ccompany a ll orders for William Spencer, F.G.S. Obser vations on any otht:r r apers in outtheir~t atutorypowers, theydidcreateanuieance,
single adverU ements, otherwise thei r insertion cannot be the Transac tions will be a.amissible at the discretion of the chair- that nulsance mu~t be borne with.
But they were
guarante~d. Terms for di pla.,red arh:e rtisements <?n t.he wrap~er man of the meeting.
and on the in ide pages may he on. ap~hcataon .. Senal ===--------=========-==--============-=-= certainly liable if they omitted to do all that could
ad'ertisements will be inserted with all prac tteab e regulanty, but
be reasonably required of them, if they caused a
absolute regularity cannot be ~ruaranteed.
Advertisements intended for Insertion in the our
nuisance. He thought that they had done everything
rent week'stssue must be delivered not later than
necessary, and yet there r emained an intolerable
6p.m.onThursday. Inconsequenceofthenecesslty
~7, 1893.
tor golDg to press early with a portion of the editton,
alterations for standing Advertisements should be
M. Inst. C. E., to which the court had referred the
received not later than 1 p.m. on Wednesday aftermatter, had suggested that the engines ehould be
noon 1D each week.
removed 30 to 40 yards, but he could not say th at
tti::ts:~et.f::.,~ !C:dAt~~e~:::~~t:~~J:S t:;ec::~ SoME recent decisions of the courts have brought this would entirely avoid the difficulty, nor did he
AGENCE HA VAS. 8. Place de la Bourse. Paris.
into prominence a legal principle that seemed to say it would not create a nuisance for other n eighhave dropped out of sight, or else not to have been hours. He admitted that the proposed site would
previously affirmed with sufficient authority to cause not be so good and convenient for the machinery.
ENGINEERING can he supplied, direct from the p\W>lish er, it to be regarded by lawyers as unassailable.
post free for Twel"e Months at the following rates, payable in
refer to the fact that when an Act of Parliament is company had done all that could be reasonably
advance:For the United IGngdom .. . ...... . ...... .1 9 2
passed granting powers for some particular object, required of them. P art of the premises might still
, all places abroad :it is supposed t hat t he "Queen, Lords and be used for some p urposes, but with regard to
Thin paper copies .............. 1 16 0
Commons in Parlmment aE!sembled," foresee all the another part, that had been rendered for ordinary
.............. 2 0 6
consequences that reasonably follow from the ap- purposes uninhabitable.
All accounts are payable to th.e publisher , MR;. CnARL'SS G ILBER~, plication of those powers, and take them into conThe question before the court was whether by
Cheques should be crossed " Umon Bank, Charmg Cross Branch.
sideration, deciding that whatever ill consequences the exercise of due skill three engines of 400 horsePost Office Orders payable at Bedfordstreet, Strand, W.C.
When foreign Suhs<'riptions a re sent by Post Office Orders are likely to arise from them are more than corn- power each could not be run without creating " an
advice should be sent to the Publisher.
Foreign and Colonlal Subscribers recelvlD.g
Incomplete Copies through News-Agents are re- the enterprise. In a general way, every one admits rendering it "for ordinary purposes uninhabitable. "
quested to communicate tbe fact to the Publtaher, the reasonableness of this proposition. F or instance, If t he premises had been occupied by middl e-aged
together with the Agents Name and Add.reB&
Ofllce for Publication and Advertlaements..t Nos. the working of a rail way is always attended with men with nervous systems overwrough t in the battle
8S and 36, Bedfordstreet, Strand, London. W.\;.
noise, and often sadly interferes with t he nocturnal of life, or by society dam es who cannot bear the fricrepose of suburban residents, But it would be ab- tion of a crumpled rose-leaf, it is quite certain that
surd to attempt to obtain an injunction against t he an "intolerable nuisance " would have been created,
company on t he plea that their Act did not specify whatever alterations had been made in the
they might run heavy trains and blow whistles. machinery. B ut it is scarcely conceivable that
ENGINEERING is registered for t ransmission abroad.
To debar them from making noise would be to matters mjght not have been sufficiently improved
RBADlNG CA~:rsa. -ReadinJ,:' cases for conta.ininK twenty-six
numbers of ENGINERRtSG may be ha.d of the publisher or of any forbid them working at all, and to stultify the de- to prevent any serious interference with the h ealt:k
news-agent. Price 6s.
cision of Parliament. We are so well acquainted and comfort of school-children, none of whom had
with the general characteristics of railway service probably had a luxurious upbringing. The change
that we perfectly realise they were present to would have been costly, however, and might have
The Marseilles and St. Loui:AoB IEconomical Speed of Steam~AOE the minds of the Committee by whom the Bill was involved the replacing t he engines by others of a
Electric Road Railway
1 ships . ....... ... . ... ... .. 511 considered, and we accept t.hem as a matter of different design, and the entire remodelling of the
(lllmtrated) . .... . .... 409 Ball Bear ings for Thrust
station. It was this that the judge refused to conThe Developmen t of South
' Blocks ..... ..... . .. .. . 611
I n th e ca~e of n ove1 pro.Jec
t s, of wh'1c h th e wh o1e si'd er. It was su ffi Cien
t f or h Im
th a t t h e eng1ncs

A.fricao Railways (Ill-us

Launches and Tri~l Trips .. 611 1
t1atC4~ .. ...... : . ..... .. . . 602 tatu tory Authorrty ..... . 513 attendant circumstances arc not so clearly appre- were good q?ta engines, and he did not enter into
The .Bra,ttsh A88?clat!o~ 603 Portland Cement . 614 ciated before they assume concrete form, it is more their suitability to be placed next to an inhabited
Bur sCo otractmgCh11lfor
Tbe T .. ... 615


Car Wheels (I llustrated) W6 German Ironmakio~ and its

difficult to rea1lSe t a.t-In t eory, I not lll fact- building. They were wen adapted for their pur
8 1
~ ~;i~Vor~~orn~~l~~~bi:~
T:ees~~~~lr;,r~~~f~rti~11 :: ~i~ thebgood and evilkrebsults were ahll duly weighed, and pose, and any alteration would probably have been
E>.position(nlmt,.ated) . 507 American Universities at
I a alauce struc etween t em. 0 ur menta1 detrimental to the good working of the enterprise
Ele,e.tors. at the .'Yorlo's
vision is not rendered clearer when all the ill con- for which the Act had been obtained.
1 t~e Columbia.n Rxposi
Columblan Exposltaoo (Jl ~
tlon .. .. 616 sequences are reaped by ourselves, while the profits
This doctrine of statutory authority was pleaded
lu.straUd) ............ . . u08 Notes ............ . . ...... 617

Salado Bridge ; Buenos
N'otes from the United
go to ot ers.
et even un er t ese condiiwns in the Leeds tramway case under very different
Ayr es and Rosario Rail
States .. .. 617 t he
principle holds that Parliament in its conditions. As our readers will remember, the
way (llltUtrated) .. . .. 508 ~otes from Cleveland and
'l'he Cyrus Roberts Railway
I the Northern Counties .. 518 WIS om oresees e resu s o I s own ac 10ns.
wor mg u t e oun ay Electric Tramway interHa!?~ Car; Colurubian ExNotes from South Yorkshire 518 momen t's consideration will show the necessity of fered very seriously with the telephone service in
509 Notes from the South-West 618 this assumption

If every n ew undertaking were the neJghbourhood, and an act1'on was brought to

Balaocaog Eng mes (lllttB
Notes from the North .. . . 518

trated) .... . ........ ... 509 I For ejgn and Colonial Notes 619 at the mercy of anyone who could make out that abate the nuisance. This case was also heard by
Mecbao~ca.l Flight . .... : 509 A Geometr ic Oyrcscopic
it interfered with his con Yenience and comfort, Mr. J ustlce Ke kewich. The fi rst point to decide
Dlmens1ons of Test Spect
Top (lllmtrattd) . . . ... 620 th
ld b
d f th
t h 1 1
h }
1 h
meos ......... .... ... . . 510 Miscellanea .. . ... . ...... 620
e way wou
e opene or e mos w o esa e was w et 1er t e t e ep one company had any
The ~~~s of H ..M.S. "\'ic
Duplex Hydraulic Steam
blackmailing. Claims that might be legitimately grouud of action, seeing that the grievan ce they

urged in Committee
would be held back in the alleged was of a kind that had never before
Amenca Cup ......... 610 II Ind,1stnal Notes ..... . ... . 621
Concrete: Its H umorous
Electric F <?<'k Drills (Ill-us. ) 622 hope that, after Immense sums had been spen t, occupied the attention of the courts. It had been
Sl~e ... . .. .. ... .... . 511 1 Cellular Ktle~:~ tiUtUJlrated) 623 they could be used as a means of extracting ex- decided in F letcher v. Rylands (L. R ., 3 , H. L .,
awmg Nute ....... . ...... 611 " Engineering" Patent Re
t d
cord (Illustrated) .. . .. 626 aggera e compensa wn.
romo era wou never 330 t hat a man must not discharge water he has
With a. Two-Page Engraving of 1.'HE S.AL~DO BRIDGE; know what lay before them ; a modest enterprise employed in his business in such a way as to flood
might give rise to de1nands exceeding its value by and injure his neighbour's land.
Finding an

AuSTRIA, Vienna.: Lehmann and Wentzel, Karntnerstra.sse.

OAPE TowN : cordon an.d Gotch.
EDINDURO ll : J ohn Menztes and Co., ~ 2 H a u.o' e~~treet.
FRA.'iCB, Paris : Boyveau and Chevillet, L1brame Etrangere, 22,
R ue de la Banque; M. Em. Terqu em, 31blaBoulevard llaussmann.
Also for Advertisements, Agcnce HaYas, s, Place de la Bourse.
(See 'below.)

iY, Berlin: Messrs. A. Asher and Co., 5, Unter den Lmden.


[OcT. 27, 1893.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

analogy between electricity and water, the judge

said that when a man had called into special
existence an electric current for his own purposes,
and discharged it into the earth beyond his own
control, he was as responsible for damage which
that current did, as he would have been if, instead,
he had discharged a stream of water. The court,
therefore, h eld that the prvprietors of the tram way
were, at common law, responsible for the injury
and inconvenience done to the telephone company.
But common Jaw is liable to be overridden by
statute law, and it was pleaded by the defendants
that, as they were acting under a provisional
order from the B oard of Trade, they were exonerated from the consequences experienced in t he
t elephone ~ervice. On the other side, it was argued
that a provisional order did not carry the authority of an Act of Parliament. But the judge h eld
that Parliament delegated its full authority to the
B oard of Trade, and t hat the order was an equivalent of an Act. As t o whether the tramway was
constructed with the highest available skill, in the
light of the kno;v]edge available at the date of the
trial, h e said : "It is surely impossible, with any
r egard to that common sense which, after all,
is the foundation of this and many other branches
of law, t o say that a railway company which was
not liable last year, last month, or even yesterday,
because until then its undertaking was carried on
according to the rules acknowledged to be the best,
is liable n ow, not because those rules have been
proved to be altogether wrong in practice, or unscientific in principle, but because some diligent
worker in this department has discovered what is
h eld for the moment to be a large improvement,
but may to-morrow t urn out to be only a step in
the progress of further advance. " Here, again,
we have it laid down that not only may a nuisance
b e craated in carrying out an Act of Parliament,
but it may be perpetuated after efficient means
have been discover ed for its abatement. Of course
this doctrine must be t empered by the common
sense which Mr. Justice Kekewich says is the
foundation of law. It is not to be believed that
the courts would pedantically agree to t,he continuance of a serious injury of part of the p opulation if it could be shown that it could be removed
at a cost that would not be unduly burdensome to
the undertaking creating it.
It is well for those who secure Acts of Parliament to r emember that while they have a cer
measure of security, their immunity is by no
means perfect, and it is not wise to r ely on it
overmuch. Our legislators enjoy a female lat itude
in changing their minds, and annulling their
decisions. If only clamour enough be raised, t hey
will revoke the .Acts of the last, or even of the
present Session, without any sign of compunction.
The case of t he so-called " blow-holes " on t he
Metropolitan District Railway is in point. A Bill
for their construction was drawn up, and passed
without opposition , and in due course the ventilat on were erected. But immediately t hey were put
into use in the neig~b ourhoo d of Palace Gr een
there was a universal howl in the daily press,
al t hough similar, or worse, ventilators had been in
existence in Euston-road for years. The statutory
authority was unassailable in the law courts, but
in the next session of Parliament th e Metropolitan
Board of Works_applied for powers t o enable cer tain
of the ventilators to be pulled down, and t h e only
consideration shown to the railway company consisted in the Board of Works bearing the expense.
It is only occasionally that sufficient agitation is
raised to cause an Act of Parliament to be formally
cancelled. But it often occurs that some innocentlooking Bill, which passes without opposition, is
eventually found to have severely curtailed the
privileges conferred by previous Acts. For instance, a new smoke abatement law is as binding on
those who work under statutory authority as those
who do not. Just as private individuals should
protect themselves by opposing, before P arliamentary Committees, any schemes that are likely
to affect them prejudicially, so also is it incumbent
on those who hold legal authority to do certain
things in contravention of common law, to see that
their privileges are not whittled away by subsequent enactments .
It is questionable whether it is to the interest of
engineers t o aid in advantage being taken to t he
full of statutory powers in cases where they bear
very hardly upon persons who derive no benefit
from them. The case of the Stockwell Orphanage,
referred to above, is in point. Here was an insti-

tution raised and maintained by voluntary contributions, and doing a most admirable work in converting into good citizens, children who, from the loss
of their parents, mig ht otherwise have grown up
very poorly equipped for the battle of life. The
presence of a rail way t o Stock well is no possible
advantage to this institution, and yet it has to suffer
a very heavy loss by its construction, and t he
iujury is r endered the more acute by the fact that
it is no t a general one, to be shared by the district.
The case is admittedly a hard one, and has excited
a widespread sympathy, the effect of which is felt
when it is proposed to erect similar power stations
in other n eighbourhoods. Of course this does n ot
matter to the City and South London Rail way Company ; thoy have got all they want. But to engineers, both consulting and manufacturing, who wish
to see t he electric r ail ways extend, it is important
that no unnecessary opposition should be created .
H ence it is their interest to exert an influence in
favour of peaceful compromise, rather than for an
insistance of the full legal pound of flesh, in cases
where a strong moral claim to compensation c1n be
made out.

years have elapsed since the discovery of Portland cement, and during that interval
its use and importance as a structural material has
increased w_ith such unprecedented rapidity that at
the present time it is almost universally adopted
wherever an hydraulic cement is required. I t does
no t appear, however, that our knowledge of t he
physical and chemical properties of this material
ha'i quite kept pace with its increased use.
The divergence of opinion among engineers on
many points connected with the testing, manufacture, and occasional failure of cement, indicates
that its nature and properties are not yet thoroughly
understood. Some engineers, for example, are of
opinion that the pre~ence of more than 2 per cent.
of magnesia in cement produces fatal consequences,
while others hold that magnesia may be consider ed
as an inert and harmless adulterant. Some are
strongly in favour of exposing fresh cement to the
action of the air, or, as it is called, ' 1 air slaking/'
before use; others believe that it becomes deteriorated by s uch exposure, and so on through many
oth er details.
Each enginePr frames his specification in accordance with his own particular views, and
manufacturers have rather a bad time while
endeavouring to meet the varying conditions imposed upon th em. Differences of opinion must
naturally cont inue t o exist so long as our knowledge of the material r emains imperfect, but
there seems good r eason to believe that at least
sox:ne of t he differences which at present prevatl could be cleared up and eliminated. With
this end in view we shall endeavour to epitomise
and consider, as briefly as possible, the facts bearing o!l the subject which have been elicited by
expenmenta.l r esearches, or have been established
by practical experience.
I t cannot be considered desirable that the
engineer should trench upon or interfere with the
functions of either the chemist or the manufacturer,
and it is to be regretted that a tendency in t his
?-irection appears to have recently developed i tself
1n the matter of Portland cement, t h e chemistry
of which is acknowledged to be of the most intricate
and complicated character, and the manufacture of
which req uires an amount of skill and experience
peculiar t o itself, which engineers cannot be
expected to possess. Under any circumstances it
is best to leave ch emical questions to chemists ;
and interference with manufacturers is to be
equally deprecated, not only because t hey must
know their own business best, but because t he
engineer, by unduly dictat ing how the cement is to
be manufactured, takes upon himself the responsibility which should be borne by t he maker.
M. Le Chatelier has expressed an opinion that
there is at present only one way of determininowhether the judgment passed on a cement by any
system of testing, is sound, and that consists in
waiting half a century to see how the work stands.
This st atement cannot be said to be at present without some force ; it is, h owever, much t oo sweeping.
The permanence of the work depends quite as
much on the intelligent and judicious use of the
cement as on the cement itself ; the want of permanence, t herefore, would not always prove t he use
of defective cement. F or the reasons already

indicated, we shall not enter upon the question

either of the chemistry or manufactu re of cement
furth er than a brit- f elementary outline.
So far as regards its active constituents, the
average composition of good P ortland cement,
ded uced from a number of analyses (omitting
fractions), is as foll ows :
Lime (Ca. 0) .. .
Silica (Si 0 2 ) .. .
Alumina (AJ2 Oa)


.. .

.. .
.. .



Per Cent.
by Weight.


.. .



the remaining 7 per cent. genera11y consisting of

small q uantities (rarely exceeding 1 or 2 per cent. )
of oxide of iron, sulphuric acid, mag nesia, carbon jc
acid, potash, &c. The active components, lim e, silica,
and alumina, are obtained, the first-mention ed from
chalk or limestone, and the two latter from clay
(such, for example, as is found in the M edway ), and
occasionally from clay slate. The chalk and clay,
both being in a s tate of minute division intimately
mixed tog~ther, and brought to a plastic condition
with water, are burned in a suitable kiln, producing
a hard, h eavy, vitreous clinker, which, when ground
to an impalpable powder , is P ortland cement in its
anhydrous condition. The production of good
cement appears to depend mainly on the degree of
heat applied in t he kiln , and the time for which it
is maintained, both of which can only be determined at present by the skill and experience of the
The chemistry of cement, as before observed, is
of an extremely complex character, an d cannot be
said to be fully understood. For many years
Portland cement was considered t o be a doublesilicate of lime an d alumina ; but recent investigators have come to the conclusion that tri calcic
silicate and tri-calcic aluminate are its principal
constituents, the lime combining with t he silica and
alumina under the influence of heat in the pror.ess
of burning. \Vhen the anhydrous cement is mixed
with water, furth er chemical reactions occur, resulting chiefly in the formation of hydrated silicate and
aluminate of lime, both of which resist the action
of water, and in this way the setting or har dening
of cement is accounted for.
The usual tests at presen t applied by engineers
to cement refer principally to (1) the tensile
str ength of cement gauged both neat and n1ixed
with sand; (2) the degree of pulverisation to which
the cement is reduced ; (3) the weight per bushel
of the dry ungauged material ; (4) colour.
To these is occasionally added the effect of submergence in water on thin slabs of cement gauged
neat, ,i .e., without sand. There are, however,
many other points connected with the subject
which r equire t o be investigated before a proper
knowledge of the material can be obtained ; the
principal of these are as follows : Adhesive
strength, chemical analysis, specific gravity, quantity of water used in gauging, time occupied in
setting or hardening, the influence of sea-water as
compared with t hat of fresh water, the effect of
heat in accelerating t he chemical changes produced
by admixture with water, air slaking, testingmachines, and the causes of occasional failures.
As regards the t ensile or cohesive strength, the
systematic testing of cement was first introduced
about 34 years ago (1859) by Mr. J ohn Grant,
M. Inst. C.E., who specified that briquettes of
cement gauged neat should at the end of seven days
bear a ter.sile strain of 400 lb. on an area of 1! in.
x It in. ( = 2.25 square inches), or 178 lb. per inch.
This was shortly after raised to 500 1b. on t he same
ar ea, or 222 lb. per square inch. Since then the
demand for tensile strength has increased up to
400 lb. and occasionally 450 lb. per square inch ;
while 28-day samples were required to bear 550 l b.
to 600 lb. per squ:ne inch.
Within the last two or t hree years, however, the
standard for- seven-day samples in this country has
been lo wered from 400 lb. to 350 lb. per inch, for
reasons which will be subsequently referred to.
The necessity of testing the strength of a mixt ure
of the cement and sand was r ecognised and adopted
in Germany for many years before it had received in
England t he attention it deserved, and even at
present many English s pecifications continue to
omit this test, which is a far more important one
than that of neat cement.
I t is difficult to understand why the tensile
strength of neat cement should have occupied such
a prominent position as a practical test. The
n1aterial is very rarely used neat, but, on the contrary, is generally mixed with large proportions of


2 7,

r 893.]

other ml!.terials, such as sand, shingle, &c., and,

even in this condition, is seldom or never called upon
t o resist tensile stress. . Cement .may be co~
sidered practic.\lly as a kmd of mmeral agglutlnat:>r, and, as such, it is. m.ost pr.oba.b~e that its
tensile strength does not 1nd1eat~ ~1ther 1ts cementing power. or it~ p~r~anent durab.Jhty- for,
finfl grindmg d1mm1shes t he tensile strength, but Increases the cementing power ; it is also well known
that to produce high tensile strength invol ves overlimina the cement, which is fatal to its durability ,
and f~r this reason the standard has been reduced
to the extent already referre d to.
The sand test, as most of our readers know, is
made by mixing together one part by weight of neat
cement to t hree parts by weigh t of clean sharp
sand which has passed through a sieve of 20
meshes and been retain ed on one of 30 meshes t o
the lineal inch . The German standard f or the
tensile strength of t his mixture 28 days after
gaugrng was first (1877) fix.ed at 114 lb. per squa~e
inch but th is was soon ra1sed to 142 lb., and ultlmateiy to 222 l b. per square inch. The sand t est,
a9 may be shown , furnishes additional evidence that
the tensile strength of n eat cemen t should not be
depended upon as a. proof of good quality.
THE telautoaraph is the latest invent ion of that
eminent and skilled electrician, Dr. E lisha Gray, of
Chicago. As its name implies, it is an instrumel?-t
for the t ransmission to a distance of autograph1e
writina. I t appeals to the eye as the t elephone
does t~ the ear. The latter carves the air into
waves of sound, the former t races on paper a facsimile of the messagd sent.. The p erformance of
the one is evc1nescent, whilst the record of the
other is permanent. As the telephone h as, for
many purposes, superseded th e cumbrous telegraph,
so in turn may it be assisted and supplemented by
the equally swift and more accurate telautograph.
I n the telegraphic service, dots and dash es sometimes get wofully mixed, to the great d isfigurement
of words and names ; even in telephonic transmission certain sounds are very liable t o be misinterpreted ; but the indications of th~ new messagesending instrument must necessarily be an exact
reproduction of the original.
It mattt)rs not
whether the sender write slowly or rapidly,
elegantly or illegibly, in Greek or in Sanskrit, or
whether he send figures or letters, diagrams or
drawings ; all are reproduced with equal fidelity by
the receiving instrument.
It was at the Centennial Exhibition (Philadelphia, 1876) t hat the Bell teleph on e was first publicly shown, and it was on that historic occasion that Sir William Thomson (now L ord
Kelvin) called it, in a m oment of pard onable enthusiasm, "the wonder of wonders." While fully
agreeing with that ejaculation of the Nestor of
mathematical and physical science, we are convinced that the telautograph, as n ow d eveloped and
shown in the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, is
also among the epoch-making achievements of this
electrical age.
The problem of transmitting handwrit ing occurred to specialists in the early years of electric
telegraphy, when it received the attention of
Bain, Ca.selli, and others. Cowper in recent years
again attacked the problem, and obtained considerable euccess. His apparatus, h owever, did n ot
realise the hopes primarily entertained, so that,
after creating a passing sensation, it dropped into
the limbus of ingenious but unremunerative inventions.
Dr. Gray's instrument, on the other hand, seems
to offer a thoroughly practical solution to the electrical transmission of hand-written despatches, and
to be well fitted to meet the demands created by the
high-pressure activity of modern life. We had the
advantage of operating wit h the telautograph and
submitting its capabilities to a few tests.
found that whether we wrot e long or sh ort hand,
drew diagrams illustrating points in the construction of a tripha~e motor or covered our sheet with
the integration of a differential, the receiving pen
synchronously responded and gave a faithful copy
of the very complex original. In these experiments
the t wo pa rts of the apparatus were connected by
a wire whose resistance represented five miles of
telegraph wire. A similar apparatus is working
every day b etween Highland Park and Waukegan
-a distance of 14 miles.
In the t ransmitting instrument an ordinary lead

E N G I N E E R I N G.
p encil is used to write the message. It is attached
n ear its p oint to two fine silk cords, which ehorten
or lengthen according t o the motion of the pencil
act uating at the same time the mechanism of the
transmitter. This m echanism, in turn, regulates
the current impulses that are sent along the line
to t h e distant station, a nd which t here compel the
receiving pen to move in perfect synchronism with
the sending pencil.
This pen is a short tube
drawn t o capillary dimen sions at its lower extremity ; it is held at right angles to the plane of
the paper by two aluminium arms, one of which
incloses a small rubb er tube connected with a reservoir of ink for the purpose of affording a constant supply t o the pen. This pen may be moved
up or d own , to the right or the left, or completely
lifted away from t he paper, by merely p erforming similar mot ions with the t ransmitting lead
We are n ot told the details of the mechanism
by which these remarkable results are obtained;
for, although t he devi~es are well covered by patents,
wa are assured that reticence is still deemed necessary. It is, however, confidently affirmed that
both the mechanical and electrical arrangements
are as simple a<J they prove themselves to be effective. We have little d ifficulty in believing t his,
as they a re the outcome of the prolonged studies of
a veteran electrician, of one to whom we are ind ebted inter alia for the musical telephon e and the
harmonic telegraph transmitter, which latter apparatus allows eight messages to be sent over one
wire at the same time. The telautograph or longdistance writing machine is Dr. Gray's latest
effort ; dou bt le~ s, t oo, it will b3 his crowning inven tion.
The n ew mach ine r equires battery power similar
t o t hat needed for ordinary telegraph purposes.
The service is, theref ore, not affected by currents
steady or variable, continuous or alternating, that
may be traversing n eighbouring conductors. Their
inductive effects are, indeed, heard in that marvellously sensitive instrument, the telephone, producing what have been termed ''parasit ic " currents, which, unfortunately, often seriously interfere with the traffic.
Another noticeable peculiarity in the working of
this n ew machine is the silent way in which it
receives and deliver s its message. There is no
other acoustic proof of its transmission from one
place and its reception at a second than the infinitesimal and unrecognisable sound produced by the
friction of t he pencil or pen with the underlyin g
paper. N o bystander, h owever eager, can hear what
is goin g on. Then, again, "tapping " the line is
precluded by the difficulty of carrying about such
a piece of apparatus. Complete safety and secrecy
are, therefore, necessary concomitants of this new
Nor is any preliminary training n eeded to operate
it successfully . The first time we manipulated the
transmitting pencil and sent congratulations to a
fictitious friend, an exact reproduction of our felicitating scrawl appeared simultaneously at the other
end of the line.
As the receiving instrumen t is automatic, the
message will be recorded whether the person to
whom it is sent be present or not. In case of
absence, the telautogram will await his return.
Anoth er essential characteristic of this new m ode
of communication is that a double written record of
each despatch is obtained. The importance of this
feat ure in gen eral, and especially in case of litigation, cannot be overestimated. This, as well as the
other advantages enumerated, must urge the
adoption of the telautograph as an adjunct to our
postal and telegraph service, and eventually must
secure it a place among the essentials of the business routine of everyday life.


T HE advance of Germany as a g reat iron -producing country, and the strength of her competition
in some of the markets of the world which British
manufacturers have hith erto regarded as special
fields of enterprise, h ave awakened surprise if
n othing mor e. Twenty years ago, for instance,
Germany's total make of iron was 886,000 tons,
and of steel125,000 tons, t ogether 1,011,000 tons ;
while last year the total was 3,878,000 tons. Of
this t otal one-third is bar a nd section iron; blooms,
billets, and ingots making up 800,000 t ons; plates,
425,100 tons; and rails, 891,400 tons.
Of course

Ger many d oes n ot yet rank alongside Britain or

America f or our output of steel totals as much as
the iron 'and steel of the Continental country. But
the latte r is steadily increasing h er export ~rade,
and the t otal of fi11ished iron and steel sh1pped
last year was over a million t ons. In re cent
year.::J there have been cases of German iron and
steel manufacturers quoting to Briti~ h clients a lefs
price than home makers. An easy. w.a y to solve
the interesting problem as to h ow thiS 1s P.r obable,
is to asaume inferiority, but where s pec1fic tests
haTe to be m et this iB scarcely tenable. Labour
may b e slight ly cheaper, ~ut even this is ~ oubtful,
and certainly wages, especu~lly to coal mmere, are
on t h e increase, so that fuel1s dearer. The ConsulGen eral for the U nited States at Frankfort has
been attracted by the problem, and presen ts a case,
perhaps with greater earnestneEs of language ~ha.n
is usual in British Gove rnment reports, but 1t 18
none the less valuable because of that.
Th e growing importance of the iron industry in
Germany is said by him to be due to two fundamental facts-the introduction of t.h e basic process which enables cheap and ab undant native
ores' to be used ; and the application of chemical
skill to the recovery and utilisation of the byproducts of coke manufacture. The latter point is
of special interest, for while there is a growing
tendency t o construct a mmonia recovery works for
the r ecovery of t h e products from the blast furnaces, little h as been d one in the case of cokemaking . Th.e difficulty formerly urged was the
possibility of in j uring the quality of the coke. The
type of furnace used in Germany, h owever, h as
overcome t his. The most largely adopted oven in
Germany is said to be the Otto-H offmann, but there
are several in use. There are in all about 3000 coke
ovens which save the s ubsidiary products, and half
of these are of the Otto type. The oven more
largely adopted in Belgium- the Semet-Solvay- is
cheaper of construction, and so intense is the heat
generated that it is n ot necessary to combine the
ovens with r egenerators ; but they require a special
mixture of fat and lean coal which is n ot always
easy of arrangement; and while the coke made is of
high and uniform quality, it gives less ammonia,
tar, a.nd gas than the German oven. This latter
apparatus is an Otto oven, 32ft. long, 16 in. wide,
and 5~ ft. high, combined with the Siemens regenerator in such manner that the air t o be used for
the combustion of gases is first heated to 1800 deg .
The most economical arrangement is to
have a battery of sixty ovens, each alternate one
b eing filled every forty-eight h ours. The oven is
charged from above, through three openings, with
6t tons of air-dried coals, heat applied, and the
gases subsequently generated drawn off through
collecting pipes into coolers or scrubbers, wh ere
the tar and ammonia are deposited in water
by mechanical dis tillation, and the gas r econducted to the b ottom of the oven to assist in
the initial process of roasting the coal. 'Vith
German coal the h eat remaining after depositing the tar and ammonia is s ufficient to roast
t he coal and provide, in addition, tSteam and light,
or it may b e of service in som e other direction.
The process of scrubbing and extracting the
ammonia need n ot be referred to further. The
results may be indicated.
The product from
good coal containing from 1o to 17 pf r
cent. of water is about 76 per cent. of coke,
1.15 to 1. 25 per cent, of sulphate of ammonia,
and from 2.5 to 4 per cent. of tar.
actual battery of sixty ovens in three districts
gave the following results p er ton of coal :
T ar. Sulphate
Silesia. . . .
93. 5
These 180 ovens produce per annum 139,800
tons of coke, Ruhr making 51,300 ton~, Silesia
48,000 tons, and Saar 40,500 t ons. The aggregate
sulphate of ammonia recovered weighed 2112 tons,
and the tar 7260 tons. M oreover, the waste h eat,
after the r ecovery of these by-products, was sufficient to work t he ovens and give a large surplus
for other purposes. This surplus, in the case of
Ruhr, was 12,800 cubic feet per oven per day,
Silesia 16,000, and Saar 12,800 cubic feet.
other words, a battery of sixty ovens, in addition
to providing the coke and t h e residual products is
self-heating, and gives off per day heat which is
equivalent to from 45,600
to 57,000 lb. of coal


E N G I N E E R 1 N G.
-sufficient to run machinery indicating from 1200
to 1600. indicated horse-power. Of course, special
plant IS necessary to work the process, so that
in ma~ing comparison with the ordinary coking
establishment, allowance must be made for this
extra first cost and upkeep.
The approximate gross value of the process is
easily attained. Taking the case of Silesia, we find
that in producing 48,000 tons of coke in six:ty ovens
3000 tons of tar are r ecovered each year, which at
2s. per cwt. yields 6000l., and 840 tons of sulphate
of ammonia at 11s. per cwt., equalling 9240l.together 15,240l. To this amount must be added
the fuel saved. In Silesia the total production of
gas is 36,800 cubic feet per oven per day, and after
consuming 20,800 cubic feet in roasting the coal in
the production of the coke, a surplus of 16,000
cubic feet remains for other purposes, equal, as we
have already indicated, to 57,000 lb. of coal for the
sixty ovens, sufficient for 1600 I. H. P. during 18
houra per day at 2lb. per I.H.P. per hour. The
value of this coal-about 9000 tons per annumshould be added to the 15,240l. received for tar
and sulphate of ammonia, to ascertain the gross
value of the r esidual products. Thi-; does not include the value of the heat utilised in the oven,
which is equivalent to an additional 12,000 tons
per annum. Silesia is the most favourable return
so far as extent of residue is concerned, but
the case of \Vestphalia also shows satisfactory results. Sixty ovens there cost in construction
3!,580l., or 576l. each, and the tar and sulphate of
ammonia produced in one year's working provided
a revenue of 8375l., or about 25 per cent. on the
capital invested in the plant.
'rhe other instances given might also be worked
out, but it is probably sufficient to show that Germany can afford to credit their actual cost of production with a large sum, the result of the recovery
and sale of by-produ:}ts. Of course, this affects the
selling price of their iron and steel, and offers
at least a partial explanation for the low quotations
made l>y German makers in competition with
British manufacturers. The influence on the price
of tar and ammonia of the 3000 ovens in use in
Germany and Austria is pronounced. In 1883
sulphate of ammonia was worth 16s. per hundredweight, but now sells at 11s., and tar has dropped
in price from 3s. t o 2~. per hundredweight. The
decline in prices need not, however, be very alarming, and if, as in the case of Westphalia, four
years' revenue suffices to pay for the plant, it should
not be excuse for rejecting t his auxiliary to
economy. Germany is moving forward towards
the same end in other directions, and it is said
success h\\s attended the efl'orts of a Dortmund inventor in the production of benzol in the coke


THIS annual fixture was opened at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, on Monday last, and seems
to be well attended. The principal feature of the
show is, as usual, the fine display of coppersmiths'
work made by several firms, but these being purely
brewery specialities, have little interest for engineers
at large.
Gas-engine builders seem to have a special liking
for this exhibition, and in addition to Messrs.
Crossley Brothers and the Campbell Gas Engine
Company, whose exhibits in the same hall we
described quite recently in our account of the
Laundry Exhibition (ENGINEERING, September 22),
Messrs. Tangyes, Limited, of Birmingham, the
Griffin Engineering Company, and Messrs. J. E. H.
Andrews and Co., have all stands in the present
show. The smallest gas engine present is to be
found at the stand of the Griffin Engineering Company. This is iutended as a domestjc ~otor, a?d
is rated at l horse-power. It has a cylmder 2f In.
in diameter by 5 in. stroke, and runs at 350 revolutions per minute. On the same stand is also
shown a 3 horse-power Griffin gas engine, and an
oil engine of similar capacity. Photographs of a
single-cylinder gas engine of 300 horse-power are
also shown here, and are of interest, as this
is the largest gas motor yet attempted. A
small arc lamp taking only 2 amperes of cur
rent is run off a dynamo driven by the small
gas engine~ This lamp is known as the Pell~t
lamp, and ~s .exhibited by ~he .A kester Electric
Syndicate Limlted, of GranVIlle House, Arundelstreet St;and London. It is, we understand, intended to be
on '' incandescent " circuits. The


[OcT. 27, r893.

largest engine at the show is shown by Messrs. every alternate bar is raised, and at the same
J. E. H. Andrew and Co., of Reddish, near Stock- time moved longitudinally for about 3 in. The
port. This is of 50 horse-power, and works on the appatatus used does not encroach to any extent
Otto cycle. It is fitted with self-starting gear, and on the space below the firebars, nor interfere
ignition timing valve. Its speed is 160 revolutions with the removal of the ashes there. The bars
per 1ninute. Messrs. Tangyes show a 5 horse-power themselves consist of a flattened wrought-iron
gas engine, driving a set of 5 in. by 6 in. three- or steel tube, forming a core around which
throw pumps, and a 3 horse-power gas engine driv- the iron constituting the body of the bar i3 cast
ing a dynamo.
in a chill mould. The chill is confined t o the
Messrs. Merryweather and Sons, Limited, of top of the bar, and is about ~ in. deep. The
Greenwich-road, S.E., have a large display of their Pulsometer Engineering Company, Limited, of
fire-extinguishing plant and pumps. The largest the Nine Elms Works, L ondon, S. W., were, we
of their fire pumps shown is a '' M~tropolitan understand, late in applying for space, and conseSingle-Cylinder Steam Fire Engine, " capable of quently have only room on their stand to show
throwing 360 gallons per minute, which has been samples of their pulsometer, Deane, and boiler feed
built for Messrs. Bass and Co., of Burton. Type- pumps. The latter appears to be a very compact
writers are exhibited by t he American Writing form. It is of the flywheel type, and has an air
Machine Company, of 92 and 93, Queen-street, chamber formed in the body of the casting. The
London; the Yost Typewriter Company, 40, Hol- steam valves are of the piston type.
It is interesting to note the steady progress
born-viaduc~; and by the Hammond Typewriter
Company, of 50, Queen Victoria-street, London. The made in the practical application of bacteriology.
machines shown by the latter contain an entirely new .Air filters for freeing the air from organisms
arrangement of type and type wheel. This wheel is before allowing it to come into contact with the
fixed in the new machine, whilst the types are cut on wort in the refrigerator are exhibited by Messrs.
a shuttle which is moved over the wheel by depress- George Adlam and Sons, of Bristol. The filter in
ing a key, at the same time a hammer behind question consists of a casting, containing cloth
the paper forces this against the type shuttle, cylinders, through which the air is forced by
thus causing the impression to be made. As will means of a fan before it is allowed t o enter
be seen, in the new arrangement the wheel acts the chamber in which the wort coolers are
merely as an anvil, and as it does not require to be placed. A machine of German origin, in which
moved save when changing from the upper to the same principle is embodied, is also shown
lower case, it can be very solidly constructed. The by Messrs. S. Briggs and Co., of Burton-onshuttles carrying the type are made in all alphabets, Trent. The cloths require to be sterilised before
and can readily be changed. They are light, and use, which is conveniently done by live steam. An
easily moved by the keys. The new machine is exhaust steam injector having a rigid nozzle is exclaimed to be equal to the type-bar machines for hibited by Messrs. Lewis Olrick and Oo., of 27,
manifolding, whilst retaining the special advantages Leadenhall-street, London E. C., whils t the Penberthy injector, formerly made by Messrs. P ontifex
of the original Hammond.
Refrigerating plant is shown by a number of and Wood, of Shoe-lane, is now shown by Messrs.
firms. Messrs. J. and E. Hall, Limited, of Dart- W. H. Willcox and Co. , of Southwark-street,
ford, have on their stand a remarkably compact L ondon, S.E., who have taken over the H suncarbonic anhydride refrigerator, arranged to be dries " branch of the former firm's business.
driven by belting. In spite of its Yery modest
dimensions, this machine is rated at 15 cwt. of ice
per day of twelve hours. Compressing pumps for AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES AT THE
ammonia refrigerators are shown by Messrs. Henry
Pontifex and Sons, Limited, of 242, York-road,
THE little town of Ithaca, in the western parli of
London, N. These pumps are noticeable for the
means taken to prevent leakage through the the State of New York, though favoured with a
stuffing-boxes. To this end a compound stuffing- classical name, would, probably, never have
box is used. This consists of two stufting-boxes emerged from obscurity, but for the public spirit of
placed in line on the rod. Any leakage through one of its inhabitants. This was E zra Cornell, a
the first packing must also pass through the second man who passed through all the phases of life ; and
before it reaches the air. The space between the by his thrift, energy, and ability, rose from the most
two boxes is, however, connected by a pipe with straitened circumstances to prosperity and affluence.
the exhaust side of the compressing pump, so that Remembering that it was in the roughest school of
the pressure in the space here never exceeds poverty and hardship he learned the value of sound
about 20 lb. per square inch, and the risk of leakage and early training, with whole-souled generosity
is correspondingly reduced. The Linde British he resolved to devote his hard-earned resources to
Refrigerator Company, Limited, of 35, Queen the equipment of the young for the battJe of life.
The State of N ew York co-operated with the
Victoria-street, E. C., shows an interesting plant,
consisting of a small Crossley gas engine driving an sexagenarian philanthropist ; and in October, 1868,
ammonia compressor, and fitted with the usual con- the new university held its inaugural ceremony.
denser and brine or water refrigerator. The plant E zra Cornell addressed the 24 professors, 386
shown is capable of cooling about 2500 gallons of st udents, and the knot of distinguished visitors that
water per day from 55 deg. to 45 deg. Fahr., and is had come from the academic cities of the east ; and,
in clear terms, defined his ideal university. It
the smallest size made by this firm.
An interesting exhibit of well-boring plant is should be an institution "that would furnish better
shown by Messrs. Le Grand and Sutcliffe, of the means for the culture of all men of every calling
Magdala Works,Bunhill-r ow, London, E. C.; and by and of every aim; that would make men more
Messrs. C. Isler and Co. , of Bear-lane, Southwark, truthful, more honest, more virtuous, more noble,
London. Some of the lining tubes shown by these and more manly ; that would give them higher purfirms are 18 in. in diameter, a size which permits poses and loftier aims, qualifying them to serve
their fellow-men better, preparing them to serve
of the insertion of a large pump.
Coming to the steam engines, the "Williams " society better, training them to be more useful
valveless engine, described in our report on the in t.heir relations to the State, and to better comLaundry Exhibition, on page 369 ante, is again prehend their higher relations to their families
exhibited by its makers, Messrs. Glover and and their God. " Cornell's whole mind and purHobson, of the Albert Iron Works, St. J ames's- pose are resumed in these memorable words of
road, London, S.E. Mr. E. S. Hindley, of his : " I would found an institution in which any
Bourton, Dorset, as usual shows a number of small person can find instruction in any study. "
True to the liberal spirit of its founder, Cornell
engines, and a large-sized vertical boiler. On the
stand of Messrs. Buxton and Thornley, Burton-on- welcomes men and women alike, provides halls for
Trent, a well-finished engine with a novel valve the classic, shops for the engineer, laboratories
gear is exhibited. The engine is of 12 horse-power, for the scientist, and farms for the agriculturist.
The educational opportunities thus offered are
and has a cylinder 10 in. in diameter and 20 in.
stroke ; the steam and exhaust valves are separate, eagerly sought after, as evidenced by the aggregate
and the former are worked by a new automatic expan- attendance and annual increase in the n urn her of
sion gear, of which, however, the patents are not yet students. Last year 528 freshmen, 336 sophoquite complete. The exhaust valves are of the mores, 176 juniors, and 205 seniors followed
courses in arts (139), philosophy (109), letters (80),
Corliss type.
Messrs. Caddy and Co. show a furnace fitted science (89), agricult ure (22), architecture (77),
up with their hollow chilled firebars, and fitted civil engineering (126), electrical engineering (257),
with a rocking device of a simple character. The and mechanical engineering (289).
It is evident from this enumeration that a wide
rocking motion is such that by pressing a lever

OcT. 27, 1893.]


range of elective subjects is ~pen t o the young

Cornellian : and to encourage him to seek thorough
knowledae and sound scholarship in his chosen
group, ao correspondingly large number of baccalaureates is provided. Of course, Cornell can do
this, unpledged. as s~e is to ~he time-hon oured
traditions and mela.stte regulatwns of our older
uni verai t ies. The student of the farm will take
his B.Sc. in agriculture, the future builder his
B.S :. in archi tecture, t h e biologis t or botanist or
entomologist his B.Sr. in natural h istory, whilst the
S0 0S of vV~tt and Stephenson look forward to their
''degree " of civil (C.E .) or mechanical (M.E.)
The onaineering student at Cornell has not only
acJ.demica.i honours in wait for him, but the ablest
assistance to qualify him for them. In fact, it is
freely admitted that the university at I thaca has one
of the best engineering schools in the country. Its
c::>ur3es are thorough and eminently practical, its
equipments ext~nsive, its .r equirements h~gh and
exactina. Studtes are carried on not only 1n classrooms :nd laboratories, but also, at proper t imes,
in the best workshops in t he world. L1st year the
mechanical and electrical engineers went on an
inspection t our, visiting the Cataract Construction
Company at Niagara Falls, ex~mining the ele c~ric
lighting plant and the street ra1l way power statwn
at Buffalo, and studying t he works, grounds, and
buildings of the \Vorld's Fair. In like manner t he
mechanical engineers visited the docks in Baltimore, the Naval Gun F actory at Washington, and
the Transatlantic liners in New York. If such
peregrinations are expensive, it must be admitted
that they are useful and nt.luable.
Besides its regular curricula, Cornell also undertakes summer courses in languages, mathematics,
chemistry, physics, drawing, elocution, and physical
The courses are, for t he mos t part,
a ttended by advanced students and teachers ; and it
is acknowledged that they ha ve already perceptibly
contributed to improve the instruction given in the
public and high schools of t he State. I t is remarkable how this university insists in its programmes of
study on the importance of those subj ects which lead
to accurate, elegant, and forcible expression of ideas.
Doubtless it is, in great measure, t o such classes
organised in all leading American colleges, that we
owe the easy flow of language, grace of diction, and
ruses of debate that we meet with so frequently and
unexpectedly in Pullman cars, in clubs, in drawingrooms, in social and political gath erings of all kinds.
We have often been surprised at t he assurance of
young speakers, the abundance of their ideas, and
freedom of their criticism. Our English colleges
would do well t o take a leaf out of some American
unhersity syllabus, and try to make our graduates
less embarrassed, indistinct, hesitating, and awkward when called upon to read a paper or make a.
speech, or even say a few words.
Cornell recognises that a. university must develop
not only the intellectual but also the social qualities
of its alumni, for we observe that g reat scope is
allowed for entertainments, balls, banquets, and
amateur theatricals. Of course this is comparatively
easy at Ithaca, on account of the presen ce of the
lady students ; and the Cornell E ra, a weekly
journal edited by the junior and senior classes, showa
that the alumni and alumn re are not only wedded
to their studies, but also bent on testing for themselves the truth of th e H ora.tian maxim, D'l.tlce e~t
desipere in loco. This makes one somewhat curious
to know how such a. system would work in England.
The experiment might easily be tried in Cambridge.
P ossibly similar effects of culture and r efinement
might follow if the students of Trinity or St.
John's were, at regular intervals, t o invite the
i!lmat;s of N ewn,ham or Girton to a tennis party, a.
httle 'at home, ' or a Cinderella dance. At any
rate, the system of co-education seems to work
satisfactorily at Cornell; for, in lookin a down the
gr~dua.te list, we find a good percentag~ of ladies.
It 1s natural enough that they should figure among
the B. A. 's, and even the M. A .'s; but it is just a little
surprising to find them among the M.Sc. 's and
Ph. D. 's.
~ornellians find considerable facilities for study in
the1r ~ell-arranged library and numerous museums.
The hbrary contains 113,000 volumes. It is a circulating one for the members of the faculty, and a
reference one for the student3. U nderuraduates
have free access in the main rt'ading-roo~ to some
8~00 . volumes, comprising encyclopredias, dicttOnaries, and standard works in the various departments of study. In the schools of engineering,

E N G I N E E R I N G.
architecture, agriculture, as well as in the hist orical and literary seminary-rooms, books and
periodicals are selected according to the needs of
students engaged in special work. The general
reading-room receives nearly 600 periodicals and
Transactions, literary, scient ific, and t echnical.
The maintenance and increase of the library are
secured by the income from an en dowment fund of
60,000l. A " Libra ry Bulletin " is issued at regular intervals, containing classified lists of r ecent
accessions, as well as other bibliographical matter
intended for the assistance, of the students.
Cornell attaches much importance to the advantages t o be derived from well-organised museums ;
in no other collegiate institution have we found
so many separate and well-appointed collections.
There is a. museum of civil engin eering, containing
m odels for the study of descriptive geometry,
topography, geognomy, atone-cutting, and hydraulic
engineering ; also collections illustrating t he details
of bridges an d tracks, roofs and trusses, besides
numer ous instruments of precision for astronomical
and engineering purposes, and geodesic work.
The mechanical engineering museum has engines,
boilers, motors, lathes, dynamos, experimental
machinery of various kindt~, and a full collection of
Professor Ruleaux's beautiful kinematic devices.
Besides these, the college has special museums
for agriculture, geology and mineralogy, zoology,
conchology, archreology, architecture, &c., fifteen
in all.
Despite such a wealt h of material, Cornell
makes but small encroachment on t he floor-space
of t he educational galleries of the E xhibition. It
is represented by a wing fram e containing large
photogra phs of electrical instr uments, and some of
the principal laboratories and workshops. Old
students, though proud of the achievements of
their almet, mrtte1, look rather disappointed when
they vie w this small display of Cornelliana.

N 0 TES.
A RENEWED interest is being taken in the tinplate
industry in America., owing to a decision recently
come to which has an important bearing on the
question as it affects this country. The McKinley
Tariff provides t hat the duty on tin plates shaH be
abolished unless the production in the States of
plates weighing less t han 63 lb. per 100 sq ua re feet
is equal to one-third of the importations in any one
of the fiscal years ending June, 1897. An attempt
has been made to induce the Treasury t o r egard as
home productions imported black plates that have
been dipped or tinned in America, but it has been
decided that only tin made from black plates rolled
in the States can be regarded as of American manufacture. In n o year thus far h as the production
equalled '\ third of the imp01tations, but t he t otal
imports last year were very low, and the return of
production during the past quarter is regarded as
h opeful. The production of tin and terne plates
from American black plates was 18,250,000 lb.
Deducting plates over the required weight, and
adding plates made from American sheet iron or
st eel, the total for t he quarter r eaches 19,489,455lb.
This is very much higher t han in preceding quar ter3, and, if it is maint~in ed, the total for the year
will work out t o 79,000,000 lb., equa.l to the
required onethird of the imports of the fi scal year
ending ,June, 1892. It remains t o be seen whether
this rate of production will be main tained. In any
case it is possible that long before the tinplate
clause of the MciGnley Tariff Act is operative,
there will be an entire change in protective legislation.
An interesting series of tests on insulated wires
is t ? be mad~ at t he vVorld' s Fair, Chicago, under
the direction of Professors Owens, O'Dea, and
.Jackson. Half-a-dozen different firms h ave enter ed
their pr oducts for the trials. These will include, in
the first place, tests of the resistance, insulation,
and electrostatic capacity of the wires, and will be
followed by the much more important tests, from
an electric lighting point of dew, on the brea.kina
down point of t he insulation, that is to say, t h:
voltage under which perforation of the insulating
material takes place.
High resistance unaccompanied by mechanical strength is a mild virtue
in an insulator, as in such cases the nominally hiah
resistan ce entirely vanishes at high voltages. Th~s
an air gap has practically an infinite resistance at
low voltages, but breaks down immediately under

high ones. With the plan t provided at the ' Vorld's

Fair very high vol ta.ges can be reached, as two
2000 volt and four 15,000-volt transformers have
been provided for these experim~nts. All mea~ure
ments of the potential used w1ll be made with a
Thomson's electrostatic balance, reading to 100,000
volts. The wires will be tested in 6-ft. lengths,
and will have 3 ft. of this length immersed in a
tank of water, with which one terminal of the
converter plant is connected, the other terminal
being connected with one of the ends of t he wire,
both of which are of course above the S1Jrface of t he
water. B eginning with the lowest voltage, the
pressure will be raised step by step, till the insulation fails, a. fact which will be indicated by t he
blowing of a fuze in t h e primary current. Each
successive p ressure will be kept on the wire for 10
seconds. The apparatus has been lent by the Westingh ouse Company, who have used it for wire tests
for some time, and ha.vfl found t hat with it these
tests could be made with great rapidity and
The two new Cunard steamers Ca.mpania. and
Lucania. continue to demonstrate their good
qualities, and the latter has j ust completed a
round voyage in which she broke the record both
out and h ome. Moreover, while she was excelling
all previous performances, the Campania. was
making the trip out in less time, so that in one
week both r ecords were broken. In other words,
while the Campania was breaking the Lucania's
record outwards, t he Lucania was retaliating by
breaking her consort's best performance h ome
wards. Taking, first, t he r ound voyage of t he
Lucania, she covered, running between Queenstown and Sandy Hook and back, a distance of 5580
nau tical miles, the time taken being only 11 days
7 hours 15 minutes, while fi fty years ago it was
considered marvellous if this distance was trave rsed in 28 or 30 days. The speed was YeJy
uniform throughout, the mean outwards being
20.75 k nots, and homewards 21.01 k n ots. On the
outward run t he highest speed for a day was 22!
knots, the unprecedented distance of 560 nautical
miles being covered, whil~ on the homeward run
the longest distance travelled between n oon and n oon
was 500 knots, which works out to about 21f knots,
as the vessel was steaming towards the sun. The
log sh ows the mileage at noon on each day as follows:
28, 480, 469, 490, 500, 490, and 348 to D aunt's
R ock. The total is, t h erefore, 2805 miles, and
this distance was cover ed in 5 days 13 h ours 30
minutes, the mean speed being 21.01 knots. This
t ime is 1 h our 25 minutes better than the two
record passages of t he Campania.. The two Cunard
steamers have, t h erefore, improved upon the homeward performance of all other steamers to t he ext ent of about 6! h ours, while since t he Umbria
held the record in 1888, t he improvement has been
13i h ours. But still better r esults may be looked
for . The value of the fast run home is demonstrated by the fact that t he passengers landed at
Liverpool on Friday afternoon in time to get to
L ond on and Glasgow the same evening, so that t he
voyage from New York to those citifs was made well
within 6! days. The Cclmpania's run last week to
~he we~t marks ~n ~qually satisfactory reduction
1n th &ti me occup1ed In tho voyaae. Her time was
22 minutes less than th e Luca~ia's perform a ncf'
the distance of 2786 nautical miles bein a cover ed i~
5 days 13 hours 23 minutes, so that the t:)mea.n speed
was 20.88 knots. It is most r emarkable that the
t ime taken on t he outward voyage sh ould be within
seven minutes of the duration of the home ward
voyage. The running of the Oa.mpania was most
uniform, t he d istl\nces recorded at n oon of each
day being 456, 517, 524, 523, 533, and 233 miles to
S~ndy B ook. ~h e engineer~ .of bcth ships speak
highly of the satisfactory work mg of the machinery
and they confidently predict better voyages so on~
Both vessels lea~e at t he end of this week again,
the one from N ew York and the other from Liverpool, and as there is a healthy rivalry between the
staffs on each ship, we may aaain
h ave double re0
PHILADE LPHIA, October 17.
No Improvement has yet set in in iron and steel
and prices are declining fractionally in nearly every
line. Pig-iron production has fallen to less than
75,000 tons per week. The first symptom of improvemen~ will be in:oads upon stocks, and will probably begm on forge Iron. Not a single large order

E N G I N E E R I N G.
has been placed in any American m a.rket for a w eek
p ast, a nd out of the increasing inquiry for material
there are none for more than s mall rtuantities. Locomotive a nrl car builders are still encountering discouraging conditions ; steel rail makers h ave no inquiries of consequence, and are filling small order~,
ranging from l OO to 500 t ons each. Plate and
structural mills ru n more steadily than any other
kind, and have the promise of a good deal of
work during w inter. 'l'he secret of the depression
is to be found in the fact that
action upon vital questions affecting indus trial i nterests, is delayed. Conclusions are expect ed within
a week or so, and the probability is that if they are
satisfactory some of the hesitancy about the prosecution of new enterprises will disappear. Banks continue to gather in money, and lend but little. The
Government reserve has fallen t o 85, 000,000 dols., and
financiers are concerned at this continued depletion.
Business men are in an uncertain frame of mind, and
the abnormally low range of prices for all staple commodities has no attraction for them. The ,olume of
business is about 30 p er cent. bel ow tha t of corresponding w eeks last y ear.


The 01-eveland Iron Trade.-Yesterday there was a
pretty numerous gathering on 'Change here, but the tone
of the market could not be described as anything but
cheerless, there being few inquiries and little buginess
doing. R ep orts from other iron centres were of such a
nature as to have a. somewhat depressing infl uence on
affairs here, and almost everybody spoke very discouragingly of the general state of trade. The outlook for the
future was regarded as most gloomy, and the opinion
prevailed that during the approaching winter there will
be more acute depression tba.n ba.s been known for a few
years. The unsatisfactory state of the shipbuilding trade
was lamented by many people. Q uotations were very
little altered since we last reported. For prompt f.o.b.
delivery of No. 3 g.m.b. Cleveland pig iron 34s. 9d. was
generally mentioned, and a few parcels changed bands at
that figure. It was reported, however, that No. 3 had
b een disposed of at 34s. 7~d., and buyers were not inclined
t o offer more than that figure, The lower qualities were
pretty firm . No. 4 foundry was quoted 83s. 6d., and
grey forge 32s. 6d. Middlesbrough warrants opened
34s. 6!d., and closed 34s. 7d. cash buyers. The bematite
pig-iron trade was reported fairly st eady. and about
43s. 3d. was the price for mix ed numbers of local brands
Spanish ore was quiet. Rubio something like 12d. 3d.
ex-ship Tees. T o-day there was very li ttle change in the
market. What small alteration there was was for the
better, but quotations were really the same as on the previous day. Some firms asked 34s. 10~d. for prompt No. 3,
but most sellers would accept 34s. 9d. Middle~brough
warrants closed 34s. 8d. cash buyers.
Manufactu'red Iron and Steel.-Manufactured iron producers complain of shortness of work and difficulty in
obtaining new orders, notwithstanding the low rates
which prevail. Some establi -shments are now very slack.
Common iron bars may be quoted 4l. 153.; best bars,
5l. 5s.; iron ship-plates, 4l. 13s. 9d.; and iron ship angles,
4l. 12s. 6d. - all less 2~ per cent. Steel plate makers are
rather better off for work, but quotations do not advance. Ship-plates are 5l. to 6l. 2s. 6d., less discount.
Ship angles are weak, and can readil y be bought at
4l. 15s. , less discount. Heavy steel rails are 3l. 15s. net
at works.
Engineering and Shipbuilding.-Engineers and ship
builder~, generally speaking, are rather badly off for
work. It is likely that b~fore long some large establishments will be closed, but we are glad to learn that several
firms hope to keep pretty well at work over the winter.
At many shipyards batches of men have been discharged
weekly for some time past, and one large firm have now
found it necessary to give notice to a number of their
office staff to terminate their engagements.
T he Fuel Trade.-Quota.tions for fuel continue firm,
and there is a good deal of activity in the trade. On
Newcastle ElCchange 14s. f.o.b. is asked and obtained for
best Northumbrian steam co&l, and second qualities are
about l s. 6d. belo w this figure, while small steam realises
about 6s. f.o.b. There is a strong demand for bunker
coal, and the price varies from 11s. to 13s. Ma.nufa.cturing coal is steady. Inquiries for Durham gas coal are
numerous, and prices vary much for such quantities as
are ~arl y obtainable. As much as12s. has been mentioned,
but some collieries are delivering on old contracts ab half
that figure. Coke is steady. A~o?t 123._3d. is generally
mentioned for blast-furnace quahtles dehvered here, but
some sellers ask rather more.


SHEFFIELD, W ednesday.
I ndign xnt I ronworkers.-.A meeting of ironworkers was
h eld at Rotberham yesterday to protest ag~inst a suggestion which had emanated from one of the1r number that
th ey should make a reduction of 10 per cent.. in wagee ~n
order to induce the masters to resume operatiOns, tbus m
some mel.sure mitigating the evil of dear coaL The ironworkers are affiliated to the union, and are governed by
the sliding scale. To reduce wages voluntarily would be
t o transgress the rules of the association, and the suggestion was unanimously condemned.
The Iron Trade.-Very few of the mills are doing any-

thing, as the prices of s team and manufacturing coal cannot

be afforded. Inquiries continue to come in for bar and
sheets for the home trade, India., Australia., and South
Africa., but where prompt deliveries are required, make~s
are unable to oblige customers, and a mass of work JS
b3i ng lost to the district, passing mostly to Staffordshi ~e
and the north. For urgent orders and contracts, bar 1s
being turned out, but it is at a severe loss. None of the
blast furnaces have resumed operations. Quotations for
local-made pig are merely nominal, deliveries only being
from stocks. For best boiler-plates there is a. good call,
but t he output is restricted. The iron trade is prac tic3>lly
at a s tandstill.
Steel and E ngineering Branches.-N ever in the history
of the heavy steel trade has there been a. position similar
to the one now existing. There are no supplies of suitable coke available, and that which can be got is, as a
rule, bad in quality, and 15s. to ll. per ton above what
can be afforded. The largest establishments have practically b 3en brought to a. standstill in the steel departm ents, and were the colliers to resume work at once it
would be some time before a full supply of coke would
be available. The loss up to the present, under the beading of standing expenses alone, must be tremendous, and
when to this is added lo.!S of profits and connoction, it
will be seen that a heavy blow has been dea lt the s teel
trade as a result of thiR coal struggle. Further inquiries
are coming in from the shipyards for marine material,
and a good trade could doubtless be done in this direction were businees to resume its usual channel. The call
for railway material on home account is likely to be very
poor for some t ime to come, but with anything like
reasonable prices, some fair contracts might be made on
Indian and South American account. For crucible cast
steel there a re good orders on hand, but they have to
remain unexecuted pending the pleasure of the coke converters. B essemer billets are quoted 5l. 17E~. 6d. to 6l.
per ton. At these figures there would be 10s. per ton
loss on production. A ll the enginearing branches are
adversely affected, and many thousands of mechanics are
thrown out of employment or are on short time. The
outlook in these combined branches is at present very
The Coal Difficulty.-Since last report about 3000 more
miners h ave resumed work in South Yorkshire at the old
rate of wages, but they are engaged for the most part
on the soft beds, and are turning out house-fire coal and
engine slack -v~ry little of the latter. As between the
masters and men here, the situation can only be described
as a. deadlock. Neither party appears inoli ned to retire
from the position it has taken up. A meeting of mayors
was held in Sheffield on Monday, but after careful con sideration t hey decided to take no further action unless
requested by one of the parties to do so. As a result of
the contest, the whole trade of the district is paralysed.
Steam coal fetches from 163. to 20.3. per ton, house coal
25s. to 30s., but hard furnace coal is unobtainable. The
men, it is certain, will hold out for a long time against
making any wage concessions. In the meantime much
pressure is being brought to bear on the masters t o induce
them to return t o the old rate of pay.


Devonport Dockyard.- Proposals for an ex tension of
Keyham are undergoing revision, in order that the n ew
docks may prov1de adequate accommodation for the immense cruisers whi ch the L ords of the Admiralty have
decided to add to the Navy. About 3,000,000l. will be required to complete the work. Coaling piers and machinery
to be cons tructed at Keyham at a cost of 85,000l., are n ot
to be commenced until the dockyard scheme has been
finally settled. The work will be undertaken in sections,
each 0f which will be completed before a fresh one is commenced. The dimensions of the docksa, which were to have
been one of 600 ftl. in length and two of 500 ft., are likely
to b~ increased to one of 700 ft ., another 600 ft., and the
third about 550 ft. The works ~re expected to extend
over eight years.
Railways in the West.-The Delabole section of the
North Cornwall line was opened on Wednesday. several
of the directors of t he L ondon a nd South-Western .Railway
coming down on the occasion. The larger portion of the
line, that from Tresmeer to Camelford, some nine or t en
miles in length, wae inaugurated in August. The remainder, which opens out the district from Camelford to
Delabole, with its great slate quaries, was opened on
Wednesday. Although the distance from Camelford to
Delabole is less than three miles, it forms a link which
will probably ultimately carry the L ondon and SouthWestern to Wadebridge. New Quay, a nd Truro. The
character of the section from Camelford to D elabole is
somewhat similar to the rest of the line. There are
numerous deep cuttings, viaducts, and embankments.
M essrs. Curry and Manning were the contractors. On
M onday Mr. W. Cla.rke, on behalf of the Great West ern Rail way Company, inspected a new line from
Brent to Kingsbridge. Two powerful goods engines
eac'h weighing 45 tons, left Brent drawing a. sa.loo~
carriage containing Mr. Clarke, Mr. O'Hanlon, and
Messrs. Relf and S on, the contractors.
All the
bridges were subjected to severe tests, the heavy train
going over slowly at first, and afterwards at full s peed.
Similar tests were applied to the steep embankments,
which at some points are over 40ft. high. The work
was sta.t~d t o give great satisfaction. The Board of Trade
ins pection will take place in the course of a week or two,
and it is now almost certain that the line will be opened
for psssenger traffic by December 1.
The Electric Light at Card1'jf.-An interesting ceremony
was performed at the electric lighting station, Cardiff, on

[OcT. 27, 1893.

Tuesday, the capstone of the new stack being laid by the
mayor. In July the mayoa laid the memorial stone of
the station and the new stack, the construction of which
was commenced in June, and has just been completed.
The stack is 150 ft. high, measuring from the g round line.
Its diameter is 26 ft. at the base and 13 ft. at the top. It
is built of Ebbw Vale brick, with buff and red pressed
brick facing, and the interior is lined with d trified brick.
The shape of the stack is octagonal, its weight is 900 tons;
240,000 bricks and 80 t ons of mortar were used in its
construction. The contractors were Messrs. 'VV. Thomas
and Co , Cardiff.
L lambradach.-The Llanbradach coalpits are being
rapidly opened up. L ast week upwards of 1400 t ons were
Cardiff.-Tbere has been an unabated demand for steam
coal, large quantities being forwarded to the 1\lidlands.
The bes t descriptions have made 14s. 9d. to 15s. :ld. p er
ton, while secondary qualities have brought 14s. 3d. to
14s. 6d. per ton. Household coal has also exhibited considerable activity ; No. 3 Rhondda large has made 14s.
to 14s. 6j. per t on. Found ry coke has been quoted at
20s. 6d. to 2ls. 6d. per ton, and furnace ditto at 18s. to
19s. per ton. Iron ore has been dull at barely previous
rates. The finished iron and steel trades have continu ed
to exhibit a sligh t improvement. Heavy section steel
rai ls have brought 3l. 15s., and light sect!on dit~o 4l. 10s.
to 4l. 15s. per ton.

Defences (If P lymouth.- The con creting of the gun emplacement for the 67-ton gun at Penlee battery has been
completed. W ork at this battery, which has been in
progress for four years, is slowly proceeding. The fittings
to the last of the three 38-ton guns mounted at Wbitsand
Bay battery will be finished this week. The gun carriages for the 12-ton howitzer guns t o be mounted at
Hawkin's battery, Maker, have been transferred to the
battery from:Cremyll, and the two 12-ton howitzers and
carriages to complete the armament at Tregantle Down
battery have been landed at Wacker.
Water Sup py of Chard.-The Chard Town Council had
before it on Wednesday the report of an engi neer upon
the water supply of the town, and the best means of
extending the eame, so as to embrace the whole of the
borough a.s recently enlarged. 'Ibe scheme is to erect a.
pumping station at a favourable point, and to carry the
water to a large reser voir on the hill known as Snowdon.
The estimated outlay is about 7000l. The report was
referred to the ' Vater Committee.

Gloucester and Birmingham Nav,gation.-Tbe directors

of the Sharpness New Docks and Gloucester and Birmingham Navigation Company state in their half-yearly
report that the trade of the port has been well maintained
during the past half-year, the receipts being almos t identical with those of the corresponding period of 1892. The
receipts on the Worcester and Birmingham section have
also slightly increased. Owing to the severe depression
of trade in the Forest of Dean, the Severn and Wye and
Severn Bridge Railway Com pany has been obliged to
c3.1l upon the Navigation 9ompany t o pay its proportion
(750t.) of the half-year's mterest on the portion of the
debenture stock guaranteed by it and the Midland Railway Company. The amount has been paid provisionally
from reserve revenue, and will be restored to that account
when repaid by th e railway company. Operations for
lowering the Bull Rocks in the Severn were commenced
in May, and will shortly be comJ?leted. The channel cut
through the rocks is 500 ft. in w1dth, and the level of the
bottom is 2ft. below the entrance sill at Sharpness.

The "Eclipse. "-Tbe Eclipst', second- class cruiser, is to

Le shortly laid down at Portsmouth. She will be, to
some extent, of the Edgar type. The engines are expected
to be put out to contract.

T orpedo-Boat Destroyers. -The torpedo construction

department at Key ham has received orders to manufacture double revolving torpedo tubes and bow tubes for
ten of twenty torpedo-boat destr oyers about to be added
to the Navy.


GLASGOW, W ednesday.
Glasgow Pig-Iron M arkct.-Tbe market was quiet on
Thursday forenoon , so far as business was concerned
but the tone was stiffer, there being fewer sellers. About
50~0 t ons of Scotch ~arrants were dealt in, and the cash
pnce marked a. ga.m of 1d . per ton from the prev ious
day's finish. One lot of 500 tons also changed hands
at 42". 6d. one month, with a. "call." One thousand tons
of. Cleveland iron were bought, the quotation ab last
bemg unchanged from Wednesday'd prices. The afternoon mark et wa.s firm. Scotch iron was done a.t 42s. 2d.
per ton cash, and Cleveland at 34~. 4~d. but business
was very slow. Very little i!on changed bands, only
so~e 3000 tons of Scotch bemg dealt in out-and-out,
whtle 1000 tons were done at 42s. 2d. a. month with a
"plant." Of Cleveland 1000 tons were dispos~d of ab
34s. 4!d. cash per ton. The settlement pricE's at the
close were-Scotch iron, 42s .. l~d. per ton; Cleveland,
34s. 4~~- ; Cumber land and M1ddJ esbrougb hematite iron,
resp ecttve]y, 44s. 4~? and 43~. 4~d. per ton. Friday's
market was more act1 ve. A fatr amount of business was
done during the forenoon both in Scotch and in Cleveland
iron. Prices were very irregular, Scotch fluctuating between 428. 1! d. and 42s. 3d. per t on cash clo.sing unchanged
from the previous day at 42s. ~d. per ton sellers. About
10,000 tons changed bands. Prices for Cleveland were
equally irregular, cash rate ranging fr om 34s. 3~d. to
34s. 6~d. p~r to~, with sellers over at that, or Id. up from
the precedmg mght. Some 6000 tons were dealt in in-


E N G I N E E R I N G.

eluding 2000 tons ~t 34s. 9d. three months fixed. The

market was firm 10 the afternoon. Scotch warrants
touched 42i. :ld. cash, but olosed unchanged from the
revious night at ~d. per ton less: About 5000 to?s were
ted in inclucfing a transaction at 42~. 2d. th1s week
~~~aa plant. Cleveland was firm a.t anoth~r advance. of
2d er ton between 3000 and 4000 tons bemg deal~ 10.
At lhe clo~e the settlement prices were-Scotch tron,
4?. Hd per ton Cleveland, 34s. 7,d.; Cllmberland and
1<Iiddle;brough h~matiteiron,44s. 4~d .. and 43.3. 4~d. per ton
respectively. Monday's market was fa1rly act1vem the fore
noon. About3000 ton s of S cotch warrants were sold, snd
the cash priceroee l~d. per ton. Some2000tonswere sold at
42ti. 3d. ooe month, with a " plant. " Of Clevela~d, between
3000 and 4000 tons were sold, and the cash pr10e rose ~d.
er ton. The market in the afternoon '!as steady, w1~h
~fair Amount of business done. Scotch Iron was dealt m
to the extent of 5000 or 6000 t ons, at from 42s. 3d. to
42~. 4d. cash, and at 42s. 5~d. to 423. 5d. one month,
the close being sellers at 42s. 3~d.. or ~d. per ton
under the forenoon's price. Some 1500 or 2000 t<?ns
of Cleveland changed ba'!ld3 at 34s. . 9d,. ca~h, w1tb
seller3 0 ,er at that, or ld. under the mormn~ s fimsh. The
closing settlement prices w~re: Scotch 1ron, 42.s. 3d.
per ton; Cleveland, 3ts. 9d. ;, Cumberland and 1'v1Jddlesbrough hematite iron, respect1 ~ely, 44s. 7~d. and 43s. 4~d.
er ton. Tbe market was qutet on T uesday forenoon.
~nly sorue 3000 tons of ~tch a.~d 1000 tons ? f Cleveland
irJn changing bands. A few opt10n and forfe1t deals w~re
engaged in. Sootch lost ld., Clevel~nd ?d., and hemat1 te
iroo l d. per ton. Th~ marke.t was 1dle lf:l the. a~ternoon,
not a single transact1on ta\nng place t11l w1thm a few
minutes of the close of the market, and then only a few
lots were dealt in. Of Scotch 1000 tons were dc;me at
42s. 2~d. cash, and the was ste~dy at that pnce, ?r
unchanged from the mormng. Busmess was also done m
Scotoh at 423. l id. cash, with a ~' P.l ant " at ,42s. ~nd
42s. 5~d. a month, with 6d. forf~1t m buyers opt1on.
Though not dealt in, Cleveland tron was quo~ed . ~d.
per ton dea.rer. One lot of Cumberland hema.t1te Iron
changed hands at 44s. 7d. per ton ten days, with cash sellers
over at that the same price as that of the forenoon. At
the close the settlement prices were: Scotch iront
42~. }!d. per t on 1 Cleveland, 3!s. 7id. ; Cum berland ana
Middlesbrough b ematite iron, respectively, .44s. 6~. and
43s. 4id. per to~ .. The m~rket w~s very qutet thts forenoon only a. tnfitng busmess betng done ; but the t one
was firm, the cash price of Scotch showing an adva.n~e of
!d. per t on, and Cleveland ld. In Scotch the busmess
done only amounted to about 3000 tons- 1500 t ons at
42:i. 2! d. per ton cash, and 1500 tons at 42!:!. 3d. this wee~
with a " call." and 42s. 4d. next week also with a." call.'
Two lots of Ulevela.nd were dealt in-500 tons at 34~. 7d.
per ton cash, and 500. tons at 34s. 9!d. on~ mo~th. Hematite irons were quite 1dle and unchanged m pr1ce. There
was rather more business doing in the ahernoon, and th e
tone was fi rm er. In Scotch a fair business was done at
42s 3d. and 42s. 3~d. per ton cash, with sellers over at that,
odd. per ton up from the morning. A considerable amount
of" plant" business ~as also don~, the ter~s bein~
42s. 2~d. eight days, w1th a "plant ' at 2~d. ~n buyers
option. About 7000 tons altogether were dealt m . Some
1500 tons of Cleveland changed bands at 3-!s. 9d. a.nd
34~. 8~d. per ton ?ash, and with sellers at 34s. 9d.,.the
price marked a nse of ~d. per ton from the m_ormng.
Hema.tite iron was again neglected. The followmg are
the quota.tione for several special brands of makers'
iron, No. 1 : Gartsherrie, 49s. per ton ; Summerlee,
493. 6d. ; Calder, 503. ; Langloan and Coltness, 55s. 6d.
- the foregoing all shipped a.t Glasgow ; Glengarnock
(shtpped at Ardrossan), 49s. 6d.; Sbotts (shipped at
Leith), 51s. 6d.; Carron (shipped a.t Grangemouth),
53s. 6d. p~r ton. Last week's shipments of pig iron
from all Scotch ports amounted to 4333 t ons, againet
7596 tons in the <'O rresponding week of last year. They
included 935 tons for Canada, 310 tons for South
America, 162 tons for India, 285 t ons for Italy, 526
tons for Germany, 150 tons for H olland, 170 tons for and Portugal, smaller quantities for other countries, and 1595 tons coastwise. There are now 50 blast
furnaces in active operati"n in Scotland, as ~gainst 77 a
year since. The stock of pig iron in Messrs. Conna.l
and Co.'s public warrant stores stood a.t 529,551 tons, as
compared with 330,655 tons yesterday week, thus showing for the week a decrease amounting to 1104 tons.

Finished bon and Steel T1ades.-The finished iron

trade, which was recently showing some signs of, is ag4in distinctly firmer, and makers refuse to sell
\lnder regular prices. Common bars range in price from
51. 5s. to 5l. 12.3. 6d. per ton, and best bard up to 6l. 2s. 6d.
per ton. The demand for sheets continues brisk, and
pricea are on the basis of 7l. 7s. 6d. for iron singles. Ste~l
makers report fair specifications, but they are hampered
by irregular supply and dearness of coal, while the keenness
of the
makes it impossible to obtain any

mcrease m priCes.
Glasgow Harbour Tunnel Compam.y.-The statutory
half.yearly meeting of the shareholders of the Glasgow
Harbour Tunnel Com pany was held this afternoon, Mr.
W. Weir, chairman, presiding. In moving the adoption
of the report the chairman said that the centre or passenger tunnel was within a few yards of completion, and
that practically the only work which remained to be done
was to fit up the lifting machinery. The American
Elevator Company bad already sent forward a large shipment of the hydraulic machinery. A second shipment
was mad' on the 19th inst. from Ne w York, which would
complete the quantity of material to be sent from there.
I~ was expected that the two shafts, with the necessary
gnders, &c., would be ready for the erection of the Jifting
machinery immediately after the new year, and the Otis
Company hoped to hand over the whole work to the

Tunnel Company, in thorough working order, not later

than September 1, 1894. The report wa!:! adopted.
Gl(tsgow Di~t1ict Sub1cay Company. ~ The seventh
ordinary meeting of the shareholders of thts company was
held to-day, th e chair being occupied by 1-Ir. Henry~
Baird, chairman of the company. In the course ?f h1s
s peech moving the adoption of the report, the ch~trman
stated that substantial progress bad been made wtth ~he
subway works. He was now able to say that five m1les
out of the total len~th of 6~ miles had been constructed.
The tunnels under Buchanan-street were practical1y completed, having reached the rock near George-stree.t. 'fh e
Kelvin had been successfully crossed, and the s tat10ns, so
far as underground, were fi nished, with the exception
of three to which a little remained to be done. The
cut and cover operations in Scot)andstreet were now
completed and that street would be cleared in the
course of 'next month. The tunnelling from Cowcaddens Station had been commenced under air pressure,
and the work there was going on Sl\tisfactorily. It was
expected that within three months all the subway on the
north side of the Clyde wuuld be practically compl~t~d.
The directors and the eng ineers were at present gtvmg
their attention to the method of haulage to be adopted,
and to the arrangement of the machinery. Almost all
the property required had been purchased or a.rr~nged for,
and would remain, when the works were fimshed, an
avai lable asset worth to the company about 300,000l.
Heavy purchases of property wo~ld necessi~at~ the final
call of 2t. per share being made m the begmmng of the
vear when the debenture stook would also be issued. Mr.
J. P~rker Smith, M. P., seconded the motion for th e
adoption of the report, which was agreed to.
Reduction of WO'rkinq H ours at Fairfield. -~t i~ P.roposed by the Fairfield Engineering and Sh1pbutldmg
Company to put their workmen on short time after next
pay. Work is then to commence at 8 a.m. and stop a t
5 p.m., with the dinner hour from twelve to one o'clock.
There is to be no work on Saturdays, so that the week
will only extend to forty hours. The company have only
two vessels on the stocks, ~nd one of them, a sailing ship,
is to be launched about the beginning of next month.
The reduction of the working hours is to come into force
within the next fortnigh t .
Contract for a Large Corliss Engine.-Messrs. HallBrown, Buttery, Govan, a. new engineering firm, have
just contracted to build a. large Corliss gear triple-expansion engine for Messrs. Cald well and Co.'s Paper Works
a~ In verkeithingon-Forth.
The engine, which will
develop over 6(0 indicated horsepower, is to be constructed under the su perintendence of Mr. Thomas
Re id, of U ni versity College, D undef'.
Big Compensation Claim for Loss of Watcr.-Messrs. W.
and J. Knox, manufacturers, Kilbirnie, Ayrshire~ hav e
lodged a claim for 3000l. with the L ocal Water ;:,upply
Committee for compensation for losq of water, owing to
the extension
of Kilbirnie Water \Vorks by making a.

I nstitution of E nginee1s and Shipbuilders in Scotland.
-The thirty-eeventh seRsion of thi s Institution was
opened last night, when there was a large attendance of
member3. Mr. John Inglis, the new president, delivered
his inaugural address, whie:h was greatly enjoyed by the
meeting. It dealt largely with shipbuilding and shipowning matters, and with subsidies to shipowning companies. Mr. J . MacEwan Rosa subsequently described
his new caulking tool, which raised some discussion; and
the president then presented the promiums of books on
account of three papers read last session by Messrs.
M'Ara, Crum, and Kennedy.


Engi neering in Japan.-An engineering council has
been formed in .Japan, whose principal duty will be to
advise the Minister of Home Affairs upon all engineering
South .African Diamonds.-Since 1R67, British South
Africa has exported 50,000,000 carats of diamonds. These
diamonds represent a. value of about 70,000,000l.
Pennsylvanian Pet?oleum.-The total capital invested
in the petroleum trade of Pennsy 1vania., including ve~sels
and pipe lines, is estimated at 60,000,000l. Pipe lines,
aggregating 25,000 miles, have been laid, and 59 tank
steamers are now employed in conveying the oil 8 broad.
In J861 a gallon of petroleum in bulk cost 58 cents, and
in 1892 the corresponding price was not more than
3~ cents.
Neupor t New&.-New~ort News, Virginia, has just
inaugurated a line of steamers to ply between that place
and Liverpool, L ondon, Glasgow, and other European
ports. This line, which is virtually owned by the
Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad Company, opens up a
direct through shipping rou te between St. L ouis and
Chicago and the Atlantic, and it is expected to largely
stimulate the foreign tradE:\ of those cities. It has been
arranged to issue through bill$ of lading between American western cities and European ports.
American Electric Ra1'lroads.-Plans haYe been prepared, and arrangements perfect ed, for the construction
of a proposed electric railroad between Washi ngton and
Spanish Steel Rails.- The ommorostro, steamer, h as
saUed from Bilbao for Matanzas, Cuba, with a cargo of
2100 tons of steel rails. This is the first shipment of the
kind which has been made from Spanish rolling mills to
the Spanish West Indies. It is the outcome of a decree of
April, 1892, wbieh granted special privileges to certain
Spanish industries.

French Coal Mining.-The output of coal last year in

the ]french Department of the Nord amounted to 4,637,316
tons. The corresponding output in 1891 was 4, 759, 1?2
tons; in 1890. 5, 134,774 tons ; in 1889, 4,719.423 ~ons; m
1888, 4,416,185 tons; in 1887, 4, 197, 79? tons; m 1886,
3,910,141 tons; in 1885. 3,582,7GO tons; m 1884, 3,401,517
tons; and in 1883,3, 789,067 tons.
F1ench Submarine T elegrnphy.-The laying of a }i~ren~h
submarine cable between Queensland and New Cale~o~1a
is an event of some importance. The new cable lB mtended to be a link in a great Pacific cable to connB?t
Australia with America.; and if its projectora succeed. m
th eir scheme it will be almost whoUy under French m fluencP. Th~ugh primarily the contract with Queensla~d
and New South Wales is for a cable to New Ca.ledoma.,
the avowed object is t o extend it to Canada..
New Zealand Coal.-An intimation has been received
that an English syndicate has purchasE:d the Cobden
Railway a.nd Coal Company's property at Coal Cre~k,
near Greymouth New Zealand, with a. view to developmg
the local coal se~ms. The property consists of 4500 acres,
and several seams of coal have been discovered, the
largest being 15ft. thick. The company will construct a
railway to Greymouth, four miles from the field.
Belgian Blast Furnaces.-The number of blast furnaces
in activity in Belgium a.t the commencement of October
was twenty four, while there were eighteen furnaces out
of blast at the same date. The total of twentyfour, representing the number of furnaces in blast in Belgium
at the commen cement of October, wa.q made up as follows :
Charleroi district, eight; Liege district, twelve; Luxembourg, four; total, twenty-four.
P ig in Belgi um.- The prod uction of pig in Belgium. in
September amounted t o 58,200 tons, as compared With
65 850 tons in September, 1892. The aggregate producti~n in the first nine months of this year was 523,800
tons, as compared with 563,870 tons in the corresponding
period of 1892.
T he Suez Canal.-The transit revenue collected by the
Suez Canal Company in September amounted to 2L2,800l.,
as compared with 216,800t. in September, 1892, an~
274 BOOt . in September, 1891. The aggregate tra.ns1t
rev~nue collected by the com-pany to September 30 this
year was 2,170,814l., as compared with 2,320,631l. in the
corresponding period of 1892, and 2,579,318l. in the corresponding period of 1891. The number of ships which
passed through the canal in the first nine months of this
rear was 2586, as compared with 2819 in the correspondmg period of 1892, and 3297 in the corresponding period
of 1891.
English Coal in India.-The imports of coal into India.
from England in the financial year 1892-3 were 648,000
tons, as comrared with 737,000 tons in 18912. In Bengal
English coa has been practically driven out, only 1200
tons having been import ed in 18923. The output of
indigenous coal in India in 1892-3 was 2,537,697 tons.
A n Aluminium Launch.-MM. Castelin and Camion,
of Mezieres, have constructed an aluminium laun ch for a
French expedition to Central A frica. It is ma.deof plates
8 mm. to 10 mm. thick, is 33ft. long and 8 ft. beam, and
weighs complete with wooden fittings, 1780 lb. The same
firm are constructing a number of aluminium vehicles for
use in Africa., and they propose to introduce them also
into the Frt'\nch possessions in Asia.
Antipodean Population.-The population of New Zealand at the close of June, 1892, was estin1ated at 702,535,
or, ex cl usi ve of Maories, 660,542.
TH E BRITI H ASTRONOMICAL As OCIATION.-This Association com menced its fourth st>ssion last Wednesday by
holding its annual meeting at the Botanical Theatre, University College, Gower.street, W. C .. under the presidency
of Dr. A. M. W. Downing, F.R.A.S. The growth of this
society has been remarkable, and affords good evidence of
the increasing interest in astronomy. StartEd in October,
1890, the Association enrolled 584 members during its first
session, while by the enci of the sec0nd session the number
of members reached 702, and at the end of thA third session
814. Although founded especially for the benefit of amateur
astronomers, it counts among its members nearly all the
leading professional astronomers in this country, and a.
considerable number of those abroad. One of the leading
objects of the Association has been to so organise amateur
observers as to render permanently useful an immense
numbe>r of observations which would otherwise be entirely
lost. To effect thi s there have been formed eleven
"observin~ sections, " devoted respectively to the followi ng
subjects: The sun, solar spectroscopy, the moon, Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn, comets, star colours, variable stars, double
stars, and meteors. Each of these sections is under the
control of an experienced director, who collates and digests
the observations made by the members of the section, and
who further issues the instructions necessary to insure
recorda of permanent value. The reports of the sections are published either in the J ournal of the A ssociation, which is under the able editorship of Mr. E. W.
Maund er, F.R.A.S., or in special memoirs, of which a
considerable number have already b een issued. During the first three sessions the meetings of the Asscciation -which take place on the last W ednesday of
every month, with the exception of July, August s nd
Saptember-were held in the hall of Barnard's Inn' but
mor~ commodious quarters hMe now been secur~d a.t
University College, Gow~t-street. The secretaries of
the Association are Mr. Pbilip F. Duke, F.R.A.S. and
Miss A . Everett, M. A., while the assistant secretary (tf)
whom all inquiries should be addreesed) is Mr. Tbos. F.
Maunder, 26, Martin's-lane, E. C.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

A GEOMETRIC GYROSCOPIC 'fOP. . Tn ti gyr.oscopic top, of which. w e publish an engravmg on tlus page, Illustrates m a most interesting
ma~ner some of the most important laws of rotating
bodtes. The b ody of the t op consists of a s ha llow bell
w ith a h eavy rim. The depth of this bell is not howe,rer, sufficient to bring the masg centre of tl;e top
below its poin t of suppor t . \Vh en placed, th erefore,
on the agate cup on wh ich it rotates, it falls over, but
on g iving it a slig h t spin with th e finger and thumb it
:vill remain upright, or in an in clined position, thus
tllustrating the sta bility of rotation. The most remarkable property of the top remains, however, t o be
~lescribed. It will b e seen that on the baseplate supportm g t h e cup on which the top rotates, there is a lso
screwed a brass st anda r d which serves as a support for
one of thP. geo metric figures, two of w hich a re shown
sepuate b elow, whilst a third is in place on the standard.
I t is whilst one of the~e figures is in position the t op is

to steamers and sailing vessels going for long voyages, or least twenty hours' instruction, thab the school has meb
engaged in ext ended coasting trade, certain allowances for nob less than thirty even ings in the school year ending
working expenses and su bsidies towards individual April :30, and t hat the scholar has received at least twelve
voyages at the same time exempting the owners from the hours' instruction in each of two other subjects recogtrade and income-tax for a p eriod of five years. U nder- nised by the Department.
takings already recei ving subvention s from the Stat e are
In the America11 Gas Lighti11g Journal Mr. Arthur L .
excluded from the benefit of the Bill. Rhipowners enjoy- Collins
gives an interesting description of the old process
ing the above advantages are required, in the event of
driving a heading through rocks by means of fire~ as
war, t o place their vessels at the disposal of the Govern- of
still occasionally practised at Kongsberg Silver Mme,
Norway. The rock through which the headings are driven
The traffic receipts for the week ending October 15 on by this method is a hard silicious ~eiss, and the process
thirty-three of the principal lines of the U nited Kingdom is not suitable for work in the mtca schists which also
amounted t o 1,389,808Z., which, having been earned on occur there. A short length of level is first driven in the
18,388 miles, gave an average of 75Z. 11s. per mile. For ordinary ma.nnor, t o get room to start the process, and
the corresponding week in 1892, the rect!ipts of the same wood- mainly logs of white fir and pine-is closely piled
lines amounted to 1,518,538l., with 18,199 mile~ open, up against the face. W a.ste wood and old mine timbers
giving an average of 83Z. 9s. There wa.s thus a. decrease are often piled against the freer burning fir to concenof 128,730l. in the receipts, an increase of 189 in the trate the heat. When the pile is lit, smoke fills the level,
mileage, and a decrease of 7l. 18s. in the weekly receipts and the men leave it, but in two or three hours
per mile. The aggregate receipts for fi fteen weeks it is usually burned out, and as soon as the men can come
to date amounted on the same thirty-three lines t o in they clear away the broken stone split off by the heat,
22.856,789Z., in comparison with 24,647,289[. for the cor- and all that is sufficiently loose on the walls and roofs to be
responding p eriod last year; decrease, 1, 790,500l.
broken down. The greatest heat being at the t op, the
Preparations are being made in Chatha.m Dockyard levels have a tendency to slope upwards. This can be
for laying down ,the keels of the two new vessels of war partiaJly l>revented by a. better arrangement of t he fuel,
which are to be at once begun . The larger of the two but sometimes the bottom has to be blasted. The ordinary
vessels, the M agnificent, will be more powerful, as well speed of driving is 5 ft. t o 20 ft. per month.
The following Table, compiled by Mr. C. P. Leland,
for offensive as defensive purposes, than any battleship
hitherto constructed for the R oyal Navy. She will be president of the Association of American Railway Account
sister ship t o the Majestic, which is t o be built at Ports- ing Officers, is of interest as showing the gradual decline
mouth, both vessels being constructed from the same of freight rates due t o competition, and t o improvements
designs. It is anticipated that theee two ships will be effected in the lines themsal ves :
complet ed well within two years. The other vessel t o be
A ve-rage Rate per Ton per lrf ile of the Lake ShO'Je Q/ll.d
immediately begun in Chatham D ockyard is the swift
Michigan Souther11 Rail1.uay.
cruiser Minerva, which will occupy about a year in her
Y ear.
construc tion.
... 3.510

Patents have been taken out in America by Mr.
... 3.210

Thomas S. Crane, and a company formed, for copper

sheathing ships by electricity. By this method copper

is deposited by electrolysis on the surface of th e vessel in
... 2 380

successi vesections, the joints of the section bei ng overla.pped

2 292

to unite, and the sheathing is thus p erfectly continuous
I !)

from end to end. The plating is done by means of a. bath

o:msisting of a. rectangular box, open at one side, and fitted

... 2.099
watertight t o the skin of the ship. The frames of the

bath are made flexible, and can conform to the curve of

. ..
the ship. Special baths are constructed to embrace the
. ..
keel. An unbroken and firmly adherent layer of copper

can thus, it is stated, be deposited over a surface of

.. . 2.427

2-!,000 square feet in eight or nine days.


1. 714
A mechan ical curiosity is exhibited in the 11achinery
. 626
.. . 1.504

Hall, Chicago, by the BelgramGearCompany, in the shape
. 62~

of three d ifferent-sized bevel-wheels, all gearing perfectly
... 1.374
with a fourth. The smallest of the three bevel-wheels is

apparently about half the diameter of the largest of the

three, nevertheless all the wheels work quite smoothly
In a paper on ra.ilron.d location, recently read
and correctly. The possi bility of such an arrangement before the American Society of Uivil Engineers, Mr.
was, we believe, first pointed out by Mr. W . J . Last, M. L. Lynch, M. Am. Soc. C .E , discusses the general
A .M.I.C.E . in a paper -published some years back in the principles involved.
As a. preparation for the reconMinutes of the Proceedmgs of the Institution of Civil naissance such maps of the general country and country
E ngineers. The explanation of the apparent anomaly t ownship maps as are available should be secured. These
i~ that each of the smaller wheels rolls on a. different maps will sho w the drainage of the country, and
pitch line on the main wheel, and the teeth of each are indicate the existence of two or more possible routes.
specially formed to suit its own pitch cone.
The places in which the steepest gradients are to
According to a. paper read by Mr. J ames Ba.ird before be expected can also be determined, since the divide beth e .Mining Institute of cotland, th e electric search tween two main-drainage systems is never equidistant
light h as been used with great snccess in shaft sinking at between the streams, and the grades will be heaYiest o n
the \Valkuriham Colliery, near Paisley. The apparatus the side of the nearest stream. In the reconnaissances
used consisted of an arc lamp, a lens, and a mirror, the the hand level and barometer require great care and
whole inclosed in a. sheet -iron case. 20 in. by 20 in. by o ft., judgmenb in their use. Several governin~ points on
having a sliding shutter on each side t o give access t o the the p os~ible routes will soon be det ermmed, either
lamp, which was of between 4000 and 5000 candle-power . by the location of the lowest gaps in the hills, the
The shaft was 13 ft. in diameter and 260 ft. deep. It best river crossings, or the most _ suitable entran.ces
was lined with brick. The light below, obtained trom and exits from the t owns passed through. Ha.vmg
directing the beam down t he shaft, was far in excess of made a reconnaissance between two of these governwhat is obtained from ordinary miners' sinking lamps, ing p oints, the surveyor should return by another
and thus more work could be done in a given time. There route for the purpose of comparison, and in difficult
is, of course, n o r isk of explosion if fiery stra ta are passed country several lines should be examined, in order to
through, and, further, men stationed at the surface can acquire a. thorough knowledge of the country. Copious
notes and sketches should be made of the day's work, and
see clearl y what is going on down below.
those unaccust omed to such w0rk would be sur prised at
The whole of the boilers supplying steam for the the accuracy of such surveys. After the completion of
'Vorld 's Fair, Chicago, are fired by oil. For this purpose this reconnaissance, the prelimi nary sur vey with theodoa G-in. pipe linA was laid from th e refi nin g works of the lite and level is undertaken, and should be made as close
Standard Oil Company, at Whitny, Ind., up to the to the final location as possibla. As much care should be
Exhibition g rounds. The oil used is residuum, having taken in this work as in the final location sur vey, and the
a fla.shing point of 350 deg. Had coal been used, rat e of progress should not be hurried, one mile a day
about 550 tons per day would been needed to supply being fai r work. The plottings should be made to scale
the steam used, rendering it necessary to run coal trains of 800 ft. t o the inch in average country, and to one
through the ground ~, and to hand le and cart away many of 400 ft. to the inch in difficult country. Tr~n sition
tons of ashes. The supply pipe to the boilers is 5 in. in curves ghould be used where the curves are at all sharp.
diameter, and is laid in a t rPnch in front of the furnaces. In compensating grades for curvature, .04 ft. per 100 ft.
}.. rom it t o each burner is a ~-in. vertical pipe provided may be used per dl:lgree of curve. The tops and bottoms of
with a globe valve, and connected by a. union to the grad ients should be rounded off.
burner. The burners used are by d ifferent makes,
and are all fitted with re~ula. ting valves in addition t o
the globe val ve on the vertteal pi pe already mentioned.
CoNTINENTAL E XPRESSE . -What is known as the
The Science and A rt Department have just issued in - Eastern Express between Paris and Constantinople has
structions r egarding grants for drawing in evening con- been materially accelerated. The journey is now made
tinuation classes in E ngland, \ Vales, and Scotland. The in 66! hours, showing a. reduction of about 7 hours.
inspector sets the work to be done by each scholar in
T HE UNITED STATES NA\'Y.-The boilers of the cruiser
order t o test him in the portion of the syllabus in which
he has been instructed; and in deciding whether t he in- Chicago are stated to require immediate re~airs. The
struction shall be marked e~cellent, good, or fair, the Chicago has only been seven years afloat. The line-ofinspector's general observations upon the instruction battle ship Indiana., which has been put into dry dock at
as well as the work done will be considered by the the L eague Island Navy Y a.rd, Philadelphia, to receive
D epartment. A ~ant of 1s., 1s. 6d., and 2s., accord- her propellers, will, it is announced, be ready for her
ing as the reward IS fair, good, or excellent respectively, preliminary trial trip by the middle of this month. The
will be made for each pupil, provided the scholar has not Government test of the t riple-screw cruiser Columbia,
been examined in drawing under the rules of the Depart- also built by the Cramps, will take place about Norem
ment within the three months precedins , has received at ber 1,


__ ___,_




given a spin; i t rotates in the or d inary way until the

upper part of its spindle comes in contact with the
geom etric figure. \ Vh en this happens a remarkable
phen omenon is observed. The spindle clings to the
figure and follows it along one side, round the end of
the w ire , and back again , keeping on doing this till the
speed of rotation falls too low. It is astonishing the
way th e s pind le rounds the sharp corners at the ends
of t he w ire. Qui t e a considerable pressure is exerted
on the wire, which has accordingly to be of comp arat ively stout section. \Vhen spinning freely , the geom etric form being r emoved , the top s hows the phenom ena of precession a nd nutation very well.
ma k ers of t his interesting li ttle device are ~1essrs.
Newton and Co., opticians, 3, Fleet-st reet, T em ple
Bar, London.

THE Institntion of Civil Engineers now consists of 1808
membors 3 tl 'i associate member&, and 1G honorary
members~all of whom come under the denomioat.ion of
corporate m ember3-besities 3l7 associates an d BOG studen t s : togeth er, G-!18. T he total number at the same
period last yea r was 6274.
~IeR!'Irs. Flaming and }'erguson, Paisley. have ref'eived
an order from the Government of Canada t o build an
armed ser vice steamer for use on the Pacific coast.
She is to be somewhat similar to the Quadra, built by
them for the same Government about two years ago, and
is to have as in t he case of that st <>amer, a. set of the
builders' patent quadrupl e- ex pansion engines. The
Q 1adra. made the voyage from the Clyd e to Vancouver
vir'i Cape Horn- a. di stance of close upon 16,000 mileswHhout stoppage or hitch of any kind throughout the
On Saturday afternoon last S!r J oseph _P ease, M .P.,
deputy chairman of the North-Eastern Ratlwa.y, cut the
first sod at St. J ohn 's Chapel, Weardale, of the vVear
Valley Extension Railway, which is to continue the con n ection of the North-Eastern Railwa~ from S~anhope to
\Vear Head a distance of about 9~ m1les. It IS expected
that the ne; railway will develop the ironsto?e and lead
mining industries of \Vea.rda.le, a~d tha e~t1mated cost,
including_ land, is 52,000Z. The dtrectors of the N~rth
Eastern Railway have voted 40,00~Z. towards the proJect,
and the E cclesiMtical CommissiOners, as large landowners in the district, 20,000l.
The Bill in trod ucHl in the L ower House of th~ Austrian
Reicberath for subsidisi ng the mercantile marme, grants

E N G I N E E R I N G.






~ ----

--... . ..

~ll=.f.JON .


-t::::=-:=::::-~- ~~- -- .-.[ ~ . lr.:\.


.1--. -


~ o)- .- -







t-nUt:P[I]J"-lJ.._Cirr l!~~~=::;:P-1'.1







Os the present page we illustrate a set of duplex Again, the cotton t rades strike and lock-out in 1877-78

hydraulic steam pumps, with stea m and water cylinders

respectively 11 in. and 3! io. in diameter, both by
10 io. stroke. The valve gear is of the usual duplex
style, the slide valve of each cy]ioder being worked
from the piston-rod of the neighbouring cylinder. The
pumps are attached to the cylinders by a strong casting, forming a sole-plate that extends from the cylinders
to the outer end of the pumps. The pumps for moderate pressures are of east iron, but for high pressures
are of cast or wrought steel. The valve-chests are of
special hydraulic bronze, with g un-metal valves, easy
of access for examination or repair. The water has
free exit, and uo air can lodge in the pumps. The
pump crossheads are of steel or gun-metal, and all
working joints of the valve gear are brass bushed.
The pumps work very quietly, and the steam stopvalve can be connected by rods or chains to the accumulator, so as to make the pumps au tomatic in action. The
Test of H or1'zmtal Dup'ttx Pump, No. 540, made by J. H.
Carruth.ers and Co. Cylinders, 11 in. in. Diamtter ;
P umps, 3! in. in Diameter; N omimal StToke, 10 i n.

Steam pressure, lb .


Revolutions per minute .

Pison spe~d per minute, t t.
l:!fficienr y, per cent.
Diacbarge, gallons per hour

.. I



. . 8214





700 1100
44 Stops

test-card shows the actual work done on trial by the

pump illustrated ; in this case the suction branch was
about 3 ft. above the surface of the water supply. The
high efficiency is owing to the pump stuffing-boxes and
the valves being perfectly watertight, and to the
stroke io some instances exceeding the nominal 10 in.
The pumps and water connections were all tested by
water to a pressure of 2000 lb. per square in~h. The
makers are Messrs. J. H. Carruthers and Co., Hamilton-street, Polmadie, Glasgow.

THE coal dispute drags its slow length along, and it
seems even now that we are not nearing the end of it.
No more stubborn figh t has taken place in the industrial world for years, and never has there been one in
which the forces were so vast, or the interests at stake
so far-reaching. The builders' strike and lock-out in
1859 lasted off and on t ill 1861, but the numbers involved did not reach the magnitude of the coal
war, and it did not affect other industries to any
large extent. The celebrated P reston strike lasted R.
whole year, but the forces engaged were not enormous.

was on a vast scale, the total number of persons affected

being estimated at about :300,000, but this estimate included the families. In the present miners' dispute
the. aggregate number given comprehends mainly the
heads of families. But the one fact that ghes prominence t o the coal war is the effects which follow, affecting other industries. All computations are more or
less estimat ed on bases of actual facts. But they can
only be regarded as approximate. The following is a
computation by a Lancashire man of some experience
in these matters. Losses in wages- miners, textile
operatives, coalheavers, carmen, and other men more or
less connected with the coal trade ; iron and steel and
all other workmen; losses by expenditure of miners'
funds and contributions by other associations and the
public, l O,OOO,OOOl. ; losses to manufacturers by enhanced prices of fuel and scarcity of coal, 6,000,000l. ;
loss in profits to manufacturers and others, 5,000,000l. ;
losses to local tradesmen, 3,000,0001. ; losses in railway traffic, 1,500,000l.
Total estimated losses,
25,500,000{. The only set -off to that amount is the increased profits to the coal owners a.nd the merchants
who have had for sale at enhanced prices stocks produced at the normal rates before the dispute. And
all this dispute is over about 5d. per ton, on the
average, in the cost of getting the coal, that is, in the
miners' wages. Remembering this fact, the matter in
dispute is trifling and insignificant compared with the
enormous losses, and the vast interests at stake.
As regards the progress of negotiations for a settlement, little has been done. The only outcome of the
attempted mediation of the several mayors of corporate
towns in the districts affected was a decrease in
the proposed amount of reduction to 15 per cent.
in lieu of the 25 per cent. at first proposed.
This reduces the actual differenc~ to about 3d. per
ton, instead of 5d. The offer to r eopen the pits at
15 per cent. reduction has not affected the dispute one
iota, for the men have not accepted the reduced offer
any more than they did the first proposal. Another
attempt is being made by several mayors to bring
about further negotiations for a settlement. " hether
they will now succeed or not is at present a matter of
conjecture. Meanwhile, pits in various districts are
being r eopened and worked on the old rates, but
apparently only about one-third of the original number on strike, or locked out, whichever is the correct
term, have returned to work on those terms in the
distrirts covered by the federation. In so far as the
public are concerned, the change for the better is not
very great. The prices went down for a day or two,
but they he,ve $ince been advanced again, though not

quite to the highest level attained during the dispute.

ln some districts, coal for manufacturing purposes
h~s. been less scarce! but fuel prices are still so prohtbltory that they w1ll not permit of large purchases for
manufacturing production. The result is that all kinds
of industry are more or less stagnant, and large numbers
of men, who otherwise would be at work, are out of employment. The very fact that thousands of hands are
idle helps to depress trade below the ordinary level, for
the lack of purchasing power decreases production.
Manufacturers cease to produce, or lessen production,
when the demand ceases, or largely falls off. Bad
trade causes poverty in proportion t o its extent. But
poverty also causes bad trade. The more prosperous
the mas43es are, the more will they consume; and consumption governs production in the long run. The
The Durham miners have agreed to accept the 5 per
cent. ad vance on t he terms offered by the coalowners,
that is, a temporary advance of 5 per cent. for a period,
subject to revision at the end of the time for which
given, namely, three months. There is nothing to
complain of in this arrangement, for advances and
reductions are often subject to a definite notice of
termination, which is nea.rJy the same. The mode of
arrangement is rather new, but it involves no departure
in principle from the old sliding scale method, or from
agreements often made between employers and employed.
The Forest of Dea.n men have made a further advance
by the concession of 15 per cent. to t he steam coal
miners. These did not participate in the strike, nor in
the advance recently made, but they are now brought
up to the same uniform level all round. The trade in
the district is brisk, the output being nearly double
that of ordinary times for a long period past. The
federation and the Forest of Dean miners are still at
loggerheads over the manner of the resumption of
Work in the South Vvales districts is generally
active in the coal trade, and excellent prices are being
realised. Doubtless this will affect wages when the
nex t audit takes place, and will result in a. further
advance under t he sliding scale. There is, however, a
considerable amou nt of friction over the recent dispute still existing among the men in various districts,
and it requires a strong hand on the part of the committee, the officials, and the agents to k eep peace
between the several factions. The one factor which
helps to promote peace is plenty of employment ; this
at present obtains in all the \Velsh coalmining districts.
In the Scottish coalfields the men are universally
busy, and wages have been advanced t o rates which
generally satisfy them . The rates are not uniform
in all the districts, but perhaps the difference is
pretty well made up by the extra output in some cases
as compared with others. The Scotch coalminers have
had less difficulty in obtaining their recent advances
in wages than the men in Wales, in Durham, and in
Northumberland. The reason is, perhaps, that Scottish
industries have been more active generally.
The report of the Boilermakers and Iron Ship
Builders for the current month is not of a. reassuring
character. The total number on the funds was 8667, as
against 8163 last month. In all classes of benefit there
was an increase, except in travelling, which showed
one less than in September. The total number of
unemployed was 7099, or 18.6 per cent. of the t otal
members, the proportion being 1.6 more than last
month. 13esides these there were 1174 on the sick
list, and 394 in receipt of superannuation. The increase of unemployed is attributed to the "coal strike,

E N G I N E E R I N G.

as many works are stopped for want of fuel. , The
encouraging sign about the report is the statement
that "the hopeful tone which has prevailed in shipbuilding centres during the last two months is maintained, and the outlook for the coming winter is more
encouraging. " It is stated that "several orders have
been booked in each of our districts. , On the Clyde
2!,000 tons have been booked, as compared with 15,000
tons in the same month of last year. The work on
hand in the Clyde district is estimated at 208,000 tons,
as against 142,000 on September 30, 1892. Particulars
are given of orders on the Tyne for vessels for the
Government, one to replace the Victoria, bigger and
heavier than her predecessor. The Elswick firm
have also ord ers for two large armour-clads, a protected cruiser, and a despatch-boat for the J a.panese
Government. On the north-east coast several yards
are well supplied with work for the winter, but some
other yards are still badly in waut of orders. There
are some disagreeable signs of a possible rupture
between the union and the Amalgamated Shipyard
Helpers' Association on the Clyde, the latter hav ing
formulated some serious charges against the Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders' Union as regards the
recent reductions of wages on the Clyde; these the
executive declare to be false. If the m!i.tters are not
settled, a serious dispute may occur just when trade
begins to look up. In some cases the platers pay the
helpers, in other cases not. The local officers of the
Chatham branch state that the man who was dismissed for filling up holes with red lead, instead of
bolts, was a. man who obtained the place by influence,
not by his skill, and the society dismiss him as a.

--throughout Lancashire

The complaint
is that the
whole of the engineering industries are seriously disorganised by the coal dispute. One large works,
which had been completely stopped, has restarted,
but at some others partial stoppages or short time is
the rule, and the tendency is to extend and increase
the partial stoppage. That there will be more activity
when the coal dispute is over is pretty certain, for the
heavier engineering branches of trade are fairly well
off for orders. In other branches, however, there
seems to be less doing, and the new work coming forward is generally in only limited quantities. The outlook is not encouraging at present, and it is made all
the darker by the uncertainty which overhangs the
coal dispute. Happily all the engineering branches
are tolerably free from labour disputes. In this respect the conditions afford a favourable contra,t to
the year 1~79, when trade was severely depressed, and
unrest was the normal condition in most of the industries of the kingdom. In the iron trade business is
slow and limited, owing to the contracted requirements
of consumers, and a general indisposition to purchase
beyond what is immediately needed for present use.
The steel trade is very quiet in all branches, and prices
are only moderate. In the finished iron trade business
is very slow, but prices firm, perha ps because the
North Staffordshire makers are very full of orders for
prompt delivery.
In the Sheffield and Rotherha.m district all trades
are adversely affected by the coal dispute. The larger
works are only engaged on more pressing work, while
that which can Rtand over is allowed to do so, because
of the scarcity and dearness of fnel. In the general
trades of the district many men are out of work, and is a good deal of distress in the locality. The
cutlery trades manifest a better tone, a.nd there are
hopes of more activity. The electroplate houses are
fully employed, mainly, perhaps, in anticipation of t he
larger de mand at the approaching Christmas and New
Year's holidays.
In the Cleveland district the dispute as to the
ratchet machine ha.s ended, but there is a good deal
of friction over the matter. The men allege that the
mineowners are making things disagreeg,ble and awkward; but, on the other hand, some of the men favour
the system which c~used the dispute.
In the Birmingham district a better ton e has prevailed, owing to an increased supply of fuel at easier
rates. Ironmakers were able to make some concessions in prices, but on the whole they were firm.
There has b een a brisk demand for steel, corn mon
iron bars, and sheets, especially galvanised sheets.
The loc~l branches of trade special to Birmingham
show an improved activity, stimulated by the approaching festive season.
In the South Wales districts the improvement
recently noted has not been fully maintained. The
demand for tinplates has not increased to the extent
expected, but the steel works are tolerably busy. The
coal trade is brisk at remunerative rates to the coalowners and merchants, but at hig h rates for large
works requiring a considerable supply of fuel. The
disputes as to overtime among the engineers and
cognate branches of ind nstry have been settled, and

consequently this source of irritation is removed. EmELECTRIC

ployment has been better at the South vVales ports
for coalheavers, labourers, and the shipping trades Description of the Electric Rock-.Drilli'TI(} bfachintry at
the Carlin How I ronstone Mines i n Cleveland.
generally by reason of the coal dispute being over, and
By Mr. A. L. STEAYENSON, of Durham.
the increased demand for steam coal and house coal
I RONSTONE mining in Cleveland ha.s now exbended
owing to the dispute a nd stoppages in other districts.
over a. period of forty years, during the whole of which
The unemployed question is cropping up everywhere, the writer has been connected and conversant with its
but in varying forms, according to circumstances, and progress.
Mio,ing by Hand L abour.-Ha.nd labour has been the
to the class of persons who meet to discuss it. The
Lord ~fayor of London has called a private conference years, when skilled men were scarce and new comers bad
at the Mansion House, for October 31, of metropolit1.n to learn the work, it was usual for a. skilled miner to take
members of Parliament and others to consider the a novice as an underhand with him, to break up a.nd fill
subject, a nd take steps t o allevi~te the distress during the stone, paying him a datal wage varying from 3s. 6d.
the coming winter. A gathering took place at Hackney, to 4a. t>er shift. These underhand& were known amongst
but it was in the nature of a.n open meeting rather the mmers as " ha.gmen." The skill of the miner being
than of a conference, and it turned out to be rather exercised in ~etting as much stone with as few holes a.nd
noisy and excited. Sir Charles Russell, one of the a.s little powder as possi blet the boles drilled of a.
members, a nd others, were greeted with a good deal of three-cornered section, by tne miner giving th e drill a
hooting and hissing. At the Bethnal Green Vestry slight turn between each blow; they vary from 3~ ft. to
4~ ft. in depth, depending upon the backs or natural verHall a conference took place last week, and a further tical cleavages in the stone. To drill a hole of 3~ ft.
conference on last Tuesday, to consider the question. requires about half an hour of steady work ; the powder
The vestry is havin g a real census of the unemployed used is a.buut 6 oz. per ton of stone, and the usual price of
in the parish taken. The proposals made at these two getting from lOd. to la. per ton. Gradually, as the supply
conferences were moderate and reasonable, the resolu- of skilled men overtook the demand, the two miners in
tions having for their object the r elief of existing dis- each place shared the work and money between them,
tress by employing all residents, of n ot less than s ix each man making 4s. 6d. to 5s. 6d. per shift.
Hand Ratchet-Drill.-During the last few months hand
months' standing, who are out of work, on parochial
work of various kinds, some of a perma nent character, drills, made to revolve by a. ratchet, have been introduced,
such as repj,irs to public buildings, laying out open the work being divided between the skilled miner and the
filler. These drills promise good results in ca.~es where
spaces, and the like, the other work being drainage a nd machines
are not available; but the question of prices is
cleansing the streets, repaving where necessary. In not yet definitely decided.
this connection the provisions in old Acts of ParliaC()1Tl,pressed .Atr Rotary Drill.-About sixteen years ago
ment, dating from 1601 to 1873, a.ll of which a re in Mr. William Walker, of Saltburn, introduced a rotary
force, are being discussed, with th e view of seeing drill worked by compressed air. Of these the writer prowhether the guardians and overseers can profitably cured four; and by working double shift, and employing
employ ~he poor, as provided for in those statutes. In one skilled man to work the drill and another to fire the
several provincial towns the corporate or other local shots, with unskilled labour to do the rest, he has effected
bodies are taking up the same q uestion, many persons considerable economy. At the Skelton Park Mines of
being favourable to some municipal experiments in Messrs. Bell Brothers these machines continue doing
profitable employment. But care will have to be taken necessity for adopting the Colladon system of cooling the
that such works do not interfere with the standard air bf wn.ter spray during compression ; but, notwithor trade union rates of wages, or the workmen in the sta.ndmg the marked economy resulting therefrom, the
various trade organisations will complain.
great leakage, arising from the length of pipes of various
sizes, which amounts in this case to about EJight mi les,
The strike of the building trades at Black burn, which and from the consequent large number of joints, seemed
present an opportunity for improvement by the use of
has lasted from l\farch last as regards the plumbers, to
hydraulic power.
and of all other branches since July, has been settled
Hydraulic lhill.-At the Lumpsey !lines, therefore,
by a mutual conference. The result of the arrange- where there was a large body of water tub bed back in the
ment will be that some thousand men will resume work shafts 600 ft. deep, the writer designed an hydraulic drill
this week in the various branches of the building to utilise this water, carrying pipes in to the face of the
trades. The joint conference lasted 6! hours, but it working places. The pressure of 250 lb. square inch
ended in a settlement by mutual concession on some a.t the shaft bottom was utilised at the drill by means of a
small turbine made by Messrs. Gilbert Gilkes and Co., of
points in dispute.
Kenda.l, and placed on the machine. This plan has given
excellent results ; but, as the water has to flow baok to
The dispute on the Clyde between the ship joiners the shaft bottom, it can only be used in place~ to the
and the shipbuilders, by which some 3000 men are rise; and moreover it involves the cost of water mains to
affected, looks as if it were to be prolonged for some convey the pressure.
time. The men state that they adhere to th eir byePetroleum Engi ne.-The writer next introduced the
l aws, while the employers seem equally determined to petroleum engine of Messrs. Priestman, a.nd a drill suited
stand to their own terms. If the d ispute is prolonged to its conditions. Five of these are now in use, and have
several other branches will have to stop, or be put o~ done good work.
Electric DriU.- When electricity became applicable, its
short time. This is a. great misfortune just now,
when the shipping trades on the Clyde are looking up. simplicity and regularity in working seemed to offer an
inducement for a. trial. With the assistance of Mr.
Clougb, engineer to thEJ mines and collieries of
The General Railway \Vorkers' Union, at their recent Robert
Messrs. Bell Brothers, the writer designed a. drill to be
conference at Derby, passed resolutions in fa.vour of worked by this power.
the Government Bill on Employers' Liability, with no
Dynamo. -The current for working the drills is gene
contracting out of the Act; also in favour of an rated at bank by a. compound-wound dynamo, having a.n
Arbitration Bill as regards labour disputes. Both of output of 20,000 watts, a.nd capable of furni&hing a curthe organised bodies of railway workers have now rent of 50 a.t a. pressure of 400 volts when
decided to support the Employers' Liability Bill, in running at 900 revolutions per minute. This dynamo is
spite of the protests of some of the London and North- intended to supply current for working the first section
of the plant, namel r. three drilling machines. The curvV estern men.
rent required to dnve each drill varies, of course, with
the hardness of the stone the drill is working in; but ib
The Commission appointed to inquire into the riots may be taken that under ordinary conditions, and when
at Featherstoue appear to be doing their work well the voltage a.t the drills is 300, the current absorbed per
and efficiently. The official evidence ha.s been nearly drill-motor is about 15 amp~res, which is about 6 elecall exculpatory in so fa.r as the action of the local trical horse-power; and when a. dynamometer was applied
authorities, the magistrates, and th e mili tary are con - to the drill Lar, 6 horse-power was obtained. The curcerned. But the inquiry will not stop at that point. rent from the dynamo is taken to a high-tension doubleA careful examination of workmen and other witnesses pole switch on thema.inswitohboa.rd, which is of enamelled
will be made, and th e whole matter will be carefully slate and has mounted upon it the necessary fuses, measursifted by Lord Bowcn and his eo-commissioners. It is ing instruments, &c.
Cablu and Junctwn-Boxes.-From the switch the curvery deplorable just when this inquiry is being con - rent
is conveyed down the pit through cables covered with
ducted that disturbances have arisen at St. Helens highly vulcanisAd indiarubber. The cables are run all
and elsewhere in Lancashire. Riots can only end in the way in-bye on insulators, and are kept well in sight,
disaster to the miners' cause, and if outrages, such aR so that, should a. fall of ston~ ocour, the damage can be
that at St. Helens, a re perpetrated, public opinion will quickly discovered and set righ t. The mH>in cables are
run to a. point at a distance of 1000 yards from the
condemn the whole class for the conduct of the few.
generator; and then from this point branch cables are run
to the different junction-boxes, of which there are six to
VICTOBIANRAILWAYS.-Mr. Francis, the chairma.nof the each drill, commanding twelve working placet~. The
Viotorian Railway Commissioners, has had an interview junction -boxes were specially designed to meet the
with Mr. Pa.tterson, the Minister of Railways, on the exigencies of the case by Mr. Bigge, and are really a
question of road competition. Mr. Patterson is of opinion com bination of a. jun ction box, switch, and connectingthat this road competition is due to the CommiF!sioners' plug, as shown in Figs. 1 to 4. The plug ii locked
high tariffs, and consequently tha.t the lost traffic OA.n only m position by a pin, and cannot be withdrawn with
be ~e~tored t? the departm~nt by a reduction of freights. out first of all lifting the switch, thus preventing
Thts ts the V1ew of the Cabmeb, and Mr. Patterson, as its sparking and wear on the contacts. .Each district to be
mouthpiece, has instructed the Commiflsioners to revise
the goods classification, and to make reduction~ to meet
Paper read before thfl Clevt:land l\(eeting of the
the circumstances.
Institution of ~1echa.nical EngineHs.

E N G I N E E R I N G.
from natnral sources, need s pipes ; and the exhaust water
0 ked by the several drills is completely wired out a~d
has afterwards to be pump~d up to th~ surface. The hand
fltt~ up with these junction- boxes, so that when the dri~l of men who bad no previous knowledge whatsoever of ratchet-drill
has been apphed as yet 1n only one _or two
moved from one working place to. another a box I8 elE;ctricity, and the day the first drill was put into the
and the t onnage rates and system of wurkmg are
~iways to be found within 50 . yards ~Lstance. The J?lug mine it "as at once set to work at the face, and has been mines,
t the end of the drill cable IS then m serted, the switch at work ever since. Th e men are now thoroughly accus- not yet finally settled with the workmen.

an the drill turned on and within a few seconds the drill

is again at work. M~ch time is ea~ed by this method:
Drilling M~hine.-As sh own m .the a~companymg
engravings, Ftgs. 5 to 7, tha way m wb10h the ele?tricity is applied is neat and bandy. The motor M IS
used not only to drive the drill gear, but also to act as
a counterbalance to the weight of the drill !tself and
its gearing. The motor rota.t es a sh aft, which p~sses
through the long hollow carrymg bar C, and by a pair of
bevel wheeb causes the vertical spind_le S to revo_l ve, _and
a bevel pinion on the top o_f the spmdle, gearmg m~o
a bevel spurwheel on the bonng ~ar B, r~tates the drill
D. The forward feed of the bormg bar. IS govert;ted by
two pairs of retarding w_heels R ~, F1g. 8, wbtob are
geared in such a proport10n as sutt~ the nature of the
The drill is carried on a circular bedplate J,
which is mounted on the end of the carryin~ b_a r C, and
can be turned round by hand when the bmdmg crew



tomed to the drills, and handle thP.m with the greatest

ease. The -vriter hc1.s thus tried almost every method for
working drilling machines in ironstone mines, in cluding
comJ?reesed air, hydraulic power, and petroleum engi n es;
and It is his decided opinion, as the r esult of this practical experience, that for simplicity in working, ease of
transport, speed, facility for extensions, and economy in
workmg, the electric drill has proved itself to be m
advance of any other mechanical contrivance yet introduced; and that in the future, where power has to be
conveyed to any considerable distance for mechanical
drilling, electricity will undoubtedly play the predominant part. The entire work was placed in the bands of
Messrs. D. Selby Bigge and Co., electrical engineer s, of
N ewcastle-on-T yne; and Mr. Bigge devoted considerable
time with the writer and Mr. Clough to working out and
improving the various details of this the first attempt at
electric drilling in the Cleveland ironstone mines.

Subject to these considerations the followmg compa.ra

tive statement may be taken to represent ~enerally the
results thus far obtained with the se veral drills :
First C~st ot l Holes Drilled
per H ou r.*

Des<'ription of Drill.

Hand jumper . .
Compressed-air drill
Hydraulic turbine
P~troleum engine
Electric drill



4t ft. in 46 min

Oot per

5 to 8
not yt t koownl aboutlS
about 8 boles 100 to 130
lOC , 130
100 .. 130
" 10

. .

* This includes the time lost io moving the machine to different

working places.

The len gth of shift is eight hours from bank to bank,



CtJnnCt lfl 9

Plu g








,..-- ..... -


.Fig. 4.

- .J__,


----- ---




-----------I IU C



As soon as a hole has been drilled the

fulllen~tb of the screw on the boring bar B, the split
nut N ts opened, and the boring bar drawn back for in
serting a longer drill. In order to reach different heights,
the dr1ll can be tilted upwards or downwards by means
of the semicircular arc A, which is moved by a. worm.
By another wormwhEel W the uprigh t-- pedestal P can
be turned horizontally round its centre. A third wormwheel L turns the long hollow bar C which carries the
Motor.-The motors on the drills are shunt-wound, and
can easily utilise a. current of 20 amperes at 300 volts
~>.re ssu re, giving off about 95 per cent. of what they receive.
Th ey are of the Goolden enclosed kind for mining purposes,
both the armature and the commutator being com pletely
enveloped in gun -metal cases, which are both gas and
dust tighb. Even should water pour over them, or a fall
of stone occur, they are perfectly protected, and no appreciable damage would be done to them. The brushes used
are of special carbon coated with copper. The f~ed for
the brushes as they wear themselves away is automatic,
so that they can be run for weeks togP.ther without tequiring any adjuAtment or attention. Each drill is provided with a starting switch, placed in the m ost con venient position on the drill carriage itself, and arranged
with re~ista.nce coils in such a manner tha~ th e drill can
be started gradually. and stopped either gradually or
instantaneously. Each drill is a.lso provided with a reel
of fifty yards of twin flf x ible cable for the supply and
return of the electricity; at the end of the cable is a. connecting plug for in~erting into the near est junction -box.

Output.-The joint output for one week for two of the

three machines has already reached 1577 t ons with 790
holes. }' rom 80 to 100 boles have frequently been bored
by one ruachine in a. shift, each hole averAging about
ft. deep. The miners are enabled to earn 7s. 7d. each
per shift, while the stone is got at a cost of 7gd . per too .
Powder is always from onethitd to one-half more costly
when drilling machines are u sed than is the case with
hand -labour, since it suit s better to blow the stone out
with a. larger number of holes which are quickly and
cheaply drilled; this plan also makes the stone fall in
smaller blocks, and so saves labour in breaking them up
previous to filling.
General Results.-In attempting to compare the r esults
obtained with the several dnlls, the follo win~ considerations have to be borne in mind. The condit10ns of the
seam of ironstone affect the output and cost. An open
stone admits of fewer holes in one place. Then time is
lost in more frequ ent r emovals of the drill, and the number of holes drilled per hour is diminished.
Th e cost of the machina itself sometimes represents the
whole, and sometimes only a fraction of the total cost.
Thus a petroleum drill covers tl.e entire cost of its adoption. But the compreesec-air drill in some cases has
attached t o it an average of more than a. mile of pipes,
and also requires its engine and compressorP, as well as
its share of boiler. The electric drill also r equires engine
and dynamo, v,.ith a length of cable depending upon the
distance from the shaft; it is still so new that alterations
and improvements are being made as ~xperien ce is
gained. The hydraulic drill, although getting its power






or, say, seven hours at the face. At the Park Mines the
drills work two shifts in twenty-four hours, and at the
other mines one shift, and six shifts per week when trade

is released.




...... -- - .)~

'- it:~


SIR1-DurinS' January and February last I made some
experiments With "cellular kites, " which I wish to make
public as quickly as possible. My r eason for so doing i~
that the novelty, if an;r, is d estroyed by publication, and
the use of these kites IS assured to any experimenter free
from the extortions of those who work in secret, with a
view to patentin~.
I was trying if I could not find a better diSJlOBition of the
supporting surface, or body-plane, as I t erm It, of my flyiug
machines ; and at the same time to see if any foundation
could be discover ed for the assertion that birds utilise the
wind in soaring. No amount of observation of birds will
solve the soaring problem; it can alone be done by making
some form of apparatus that will advance against the
wind without losing its elevation. The expense of consttuoting and erecting a large whirling machine similar
to Prof. Langley's or Mr. Maxim's was too great; and
knowledge of the fact that planes or other things moving
at the end of an arm through still air are not under the
same conditions as bodies flying in disturbed air, determined the selection of kites as the best means to the
d esired end.
The photographs A, B, C, D, E, F, Z, which I hope
you will illustrate, are some of the kites, and are sufficient to indicate the extent of the eld now open for
experiment. [See n ext {>age.]
The novelty consists m the combination of two well
k nown facts: First, that the necePsary surface for supporting heavy weights may be composed of parallel strips superposed With an interval between them. This is described
by Wen ham in 1866, and adopted by Stringfellow in 1868.
I made a n exper iment in 1889 with superposed planes,
but failed to show that any additional support was obtained. Prof. La.ngley showed by inference that there is
an additional support (pages 33 and 47 of ''Experiments
in Aerodynamics," 1891}. The second fact is that two
planes separated by an interval in the direction of motion
are m or e stable than when conjoined. This was patented
by Danjard in 1871, and made and exhibited by D. S.
Brown in 1874.
The form the complete kite assumes is similar to two
pieces of honeycomb put on the ends of a stick, the stick
being parallel to the axes of the cells. The cells may be
of any section or number; the rectangular cells are
easiest to make, and if the stick or strut b etween the two
set~ is plS:ced ?en~rally, as in ~ites Band 0, it is imma
terial ~h10h s1d~ ts up. ~ract~cally, the top or. bottom is
determmed by 1mperfect10ns m the construct10n. This
i~ of particular ad vantage for flying machines driven by a
smgle screw. The r ectangular form of cell i~ also collapsible when one diagonal tie is disc0nnected.
These kites have a fine angle of incidence, so that they
correspond with . the flying ma:chines they are meant to
represent, an~ dtffer fr om the k1tes of our youth, which we
r ecollect fl.oa.tlng at an angle of about 45 d eg. in which
position the l_ift and drift are about eq~al. Th~ ne angle
makes the hft largely exceed the dnft, and brings the

E N G f N E E R I N G.
moving air passing stationary bodies. 'Vhen kites E
and Fare discharged from a. cross-bow in calm air, they
both have the same trajectory.
As to the solution of the soarin~ problem, the only fact
obser ved is that on a gusty day, kttes E and F both shoot

kite so that the upper part of the string is nearly vertical.

Theoretically, if the kite is perfect in construction, and
the wind steady, the string could be attached infinitely
near the centre of the stick, and the kite would fly very
near the zenith .


[OcT. 27, I 893.

that have happened to my indiarubber and compressed
air dri ven machines have been soleJy due to imperfections
in the flat or V-sha.ped body planes.
If any one who is making flyin g machines will try a
cellular kite, I think be will be a tonished a.t the w1de


{'tl/ulor Kilts.



Kite D, weighing 11 oz. and exposing 2.19 square feet

of cnrved surface, flies at about 15 d eg. from the zenith,
and pulls between 4 lb. and 5 lb. on the string when the
wind is blowing 15 miles per hour.
It is obv ious that any number of kites may be strung
togeth er on the same line, and that there is no limit to
the weigh t that may be buoyed up in a breeze by lig ht
and handy tackle. The next step is clear enoughnamely, that a flying machine with acres of surface can
ba safely got under way, or anchored and hauled t o the
ground by m eans of the string of kites.
If the s tring of kites gets into contrary currents of
air kites and suspended weight may be disconnected
fro~ the earth and will r emain supported, drifting in a
resultant direction det ermined by the force of each current and the number of kites exposed to it.
K ites E and Fare of equal weight and area; in E the
hori zontal surfaces aro curved with the convex sides up,
F has all the surfaces Rlane. Roughly, E pulls twice as
hard on the string as F does, so that a flying machine
with curved surfaces is better in a. breeze than one with
a flat body plane, if the form could be mad e with the
same weight of material. Th is is proved in another way
by making a windmill with four fla t sails which can be
changed for four curved ones. When the flat sails are
turned so that they and the axis are in two planes, no
rotation takes place ; but when the curved sails are put
on symmetrically with t~e chords of th e curves an~ t~e
axis in two planes there ts a s~ow and powe~ful rotat10~ m
the direction of the convex stdes of the satls. R otatiOn
ceases when the sails are twisted in their sockets so that
the wind is tangential to the curve of the sails about threefourths of their width from the forward ed~e. " Th ere
is no d oubt that the wind drawing into and striking the
concave s ide of the sails is more powerful than th e current
impinging direct on t o the forward part of the con vex
sid e, althou~h the hollow surface is altogether masked by
the rounded surface."
Both the kite a.nd the windmill experiment s refer to

up nearly overhead and slack the string into a deep bight, range it has for the disposition of the weights and at the
then drift away to leeward until the s tring brings them perfect stability obtained .
up again. This wants careful and undisturbed observaI am, yours faith fully,
tion. I unfortunately had to experiment in public. It is
clear that the wind must be consid ered as volumes of air
40, Roslyn-gard ens, S ydney, N ew South ' Vales
of different densities.
April 23, 1893.
The particulars of the six photographs of cellular kites


C l)

I .Q





. . C)



=cP t.o











C l)







- Ql

~ cS


cS C

~ c

-- ..

... o




. . eo














4.6 21.25


Distorted cylinders.



Alumin ium


Wood and
Wood and
Wood and


14 76





t C\ liodrical.

Kite Z has four planes 4 in. by 15 in. The angle between

each pair of planes is 108 d eg. A similar one with curved
sails was difficult to adjust. Both flew fairly well, but
they oannot be compared with the cellular form for
steadiness, and it is certain that the n umerous accidents

THE SntPLON.- Tbe Jura a nd S implon Railway Company has leb a contract for the construction of a t unnel
through the Simplon t o ~Iessrs. Brand and Brandan of
Hamburg; M essrs. L OC'her and Co., of Zurich ; 1fes~rs.
ulzer Brothers, of Wintherthur ; and the Bank of "\Vintherthur. The contract price is 2, 180,000!. , and the works
ar.e t o be complet ed in five and a half years. The tunnel
~11 aff?rd a.cco~modation in the first instance for only a.
smgle hne of rails. S hould a second line be laid down in
the course of the next four years, the contractoxs are to
r eceive an additional 600, OOOl.
T RAIN LIGHTING.- The directors of the L ondon
~righton, and <;> uth Coast H.ailway have gi,en instrnc~
tJOns for the equ tpment of ten more trains with the electric light ; this will make a total of forty trains so fitted.
yYe ~nd~rstand that the superiority of this method of
ltghtmg IS very marked, and affords much satisfaction to
those ~or king the traffic. }~specially is the benefit felt in
busy ttmes and foggy weather, when under ordinary circumstances gas-lighted trains would have to be sent
special to the charging stations, or put out of working
altogether .. It is estimated that at least 15 per cent.
mor~ work 1s ~ot out of electrically lighted trains than trams, for the above-mentioned reasons. This
stmply m th econstruction o f, say, 100 trains would mean
a saving of someth ing like 45,000l. in first'cost- i e 85
~lectrical1~-lighted trains would do the work of 100
lighted trams,


EN C I N t R R l NG.





m o

formed with fou r ra<lial ribs i, so that in cross-section it is to the with a abort arm which extends into a. space between two
.d "oa carrier H.
The car tridge-bolder hu
ehape of a cross, and t he spaces between the r ibs ar e fill ed w ith Shoulders On the 8ll 1 o
four brass segments, having hetween them and the iron ehaft and
ribs an insulating material. One end of the wire on eaob epoo~
le attached to the shaft C, and the other to a separate segment 1

R g .1



UNDER THE ACTS 1883-1888.



TAt numbtr qf 11ittos given in the Specifi_ca.tion Drawinqs i8 ~tat~

in each case ; where none are menttoned, the Spec\ficatm t 8
not illtUtrated.
Where Inventions are communt.c~ted [ro_m !1-f)road, the amu,
&:c., of the Commu?licators are QlVtn ~n ttaltcB.
Co a of Specifica.tt07l$ 11'14Y be obtatned at the Patent Ojiu
'fate Branch, 38, Cursitor-Btreet, Chancery-lane, E. C., at the
J (L
un'formpriu of Sd.
The datt of the ad-oerti8~nt !'f the acceptance of a compw;te
. b
roecifica.tion i8, in each ca.!e, Ql'l1tn uJter the a,pstr.act,_u1l.lus the
Patent ha bun sealed, when tM date of sealtng ta gtutn .
A mi pn-son may at any time tOithin two months from t~ dat~ of
the advertisement of the acceptance of a comp~U spec\fica.tton,
give notice at the Patent Office of opposition. to the grant of a
Patent on any of the groun<Ui mentioned in the .Act.
of the commutator for producing the alternating currents.


brushes in contact with the commutator take off the electnc

curre nt and conduct it to wh er ever it is to be used. (.Acupted
17 909. c. E. Challls, Lo~d.on. ~leotrlc Swttche~. September 13, 1893).
[5 Fi 8 1 Octoter 7 1892.-Tht~ m ventton relates to eleotnc
17,878. T. R. Andrews and T. Preece, Bradford.
8contact bar from the "on to t he "off" pos1t1on and tn~ versa, Start1Dg Electric Motors. [f Figs. J October 7, 1892 Tbe object of this invention is to enable a reduced current to be
bowe\er slowly the handle is moved. To _the ba.e~ ~ of msulat
in~ material is fixed the b:L&eplate D ; E 1s a r etammg plate for
bold in~r the contact bar, aod F the con tact J?late, the connec
tioo b 1tweeo th~> contact ani. b~~ plates be_1nlf made by the
contact bar G. The block 11 18 tr1an~~lar, w1th one slde par tly
removed, eo as to luve ao ear at each std e. Between these earJJ

Frg .1

applied and the application to be automatically increased to the

fuJl power aft e~ th e field m&gnets have bad ~ime to ~ecome eutfl attached to it clips wbiob engage with the cartr~dges, but .w~ich
c:ently ma.,.net1sed, and the motor ha' acqutred a fa1r speed. A will yield to permit the pushing of the car tndges from 1t mto
rel'i t a nce fram e is in t roduc( d in the ci rcuit of a motor, and tbe the fe ed slide l!': by the levers F. (.Accepted. September 6, 1893).
core of a solenoid is employed and is In series with the circuit in
which the resistance i placed to au~omaticatly s_wi tcb the .r eMACHINE TOOLS, SIIAI'TING, &o.
si~tance out of c ircuit. ~ daah-pot _1s _arranged m connect1on 1 17,759. P. Wallace, Glasgow, Scotland. Worm
w1tb the <?Ore of the t~oleno1d , eo that 1t IS <?nl~ fr~e to move at a wheel. [2 Figs. ] October 5, 1892. This io vcnt.ion relates to
comparah\'e)y slow speed wbeo the current 1s apphed. When the a worm wheel a, the periphery of which is furoisbe~ wi~b t eet~ b
so as to enga~e wi th the t hread of a wor m, and oonststs m cutt1.n~
the teeth b to eng age eith<.>r simultaoeou<Jiy or sepo.atfly wtth



') I
-r.g . A./.



the bar Q risei' and from aboYe a tongue proj ects downwards
from plateN, which is attached ~o the ha ndle C by scre~vs.
The flat spring K ie held by the sp1ndle M, and passu~g
downwards through the slut L In the baseplate, n ses ag
through the slot and presses against .one side of the blork ~
Tbe spindle M passes through the eprtng and ba.seplate, and 1s
tamped benl!ath by a nut and the contact bar and block a rc
~ounted on the spindle ' which ie then reduced to form a
shoulder against wh1ch the' plate N works. (.Accepted Scptembu
13, 1893).

Eg .J .
~rorro s

lef ~ hand

thread. To effect this t he

periphery is c ross-out so that t he teeth a re intersected with
diagonal lines, and there are C\nly t riangular lugs with interstices
for the thr ead of the worm. Tbe wheel will thus engage on one
side with a r ight-hand thread, and on the other with a left..
(.A ccepted September 13, 1893 ).

11,077. c. Peteraon, Brooklyn . ~.S.A.. Electric

Ballways. [6 Figs.) June 6, ~893.-Tbis mvent1on rel~tes ~o

an automatic circuit breaking safety app~ra.tus for electr1c ra1l

"'ay, &c. , electric currents. Io a.pplymg 1t to ~upport a .trolley
wire-where the upri~bt p~le are set a _cons1derable dtstance
t.way from the road, with wn es acros , whtch supp<?rt the t r?l.ley
\\i rt over the centre of the road- the danger of a.cc1dents afl&lDJt
from the oommuoicatioo of the ~urrent from the broken ends of
tbe wire when a fracture occu111 IS reduced by a p rompt !'od com
plete breakage of the electrical connection through the w~re at ~be
eopport oo each side of the fr!'cture. At each eupport1ns- pomt
t"o beUcrank Je,erl) a re oppos1tely arranged , the wires bemg cut

c, having a r igh t or

ourrfnt is out off, the core automatically r eturns t o its orig inal
position, and again pu ts t he resistance in circuit. The coils a re
connected to thin metallic plates C ~laced one above the other
aud tightly clamped together, but msulated from each other .
These plates Car e mounted o ver a cup of mercury, and have a
central bole through them to admit a plunger K to the liquid.
When the ourrent is applied, th e plunger is passed into t he mer
c ury and the latter is forced up into the bole through the plates,
thus metatlioally connecting them and cutting out the resistance.
A spring is provided to lift the core and plunger to ite original
position when the current is out off. A second solenoid ma)~ be
provided to prolong the time taken to remove the r esistance.
(.A ccepted SeptemlJer 13, 1898).

18,334. J. E. N. Barnes, London. Reducing Frio

tion of Axles and Bearings. (28

October 13,
1892.- Tbie invention relates to means for r educing fri ction of
a xles and bearings, and consists in the application of r ollen.
Rollers C are fitted in a cradle B of caat metal in which they are
to r un, the centre part of this cradle being made with an opening
sufficiently large to admit of the insertion o f the car axle A. The
c radle is provided internally with projecting bearing arms, which
bear upon the main axles to prevent uneven thrust upon the
balls. Throug h the body of t his cradle are other openings in
Figs. ]

. .v

8465. J. Young, Birmingham. Firearms. (6 Fig1. ]

April 27, 1808. -In this in veotion the ma&azine ie inserted inbo
the side of the gun, the cartridges being fo rced upwards by a
spring which is fixed at t he foot inside the magazine, into
ao injector at the to~. Tbie injector is turn ed by a crank
faatened at o oe end to 1t, the other end beio~ connected to the
extracting lever. In taking out the old c artridge cases, the lever
is lowered, the orank and in jeotor being so gauged as to pick up
a cartr idge a nd throw it into the breech a t the same time that
the old cartridg e case is thrown out. To till the magazine, a slid


toto lengths only sufficiently to extend from the lever at one

suppor t to the adjacent le"er on the next support. The le,ers

are arranged u ch with an ann extending upwards, and the ten
eion of the proper wire on the horizontal arm of each tends to
bold the upper ends of the levers in contact. The current flows
froDl the wire to the lever, a.nd through the joined upper ends to
the other member of the pair of lovers, and thence through the
clamp out again into the nex t h ngtb of wire. When o. fracture
ocoul'tl, the broken ends, being un 'lpported, descend, and turning
their corre ponding bellcrank lt' ere, di connect Lheir upper endP,
each from its adjacent lever, and the electrical currentthen ceases
to be transmitted bt>) ond the suppor t. (..Acupttd SeJJltmi.Jer 13,
iog door li moved d own wards, which r uns into two slots C (Fig. 1)
An indicator (~'ig. I) rune up the cen t re of tbe d oor and is
16,3358. ... M. Barrlson, Fort Smith, Sebastian. attached to the platform of the spring inside the magazine, and
Arkansa p. U.S.A. Magneto - Electric Generators. a.s the cartridges are expelled by the injeotor, moves upwards,
(3fi,~li) Sepumber 13, 1b0l.-Thisin\'eotion r elates to magnetopointing to figures on the sliding d oor, thus denoting bow many
tlectrio generators in wbiob alternating currents of innrea.sed cartrid~es are left inside. A thumb-piece is fixed oo the sliding
strength are produced so as to overcome the ruistance of the door, so as to pull it down for r eload10g, t he spring and indicator
line, and thereby produce a clear and sharp ring of the call bell. being carried with it, and being held in position until the door is
T~ o pairs or horseshtle magnets A, Al rest at thei r lower ends
closed bt' a spring catch, wbiob is thrown out of gear and releases
upon a br.1ss bottom plate a. In each pair ooe of the magnets is the spring and indicator by a catch on the foot of the door. ( ..Ac
arranged within the other, tmd the two pairs are separated a cepted September 13, 1893).
abort distance apart. At tbe lower ends and ion er sides of the
Interior magnets art- attached the small platea b having curved
12.200. 0. J ones, London. FeediDg Cartridge a to
upper edges arraoged nearly in line with the a rc described by .the Machine Guns. [30 Fig1.) July 1, 1802.- This invention
armt.tures c at t he ends of the electro-magnets. The bra88 s1de relates to the feeding of car tr idges to machine auos, and its
plates B, Bl are placed adjacent to the sides of the magnets, and object is to provide a positive feed for machine guns of the kind
support the upper and lower shafts d and C. The former ebaft is known as .. Gardner " guns. A feed wheel 0 having radial pro
pro'"ided "itb a large toothed gear wheel D which m eshee with jections, and mounted in bearinu Ql, is provided for mo,iog th~
tbe pinion e and also with a spiral spring f which bea111 against cartridge-bolder C intermittently through a transverse opening
tbo two sideplates (Fi~. 2). The shaft d 1s also provided with a in the upper part of the gun frame. The wheel Q ie a rranged t o
crank. By means of the spiral spring .f the shaft d is p ushed in, be intermittently r otated by spring pawls Hl carried by and
so that the spur wbeel D leaves the contacts. Tbe lower shaft C is pivoted to a sliding block B , to which reciprocating mot ion is
eapported in bearin~s io tbe brass plates, and is provided at its unparted by means of a lever J pivoted to the cover Al, and
outer end with a pinion e, and at ita inner with the commutator E . worked by a cam groove Kl formed in the central diso K of tbe
At about the mtddle of the shaft C are secured four spools c c rankshaft. The t.wo levers F for pushing the cart ridges out of
hanog at tbeir outt-r ends the armatures h, made of soft iron. the belt C into the feed slide E are pi\'Oted to a suppor t firml y
Tbe spools are arraoS!ed upon the shalt radially . The shaft C is secured in the cover Al of the gun fram e, and each ia provided

whioh the rollers are to be tltted, so t hat the weight of t he car is

supported partly on the periphery of the r ollers and partly on, but this cradle, bemg supported by the axles of the
ant1 -fnc t 1on rolle rs, does not touch aoy part of the surrounding
annular r!ng ~acket in which the rollers and cr adle r evolve. The
an~ular rmll" 18 oaaehardened on its inner side, and has formed
on 1ts outer periphery a bulge 01 , so that when it is fitted into
the axle-~ox E ~he bulge ad~its of a rocking motion and prevents
cro~ strams _bem~ tb ro~n e1t_b er. upon the axle or anti-frl<'tion
~eanng~. wh1lst the veh1cle 1s 10 motion, ond allows for t he
1nequaht1es of the road or rail. (A ccepted Scpttmber 13, 1893).

B. S. Nlcholson, Brighouae
!friction Clut~h~s. [7 Figs. ) October 6, 1892...:.Tbis invt'n:

t1on r e!ates to fn ct1oo clutches. Near the end of one of two

shafts 1s fixed a hollow boss 3. Tbo end of the second shaft 2

rL9 .z

extends to the inside of this boss, and hae ke yed on its end a diso
4 with radial slo~s fo rm.ed i!l it. A ring of metal 6 for med of
segmeuts also tits 10 the mter10r of the boss, each segment being
s~ppor ted by a .set screw passing through one of the boles in the
d1sc. A recess as formed m the periphery of the segmental ring ,

[OcT. 27, 1893.

E N <.; I N E E R I N G.
r efe rE-nce to metallic s pr inz packi ng rin~s fo r pistons of steam,
&c., eo~ines, and consists of fou r rings of a material such as caH
iron, t he two outer ones A, Al bein6 V shaped, and their ou.ter
diameter , which is parallel with the axis of the piston, workmg
against the barrel of the cylinder , and thei r inner d iameter , which
is co~i cal, bear ing against the outer diameter of the inner rings.
The outer ones a r e larger than the barrel of the cylinder, a segmen t
of their circumfer ence being cut ou tto admi t of their being brought

and in it is a spir al spring which tends to move t he segments

t o Nards their common centre. Keyed on be second shaft is a
t aperjng boss, the end of which fits tbe inter io r of the segmental
r ing. Ooe of the shafts d rives the other by the coroidal boss bein!!'
forced into the segmental ring, which is expanded. and frictiona l
is maintained until this bos3 is withdr awn, when
th ~ spi r~l spr ing breaks the contact between the r insr and the
interior of the hollow boss. (.Accepted September 13, 1893).

power, and the two outside oneP, wi h the CE' I!tre on ~ abut off,
gi ving the second power, the th ird power bung outamEd when
all three are open to pres ; ure. Working O\'er the vahe face is "
g ridiron val ve V havin2' on its bottom face a D sha_p ed ex b au~t
orifice W that puts bMh the pressure p orts C and 0 1n comw u m
oat o n with the exhaust por t B. Tht: slide V has two rorts E, F

Fig . 2.

Ftg . 1.


19.893. G. A. M. Arnaud, Paris, France. Mtlls
for Grt ndlDg and Crushing Quartz, &c. [7 Figx. J

November 4, 1892. - T his invention relates to means for

grinding and cr ushing quar tz, &c., and consists of a mill with
cent ifugal inclined r unners B having a. central shaft A, an
annular bed being inclined oorrespondingly to the inclination of
the axes of the r unners. The runners t ravel on the bed a round
the ce ntra l shaft., their axles being pivotally connected by bearings p rovided with journals to a drive r C attac hed to the central
sh~ft, and being capa.hle of vibr ating ver tically upon t he journalij,
t he centrifugal fo rce being used in orde r to incr ease the pressure
of the r unner s. T he axles a r e p rovided with a ser ies of annular
ribs and g rooves working in the correspondingly for med ueuings .


into position. 'Ihe two inner rings B, B 1 are also made V sh~ped ,
their outer diameter being conical, o_f the s~me a ngle as t~e ~oner
diameter of the outer r in2'8, and be~rmg agamst them, t h eir mner
diameter being parallel with the ax1s of. the piston P. Between the
two inner rings, and r ecessed equal~y m to ~acb, and placed so as
to oper ate later ally, is a series of spnalspnngs made of br~ss <?r
steel, these spr ings being-under compress10n when thE' paolting IS
in its normal position. (.Accepted September 13, 1893).

13,523. J . A. Morris, Manchester. SUP;J?lying Dls

lncrustants to Steam Boilers, &c. (2 Ftgs.J J uly 12,
1893.-T he object of this in,reotion is . to enable liquid disiJ?orustants to be in troduced into steam ho1lers. &c. T he reser voir
A for containing the disinorustan t is filled t h rouf,th an aper ture
olosed by a plug ; C is an inter nal tube introduced to allow
steam to enter t he r eserYoir ; D is a bole in the plug E for allow-



corresponding to the presFu re ports C, D, ar,d is ope-rahd in its

t r avel by a spindle S working through a stuffing-box by means of
a cam lever . The por ts E, F a r e out right thr ough the slide V,
which is fitted with two r iding valves I, 11, and 6enes to cover
the ports E and F from pressure when passing from fi rst to second
and second to third powers, o r to exhaust. (~ ccepted September
13, 1893).


(1 ~ig.]


G. Glasgow, London.

Water Gas.

November 2, 1892.-This invention has for its object to

provide means tor simultaneously adjusting the position of the
gas outlet fr om and steam admission to the gene rator by turning
a sinB"le handle. A is the fuel bed in the generator , B is agasoutlet pipe at the top of the gener ator , and C a gas outlet pipe at the
bottom ; Bl a nd eo a re outlet valves in t he pipes B and C respec
tiveJy, Dand E the upper and lower steam inlet pipes respe~tivel y ,
F t h e main steam pipe, and G the controlling three-way cock by
which the steam is directed to th e pipes D or E. When the upper
gas outlet valve nois open, and t he lower one closed, the upper
steam pipe D is closed and the lower inlet E open. The gas valns
so, eoare so a rranged that the weight of one d isc in descending
to close the outlet, counter balan ces the weight of the other,
which is being lifted to open ita outlet pipe. B 1, Cl are the racks
of their r espective val ves, acd B2 and C2 the pinions which work


ing the to escape ; 0 is a s ~ rewed bush for compreesing packing against the top of the plug E and keepin~ it
tight and in position . H is a glass t hrough which the liquid can
be seen falling from the nozzle J on its way to the boilu. T he
The cen tr al s~aft r otats in a foot s tep bearing- for med so as t.o dis plug I<; is moved by a. handle L so as to shut ofi the escape of
t ribute the pressur e c aused by centrifugal force o ver a. large a rea liquid and the ingress of steam pressure . (Accepted September 13,
of surface and r educe the wear . T he fiat surfaces on the central 1893).
shaft have screwed threads at both ends, upon which nuts c2, c3 are
screwed above and below the d river . To compensate fo r t he wrar
of the runners and of the bed, t he dri vt>r upon the central shaft is
19,818. E . Bammesfahr, Solingen, Prussla.
lowered by n~ eans of the nut3 c2, c3 on the one hand and by suc- Me chanical Bammt rs. [2 P tgs.] November 3, 1892. - This
cessively ineerting thin plates bet.ween the dri ver a.nd t he boxrs invention relates to m echanical hammers in which two pairs of op
and r everEing the latte r, end fCir end on t he other. To t he ex posi te sliding hammer blocks operate at rig ht a ngles to each other.
tremities of the a rms attached to the cr oss frame are r akes of taper The fou r links n are connected together in t he for m of a parallelofo r m with inclined ~ ides r evolvi ng in the bed, the rakes being g ram, the pi\ot pioa of which a re fixed to the fou r hamme r
secu red to the a r ms by a metal bolt and wood pin in order to blocks a, which slide in guides, and to which a re pivoted two con
shear off the latter and enable the r ake to oscillate upon the bolt nectin~ rods q, the other ends of these r ods being joined to cranks
when it meets with an abnormal obstruction in the bed. ( Ac hy which a to and fro motion is impar ted to them. The concepted Septembe1 13, 1893).
necting-r eds q are constr ucted of two separate par ts, capable of
adjustment r elatively to each other , for which purpose they are
connected together by a spring connection. One par t of the rod has

9603. R. Boyle, Beaton, Lancs. Beating Jackets

and Receivers of Steam, &c., Engines. (3 F igs.] May

13, 1893. -This inven tion r elates to a method of b eating jackets

and r eceivers of steam, &c., engines by means of heated atmo
spheric air fo rned through vertical pipes M (Fig. 1) disposed in
the ftue G leading from a boiler to the chimney. After th: ai r
h as been forced through the entir e range of pipes, it is delhered

the racks. Sprock et wheels B3 and C3 are mounted on pinion

shafts, and are connec ted by a chain C-', so that one va lve cannot
be moved inde}:endently of the other. The valves are operate!\
by a handwheel B" s ecu red on the pinion shaft of the vahre BO.
The valres a re thus opened and closed simultaneously , and
balance each other , so that they may be operated by a slight
effort. ln order to actuate the three-way cock G so a s to simultaneously reverse t hedir ection of the steam with the changing of
the gas outlet, the lever Ql of the cock is connected to the rack
Cl of the lower outlet valve by means of a link G2, so that as the
outlet vahe eois opened and the outlet valve BO shut the threeway cock G Js operated by the raising of the ra ck C' s~ as to open
t~e connection between the inlet pipe D and the main steam
ptpe F, and close the connection between the inlet pipe E
and the pipe F ; and when the outlet valve eo is closed and BO
a head ql situated within a box lJ fi xed to the other part. In this opened, the cook G is simultaniousJy operated in the r everse
box a r e two springs!, f l, one on each side of the bead q' against dtreotion. (.Accepted September 6, 1893).
which they bt>ar with the one end, while the other e~ds bear
respectively against the bottom of the box and the cover screwed
on It. Tbe springs thus allow of a cer tain motion of the head q t
J:?eecriptions with illu~trations of imentions patented in the
in the box, so as to extend or contract the rod, while they tend Umted States of Amenca from 1847 to the present time and
always to bring the two parts back to the normal combined r epor ts of trials of patent law cases in the United States, m~y be
length . By the inwa rd motion of each rod q the hammer blocks consulted, gratis, at the offices oi ENGINEERING, 35 and 36, Bedfordare brought forcibl y together so as to operate simultaneously upon street, Strand.
the objec t placed between them, while at the same time the other
pair of hammer blocks are moved aw&!' from the object. (Accevted
September 13, 1893).

Ft{j . t .

" ,. ____ ,. __

- .--- -- ---



Fig .2 .

-r -


into theoutletpipeO, which con veys it into the engi ne-house and
to the jackets of the cylinders B , I. and t he connecting pipe J
by the pipes P, the latter being fitted with vahres R in order to
r~gulae the q uantity of heated a ir. The pipes M (Figs. 2 and 3)
a re dispoEed lom~itudinally in the bottom ftue D. (A ccepted
Septem1Jer 13, 1893).



J . Bargreaves, Leed s
P uton Packing
[6 Figs.] No,rem ber 22, 1892. -Tbis iovl t. tion h1s

Lon.d~n. Cranes, &c.

(6 Ftgs.] May 18, 1893.-The ohject of this mvention is to pro
vide a valve for controlling c ran es and hoists of variable power
~V whic h t~e variable p owers can be put into operation d efinitely
In succession by one rope or lever, and to pr ovide an inter
m ediate shut off position to the valve between each change of
power, so that the c rane can be changed from fi rst to s econd
o r second to third powe r, whilst the load is suspended at an y
inte rmediate ?r s topping place, and after being used in th'e
second or thud. powt>r to ~scend, atd a lowering operation
throug h any dtstanc e havmg been pt>rfo t m d, tbe vahe
a'ways retur ns to Lhe lowest p owf. On the face of t he val veb~x a re three port s, the pmt C being in communicalion
Wlt.h the centre one No. 2 o~ a group of three hydraulic
cylmders, and the por ~ D with two outside ones Nos 1
3, the cen t re cylinder , when open to pressure, giving the fi rst

C. Cornes, Greenwich,

GRAIN CAR.GO~ . -~he . G rain pargoes Act requires

that when gram IS carr1ed m bulk m vessels having main
and 'tween decks, '' feeders " shall be provided. Usually
these are temporary wooden constructions inolosing the
space between the hatchways in the two decks and are
dismantled at the end of the voyage to enabl~ another
oJa.c;s of cargo to be loaded. T o avoid the repeated ex pense
of their construction, Mr. G. J. Hay, of Le&dAnbaJl
Chambers, 4, S t. ~1ary Axe, L ondon. has brouubt out an
arrangement of four iron sbutterg hinged to the lower
E-ide of the upper deck beams, and so constructed that
th ey can ~orm a tight trunk around the hatt::bway. When
not requued they can be fixed up against the deck
beams, leaving the space between the de\}ks perfectly free
for any kind of cargo.