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E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. ro, r8gj.J





(For Description, see Page 571.)







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Fig. 2.

TilE INSTITUTION OF MECIIANICAL page of our present iHsuo, and we may, therefore,
at once proceed to t h e discussion .

(Concluded from paue 532.)

0~ the members assembling again on the Thurs-

day evening of the meeting, October 26, Mr.

Borodin's paper on
was read. This paper we print in full on another

Mr. Lloyd, of the firm of Hayward Tyler and

Co., was the first speaker. H e said that the Institution was obliged to the author for the careful
analysis of the working of different, pumps contained
in the paper. I t was very difficult to obtain accurate r esults, and h e wished to bear testimony to
the fairness with which the author had put his facts
forward. Mr. Borodin had said in his paper that

a Hayward Tyler pump, pumping against a head

of 33 ft. to 46 ft., had lifted between 2465 and
3654 gallons per hour. This was equivalent to
90 lb. a nd 129 lb. respectively of water pumped
per pound of steam ; the work done per pound of
steam being 2953 and 5938 foot-pounds respectively. In his comparison of r esults t h e author
had stated that t h e economy of the Hayward Tyler
pump was very l ow, but h e very fairly stated that
t he pumps tried at Zabolotie, of the Hayward Tyler
type, had become worn by use, also that the original
pistons and slide valves had been replaced by oth ers
made on the spot, a nd it was quite possible that
the original dimensions of the arrangem ent of the
steam ports might have been altered, which would,
of course, seriously affect the econ omy. It was also
said in th e paper that a pump of the same kind at
another station worked much better. It might be
::;tated that the Haywa rd Tyler p ump is of the type
which is devoid of flywheel or external moving parts,
having the pump piston on the same horizontal rod
as the steam piston . The author pointed out that
these pumps are remarkable for their compactness,
for t h e small space they occupy, and for the ing enious distribution of the steam by means of a
slide valve arranged inside the h ollow piston of the
steam cylinder. They need scarcely any foundation, and can be placed on a small fixed beam.
Referring to these passages in the paper, Mr.

E N G I N E E R I N G.


Lloyd said that he had t o thank the author for his

courtesy and fairness. At the same time h e would
state that for any comparison between pumps to be of
a satisfactory nat ure, they should be of the same size
and du ty. H e could not tell from the statements
made by the author which size pump had been
used, but his firm had supplied in 1875 a 5 in. by 4 in.
double-acting universal pump to the Russian South\Vestern Railway. This would pretty well accord
with the W orthington r eferred to in the paper,
pumping against a lift of 112 ft. to 131 ft. The
W orthington pump threw from 2223 to 8804 g~llons
of water per hour, the water pumped per pound of
steam being from 102 lb. to 152 lb. This would
equal in work done per pound of steam 11,385 and
19, 460 foot-pounds respectively. R eferring t o these
fi g ures, Mr. Lloyd pointed out that the Hayward
'ryler pump lifted water only 33 ft. to 46 ft ., whilst
the 'Vortbington pump, as stated, lifted water
fr<Jm 112 f t. to 131 ft. Ther efore the useful effect
of the steam in the case of the latter pump would
be less. In order to make the comparison fair, the
lift of the H ayward-Tyler pump should be 135ft.,
and if t.hat wero the case a. very different result
would be reached. Mr. Lloyd also dwelt upon the
fact that the pump had been renovated by native
hands. He would ask his hearers to imagine what
would b e t he result of a very complicated engine,
Ruch as the Willans engine, being reconstructed in
Central Russia. He thought there would be no
d oub t that a very large drop in efficiency would be
shown, compared to the trial results published in
regard to that engine. His firm had made experiments with one of their pumping engines, extending
over a fortnight, the following being the result :
Direct- acting steam pump with 12-in. steam
cylinder, 6-in. double-acting pump ; vertical suction, 10 ft. 3 in. ; vertical delivery, 93 ft., or
103 ft. 3 in. in all ; work done per pound of steam,
12,555 foot-pounds. The pump would have given
better results at 200ft. to 250ft. lift. These experiments, h e thought, would compare favourably with
those with the vVorthington pump, and which
were quoted in the paper. The author of the paper
appeared to be under the impression that the
Worthington pump was exceptionally notable in
regard to high speed, but members of the Institution would be aware t hat 100ft. per minute was
not an excessively high speed. The author had
sta.ted that t he Worthington pump at one of the
stations worked at 100 ft. per minute, and its
maximum speed is still higher. Again, he had that "the 'Vorthington pumps especially,
owing to the high speed of the pump pistons, are
remarkably l ight, small, simple, and cheap. "
Again, ''the h igh speed of t he pump piston ia the
Worthington pumps is in striking contrast with
that in t he old kind of pumps, in which the pump
piston had t o be worked at a very low speed."
Another point that the speaker thought should be
taken into consideration was the simplicity of
tuanufacture and cheapness. Taking t he 5 in. by 4in.
H ayward Tyler pump, the price would be found to
be about 18l.; the Wort hington pump would prob a.bly be t hree times that amount, so that if the
cost of power were to be considered also, the first
cost of the machine ought to be allowed for.
Furthermor e, the H ayward Tyler pump had less
working parts, and an economy in repairs would
undoubtedly be gained from this r eason. Mr.
Lloyd t hought that if .both pumps were put to the
fame work and rece1ved equal treatment, after
t wenty years' working t he advantage would be
found with the H ayward Tyler pump. Subsequen tly Mr. Lloyd supplemented his r emarks by
statina t hat the reason steam pumps were often so
very ;neconomical was because users bought them
of too larae a size, in order to have an ample
m ar gin. His firm had adopted a ~imple formula for
proportioning pump to duty, wh1ch he would place
on the blackboard :
P x 1.7::35 x ~= lift in feet,

where P equals steam pressure in .p ounds per

square inch, A equals area of steam cyhnder, and a
equals area of pump.
Mr. Druitt Halpin said that the t hanks ~f t he
Institution were due to the author. He d1d not
know where he could put his hands on particulars
of the same nature as those which wer e before the
meeting. The author had said ~e was not able to
give diagrams, and Mr. Halpm had therefore
made wall cartoons, showing steam and water
diagrams of pumping engines upon which he had
made experiments. The pumps were duplex pumps.




The steam cylinder was 7 i n. in diameter, and t he allowance for the loss by the large double ports.
water cylinder 5 in. The stroke was 9 in., and the Also the element of friction was eliminated, which,
pump made 27 strokes per minute. The test was in a small direct-acting pump, coneumed so much
carried out over six hours, the boiler pressure being power. The speaker gave details of loss from these
44 lb. per square inch, but this had to be r educed matters, and also pointed out that there was no
by throttling the steam, and the fires had to be expansion, t he exhaust escaping direct at high
damped with ashes, as the boiler was very much pressure into t he atmosphere. The pulsometer he
too large for the work it was doing. The rising had referred t o, however, worked expansively by
main was 3 in. in diameter, with a great many bends, means of an automatic valve, placed above the
the total lift being 86 ft. 2 in., and the total water ball, which cuts off the steam. Moreover, there
discharged being 225,900 lb. : this amount was was n o loss through exhaust to the atmosphere, as
determined by a tumbling bay and the coefficients t he steam was condensed and used to lift the water
given by Mr. Bryan D onkin, Jun. The slip of t he into the pump. On the oth er hand, steam was in
pumps as taken by the counter was 5.6 per cent. contact with the water, and it was argued that
A Cornish boiler was used, 5 ft. in diameter and there was loss from this, but it was far less than
15 ft. long, with 2ft. 6 in. flue, the grate area being would appear at first sight, and than was generally
10 square feet. The total water evaporated, which thought to be the case, as after heating the
was measured by a Schonheyder meter, was 1620 lb., first thin film of water t here is little time for
or , say, 270 lb. per hour. The total coal burned the heat t o be conducted downwards. Again, no
was 157 lb., and t he feed temperature 42 deg. Fahr. oil for lubrication was r equired with the pulseThe coal per hour per square fo ot of grate was meter. This form of pump had had a good deal of un2. 62 1b., and as the heating surface was about j ust odium cast upon it. I t was r eferred to some247 square feet, this would give an evaporation of times as "the steam-cater, " which was considered
1.09 lb. per hour per square foot. The indicated a very facetious thing to say about it, and the name
horse-power was 2.16, and the water horse-power had therefore gained wide currency. In considering
1.95, giving a pump efficiency of 90.05 per cent., the author's statement that t he pulsometer referred
and giving a steam consumption of 125 lb. per to was thirty-seven times a~ uneconomical as the
indicated horse-power, and 138 lb. per water horse- Cornish engine, the speaker considered some allowpower.
ance should be made for difference in size between
Mr. Schonheyder agreed with the last speaker the latter description of pump and the small
that he did not know where to find results of pulsometer in view. By Professor Beare's figures,
working similar to those given in the paper, but he however, the Cornish pumping engine exceeded
would suggest that outline diagrams and descrip- the small pulsometer in efficiency six times only,
tions of the engines be added to the table. He and this the speaker thought was a very satisalso suggested that in cases where machinery was factory result, considering the different sizes of
out of order the fact should be stated as a foot-note the two machines. It was not only, however, on
to the tables, in order that matter of such import- the question of economy that Mr. H odgkin wished
ance should not be overlooked ; for instance, in the to take his stand. There were many points about
case mentionsd, of the condenser being out of order, the pulsometer which would insure it being used,
and also the alterations in the Hayward Ty ler even if it were a more uneconomical engine t han
pumps. The speaker, in connection with this it really was. Ther e was the convenience of
matter, referred to the remarkable number of bad handling, the fact that n o foundation was r equired ;
condensers that were in use. H e felt sure engineers it could be easily taken from place to place, and
did not know how much loss arose from this, of once set to work did not want attention for months.
which he gave instances.
If they compared that with the workiiJg of the
Mr. J. E. H odgkin, of the Pulsometer Company, duplex pump, they would see there was a great
agreed very fully with what had been said as to the advantage for it. Some people appeared to imagine,
want of precision in t he paper, and, therefore, t he or to speak as if they imagined, that the pulsewant of reliance that was to be placed on the results meter was dead, but this was by no means t he case.
of trials stated. H e wished to state, however, that
Mr. J eremiah Head said it would facilitate tho
th e author had taken care that the mat ter should understanding of the paper if skeleton sketches of
be put forward fairly, and there was no bias in the t he pumps were added when it was published in
paper. The statements made, however, affected t he Transactions ; for instance, perhaps the mo~t
his company more than that of Mr. Lloyd . The common form of pump in this count ry was the
a uthor had stated, in reference to t he trials, that Cameron pump, but he found it impossible to make
'' the least economical in steam consumption are out whether any of these pumps mentioned were
the inj ectors, next to t.hem the pulsometers. The of the ordinary Camer on type. He hoped it would
inj ectors tried were at least 84,000 7 1310 -= 64 be possible to get these sketches made, s.nd added
times inferior to the Cornish pumping engine, and to the publications in the Transactions.
the pulsometers 84, 000 7 2300 = 37 times. "
Professor T. Hudson B eare said t hat he had
Again, later on, the paper stated that although the made the trials of t he pulsometer, and, as stated by
pulsometer has a higher efficiency t han the inj ector, Mr. B odgkin, these were made under ocdi11ary
yet, under the most favourable circumstances, working conditions, the water being lifted ou to a
it requires a boiler t wo or three times larger tank on a stage and measured by a Kennedy water
than would be needed for a steam engine; and as meter. It was also measured by means of vessels
pumps of such simple make can now be had so as a check. The amount of feed water was known
cheaply, there is no longer any need to have by it being run into a tank on a weighing machine,
r ecourse to these kinds of applia.nces, not even on so that there was no doubt in regard to that matter.
account of their costing less to put up. The details The r esults were that one water horse-power was
stated by the author in the paper, Mr. H odgkin obtained with 147.6 lb. of steam ; with a duplex pump
said, were at variance with the r esults obtained of the type referred to by Mr. Halpin , the duty
with any ordinary pulsometer ; in order to put the would be 138 l b. of steam per water horse-power.
data that t he Pulsometer Company had acquired in The results were t herefore approximately the same,
better form, they had properly certified trials made taking the size of the apparatus into account. He
by Professor T. Hudson Beare. These trials were had also ascertained the temperature of the water on
performed under ordinary conditions, with naked entering and on leaving the pulsometer. This
boilers and naked steam pipe, t he length of which would give a check as to the amount of steam used.
was 62 ft. Professor Beare brought out the result H e proposed t o work the figures out, and would
so that in place of t he 860 lb. of steam per horse- be pleased to send them t o . the secretary to be
power per hour credited to the pulsometer by the incorporated in the discussion on this paper.
author, t he true figure was found to be 147.6lb. per H e was of opinion, however, that the author's
hour. This compared very favourably with an r esults and deductions could not be taken as typical,
ordinary direct-acting pump, and he thought that and the t ype of pulsometer tried by him must have
as the pulsometer gave such a duty it was cheap at been either a. bad one or the machine itself must
first cost, besides possessing other wellknown ad- have been in bad working order. He was survantages of this form of pump ; it was therefore prised himself when he r ead the statement as to
extremely reasonable to put it in competition with t he large amount of steam required . The same
other designs. One reason the pulsometer was a remark applied to some of the pumps; for instance,
fairly economical steam pump was that there it was stated in t he paper that in the Proceedings
was no loss from clearance, as in the case of the of the Mulhouse Society t he results of the t rials of
steam cylinder. In a duplex pump, say, of 6 in. a Tangye pump were quoted. This pump belongs
stroke t here would be, when working under pres- to the class of directacting pumps, without flysure,! in . clearance at each end of the stroke. This wheel, like the Hayward Tyler. In the trials
would be, the speak er said, one-seven th of t he quoted, it raised 800 gallons of water per hour to a
steam utterly wasted to begin with, without any height of 36.7 ft. This would compare with t he

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E N G I N E E R I N G.

Ha.ywa.rJ Tyler pump at ZGt.bolotie, though of

smaller size than the latter. 'he be::it r esults obtained in the series of trials with this pump were as
follows :
\Vorking head, including friction
. ..
. ..
36.7 fb.
Dali very per h our
. ..
797 gallons
Boiler pressure above atmosphere, pounds per sq. in .. .
42.7 lb.
Useful work, horse-power ...
\Vater raised per pound of
63 lb.
steam . ..
. ..
. ..
. ..
Weight of steam used per
horse-power per hour
855 lb.
\York done per pound of steam 2316 foot -pounds
Professor Beare had been astounded at reading these
fiuures. He never imagined an cngin~ could cat
up steam like that, excepting always the r otary
~n,.ine. It looked as if steam were blowing right
th~vugh to the exhaust, and if such a machine did
require that amount of steam to do the quantity of
work stated, he should prefer to class it as a condenser rather than an engine.
Professor Alexander B. W. Kennedy thought
there must be some error in the figures quoted by
the author in regard to consumption of steam.
Possibly it might be due to the displacement of a
decimal point. The results given, however, set
him thinking upon the proportion of steam used
by the feed pump, as compar ed to that used in the
main engines themselves. Professor Kennedy
gave some figures explanatory of these points ; the
main conclusion to be deduced from them being that
in every 90 lb. of steam used by an engine 1lb. was
required for ~orking the feed pumps. He had often
measured the water used by feed pumps, and found
that it varied mostly in accordance with the state
of the piston, especially in pumps working slowly.
He had found that as much water was due to leakaae
as was used by the pumps in doing their proper
work. Mr. Lloyd had raised a point as to the value
of the results of these various pumps on account
of their different sizes. It was a difficult matter to
compare them and make allowan.ces for t~e effe~t
of size. He had constructed a diagram, With ordinates representing the power of the pump, and
horizontal lines defining the work done per pound
of steam. Taking the details in the paper, he
found that the spots gave a fair curve, so that it
would seem as if efficiency depanded wholly on
size he did not suppose such to be the fact,
but ' so it seemed, perhaps from accidental
causes. He very much congratulated the Pulsometer Company on the r esults of the trial by
Professor Beare, which had been referred to. He
imaained they took even Mr. Hodgkin somewhat
by s~uprise ; certainly they did every one else.
Another speaker suggested that the tests would
have been more satisfactory if makers had supplied
new pumps for the purpose. It wa-s hardly fair to
compare old and modern designs, especially when
the pumps of more ancient make had been in use
for several years. Another suggested that the
names of makers of the pumps should be suppressed
in the publication of t he paper. It was not fair
that these records should be sent forth as r epresentative of the work of their productions.
Mr. Marten said he had hailed this paper with
satisfaction when it was put before him, because
it gave the actual figures of a u~er of pu~ps,. sho':ing their duty in work, and not s1mply their trtal tnp
efficiencies, or what the manufacturers thought they
ought to do. He was under the impression that
the Institution would profit by this procedure, and
also by the manner in which the details were put
forward. He would be glad if pump-makers would
state the performance of their pumps in pounds of
water lifted a given height per pound of steam
used; he had searched for figures of this description and did not kno w where to find them. Referrina to the difference between ideA.l and absolute
result: in working, 1\'T r. l'vTA.rten had placed on the
wall a diagram showing the results found
Professor Unwin in the working of ste~m engmes of
small size at Birmingham, these results being obtained by testing the engines in the workshops of
the users. In one case- the worst recorded on the
table-as much as 36lb. of coal wer~ used per indicated horse-power; this was a~ horse-power nominal
eteam engine. Mr. Marten htmself was a user of
most of the kinds of pump mentioned by the author
in the paper, and he found the pule?meter an extremely convenient and useful macl~~c. lie was
himself surprised at the very low efhc10ncy quoted
by the author for this apparatus, and was glad that
the makers had shown that they could do better.


~conomy was not, however, always the crowning pumps at the station was only 80 per cent.,

vutue. He had found even t he injector- which

eats steam so badly-an extremely valuable means
of pumping water. A man could take it into a
culvert into which he could only crawl himself, and
where it wo uld manifestly be impossible t o take a
pump. He would ~mphasise what had been said
about users ordering the biggest pump that was
likely to be required for any emergency, and far
n1o~e powerful than was wanted for ordinary work,
which would therefore s uffer loss in economy in
working at lower powers than those for which Lhe
pump was designed. Making allowance for all
this, however, it was a puzzle to him how the
pumps mentioned in the paper should be so uneconomical.
Another speaker pointed out the loss that resulted from power absorbed by shocks of the
water in pumping, and gave instances where this
had been remedied by variation in the p ressure of
air in the air vessel. It was this matter of water
hammer that often made small pumps m ore uneconomical. lVIr. Walker said the paper pointed out
Lhe want of experiments on pumps.
lVIr. Phillips said, with regard to the value of the
experiments quoted, that it should first be determined whether it was correct to test pumps as
found, or whether they should be put into the best
condition for work first. Pumps after use for some
years might be more out of order than others.
This might be from the di:ff~rent conditions to
which they had been subjected in the matter of
work they had to do, or treatment they had received
at the hands of attendants. On t he other hand,
one pump might stand wear and tear better than
another, and this, of course, should be put to its
Professor Cawley pointed out that the best pump
on the list was 3~ times les~ efficient than the
Cornish engine, and gave a.n analysis of the figures
given in the paper bearing upon this aspect of the
Unfortunately his back was to the
meeting, and he was imperfectly heard, so that
what appeared t o h~ an interesting c0ntribution to
the discussion was lost to the majority of those
Mr. B ache next read a letter from Mr. Urquhart,
giving details of p um ps used on the Grazi and
Tsaritsin Rail ways of Russia.
H o had placed a
diagram on the wall, which gave the cost of water
used on the railway per 1000 axle miles of trucks
and carriages, during the nine years 1882 t o 1890 ;
the most notable feature about which was that, in
1882, when coal only was used, the cost was about
13cl., whilst in 1893, when petroleum refuse alone
was used, it had fallen to 7d. per 1000 miles. The
total co3t was made up of six items, viz. : 1. Wages
of enginemen and stokers. 2. Fuel for steam
boilers. 3. Fuel for warming water columns and
tanks in winter. 4.. Fuel for enginemen's quarters.
5. Lighting rooms, cleaning and lubricating ma.
chinery. 6. Repairs of engines, pumps, and boilers.
An economy was obtained by using riddlings from
ashpits of locomotives when red with coal.
another case a saving was made by subjecting
the water to chemical purification. It was pointed
out that, owing to the fl.atness of the country
traversed by these Russian lines, it was necessary
to pump water up to the station level.
Mr. J. Barr, of the Glenfield Works, Kilmarnock, had also sen t a letter, which Mr. Bache
r ead, and in which the writer asked for some
further details. Mr. Barr, in his letter, alS')
gave some particulars regarding the proportion of
indicated horse-power to pump horse-power. Some
experiments he q uoted were made with a 6 horsepower nominal engine, driving deep well pumps by
gearing, as used by the Indian State Rail ways. The
indicated horse-power was 7. 815, the pump horsepower 4. (), so the efficiency was GO per cent. A similar
engine wa<J afterwards tested doing more work.
The average of four experimen ts gave 9. 8 indicA-ted
horse-power , pump horse-power 7. 57, or an efficiency
'ome experiments were also made
of 77 per cent.
with a small horizontal steam engine of 4 horsepower nominal, to determine the indicated horsepower and brake horse-power.. The average results
showed that the efficiency was 77 per cent. In 1\fr.
Barr's opinion the old Cockerill pumps referred to
in the paper (Table III. ) did not get the credit they
d eserved. It was said by the author that the work
done per pound of steam was 24,940 foot~pound s,
while tha.t of the now 'Vorthington compounds was
32.Rl0. In the table q uoted by the author (Table
IV. in the paper), the efllciency of the Cockerill

while that of the Worthingtou compound was 97 per

cent. If the pump valves of the old Cockerill pump
had been put into good order, it would have shown
better r esults than the 'Vorthington pump. In
reference to the slip (lf pumps, the writer stated
that it was found, on new pumps of the Indian
'tate Railways, to be 3.u5 per cent. ; that is to say,
the useful effect of the pump was Hu. 35 per cent.
. 1\fr. Cochrane pointed out that the figures given
1n the tables were correctly calculated. Some misconception on Lhis point appeared to have arisen,
but it would be found that the calculations were
quite correct.
The President, Dr. Anderson, in closing the discussion, and proposing a vote of thanks to the
author, said it was to be regretted Mr. Borodin
was not present, but, of course, it was not to be
expected he could come so great a distance. The
report of the discussion would be sent out to him
in Russia, and he would make his reply to it in
The proceedings then closed with the usual votes
of thanks.


BY C. S. D u RICBE PREI..LER, M.A., Ph.D .,
A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E.
(Continued from page 502.)

Switchbuanl (Fig. 9, page 562).-This comp1 i..;cs

the usual t;nagnetic field reguJat?rs, volt and ampere
meters, bt-polar cut-outs, switches for coupling
t he dynamos according to r eq uirement, lightning
arrester, and test lamps. The switchboard also
includes an ampere-meter registering the load curve
to which reference will be made h ereafter and fron~
which the current passes to the rails by two cables
200 square miJlimetres in section .
Overltead Uonclltctors.-The contact wire is of
silicon. copper 6 millimetres in diameter, suspended
at a he1ght of 5 to 6 metres above the rails, by
means of compressed and paraftined wood or ebonite
insulators from brackets or from steel cross wire~
according as the line is laid in a street, 8-cross a~
open space, or in the centre or the side of t he
suburban road, as shown in Figs. 10 and 11 on
page 562, and Figs. 13 and 14, on our two-paue
plate. The suspension wires are, as usual, fix:d
to the wa~ls ?f houses, or to the poles by means
of porcelain insulators. The small diameter of
the contact wire, which was adopted in order
to make it less conspicuous, involves, on the
other hand, an additi0nal feed conductor of 60
squar e millimetres in section, which is carried
on the porcelain insulators already mentioned,
and has an insulating cover where it runs along
houses. To meet the contingency of breakage 0f
this cable or of the contact wire or of an insulator, the overhead line is divided into fcur equal
sections of 1500 metres, at the ends of each of
which the contact wire is electrically separated by
a sectional insulator, whilst within each section it
is connected with the feeder by a lateral wire every
200 metres, or 756ft., and each section of the
feeder is connected with an automatic cut-out in
the central station, with the exception of the first
section, which, being in close proximity to the
central station, has no feed conductor, the contact
wire being here in direct contact with the automatic
cut-out. Each section is furth er provided with its
own lightning arrest er. If, therefore, from any
cause, a feeder cable or the contact wire breaks in
any one section, the cable or wire falls to the
ground, and causes in that Eection a short circuit,
the immediate effect being that, by the operation of
the automatic cut-out, the connection between the
central station and the point of the accident is
instantly severed, so that th e accident is localised,
viz., the service is temporarily stopped only on that
T eleplt onir JJisf If ,/;mH'f S. - N oiw ithstanrl ing the
practically perfect insulation of the Jino, Lhe tele,
phonic disturbances were at first a source of serious
trouble, and delayed the opening of the line for a
considerable time. They were due t o two causes.
The first was that the telephone lines, which were
old and had not been improved after the Government acquired them from private companies, were
exceedingly deficient in insulation, so that in damp
weather shunt currents were produced at the supports of the telephone wires which were in more
o~ less close proxi~nity to th~ cross suspending
w1res of the electnc contact hne of the railway,

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t h ese suspending wires being in many places held

by porcelain insulators fixed to the walls of houses.
The second cause was t hat the feed conductor of
the electric line was much too near the telephone
wires or vice ve?sa, the distance in some places being
no more than 60 to 80 centimetres (2 ft. to 3 ft.).
Various remedies, such as self-induction coils and
condensers, were tried, but with no great succes8.
In the end, the company offered not only to displace all the nearest telephon.e lines, bu~ to .d ouble
-viz., provide with a metallic return c1rcutt--the
telephone lines which were most affected. The
cost of this operation, amo unting t o about 3000l.,
was entirely defrayed by the company, the Gover~
ment undertaking to refund the cost of the metalhc
return upon its having doubled all the ~eleph~ne
wires in Marseilles. The telephone hnes w1th
metallic return are n ow placed at a distance of at



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least 15 metres, or about 50 ft., from the electric

rail way wires, and since then no further complaint
or trouble has arisen.
Liglt tni11 g .A:rresters.- The central station, as
well as the overhead lino and the cars, were at
first provided with the ordinary pointed-teeth
arresters, but it was found that in the caRe of a
lightning discharge they were liable to short-circuit
the dynamos, since the spark produced by the
lightning between opposite teeth serves as a passage for the current, and therefore is not blown
out. These arresters were, therefore, replaced by
others of the Whirt type. These consist of a
metalli c bar as nucleus, insulated by an ebonite
tube which is encircled by a series of iron rings
insulated from each other by t hin intermediate
plates of mica. The first ring is connected with the
metallic bar carrying the conductor, the last ring

with .the ~arth plate. 0 wing to its high tension,

th.e hghtntng dtscharge leaps easily over all the
m1~a spaces bet_ween the rings at the circumference,
whtlst the t ens10n of the dynamo current is comparatiyely epeaking, too weak to pass the suc~essive
short-Interval o.bstac~es. . Moreover, owing to the
passage of the hghtnmg dtscharo-e a maanetic
is formed in the iron rings, whi~h blows the spark,
a~d ~hus prevents .the ~ynamos from being shortctrculted.. Th~se h ghtnmg arrest ers have given
great sattsfactwn, and not only the line, but also
the cars, have been struck several times without
any damage being produced .
. Ins11lalion. - Although t he continuity of the
ctrcuit by t he rails is sufficiently insured by the
substanttal character and the system of fastenino-s
of the permanent way (Fig. 12), the insulation is
rendered practically perfect by the rails being at
each joint connected by copper wires ; and further
in order to insure the continuity of the circuit i~
case of any section of the line being under repair
a lead-covered wire of galvanised iron of 7 mi1li~
metres diameter, fixed under the head of t he rails
runs along the whole length of each of the two'
lines of. rails (J!igs. 3 a?d 4, pag~ 499 rmte). As
shown 1n the tllustrahon, t h1s wue is at t he rail
joints, soldered to t he insulated copper'connections
already mentioned ; and at equidistances of 50
metres, special t ransverse connections of insulated
copper wire are, moreoYer, provided between the
galvanised iron wires and t he copper connections of
the two lines.





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Fi{J. 20.

F iu. JD.

]!otor Ca'rs (Figs. 15, 16, and 17, on our two

page plate). - These are four-wheeled, with a rigid
wheel-base of 1.8 metres (5. 9 ft. ), this very short
wheel-hase having been adopted on account of the
sharp curves of 15 metrQs (0.75 chain) radius at the
central depot. The wheels have a diameter of
1 metre (3.28 ft. ). The length over all is 9. 2 metres
(30 ft. ), aud 8 metres, or 26 ft., without buffers, so
that there is an overhang of no l ess than 3.1 metres,
or 10ft., which is decidedly excessive. The best
means of remedying this defect probably would be
to replace the four wheels by two bogie trucks,
and thus retain the facility for traversing curves
while getting rid of the disadvantages of great overhang. If, notwithstanding their present defective
construction, the cars run comparatively smoothly,
it is owing t o the substantial character and efficient
maintenance of the permanent way.
The cars seat twenty passengers inside, and have
nominally fifteen standing places on each platform
- the total nominal load being thus fifty passengers ; this number is, however, almost constantly exceeded, as will be shown hereafter. The
weight of a car with motors is 6. 8 tons, with fifty
passengers 9 tons, and with overload (seventy-five
passengers) as much as 12 tons. The cars carry five
electric lamps inside, and two electric reflectors
outside, one at each end.


M otors. -The cars being designed for fifty pas- with the pole-cores, which also forms the shell or
sengers, and a total load of about 9 tons, they were
origin ally fitted with two hi-pole 12 horse-power
motors, which actuated the wheel axles by worm
gearing of 1 in 15. Owing, however, to the cunstant overloads, and to the frequently insufficient
adhesion on the steep grades, these motors had
often to work up to as much as 25 horse-power,
and although the additional power could be
obtained by increasing the voltage from 550
t o 600, yet the guaran teed contract speed of
20 kilometres or 12.5 miles per hour on all
grades below, and of 10 kilometres or 6. 25
miles above, 2.5 per cent., had to be materi:\lly reduced, and the strain, moreover, on the
motors was so great that the service was not
satisfactory. Consequently, and in connect ion
with the new dynamos (Fig. 18) at the central
installation , the original motors and the worm
gearing were replaced by improved Oerlikon
motors (Figs. 19 and 20), which normally develop
18, but are capable of developing up to 30
horse-power each, and drive the wheel-axles by
horizontal spur gearing of 1 in 4. 9. Normally they
develop at 450 revolutions per minute a tractive
force of 0.3 ton each, equal to 18 horse-power at
twelve miles per hour. These motors are fourpoled, with very high )nductiv~ power; the yoke

casing, is of mild steel, and the armature is of the

Gramme type, with special compound winding inserted in slots with cross connections made in the
commutator, t he latter being of laminated copper,
and the brushes of carbon. The latter are fixed
obliquely, so that their position r emains invariable
both in forward and r everse motion. The small
pinion is of aluminium bronze, and the large pinion
is of mild steel.
Each motor is supported at one end by the wheel
axle, and at the other end is held by vertical
spring suspensions fitted to the car frame, which
allow the motor t o yield somewhat when the driving
strain comes upon it, so that elastic and smooth
starting is insured.
\Vith the exception of the
openings at the lateral ends, the motors are entirely
steel-clad, and the casing can be opened vertically
as shown in the illustrations. Each motor has its
poles in series with the armature, and the two
motors are connected in parallel, but can also be
put in series.
R egnlatO'r.- A regulator for speed and reversal
is mounted on each platform. As shown in
Fig. 21, the current, after passin g from th~ contact
wire to the bronze trolley, and through the trolley
pole (or vice 1:ersa), is conveyed to the regulator by
a cable which runs along the car roof1 and in which

-is successively

intercalated a fusible wire which

protects the motors against being injured by excessive current; a lightning arr ester connecting to
earth ; and a safety cut ou t which is governed by
a removable switch placed above th e platform at
the r oof, and serves to place the Clr out of circuit
in the event of the regulator or motor becoming
deranged while t he car is running. At terminal
stoppages the driver removes the switch, as also t he
regulator handle. The regulator, of which a perspective view is given in Fig. 3, page 563, is composed of
the switch disc and handle acting upon a r evolving
m etallic cylinder or commutator drum with fixed
con tacts. The switch disc, with four di\isions on
either side of the zer o, is placed vertically, and t he
r egulator or switch handle also m oves t o le ft or
r~ght-:riz., for. forward or reverse motion respecttvely, In a vertteal plane, whereby the manipulation
is rendered m ore handy than it is in the case of
the older horizon tal arrangement. As shown in
Fig. 22, there are six contacts-viz., four corresponding to the four cables or circuits passing
to the motors for varying the speeds by using only
one cable on coupling t lVO or more of them ; a fifth
for r eversing the motors ; and a sixth for addition ally incr easing, when r equired, the power and speed
by a shunt current passing t hrough the magnetic
field of the motor s. The rheostat, which is con n ected with the r egulators on each platform by six
cables contained in an indiarubber tube, is placed
in a box b elow the car frame, and the r esistances are
composed of superpo3ed laminated bands of nickeline with mica insulation, so that all danger of
combust ion is eliminated. B etween the r egulator
disc and the metallic dr um is inter calated a powerful magnetic Thomson arc blower which prevents
sparking in the upper part. A shunt current from
the trolley pole ligh ts t hree incandescen t 16-candle
lamps in series, at a pressure of 110 volts, a fusible
wire being intercalated before t he switch, and the
supply wire also connecting with t he ligh t ning
arrester before m ention ed. The same shunt curren t
also lights two powerful electric reflect ors, one
a t each end of t he car.
J n pra.ctice, the current, instead of passing from
the dynanws to t he contact wire with the r ails and
galvan ised wire as r eturn circuit, is made to pass
vice ve1sci-viz., at the central station the positive
p ole is t o ear th , and the current t h erefore passes
from t he rails to the cars and from t he trolley t o the
contact wire which forms t he return circuit. In
view of the t hin section of t he contact wire, this
circuit ha'3 the advantage of the arc being formed
on the trolley wheel as positive pole, so t hat t he
greater wear is t hrown on it and not on the contact
wire. The trolley can be renewed as often as r equired, whereas, when t he arc is formed on t he contact wire as positive pole, that wire is subj ected to
the gr eater wear, which, in this case, is not d esirable. The cir cuit from contact wire to rail has the
advantage of t here being less chance of leakage ;
whilst the r everse circuit from rail to contact wire
r equires a very perfect metallic system of perman ent way to prevent leakage, more especially when
in damp weather neighbouring gas or :wate~ pipes are
liable to be affected by the electrolytic act10n of low
tension shunt currents between the rails and such

Brakes.- N o electric brake is used, but, besides
an ordinary hand-chain brake, there is fitted on
each platform a safety slipper brake which is used
on the 6 per cen t. incline of the Rue d ' A~x, the
blocks fitting into the space between the ra1ls ;lnd
auard rails, and having f rictional contact with both
~ails. At first sigh t it would appear that the speed
of a car load of 12 tons, descending on such an incline by its own weight, coul~ ~e effectua.lly.regulated
by an electric brake; but It 1s a p ecu~tant.y ?f the
streets of Marseilles, more espeetally 1n t he Ind ustrial sub urbs, through which the line passes, that
the pavement is generally. m ore. or less g reasy,
owing to t he constant t rans1t of 01l and soap carts
to and from the numerous factories situated in that
part of t he town ; h ence it was considered advisable
to use a special brake acting direct on the surface of
the rails during the whole tim~ of t he descent.. The
brake, which is worked by cha1n and lever , can stop
the car within its own l ength ; but, although the
friction contact n o doubt keeps the rails comparatively clean , the system is decidedly clumsy, an.d
a good powerful mechanical hand brake, such as 1s
used, e.g., on the 8.5 p er . cen~. grade~ of the
Flor ence and Fiesole electric ra1lway, w1th lever
arms t ransmitting a very moderate energy exerted
at t he brake handle in the ratio of 1 in 136, would

E N G I N E E R I N G.
b e j ust as effectual as the slipper brake referred to*
and would, mor eover, obviate the necessity of t h e
very imperfect ordinary hand b rake-viz., one
brake would suffice for all gr ad es and purposes,
with an electric r everse brake for safety.
(To be continued.)


(Concluded from page 53i.)

PROFESSOR SMITIIELLS, who gave the excellent

lecture on ''Flames," is engaged in investigations of
the high est importance: whether incandescen t aases
are luminous as such, or whether t h ey only be~ome
so when chemical corn bination or solid particles are
coexistent. It is t o be r egr etted t hat he has n ot had
sufficient t ime for these problems, which were discus~ed last year at Edinburgh. He insists that what
we call the temperature of a flame is simply an
average which may be far below the temperature at
certain points . This view was at once accepted by
Professor Dixon as agreeing with his observations on
the rate of explosion in gases. The t rue t emperatu r e we may d er ive from calculations. F or t he
hydrogen flame, thermo-chemistry gives 6655 deg.
Cent., which appears extraordinarily high, as it is
said t hat steam dissociates at 1000 deg. The lumin osity of gases at very high t emperatures has been
denied by Wedg wood, Hittorf, and Warner von
Siemens, who experimented in different ways.
Professor S mithells showed an experiment apparently pr oving that luminosity is, after all, only
a heat effect. The condit ions hardly permit of
any definite conclusions, however. On the s uggestion of Sir G. Stokes, he experimented with
ga~es of high absorptive power for heat rays. A
glass cylinder was heated for about ten minutes,
t he burner r emoved , t he cylinder allowed to cool
until it h ad ceased to glow, and iodine introduced
into the cylinder. The glow at once r eappeared,
and disappeared again when air was blown through
the cylinder. The observation was madE-' by Salet
twenty years ago, as Professor Smithells heard fr om
Professor Schust er.
The discussion on "Bacteriology" brough t a
masterly monograph by Professor P ercy Frankland,
F. R.S., which will be printed in full in the Reports,
some other papers, and chiefly congratulatory
remarks. The paper, the r eading of which occupied
nearly a.n hour and a half, was, indeed, too
corn prehensi ve for a discussion. The science of
bacteriology dates from the introduction, by Koch,
of the m ethod of pure cultures, some twelve
years ago. M icroscopical characteristics. at first
entirely r elied upon, had given way more and more
to chemical tests, although they can be brought
out mor e clearly by mordant staining. But the different iation and identification of par ticular species
r emains very difficult, and, indeed, becomes more
and more so. The liquefaction of gelat ine by
certain cultures, the pigments p roduced, are d eceptive. Th e morphology varies gr eatly. The
cholera spirillum is generally a cell with one
fiagellum, but specimens from India have none,
and M etchikow found two and t hree flagella at
Massowah. The cholera bacillus gives the ind.>l
reaction ; the typhoid does not, nor d oes it ferment
glucose, nor coagulate milk. Such tests, the ammoniacal fermentations of urea, the reductiuns of
nitrates, &c., ar3 not unassailable, but t he best at
our disposal. \Vhat was said afterwards about
selective fermentation and educational cul ture may
render the sceptic more d ou btful again. Selective
fermentation generally attacks only oue of several
ic:~omers, but as L evkovitch and Frankland himself
ha ve shown, t he other isomer need not be unformen table. By educational culture t he character
of an organism may be q uite changed. Hansen
artificially produced sporeless yeas t. Anthrax
t reated with bichr omate, phenol, &c., also becomes
incapable of producing spores, and t herefore
harmless even after passage through bodies of
animals. ' On the other hand, t he virulence can be
increased although, as yet, no pathogenic organism
has been 'raised from non-pathogenic. As similar
modification pror.esses evidently go on in nature,
we must grant that bacilli acquire new characteristics

* Under the most unfavourable conditions of adhesion,

the component of gravity of an. overl<?aded car of 12 tons

on the 60/~ incline of Ma.rset_lles, 1s 12 (60 + 20) = 960
kilop;rammes; on the Florence hne, of a ca..r of 9.5 tons on
the 85 u\ incline, it is 9.5 (85 + 20) = 997 ktlogrammes.




under n ew condit ions. vVe have r eal anthrax, and

an exceedingly similar innocuous m odification, both
occuring in t he soil. Many toxic forms, ch olera,
typhus, diphtheria bacilli, have pseudo forms. In
certain cases, the modificatinn may be d ue to the
exelusion or exhaustion of oxygen. Assumi ng
aerobic fermentation, in the presence of air, t o be
nor mal, as in the early d ays uf Pasteur, a modified
reaction can apparently proceed when no more
oxygen is at disposal, so that we have also anaerobic
fermen tation.
As r egards the practical side of
fermentation, Dr. Hansen's pure yeast cultures,
long in use all over the Con tinent, have n ow been
introduced at Burton, where H orace Brown and
Dr. Morris have started works.
Van Laer's
system, a modification of Hansen 's, has been
applied for some time.
The number of fermentable substances has increased. Two questions
suggest themselves : Does the same substance yield
different products with different bacteria ? D o the
same bacteria give rise to the same products with
different substances ? Both are disputed. As concerns the second , Frankland has established that
pure cultures of one particular baeillus give practically identical p roducts with substances such as
dextrose, maltose, glycerol, mannitol, &c. Only
sugars with three carbon atoms, or multiples
of t hree, are capable of fermeutation. Both the
optically active and the inactive lactic acids have
been obtained by fermentation. With regard to
hygiene and water supply, t he speaker deprecated
the laboratory bacteria standards. Both chemical
analysis and bacteriological examination are indispensable, but plate cultivation insufficient. Cholera
and typhus bacilli can lhe in potable water . Intermittent filtration through soil seems most satisfactory in every respect. The destructive action of
light may be due to t he generation of hydrogen
peroxide. Yeasts and moulds are less susceptible
to light, and even bacteria are more resistant in water.
No anthrax survived, however, after 21 hours in
water containing 10 per cent. of common salt.
Mr. Warrington, F.R.S. , sent a note pointing to
the enormous importance of certain organisms for
agricultu re. We have for some time known two
quite distinct organisms in the soil : t he one fi xes
t he ammonia, living on bicarbonates, an d converting them into nitrites; the other oxidises
the nitrites to nit rates. R ecently a new organism
has been discovered, by \Vinogradsky, capable
of absorbing freo n itrogen from the air; the
presence of sugar seems necessary.
Professor .Burdon Sanderson, the President < f
the Association, indoraed Dr. Frankland's appeal
for promotion of bacteriological r esearch, and was
ready to leave the superintendence of the work,
requiring experts of three sciences-morpholoflr,
pathology, chemistry - to the chemist.
Schafer , Dr. Scott, and others offered r emar ks.
Dr. Pickering was chiefly interested in the energy
problems of such assimilation processes. Dr. Tilden
hoped that bakeries would receive attention. T wo
other papers were contributed, by Mr. J. T . \ Vood
on '' F ermentation in Connection with L eather
Industry ;" and by Dr. G. Tate on "Some F erments
Derived from Diseased Pears.''

The resHme by Professor Harold Dixon, F. R . S ,
of Manchester , was d iscreetly brief and to t he point,
and gave r ise to a most interesting discussion.
Practical miners had come, and they took part. As
member of the late Uoyal Commission, Profe~sor
Dixon spoke with a certain reserve . Opinions
might be grouped under three heads : (1) A clo~d
of dust may be ignited, but the fiam~ 'Yould d1e
out; t he nixture of coal dust and atr 1s not explosive per se-an opinion held by man.y ?1iniug
engineers, and also by t he French Comm1sst?n, L e
Chatelier and Mallard. (2) Coal dust and a1r, not
explosive pu se, become so in the presence of a
very slight proportion of firedamp! t co small to. be
indicated by the Davy lamp. Th1s was t he v1ew
of t he R oyal Commission. (3) Fine coal dust and
air explode pe1 se, cause new d':ls~, and propa.gate
the explosion. These three op1n10ns Mr. D1xon
reviewed historically, referring frequently to the
Seaham Colliery explosion of 1880, which, in
the miners' and in his opinion, started from
a point B. T he damage just at that spot was slight,
but that would be no obstacle. The Chesterfield Commission of 1882 concluded that fine coal
dust can be inflamed, but the explosion would not
spread. The Prussian Commission of 188_7 exp~J imented at N euenkirchen 1 and warned aga.tnst h1gh

- 1 ves. the Austrian of 1889 agreed that certain

d d 8 pecial
exp ost
were inflammable, an recom~en e . a
d usts
dyn should be isolated. byh codp.tous .wa telrmtg. X
Was gene rally conceded tn t e tscusslon t la no e )losion wave would travel throug h a we passage .
h chemists differed altogether : 5.6 per
t of firedamp were needed at 1eas t t o ma k e d us t
~~nl~3ive. The Engli~h Commission <?f 1891 r eu~sted Mr. Hall, H .M. Inspector of Mines, to exqeriment further. Mr. Dix
. on commented upon
M Hall
these experiments ; but nett er e ~or r. .
real ly described them, so t hat the antt-dust
could question the resu1ts, alth oug h very ~ h aracter
. . tic photoaraphs of artificial dust exploswns, wtth
~ames 40 lt. and 60 ft. high, were han~ed r.ound.
Some of these experiments were. mad~ In a disused
ft quite free from firedamp, ln whiCh coal dust
8 ha '
hl y suspend e d or a11o.we d to
settle. l\:Ir. Stokes afterward s prot es t ed that 1n some
instances the gun discharged at the bottom of !he
shaft h~.d been tamped with coal du~t, a proceedmg
absolutely illegal and out of que~twn. Mr. Hall
denied the fact, an d P rof ~ssor D lxon h ad seen a
man tamping bore-holes wtth dust, an~ shale was
not rarely used, he had reason to behev~. Professor Dixon also touched upon the use of n1trate of
ammonia cartridges.
Profe:-.sor Clowes, of Nottingham, followed w1th
a paper on the "Application of the Hydrogen
Flame in an Ordinary Miner's Safety Lamp t o
Accurate and Delicate Gas Testi~g. " ~he hyd.rogen
is supplied in a compressed .state. 1n an 1ron cylmder,
which crm easily be carr1ed. 1n t he pocket and
screwed on t o the ]amp, servmg as. handle th~n ;
the gas is kindled at the j et by the 011 flame, whiCh
is then extinguished.
The standard hydrogen
flame rapidly estimates from 0.2 to 3 per cen~. of

. . s~e of the. h y d. rogen .fi ~me, or b y
by reducing t. .he
diminishing the 011 flam e ~n s 1ze u?t1l It becomes
non-luminous. Such a cyhnder we1ghs less tha.n a
pound, and suffices for a hundred tests. The lamps
have proved very useful.
~Ir. Galloway, like the majority of the speakers,
vigorously defended the dust theorr. He emphll.sised too strongly, perhaps, that mines less than
600 ft. deep were safe, owing t o their,
and deeper mines unsafe, because t h e vent11at~n g
current became heated in the lower strata and dned
the mine. But he may b e right in differing from
Sir Frederick Abel, who declared stone dust inflammable. A stre~m of :\.ir entering into a wider tube
miaht contract and dissolve after the manner of a
liq~id j ~t and produce nodes ; lamps in such a tube
would hence wax and vane, and Mr. Gallowa.ynoticed
that they did so. Laboratory experiments with
narrow tubes were apt to mislead; the actual conditions are very difficult to imitate. The Prussi~n
Commission classified dusts. Mr. Galloway qu1te
concurred that the quality of t he dust was a most
essential factor; but their best-i.e., most innocent-experimental dust from the Camphauseu
mine caused a terrible explosion two m onths later.
'Vaterina was necessary. In South Wales the
people bad at first strongly objected ; n ow they
allowed that watering did not damage the floor,
and was beneficial also, in sanitary respects, t o
men and horses.
Mr. Hall could not understand how many explosions could be explained without charging the dust.
Mr. Stokes afterwards quoted an example where
eight million cubic feet collected in 25 minutes,
not causing an explosion, though, because the lamps
did their du ty. Mr. Hall was absolutely convinced
that coal dust was in itself capable of explosion,
specially the higher quality coal, and that explosive
waves travelled 200 yards in the entire absence of
gas. H e introduced the simile of the monkey
trap; his adversaries were entangled in their oldfJ.shioned ideas. The oppon ents, of course, observed thl\t the simile fitted their purpose quite as
well. Prof~ssor Thorpe may, perhaps, himself
have thought it hardly necessary to relate that a
terrib1e explosion in a flour mill converted
him int > an out-and-out coal-dust man. Yet
the remark was decidedly opportune.
quality of the dust is certainly a great point,
though. His "Pluto " coal dust never refuses to
explode for demonstration; other dust will not
explode at all. In his opinion, t he spot B at Seaham
was free of dust. Opinion~ differed hopelessly
about this poi nt. Finally Mr. Ashworth declared
that there had been three explosions at that spot
B, where dust certainly did accumulate.

speakers had already pointed out that no explosion

1 f
was possible if there was an insufficient supp Y o
k d th t
h t
air. Mr. Ashworth further remar e
a a .s o
blown out meeting the air current might cause an
ex ploswn, w 1c wou no occur w en
was in the opposite direction; t hus men wor mg
d ff th
on the one side had their hair stnge o '
ose on
the other side not. As r e0aards safety lamp and
d h
firedamp indicators, several speakers querle
far t hey were in act ual use. Mr. Ashworth gave
the pertinent reply that some lamps were too
go::>d , nobody wished to find any firedam.p, and
1 ht t
safety lamps in general gave t oo poor a Ig
please t he miner. He favoured the r eco.mmenda1
tion as t o sprinkling, though an exp oslve wave
might attain its maximum velocity in an atmosphere charged with 5 and 6 per cent. of steam.
Mr. Merivale had previously r eferred to the
B ibernia mine in W estphalia as the most pe.rfec
embodiment of systematic sprinkling. All this 1
h' f
not quite satisfy Mr. Stokes, the c le 1spea er. on
the opposition side. Even with amp e watermg
the dust could everywhere be stirred up fr om
manholes and heaps. But, said Professor Lupton,
whether we stand by question 2 or questwn ' coa
dust. is certainly danger ous. That was the consensHS

omntnm .
Sodium p~roxide, now a commercial article, has
by Hempel been sho wn t o be a co~ven~ent r eagent
for opening up tungsten and btan1c ores, !or
estimating sulphur in sulphides, and detecting
chromium and manganese.
It occurred to Dr.
Rideal and Mr. A. J . B oult to investigate in how
far it would replace alkaline permanganate in
Frankland's, Djeldahl's, or "'\Vanklyn's process for
determining organic nitrogen in waters. The experiments show that it is useful for differentiation,
but d oes not evolve so much ammonia even as the
permanganate, which is itself unreliable enoug.h.
Yet the peroxide otfers the advantage that after 1ts
use the permanganate reaction proceeds much more
quickly, and there is good h?P~ that the pe.rox~d e
will afford a means of estabhslung the consbtutwn
of the nitrogen in complex organic subst ances .
The r esearches of Mr. G. E . Brown and Dr. W .
W. J . Nicol, F. R. S.E ., of Mason College, Birmingham, throw light upon the complex r eactions on
which the estimation of thiosulphates and sulphites
bv means of permanganate is based. The reactions
h~ve been studied by many chemists, who agreed
only when observing the exact conditions as to
temperature, concentration, &c.
The authors
direct their attention chiefly t o oxygen proportions
in the oxidation and reduction processes.


to the detection of metallic poison~

in toxicoloE?ical chemistry, and ''On the Causethot
, It
the Red Coloration of
eno .
ammonia colours the phenol blul~h ,. and .hydrogen
d Th
peroxide, the chief sinner, r e .
cht.efly in blue light , the customary bl ue b.ottl es for
D R h d
phenol are hence quite unsuited.
r. lC ar son
mentt'onod, however, that phenol was already S?ld
d h h
in yellow bottles. The colourin ~ compoun , w ~~
is not settled yet, is not volatile. Phen.ol, dtstilled fifteen times even, soon colours agatn, h~w
ever, when exposed to t he air ; in perfectly drted
bottles, it keeps well.
Dr. Phookan occupied less ttme with. a very s~gnificant paper "The Rate of Evaporatwn o f B od Ies
in Different Atmospheres. , The experiments have
not yielded any final result yet, but . seem to h.ave
been conducted with great care and ctrcumspectlOn.
The substance, mostly naphthalene, was. comp
. let.ely
volatl.llsed in various gases, carbontc. hd lOXl dhe.'
nitrogen, air, chlorine, bromine ; the h~ ter t 18
atmosph ere the quicker the evaporatwn.
vapours h;wever ether, alcohol, chloroform, &c.,
the rate' of evapo~ation was practically th. e same.
Next year the British Association Wl mee a





(Continued from page 536.)

"HYDRAULIC Machinery for Manreuvring the

Heavy Armament of ~moured Vess~ls of War,"
by A. A. Wilson, superintendent engmeer of the
Quintard Iron Works of New York, was the next
paper. The author s tated that the hydraulic plant
must be able to man reuvre two armoured turrets
and four 10-in. rifled g uns, and be able to handle
them whether the ship was on an even keel or at
an angle of 10 deg.; and if one set of machin~ry
was disabled, the other must be equal to handling
both turrets. The working pressure must be
600 lb. per square inch, and not fall below 550 lb.
He stated that in merchant ships a steam hydraulic
accumulator was employed in connection with the
hydraulic machinery for steering.
"This accumulator consists of a steam cylinder
fitted with a piston, upon one side of which only
steam is maintained at a uniform pressure. The
force exerted by this steam pressure acts directly
upon a hydraulic plunger fitted in a water cylinder
which is in direct and continuous communication
with water pipes connecting the hydraulic pump
with the m otors in all parts of the vessel. There
are no valves in this accumulator except a stop
valve for shutting off the steam when the plant is
not in use.
"The movement of the plunger and steam piston
of this accumulator actuates the throttle valves of
APPARATUS FOR SEP.A.RATION OF GASES DISSOLVED the hydraulic pumping engines in such a manner
that, should the plunger be forced for nearly all
Dr. Edgar Truman, borough analyst of Notting- its stroke into the water cylinder, the pump will
ham, described a n ew apparatus, requiring two be started with gradually increasing speed and
flasks, t ubes, a barometer tube doubled upon without shock, and wilJ be as quietly stopped when
itself, 800 millimetres long between the bends, a the plunger has reached the opposite end of its
Geissler water pump, and a Sprengel pump. The stroke and the water cylinder is filled with water.
Geissler pump is employed first to create a vacuum
''The relative areas of the steam piston and water
of 700 millimetres in about 15 minutes; the ex- plunger of this accumulator are, of course, deterhaustion is then completed in 40 minutes by the mined from the steam and water pressures to be
Sprengel pump. The liquid to be examined is maintained, the usual proportion being from 9 to 10
now, after measurement, introduced into the upper square inches of steam piston area to !square inch of
flask, whence it flows into the lower one. Here it plunger area, the pressure of steam being uniformly
stands for an hour, to let gases come off at ordinary maintained by a steam-pressure r egulator.
temperature; these are collected in the Sprengel plunger displacement of the water end of the accuand analysed. The vacuum having been restored, mulator is ordinarily designed of sufficient capacity
the lower flask is cautiously heated until barometer to furnish water to all the hydraulic motors in the
and boiling point r emain constant. The gas boiled vessel that are likely to be in operation at once,
off is then analysed. Dr. Truman exhibited the for such a period of time that its movement will
apparatus in use. Professor M'Leod r ecognised in be sufficiently slow to gradually start the pumps
it an old apparatus of his own, which had the without concussion. The pumps are designed of
advantages that the water could be collected and such capacity that, when running at their normal
measured without coming into contact with the speed, they will not only furnish water enough to
air, and that it worked with a Torricelli vacuum and supply the motors in operation on the vessel at the
more quickly, &c. ; but he confessed it was corn- time, but will also force back the plunger and fill
plex. Dr. Truman disarmed the first objection by the water cylinder of the accumulator in a period of
r emarking that he fully acknowledged his indebted- time which will assure the stopping of the pump
uess t o Professor MlLeod in the paper, and t hat without shock or water-ram."
the type was common. Dr. Thorpe liked a modiIn naval vessels, the author stated, in certain
fied Hoppe-Seyler apparatus best ; he had not been cases, to economise in space and in weight, this
successful with Professor M'Leod's designs, and accumulator had been omitted, and other machinery
thought that Dr. Truman's apparatus could easily substituted, but he evidently thought this was an
be rendered very useful.
error, for the following reasons :
Dr. Kohn contributed two papers, '' The Appli"In manreuvrmg
t h e turrets and guns of an
cation of Electrolysis to Qualitative Analysis, " with armoured naval vessel in time of action, the






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E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. ro, r893.j


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requirements upon the pumping plant vary. At one

moment, no water at all may be required in the
turret, and t he pumping plant be entirely at rest.
Presently, the hydraulic motors may be in operation, revolving the turret ; t he guns being run out
and elevated or depressed to range, and t he pumping plant working at its full capacity. I mmediately,
small quantities of water, at fitful inter vals only,
may be required while t he guns are being skilfully
aimed; after which, at intervals, the water, in
variable quantities, pressures, and times, will be
required in the usual operations of cleaning and reloading guns. In all these varied operations, the
pumping plant must adapt itself automatically to
the varied requirements, without shock to t he
hyd raulic pumps, or water-ram in the pipes.
" After carefully reviewing all these conditions
under which the hydraulic pumping plant for naval

vessels must operate, it became apparent to the compensated for in t h e assured r eliabilit y of the
writer that to attempt t o make the hydraulic p umps ! pumping plant. The accumulator has n o val ves,
do their own work and also that of an accumulator ' and h ence cannot be liable to shock from this
would end in eit her partial or entire fail ure ; as the source. Through the elastic medium of t h e steam
pumps, having reciprocating parts and containing 1 or air pressure, it responds q uickly t o a -demand
valves which must open and shut with each change for water in the turret, and deliberately starts the
in the direction of the movement of t he plungers, pumps. I t also as deliberately stops them when
could not be started and stopped as suddenly as the the demand ceases."
varying and precise demand for water would require,
A description of the plates which accompanied
without shock or concussion t o such a degree as to t his article followed .
These showed various
render t he operation hazardous. A pat ient study apparatus for handling guns, turrets, &c. , and
of the details of such existing applications of the paper closed with suggestions t o be followed
hydraulic pumping plant for both land and marjne in designing them, from which the following
purposes as the writer has thus far been able to extract is made :
gather, has led to the conclusion t hat the accumu"The accumulator is indispensable, and should
lator is in such instances indispeneable, and that be of such liberal capacity t hat the movement of
t he comparatively slight incr ease of weight and its plunger, in r esponding to t h e sudden maximun1
space occupied attendant upon its adoption is amply demand for water, will be sufficiently slow to start,

E N G I N E E R I N G.
and afterwards stop, the pumps quietly.
pneumatic ac?um~la.~or is preferable to the steam,
1na.~m~ch .as 1t ehmmates the contingency of any
vanat10n 1n the water pressure which might arise
from some derangement of the steam-pressure
' reducing and regulator valve.' U nless, however
sufficient capacity is given to its reservoirs of ai;
to prevent any appreciable difference in the air
pressure on account of its movement, the advantages
of the pneumatic accumulator will b e neutralised.
"Provision must be made to prevent t he presence
of air in the wat~r pipes under pressure, for the
reason that certa1n of these pipes, as well as the
m otors, are alternately open to the atmospheric as
we.l l ~s the hydraulic pressure ; and, if air pockets
ex1st 1n these, the abnormal increase i n the velocity
of the water when suddenly admitted or r eleased
under pressure creates a water-ram which is sure to
prove disas trous, notwith~tandin g the ' c ush ion '
which the air might be s upposed t o yield. In the
writer's opinion, the velocity of the water under
pressure in any of the pipes sh ould n ot exceed 5 ft.
per sec ond. "
Coming fr0m one whose experidnce has b een so
g reat and whose practice so successful, this paper
r eceived a full discu3s10n, as it deserved.
"Hydraulic Appliances in B oiler Construction,"
by Signor G. Miglia rdi, of Italy, was read, and well
r eceived. As t h e writer h as n ot the paper, an abstract cannot be presented. That evening, to vary
matter s, a stereopticon exhibit was made in connection with Professor Durand's paper entitled, ' ' Planning and Equipment of M odern Ship and Engine
Building Plants. '' The paper consisted in a presen tation of the various problems involved in shipbuilding, and the author's view of what was a solution of
them by suitable mechanical appliances, and arrangement of buildings to handle material as little as possible. The lantern slides showed various tools and
appliances, many of great size. Mr. Dickie showed
in th is connection som e of the practice of t he U nion
Iron W orks, especially t he hydra ulic lifting dock.
In the absence of Mr. \Veir, th e author of a
p ap er on "Boiler Feed, " S ecretary McFarland
gave d escriptions of the lantern views accompanying the p aper, Mr. Weir having p rovided a very
corn plete d e.;cription of them.
These covered the
experiments in regard to corrosion in steam boilers,
and the progress of improvement in regard to
devices for feed water f or boilers. The slides included views of the very latest devices of this
kind, such as those on the Campania and Mr.
Vanderbilt's yacht Valiant. The evening's entertainmen t concluded with a m ost interesting series
of pictures of ice yachts by l\1r. Archibald R~gers,
of Hyde Park, on the Hudson, N . Y., the wellknown enthusiast on yachting matters, and w ho has
r ecently built one of t he y achts which is to compete
as p ossible defender of the America Cup this season .
These views sh owed the standa rd forms of the ice
yacht, together with som e of t h e earlier types, as
well as some beautiful views of winter scen ery on
the Hudson.
In r espect to Mr. Weir's paper, "Steam Engine
B oiler F eeding," a few extracts will show its gen eral
The author started with t h ese propositions :
"1. Every steam engine to p erform or transmit
work must r eceive steam at a g reater pressure than
that at which it exhausts.
"2. The efficien cy of every steam engine depends:
" (a) On getting the full initial, or b oiler, pressure
on the p istc.n ; and
"(b) On returning the feed water as n ear the
exhaust temperature as possible.
'~ 3. E very cylinder of a compound eng ine is a
simple e ngine. "
The first two, h e claimed, would b e admitted by
every one ; and in r espect to the third, he said
h e had enunciated this twenty-two years ago, and
i t was to-day at work in principle, as the follo~ing
considerations will sh ow, in most of the steamsh1ps :
'' 1. Heating the f~ed water by the exhaust steam
of auxiliary eng ines.
4( 2.
H eating the feed water by the exh au st steam
taken from the high and intermediate pressure
cylinders of engines with two, three, or four
cylinderA in succession.
. .
'' 3. L eading the exh aust steam from aux1hary
ongines to the receiver of the main engines.
' 4. In evaporators for producing fresh water
from sea water by using exh ~ust steam tak~n from
one of th e high-pressure cyhnd~rs, and ~s1ng the
gen erated steam in the low-pressure cylinder, or
for h eating the feed water. "

Afte r discussing t his matte r at length, t he auth or

summarised in th ese conclusions :
'll. The minimum expenditure o f every simple
engin e is the amount of heat n eeded to raise the
water at the exh aust temperature to steam at the
boiler pressure.
'~ 2. No legit imate system has yet been discovered for r educing this expenditu re in the simple
e ngine- feed-heating b eing only admis3ible through
some d efective arrangement.
"3. Feed h eaters are n ece sa.ry in compound
engines in or der that the feed may be r eturn ed
at the exhaust temperature."
In r espect to corrosion in boilers, h e traced it
'' 1. \Vhen the feed water contains only the
constit uen ts of atmo3pheric a ir (oxygen and
ni trogen), a coating of iron oxide is formed, an d
if this is allowed t o r emai n, ther d will be no fu rther
act ion .
"2. When the feed con tains, in addition, carbonic a cid in solu tion, th e oxygen combines with
t h e iron to form iron oxide, which is acted u pon
by t h e carb on ic acid and changed into ferrous
carbonate. This is dissolved in the water a nd
reduced by the oxygen in it t o iron oxid e, while
the carbonic acid is liberated a nd is free to attack
m or e iron oxide, and so on.
All that is thus
n ecessary to keep up the corrosion is a supply of
oxygen in the feed water, a<J t h e amount of th e
carbonic a cid remains constant. ''
In r egard to unequal expansion, h e advocated
preventing it by passing the f~ed water into t h e
boiler so that it would b ecome h eated befor e r each ing the bottom, either by leading the internal
p ipes through th e boiler n ear the water, distributing
by means of small h oles in the pipe, or else leading
the intern!l.l pipe into the steam space and delivering the water a mongst t h e steam.
H e t h en summed up t h e whole case by t he
(ollo wing conclusions :
"I. To have effective circulation wh en raising
steam we are compelled to u se mechanical means
from a n independe nt source.
"IL \V hen t h e boiler is under steam, nothing
is required if the feed is supplied in a rational
ma nner.
"III. When the feed is at the exh a ust temperature it cannot oxidiso the boiler.
"IV. F eed p umps worked by t he main e ngines
add gases to the feed water and r ender it corrosive. "
He considered that th e way t o supply the feed
water at t he exhaust temperatur e of the boiler
without rendering it corrosive, was by fittiug
control gear to the auxilia ry donkey pumps so as
to p revent them from drawing air.
The n ext day began with a most importan t
paper, "Forced Combm. tio:1 in Steam Boilers," by
.JameR Howden, of Glasgow. He gave the credit of
firat using a fan f vr accelerating corn bustion t o
E d win A. Stevens in 1827, and then proceeded t o
de:wribe the evolution of this system. The first
proper trial in forced draught was made by him
in 1862 ou a tu bulous boiler, and in 1880 h e
designed t h e present arrange ment, which obtair1s
th e h ighest rate of C)mb ustion and t he greatest
economy of fu el.
The means by which these obj ects were obtained
was by first placing an air-tigh t r eservoir or chamber on the front end of the boiler and surrounding
the furnaces. T his reservoir, which projects from
8 in. to 10 in . from the end of t h e boiler , r eceives
the air under pressure, which is passed by the
valves into the ashpits and o~er the fires in
p rop ortions exactly su ited to the k ind of fuel
used, and t h e rate of combustion r equired. The
air used above t h e fires is ad mitted by its valve
to a space between the outer and inn er furnace
doors, which swing on on e hinge, the inner being
t h e proper door of the furnace, having perforations
and a n air -distributing b ox t hrough which t h e a ir
under pressure passes into the furnace and over
the surface of t h e fuel. The outer or air -tight
door is n ot exposed to t h e h eat of the furnace,
and simply r etains t h e air under pressure enter ing
from the upper valve. The air from this valve,
besides filling the space between t h e doors and
passing into th9 furnace through t he inner door,
also fills the spaces above the dead-plate around
t h e furnace door and passes into fixed air-distributing boxes covering t h e whole surface inside the
furnace. In this manner the furnace front castings
are preserved f rom th e inj urious effects of t h e
a0 reat h eat of the f urnace, while the air entering

under pressure is h ighly h eated before being distributed in small jets or streams over t h e surface
of t h e burning fuel so as to eff~ct complete combustion with the smallest admission of air practicable.
By m ean3 of t h e balance of a ir pressu re above
a nd below the fires, all t endency for t h e fire to
blo w out at the fu r nace d oor, h owever high the
rate of combustion, is entirely r emoved.
By regulating the admission of the air by the
val ves above and below the fires, th e highest rate
of combustion possible by the air pressure used
can be effected, and in the same manner t he rate
of combustion can be reduced to far below that
of n atural d raught, while complete and economical
corn bustion at a ll rates is secured
In usual working at sea, in m ost recen t practice,
only one ashpit valve is opened a nd shu t, unless
t h e very highest power is required. The upp er
valve for the air admission over the fires is
adjusted at t h e beginning of the voyage to suit the
character of the fuel used, an d does not require to
be afterwards moved during the voyage unless t he
engines ar e stopped.
If the combustion is required t o be suspended,
as in the event of the en gines being suddenly
stopped when working a t full power, all t hat is
n ecessary is t o shut the a ir-admission valves, t he
upper one being very slightly open to maintain
a limited circulation of air through the boxes.
B lowing off steam is t h us prevented, an d th~
boilers may be k ept for h ours in this state with the
corn bustion suspended and the steam sustained
alm ost without loss of pressure.
This system of f orced draught can be very
effectively and econoL'lically work ed wit h cold
a ir, in consequence of the controlled admissions
described r endering the temperature and qua n tity
of the waste gases less than in oth er modes of working for equal weights of fuel consu med. The most
inpor tant featu re, h owever, in securing b oth t h e
highest efficiency and economy, is the combination
of the heating of the air of combustion by t he
waste gases with the controlled and r egulated
admissio n of air to the furnaces. This arrangement
is effected most conveniently by passing the h ot
fire-gases after th ey leave the boiler through stacks
of ver tical tubes inclosed i n the uptake, their
lower ends being immediately above t h e smoke-box
d oors.
The cold air from the fan enters at the middl e
of th e air -h eater containing t he tubes, a nd passes
h or izontally a mong the vertical tubes to each side,
and descen ds to the reser voir around the furnace
The author illustrated, by drawings, examples
of t he general practice, but stated that the most
recent plans wer e much more effective than those
shown, while the air-heating surface is only half
more in pr oportion.
H e further off~::red with a n
increase of air-heating surface of n ot more t han
twice that shown in the boilers illustrated, a nd
with less air, he will undertake to maintain at sea,
with Scotch, ' Velsh, or American coal, an average
rate of 22! indicated h orse-power per Eq uare foot
of fire grate wit h good triple-expansion engines,
while t h e temperature of waste gases leavi ng t he
air-heating tubes will be under 300 deg. Fahr., a nd
t he consumption of Cardiff coal, under t hese con ditions of working, will n ot exceed 1. 25 lb. per
indicated h orse-power per h our.
He closed by citing several instances from
actual trials, and paid the Americans t he compliment of being freer from t he trammels o f conser vatism t han his own countrymen. The close
of t h e paper , which was qu ite long, was marked
by expressions of approval, and the discussi(lns
were not extensive, due to the fact that the auth0r
had completely covered th e grou nd.
(To be continued.)

AMEniCAN NATURAL GAs.-T wo natural gas wells have

been tapped recently near Ballston, in the State of New


SPALDING TowN \VATER W oRKs.-R ema.rkable artesian springs yielding 1, 872,~00 gallons per day at a. pressure of l G lb. to the square mch have been tapped in the
oolitic beds at Bourn, L incolnshire, at a depth of 100ft.
from the surfacf>, by means of an artesian tube well13 in.
in diameter, fixed by 1-Ie~srs. C. I 'ler and Co., engineers,
London. The water is conveyed to the tow n by gravitation through pipes for a distance of ten miles. 'Droughts
of past years have made no impression on the Pprings of
this district, as several towns obtain their supply from
the same source, and it is stated tha.t these are the most
powerful overflowing springs on record.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. I o, I 893]



TnE train of Pullman cars .which
attention in the Transporta tiOn ~:<htbtls Bull<h.n~ of
the \Yorld's Columbia.n Ex: p0lnt10n, has certatnly
never been surpas3ed for beauty of finish and luxury
of fitting. Proba bly the on ly other ca rs that ca,n lay
a claim to equality are the \Vagner cars of the New
York Centra l and Hudso~ ~i ver Railroa d, als~ shown
in the Transpor tation Bu1ldmg, Of course, netther ? f
these splendid trains are intended for : eguh.r tra10
service even the most extravagant Amenca n traveller
would ~ot demand su:.h luxury as they offer, al though
there is not so much difference between them and the
first-class cars of to-day as there is between the latt er
and the corresponding vehicles of twenty yean ago.
Figs. 1 and 2 (page 566) are a side ~i~~ and p!an of t~e
dining car forming p a.rt of t he exhtb1t10u tram. It ~
more than 70 ft. long, though only about 30 ft. 1s
utilised for dining a ccommodati.on for forty pass.engers,
the rest being occupied by the kttohen, buffet, w1ne and
other stores, la\"atory, &c. A~ will be ~een from ~he
drawings, the car is provided wtth a vestl~ule coupl~g
at end and as al1 the other cars formtn g the tram
are sirrlilarly fitted, there is a con t inuous covered passag~ from end to end of the train. This arrangement
is common t o all firs t-class train~ now runn~ g. on
United tates rai lroads, a lthough 10 the one exh1b1ted
the car nex t the tender is vestibule~ to it~ in orde~ to
stiffen the train and increase steadmess m runmng.
The kitchen of a Pullman (or vVagner) car is a marvel
of in genuity. W ithin the narrow spac~ of about 10 _ft.
by 6ft., all th_e appliances for prodncmg and servmg
an elaborate dmner have to be packed; as may be
imagined not an inch of space is wasted, a nd meals as
well cooked and served as in a first-class American
hotel are produced as a matter of c?u.rse. Fig. 3 (~age
567) is a cross-section thr ough th~ dnu~g-car, ?'nd F1g. 4
is a section of a. store cup bo a.rd, wme-bm, and 1ce boxes ;
it need ha rdly be added tha.t the table. appoint.ments. as
regards linen, crystal, and plate are 10 ~eepmg w1th
the other s umptuous a ppointments. F1gs. 5 anc~ 6
are an outside view and a pla n of one of the sleepmg
cars in the exhibition train, some idea of th e internal
fitting of which, in choice woods and fabrics, eau be
gathered from Figs. 7 a.nd : As will be.~een from the plan,
there is accommodatiOn m the mam body of the car
for twenty persons, the sleeping berths being in two
storeys the upper tier folding back during the day;
besides' these berths, there is a state-room for two
persons at each end of the car, and on? drawing-room
for three makina a total accommodat10n for twentyseven pa~sengers~ a very small number, considering the
great weight of the car. The general arrangement of
this car corresponds very closely with that of the
, tandard type, although the fittings are much more
sumptuous. This and the dining-car run on two sixwheeled truck s, detailed drawings of which we s hall
publish later.

Loco~roTt YES


TJ n k Switchiog
Locomoti ''e.

L ossx. o r SHIPS AT SEA.-A t opic touched upon by

Mr. Inglis in his presidential address to the Institution
of Shipbuilders in Scotland, was the lo~s of cargo-carrying
vessels. The maritime los3es, other than those in the
Navy, it was poi nted out, made up last yeu a total of
1008 vessels of 625,224 tons. The death ra.te was 3i p~r
cent. according to numbers, and 2.8 per cent. according
to tonnage. The percentage of steamers los t, according
t o tonnage, was 1.9, and of sailing ships 4.3 per cent. The
average tonnage of s teamers lost is about 1200, and of

Logging Locomotive.


Compound Passeo,:rt:r ::md ~~relght


----------------------------------------------------------~---------------Weight fln d General Dim en sions.

Total weig ht of lo<'omoti re in working order (actual)
on driving wheels (actual). .
, wheel base of locomotive
Distance between centre of front and back drivin~ wheels. .
from centre of main d rh ing wheels to centr e of <'ylinden
Length of main connectingrod from cen t re to centre of journals
Transverse distance from ct>nlre to centre of cylinders.
Cy=ini erb , Val veR, d:c.

Diameter of cylinder

t roke of pi-,ton
Kind of pi ton pack i ng



Wheels, d:c.



Diamett>r of driving wheels outside of tyus ..

t ruck whet-Is . .

~i ze of dri ving ax le journals, diameter acd length ..
,. truck

main crankpin journals . .


Length of dridog-springs, c entre to centre of ha.rg-ers

Deecription of boiler . .

Inside diameter of smallest boiler ring ..

Material or b nrel of boiler . .


Thickness of plates in barrel of boiler ..

Kind of horizontal seams


11ft. 1 in.
7 11 3 .,

5 .. 9 ,.
3 " 4 "
4 ft.


14 in.

7 in.


12 "

! ,
' .. ,,



l "





26 in.

34 in.

S!!rew pattern

16 sq. in.

26 in.

H in .


31 in. by 6 in.




7! "








20 in.

3 ft. 2 in .

23 ~ in.
,r, in.


Engi ne and T ende1..

43! in .
S tetl
ll in.



J3' 3 and

1n dia. by
3 in.


LaJ? seams, d ouble ..

n veted
Sing le ri veted
Iron, No. 13 W.O.
2ft ,
I 0 tt.. lOf in.
49l111 in.
34 f 11
2" "

3 in., 3 in., and 4 in.

i in.
la in., l'., in., and l in .


1-in. radial stays
23! in. by 31 in.
130 lb.
Plain bars and dead




dia. by 3 in.
2 rt. 8 in .

Wagon t cp
45t in .
l 11 in. and ! in .
Butt joi n ted, with
Lap joint
Iron , No. 13 W.G.
23 in ..
10 ft. 10 m .
52,7w in.
27& 11
{Front 55! in.
Back 54t 11
~! in ., 2! in ., & 31 i.1.
! io.
l'a in., !'11 in., & ! in.


~i n .

Crown bars.
27! in. by 22 in.
180 ib.
Plain bar9 and drop
i in .

11.7 sq. ft.


10 sq. ft.

t ..






861 "
Double high.
2! in., 2! in., and 2! in. 2t in., 2! in., & 21 in.
14 in.
14 in.
14 ft . p in .
12 ft. lOt in.
,. Extended, with net}

t ing ana deflecting

" plate

1000 gallons on boiler

1i cords wood

16 n.3in.

s1 rt.


sailing ships 460, the latter figure being brought down by

the large number of American, Norwegian, and Swedish
coasters, which are peculiarly liable to lo~s by stranding.
The lo~ses by burning, collision, or stranding are hardly a
na val architect's question ; but it is otherwise with shi ps
abandoned at sea, foundering, or reported miesing, and
Mr. Inglis did not seem 1:1atisfied that in thi s cat egory 48
iron and st eel vessels should be included- 24 steamers and
24 sailers, 10 of the latter, too, constructed on the Cly de.
In the case of one s teamer structural weakness wa.s the
cause of abandonment, and in that of a sailer deficient
stability. The form of many modern ships is, in the
opinion of some, influenced for ev il by a curious basis
of valuation-the calculation of the price according
to the d ead weight which the ship can carry as passengers.
The Pre3ident, indeed, seemed to recognise inability

sq. in .

49l in.
1!5 "
ISi in. by 7 in.
4 11 (j~ 11

Front 26 in ., back 24 in .
6 in. b y 8 in.




Double riveted



1l sq. io.

H.P. 1 ~ in.

l L. P. l


i ,

L P.

Total length of engine over all . .

, wheel base of engine and tender . .
length of engine and tender O\'er all

H.P. 9 in.
{ L. P. 15 ,
20 in.


5 1 1 2 11

j ('ast-iron rineq sprung Cas t: tron fl!lg sprung

s prung iLto solid
into solid bead
t nto sohd head
1\ in.
. 21 in. .
2,! i~.
4; in. by ft in .
13 tn. by H 1n.
15i 1o. b) ,l A.~.} ci r
13 ,
2~ ,
l ot "
l!t. 11
- 3"1n. ""
5.10 .
4 f 1D
{ H . P. 1 1!' 10 .

Diameter of pis hon -rod


Size of steam p :>rt s . .


exbau t ports

Oreatt> t travel of Jid e \'alvr s

Out ide lap of slide val vt>. . .


Lead of slide val ves i n full stroke . .

Throw of upper end of r everse l e'~ r from full g ear for ward to full
gear backward, measured on the chord of the arc of its throw.
Re \'et sin~ ~ear
Sec tional a rea of opening in each steam pipe connec ted wit.h


58,320 lb.
37,020 11
21 ft. 3 in.
8 .. 2 11
10 " 5 "

72,130 lb.
46,630 11
7 ft.

14,150 lb.
14, 150 11
3 ft. 4 in .

Single ri veted
,, circumferential seams . .

Iron, No. 18 W.O
Material of tubes

' .

Number of 11

Diameter of t.u bes outside . .


1i in .

Distance between centres of tubes


2 ..

Length of tubes over tubeplates . .


6 ft. 0 ~ in.

firebox inside
20U in .

Width of firebox i nside


25i 11
Depth ot firebox from under sid e of crown-plate t~. bot~~m of }
27 "
mud ring
2 in. by 2l in., fron t)
Water spaces, sides, back, and front of firebox
2 i n. S. and B.
Material of outside shell of fi rebox

Thickness of plates of out~ide shell of firebox . .
l t lD .
Material of inside of firebox

l'hickness of plates in sides, back-end, and crown of firebox
l '' 10

Material of firebox tube-sheet


smoke box tu be-sheet . .


Thickness of front and back tubeplates . .
! "in.

Crown plate is stayed with . .

iin . radial stays

Diameter and htight o f dome

16 in. by 19 in .

Working steam pre88ure per square inch
130 lb.
Plain bars and dead


~i n .
ON page 570 we give three more examples of locomo- Width of bars ..

Width of openings between bars . .


tives shown a.t the Columbian Exposition by the Grate

~ sq
" . tt.
surface ..


B!l.ldwin Locomothe \Vorks of Philadelphia.. Our Heating surface in firebox . .


18.3 "
of tubes ..
104.1 ,
previous examples will be found on pages 170, 238, 300,

Total beating surface

122.4 11

and 505 ante.

of blast. nozzle . .

Fig. 1 shows a tank switching locomotive for mill Kind

Diameter of blast nozzles (sizes provided)
2 in. and 21 in .

purposes, built for the \ Vellman Iron and Steel Com- Smallest inside diameter of smoke-stack

7 in .
8 ft. 9 in .
pany. The ga uge i::s 2 ft. 6 in. , an tl the fuel bituminous IIeig-ht from top of rails to top of smoke stack

coal. It has two coupled axles driven by a. pair of

With low exhaust a.nd
Smoke box

pett icoat pipe
cylinders 7 in. in diameter. The wheels are 26 in. in
diameter, the wheel base 3 ft. 4 in., and the total

weight in working order 14,1 50 lb. Further plrti- Weight of tender empty (actual) ..
with fuel and water, full

culars are given in the annexed Table.

Number of wheels under tender .

Fig. 2 shows a.'' logging " locomotive of the "double- Diameter of tend er wheels . .

ender " pa ttern, designed f or s tand ard gauge and wood Size of journals of tender axles, diameter and lengt h


fuel. The driving wheels are 44 in. in diameter, th e Total wheel base of tender..
Distance from centre to centr e of truck-wheels o f tender ..

leading wheels 26 in. , and the trailing wheels 24 in. Water capac.ity of tank (in gallons of 231 cubic incht>s) ..
130 gallons

The rigid wheel base is 7 ft . , and the length of the Fuel capac ity . .

engine over all 3 1 ft. The cylinders a re 14 in. in diameter by 24 in. stroke, and the total weight of the
engine in working order 72,130 lb., of which 46,630 lb.
are on the driving wheels.
Fig. 3 is a compound passenger a ud freight locomotive
of 3ft. 3! in. (metre)gauge. Tbe high-pressure cylinders
are 9 in. in diameter, and the low-pressure cylinders
15 in. iu diameter, both with a stroke of 20 in. The
total weight is 58,320 lb., of which 37,020 lb. are on
the driving wheels. It is of the "American " type.


23,600 lb.
51,466 "
30 in.
31 in. by 6 in.
13 fr.
4: 11
20CO gallons


41ft. 6 in.
50 " 1i "

on the part of some builders to re&ist the t empta.tion to lighten the structure and increase the fulne~ s
of the form so as to produce a large multiplier as <.. ne of
the factors in the price, with a reduction 10 the cost of
building. "The vigilance of the registry societie~ " he
said, "is barely suffi cient to cope with the ingenuity of
builders s timulated by the fierce s truggle for exist enc.e of
our days, and the ideal state of things is not the defiance
by the registries of any elusion of their codes of rules, but
rather the co-operation of G>wner, builder, and s urveyor
for a common end. '' H e, however, believes that owners
are now beginn\ng to appreciate the fact that there is a
limit to fulness when, however satisfactory the large
stowage, the effid ant transporting of merchandise begins
to be affected, and with the possible dimunition of profits
may come a d emand for a. more ship-shape form.

E N G I N E E R I N G.



[N OY.





(For Description, see Page uo9.)

.f.l' ro. 1.

- ----


F IG. 2.




Lot o,wu

, . E.

}i'rc. j,


I 0, I 893.

Nov. 10, 1893.]

57 1

E N G I N E E R I N G.






JN a. country in which express trains cro3s the

streets of busy towns on the level without slackening
speed, the necessity for some sure means of protecting
vehicles and pedestrians from accident would seem to
be most urgent, at least from an English point of
view. In America. the advantages of rapid and cheap
railway transit are, however, so fully appreciated that
the people are willing to run a certain amount of risk
rather than harass the companies by requiring excessive
and costly precautions to prevent people getting into
needless danger. Had there been in London one-half
of the accidents at level crossing5 which have occurred
in Chicago t his summer, such an outcry would have
been raised as would have obliged the railways to
spend enormous sums in providing bridges and subways. As an illustration of what is considered a sufficient barrier to keep back the traffic when a train is
approaching, we illustrate on the present page the
Mills ~ir gate, which our readers may compare with
the style of gates thought necessary here, even in
quiet suburban roads. The gate is further interesting
considered as a method of operating mechanism at a
distance by means of compressed air.
Two examples are prP.sented in the figure, the
upper having one bar only, and the lower two bars.
Each of these bars is in two parts ; a main counterweighted portion that overhangs the road way,
and a tail-piece, geared to the first, crossing the footpath. When the line is free, and may be crossed with
safety, these bars both assume a vertical attitude, but
on the approach of a train they are put into the positions shown. They are mauipula.ted by a. man in the
elevated cabin, who is provided with an air pump, by
aid of which he can accumulate pressure in a receiver.
From this receiver pipes run to each standard or gate
post, and by means of taps and valves the compressed
air can be directed to and discharged from the bulbous
"cylinder," if we may use that term, 011 each. In each
of these vessels is a flexible diaphragm of can vas
and indiarubber, connected by a rod, passing through
a. stuffing-box, to a bellcrank lever. If compressed
air be admitted to the left-hand side of the diaphragm
(see Fig. 2) the piston rod is pushed out, and
the upper member of the bellcra.nk comes dowu. In
so doing it rotates the small bellcrank above, which
has a. crankpin at its other end working in a slotted
lever fixed to the spindle on which the bar turns. In
moving along the slot the crankpin moves the bar
through 90 deg. into the vertical position. It will be
noticed that the bar is locked at each end of its traYel,
and th~t 3:n. attempt to manipulate it by direct pressure w1ll f&ll, because t he pressure exercised by the
slotted arm on the crankpin passes through the pivot
of the bellcrank. The tail bar is on a separate bell-

crank connected to the first by a link, and moving

between fixed stops. Both the main and the tail bars
rise and fall together.
When two bars are employed to cover the width of
the road (Fig. 1), they are geared together by a chain
and rod, the latter passing through a pipe under the
roadway. The lower bellcrank (that to which the
piston-rod is connected) is coupled by a chain to a
segmental pulley on a shaft which carries another and
larger pulley, which is geared, as already stated, with
a similar pulley on the opposite side of the road. On
the same pulley shaft is the crankpin to actuate the
bars. Air is sent to the right-hand post to raise the
bars, and to the left-hand post to depress them, there
being separate pipes from the cabin to each. In t he
case shown iu Fig. 2, air can be admitted to either side
of the diaphragm at will. These gates are shown at
the Columbian Exposition by the Bogue and J\fills
Manufacturing Company, of 218, La Salle-street,


THE Detrick and Harvey :Machine Company, Baltimore, Maryland, have an exhibit devoted to their new
type of open-side planers. It comprises two of their
standard machines, one to plane 36 in. by 36 in. by
12ft., weighing 20,400 lb., a.nd the other a larger one
to take in 48 in. by 48 in. by 16 ft., this machine
weighing about 45,000 lb. These planers, which are
illustrated on page 559, have been in constant operation since the opening of the Columbian Exposition,
and have attracted a good deal of attention, the cut
taken being so large for the size of the machine.
The name "open-side " indicates an important
feature embodied in this type of planer, in that it ha~
but one post, this enabling it to be applied to a great
variety of work. It is in no sense a "special ,
tool, as from the design it does the regular line
of work of the two-post planer, and at the same
time will take in castings that could not be planed
on that form of machine.
In order to obtain
this open side for large work, the cross beam is
supported entirely from one post. As will be seen
from Fig. 1, the beam is a. right-angle casting, having
a long scraped bearing on the post equal to l l times
the overhang of the beam. This insures the beam
against a.ny vertical spring, and gives the side head a
separate bearing on this casting, so that the wear due
to the movement of the beam on the post does not
affect the efficiency of the side head. To overcome the
horizontal strain, the beam is supported across its
entire width by a brace, which takes a bearing on the

back of the post, t o which it is rigidly bolted when

the planer is in operation. This b~am is of a very
heavy construction, and we were unable to detect the
least vibration at the end, even on very heavy cuts.
The driving motion used is that known as the
"Sellers spiral planer motion, " which for power,
simplicity, durability, and smooth running qualities, is
so familiar to engineers in the United States. As will
be seen, the axis of t he pulley shaft is parallel to the
table. This permits the machine to be conveniently
located, economising space and giving a better arrangement of shop room. Motion is imparted to the shaft
from the countershaft above, and then to t he angle shaft
t hrough a pair of cut bevel gears. This shaft crosses
the bed diagonally, the thrust from the motion of the
table being received against a step bearing, the friction
being lessened by steel and bronze discs running on
one another. The lesser thrust during the quick return
motion, which is usually made four to one, is taken
up by collars on the oth~r side of the spiral pinion.
On this shaft a. spiral pinion is keyed, which
gears into a rack bolted to the table, six teeth being
in contact at all times, giving a very smooth and
uniform motion to the table. This pinion is, in fact, a.
short piece of a coarse screw. Being pla.ced on the
diagonal shaft, its action differs from that of the
ordinary spnrwheel, as it also does from that of a.
warm-that is to say, if the driving ~haft were at
right angles to the rack, the pinion would be the
ordinary spur; but if it were inclined to it, say, 5 deg,
the teeth of the pinion would be required to be
slightly curved, and would commence to drive at one
side of the rack, shifting gradually to the other a.s it
revolved. The same process takes place at any other
angle, the sliding cross motion being more rapid the
greater the angle from the perpendic11lar, until it
reaches 90 deg. , when it becomes a. worm, and the
teeth of the rack would then require to correspond with
the angle of the thread. 'Vith the present arrangement,
however, the teeth of the rack must be stta.ight, but
may be placed at any convenient angle to the line of
the rack . A1though the t eeth of the latter are straight,
and those of the pinion curved, the surface of conta.ct
and wear upon the rack is not limited to a small
central portion of the teeth, but uniformly distributed
over t he whole width of the rack. In this particular
case the teeth of the rack are placed at an angle of
5 deg. to its .li?e of motion, to counterbalance any
tendency the pm1on may have to move the table sideways. The driving shaft revohres in long be:uinga at
both ends of the spiral pinion; these bearings are cast
in t he b ed, lined with bronze, and connected by a
trough surrounding the pinion. The oil placed upon
them can escape only into this trough, and furnishes.

E N G I N E E R I N G.
lubricating ma~crial for the pinion or rack. The post,
as before stated, takes a bearing on the bed equal
to one a nd a half times the amount of the overhang
of the beam, ~nd being heavily proportioned, is amply
strong to res1st the strain. The beam is raised and
lowered by p ower transm itted by a friction cl utch,
a nd then. by a worm and wheel to a triple-thread
screw actmg on a bro nze nu t . The bed is of great
depth, and its length is 1 ~ times t hat of the table.
The table is d eep and rigid, wi th broad V 's, and has
planed T-slots and coned holes designed for the use of
standard square head machine bolts.
'f h e machine will ~o a ll .t~e work of an ?rdinary
two-post pla~er, and m add1t10n a great var1ety that
would necess1tate a much larger tool of the ordinary
type.. 'V~en engaged. on a casting with a large overhanglDg p1ece, the we1g ht of the outside part is taken
on a supplementary rolling table.
.L arge photog~aphs, one of which we. reproduce in
Ftg. 2, ar~ exh1b1ted of a n ew open -s1de extension
planer, des1gned to plane a greater width than the
tooh pre viously mentioned, and yet possess the advantages of the open side. This s tyle differs from the
standard m achine in having a long bea m, which is supp or ted at the end by an outside pos t on an extension
b ed . This p ost is adjustable to and from the platen,
and may a lso b e removed entire ly if desired. The
sliding beam is then run back in the housina so that
the end will not project beyond the en d of the brace
and the machine is then ready for open-side w ork.
A new duplex planer is somethin g promised in the
near futur e.


PHILADELPHIA, Oc tober 30, 1893.

rTH J foundation is being laid for a r evival of bus i-

n ess and a mod erate ad,ance in prices by the accum ulation of fund s in banks, which in New York City
now reach 50,000,000 dols. in excess of the legal requirements - the largest ,olume of idle money known
ia that ci~y for ten year3.
The disposition of the
financial question at \.Vas hington this week is the
second step in the way of a general improvc m P.nt; but
the season is too far ad ,-anced for th e inauguration
of many of the enterprises that have been put into
shape on paper, a n d which it was intended to prosecute.
Building operations throughout th e country
are drawing to a close, but the winte r operations con fined to inside work will be of larger proportions than
last year. No ch a nge has as yet taken place in the
i ron trade; prices continue weak, a nd demand scattering . Cons ume rs intend to ma k e large purchases upon
the first ev idences of an advancing market. This
inte ntion accounts for the hardening tendency in
billets and blooms, which showed itself thi s week in
an apparent acl\ance of 50c. in retail lots. It is quite
probable, however, that large supplies of both crude
and finis hed materia.! can be had at quotation s ruling
for the past thir ty days. :M anufacturers and business
men in all directions are, and will be, too anxious for
orders to attempt to advance selling prices.
volume of business has not ye t improved, but preparations have been made which will doubtless result in au
expansion of trade during the coming week.




EorTOR Ol<'


SIR,-Will yc;>u allow me to ask the help of your readers

in obtaining m at erials for a m emoir on the recent earthquake felt in Wales and the W est of England on November 2.
My object in this memoir is to trace a s accurately as
possible the boundary of the area over which the shook
was felt, or the ac::ompanying sound heard, a.nd to draw
lines through all places at which the shock was of approximately the same intensity. It would be of great
service to kno w simply the names of as many places. as
p :Hsible where the shock wa.s felt, or the accompanymg
sound heard. Still more useful would it be to have
answers to any of the questions printed below, especially
to those numbered 2, 3, 5, and 6. I shall be most glad
and thankful t o recei v~ accounts from any places whatever and I may add that no exact account, howevar
scan'ty the information given, can fail to possess some
value or t o help in throwing light on the nature and
origin of the shock.
1. Nam e of the place where the earthquake was
obser ved.
2. T1me at which it was felt, if p ossible t o the nearest
3. Nature of the shock : (a) W ere two distinct shooks
felt, separated by an interval of a few r:econds? (b). If so,
which was the stronger ? (c) What was the duratiOn of
each and of the interval between them ?
4. 'How many seconds did the shock last, not including
the accompanying sou nd ?
5. Was the shock strong enough (a) to make doors,
windows fire- irons crockery, &c., rattle; (b) to cause
the cha.i;, &c., on ~hich the observer was resting t ? be
perceptibly raised or m oved; (c) to make chanctehers,
pictures, &c., s wing, or to s top clock.s?
6. (a) Was the sboc.k accompam~d .bY any un~sual
rumbling sound; and, 1f so, what dtd 1t re~em.ble . {b)
Did the b eginning of the sound precede, comc1de w1th,
or follo;v the beginning of the shock, and by how many

seconds? (c) Did t he end of th e sound precde, coincide

with, or follow the end of the shock, and by how many
Yours obediently,

373, Gillott-roa.d, Birmingham, November 6, 1893.




ErHTon o~'


Sm,-I hav~ follow ed the ad. vice given me by Mr.

Tyler, and, h avmg carefully read h ts letter again, am unable
to eee that. I am very ':lnjust t o him. P oint by point he
states. reqmremente ~hlCh can only be fulfilled in coruparatt vel~ small bean~gs, and sums up the matter in the
ve~y sens1ble ~onclus10n that ~he "ball bearing is most
Sllltable for h1 gh sp~eds and hgbt loads. " This conclusion has bee~ already reached by the advocates of other
forms of bearmgs. If Mr. Tyler did not " disclaim " the
s~i ~ability of his bearing for heavy pressures, perhaps he
wlll al~ow me to say. that be damne.d it with faint praise. I
am q~11.te at one w.tth Mr: Tyler 1n deprecating the mere
theon smg of the mexpenenced, and thank him for the
excellent phrase, although, doubtless, a little accurate
theory is often very usefu) in protecting the inexperienced
from grave blunders. JY!r. Tyler thinks it safe to a ssume
-to use his own words-that ''what answers on a small
scale mus t also a nswer upon a large scale, provided the
p roper proportion of parts is observed. " I once read such
a statement in an antiquated t ext book the name of
which I for.get, but certainlr the a~sumption is con trary
to the ex;pertence of all practiCal des1~n ers of machinery.
W ere 1t trne, we should only n eed a standard drawing
and a set of scales.
But let us test Mr. Tyler'a theory by his own experie~ce with a very light class of machinery, as stated by
htmself. He t ells us in his previous letter that it is
advisable to make the balls of a. diameter equal to that of
the shaft.
To take a concrete instance, the s.a. T eutonic has two
thrust shafttt, ea.oh 21 in. in diameter. It does not require much imagination to picture the result of such
pieces of artillery as Mr. Tyler's bearings co!lling adrift
m a. seaway.
For the purpose of the reductio ad absurdum, I have
taken ~larg-e shaf.t, but the arg~m ent is, of couree, quite
as forc1ble 1f apphed to any ordmary cargo ship.
The fact that the line of thrus t through the balls forms
an angle of, say, 45 deg. with the shaft, is one of its worst
features, as it would become, under axial pressure, an
immense wedge exerting a radial bursting stress on the
block equal t o the thrust on the shaft, and a thrust through
th e balls 1.4 times greater, as a very little theory will
s how. I bad no intention of depreciating th e researches
of cycle-makers, but protest ed against using their results
to solve problems of an entirely different nature, both
theoretically and practically.
Yours faithfullyC
Mansion H ouse-chambers, E. C., November 6, 1893.



SrR,- Your correspondent Mr. W. C. Carter

surely pardon me if I totally di~:~agree with him in his
a <3sumptions, both as t o the unsuitability of balls for
heavy pressures, a.nd as to the little value to be attached
to the researches of cycle-makers.
la the course of my own experience as a. cycle-maker, I
ha ve lea.rnb so much that- absurd as this statement may
seem t o the average engineer who has n ot had this experience-! firmly believe that a time will come when a
plain or ord inary cone bearings will be considered as much
out of date on the axle of an engine Qr the shaft of a
steamer, as they now are on a bicycle. Few people r ealise
that a bicycle bearing is frequently subjected to a pressure
of 600 lb. ; the happy-go-lucky way in which many cycle
bearings are made certainly exemplifies tbe correctness
of a saying of the late Mr. Starley tha.b ' ' a ball bearing
was a good exnuse for a bad fit, " but the incontestable
s uperiority of even a badly-made ball bearing over a wellmade parallel bearing in so many circumstances only proves
that the principle of the angles of t he bt>ar ing- surfaces
and the proportion of the diameter of the balls to that of
the axle deserve to be soientifi ca1ly and practically
in vestigated by oompetent engineers. I certainly believe
that the experience we have bad on cycles goes to show
that roller bearings, and mongrel bearings of balls and
rollers, or balls or rollers with separating devices, should
be discarded. It is impossible for me to give all the
results of the investigations that I myself and others
have made, but I may briefly mention that at t he Beeston
works of Messrs. Humber and Co., Limited, a heavy
milling machine is in use now which has been running
some t en years with ballbearing thrust blocks. Mr.
Alfred Herbert, of Coventry, has been fitting not only
his sensitive drills, but milling machines and capstan
lathes, with these thrust blocksb .an<;f no one can appreciate the enormous value of t ts Improvement on the
latter class of tool, where there is so much en d thrust,
who has not tried it.
I can a-ssure Mr. F. Ed wards, R . N., that h e is utterly
mistaken in his assumption that the plan illustrated by
Mr. C. H. Wingfield is Impractical, inasmuch as I myself
have made some thousands of bearings on this very scheme,
where end thrust bad to be considered most. Not only
have I used it on the steering posts of velocipedes, but in
drills and machine tools. At the Coventry works of
M essrs. Humber ani Co. there are at work at this very
moment in a corner drive two vertical pulleys carrying a belt weighing 2 cwt., and tranAmitting quite 40
horsepower; the strain . on .these pull~ys was alway.s
giving trouble through firmg till ball bearmgs of the ordtn9.ry male and female cone pattern were s ubstituted; un-




fortunately, the balls \\ ere too s ma!l, and the surfaces

soon wore a.way. I finally resorted to substituting the
V -grooves, pttched so a s to allow of the differential speed
on the .sid~s of t~e .balls caus!ng th~m to roll perfectly
(not ttptn hke a btlha.rd ball w1th twist on), and in spite
of ~he size,.~ in., being, ia my opinion, inadequate to the
weight, thts a rrangement has worked exceptionally well.
Messr~. J::I. Ward and Co., ~udor Works, Lad ywood road, Btrmmg-ham, cut all thetr thrust blocks for drills
an~ capstan lath e~ on the same scheme, and with most
satisfactory results. 'fhe only objection I ha ve t o one of
~h~ diagrams reproduced by Mr. Wingfield is the double
sene3 of balls. I a.m afraid he would find it impossible
to turn the four grooves with such precision that both
rows of balls would bear the weight evenly.
F or. the ~ene~t of_ those read era y;'hO may wish to exp erimen.t m tb1s. d1rect10n, I beg to mclose a drawing ~he s1mples~ method of setting out t he required
tr:tchnatiOn of the stdes of the grooves to the axis of rotatiOn .

Having det ermined on the diameter of the balls and of

the width of the bearing, draw a. circle about the common
centre of motion, and p assing through the centres of two
balla on opposite sides of the groove as shown. From the
points of mtersection of this circle with the axis of rotation of the shaft, draw lines tangential to the circumferences of the balls; these lines will form V -grooves
with sides at an angle of !)0 deg. t o one anoth er, and so
pitched as to produce the conical roller effect described
by Mr. Wingfield.
\Vith regard to the size of the balls, I have found that
it is unad visa.ble to have fewer than nine or more than
twenty in a. row, the best results bei ng obtained with from
eleven to fifteen; the diameter of th e shaft or spindle will
then easily determine the diamet er of the balls.
Yours faithfully,
26, Yorkroad, Edgbaston, Birmingham.


SIR,-:IY!y reply to l\llr. McGlasson is contained in the
Admiralty Minutes appearing simultaneously with his
letter. In the l i~ht of such a stat ement I cannot help
but think his orit10ism becomes valueless.
Any furth er comment of mine is rendered needless in
th e presence of those Minutes, which succeeded my letter
by a. week, and fully confirmed what was asserted.
I said the stability question could not be quoted in
explanation, which is borne out by Clause 8 in the
R eport, where it sayR, "the provision made was ample
for all requirements, 5 ft. bemg th e metacentric height,
34! deg. maximum s tability, with a total range of
67! deg." The Indiana class, and the I owa of the
American Navy, have 3 ft. 9 in. against 5 ft., being just
25 per less, as s tated.
My letter said " th a t the unfortunate occurrence can
have no effect on future designs, '' to which JY1r. M cGlasEon
demurs. If he will, however, carefully peruse th e Minutes,
it will be found that this is entirely proven. 'fhe only
effect on subsequent practice seems to be as per Clause 6
of Mr. White's report {which does not affect the design at
all), where it states "that the ports in the turret and
upper deck batteries should hMe been closed, " which I
presume the naval architect is not called upon to do.
It may be further remarked, referring to Clauee 5 of
th e same R eport, which mus t carry far greater weight
tba.n an ything I can eay, that " 6\en when eo seriously
injured (i.e., with the waterti ght doors and scuttles open,
which should have been closed, and many compartm ents
filled), had these upper ports been closed the Victoria
would not have capsi zed. " That these doors can be
closed, and ought to be closed, without materially affecting
the working of the ship, is evidenced by the Admiralty
order now being issued.
This nullifi es Mr. M (;Glasson 's comments on my statement "that the vessel would have sur' i ved."
The fact appears to be that tb e sinking of the Victoria
did n ot follow from the compartments forward being open
to the sea at all, but that the loss of stability, and consequeot disaster, resulted principally from the omission
of closing openings in the upper structure which were
readily accessible. These are manipulated against time,
and is presumably part of the ser vice drill. It must
then be perfectly evident that "Trireme's " remarks on
this ground have no point.
That the intention of the design was to make the supers tructure watertight, and thus retain stability, is evidenced by watertight doors being provided to all openins-s,
and if those who manipulate the vessel will not utihse
the means ready at hand, surely this is no rdl ection on
the naval architect.
I have no wieh to enter here into a di. cussion as to the
desirability or otherwise of retaining b:1ttleshi ps in the
ser vice, as this matter has already been effectively dealt
with elsewh ere by the greatest authority on naval con~ truction in this country.
But pE!rbaps it might be well



the eminent value of at least two notable features claimed

for the cellular kite system-viz. , wide limits for the distribution of wei~bts, and perfect s tability.
Now the attmnment of anythin g like perfect stability
in an avitor has hitherto been at least as ~rea.t a difficulty
as the light motor, probably greater (as I have found it,
at any rate}, and a flying maobine in which there is practically no range for the shifting of the movable load
durin~ flight, without capsizing the thing-even though it
flew- would not, apparen tly, be of much use; a. very
tricky and uncertain vehicle at the best. So, if Mr.
H argrave has settled t.he knotty point (or even reduced
its knottiness) of keeping the air craft on an e'en keel
under trying conditions, he has certainly d one much to
help this thi n~ altmg.
I, for one, shall feel much pleasure in a.vailing myself of
~Ir. IIargrave's beq uest, by making trial of his cellular as auxiliary st eadying and sustaining surfaces to a
flymg model, and thank him much for the permission.
I am, S ir, yours faithfuHy.

to point out that the introduction of smaller fast cruisArs

n,ay not be the unmix ed blessing claimed . The s tability
of these smaller craft is proportionately less than that of
the battleships, and with the same relative amount of
damage would probably succumb just as quickly as the
Terribles, which Mr. ~fcGlasso n says ,, cannot be made
invulnerable." 1\Iay I venture to ask, Can the smaller
ships be made so? I fancy, when the matter is looked
into more closely, the difficulties may be found greater
tba.n t hose which obtain in the larger vessels.
The policy which excl ude.~ the Terribles in favour
of any other type, not even omitting the swift oruisera
armed with rapid nre and other guns, will requ ire careful
consideration before adoption on scientific grounds alone;
whilst, at the same time, so long as great foreign
powers continue building such structures with the heaviest
ordnance procurable, accepting the r isks, necessarily one
of the principal factors of actual warfare, so must the
British N a.vy. This may probably be one of the reasons
that shape the policy of the Admiralty Board . If ~Ir.
i\IcGla-sson ohooses to wait until the millennium, he might,
perhaps, witness the laying of the keel of "the good ship
Arbitration," but in the unhappy meantime I fear the
necessity of war vessel~ obtains.
To my mind another kind of inquiry than that just dis
cussed is the etficiencr of the naval ser vice itself.
The method of tratning and promotion might with advan t~ge be reconsidered. Again, the dissemination of information among the officers of the .Beet should be insisted
on. In this, as in many other respects, the e::\ample of
the American service m ight with advantage be investiga.ted. Its system of training is such that the best results
are obtained from the material available.
Yours, &c. ,
J . J. O'N RILL.
~underland, November 6, 1893.


Old Cbarlton, Kent, November 7, 1893.


Sm,- It appears surprising t o the majority that from
the prosaic, platonic solidity of concrete ther e can be
abstracted humour; but Mr. S. Bloggs colou rs his picture
dimly rather than in its mer ited war plumes.
'!'hose who, in their professional practice are without
the limits of the contam ination of this dreadful malady
are able to appreciate its humorous s ide t o the extent
d eser ved.
The most elementary cases of thi s concret e di sease a re
declared dangerous, but the worst forms and stages a re
admittedly- incurable.
.Y.ou, s~r, have probably a;ttended meetings of the
C tvtl En~meers when the tah smanic word " concrete"
has been echoed within the walls, and you will know well
that this is the sign of defiant challenge which is immediately and unconditiona.l1y accepted, and amid the
tumult of many dissentient voices it is re-echoed back and
back again.
.All bave taken the c~ncrete ma:lady, and individually,
w1th the profeseed atm of enltghtening their erring
brethren, eac~ endeavours to catch the chai rm an's eye.
Mr. J ones 1s called upon, and he rises begging t o call
th e _attention chiefly of the younger m embers of the professwn to an excellent graphic method of showing the
cons tituent parts, say, of 3 to 1 concrete.
By the aid of blackboard and chalk, and with the diagram of a quar ter ed square, one section of \\fhich be carefully whitens, be shows clearly and unmistakably that
tha t one section r epresen ts one-fourth of th e sq uare-a
statem~nt recei ~ed with the .Profoundest r egard a nd a
so~emmty becommg the gravtty of the poinb at issuethis, he r emarks, may r epresen t the one part cement to
th ree parts of other material.
Mr. S mith succeeds, and ventures to disagree with the
author as ~o the n umber of m eshes per square inch necessary f~r fi ne-gr_ound cem ent; be has found during an
ext enstve p ract1ce that 2501 meshes are ssential and
the formula advising only 2500 is the gravest erro; that
bla~ken s. the otherwise virgin page of the hist ory of
Mr. Brown ~h~n rise~, ~nd gives i.t as his d ecided opinion
that, after a hfe s acquamtance With the question he is
?On vinced that the incli nation of the tipping plank ~hould
1~ no case be other than 15 d eg. with the horizon ; the
diameter and numb~r ?f r evolutions of the barrow wheel
ar e !JlOr e open _qu es t~ou s, and may be alter ed to s uit
locahty at ~b e ~~~cretwn of .the engineer in charge. He
urges cautw.n In the selectton of the man wheeling th e
barro w, and ~n the absence of figures from the author he
begs to. s':lbm1t a taJ;>le r elative t.o th is im ~ortant poi~t.
~ut tb 1~ a.lsoout.stde_the hall m W estm mster in which
this qu~stion of v1t~l Impo~t fi rst saw the ligh t of keen
con tentwn, th a t this ommpresent question sometimes
cr~ps up. It was once m y misfortune to pass an e,ening
wtth fr1ends, one of whom wa.s sufficiently unscr upulous
to suggest that concre.te was all on~ a.!ld the same thing.
H e wa~ a ma~ unbta~sed, unpreJudtced, and little int er est ed, but hts state~e~t was barely born before the
keen eye of one of the m tntons of th e concrete contingen t
had ma~ke? him for its dearest own, and that unfortuna.t e vtcttm. r ues to t~is day the unlucky hour when his
pas~t~g a.l1us10n to th1s. necessary evil bad such a preJUdiCial e~ect on the httherto st ainless character of his
moral purtty.
I am , Sir, yours obediently,


Sm,-Your corrAsponden b "J. T. B. " is alarmed at the
d ~cision of the Court of Appeal in the r ecent compensation
case, where a solicitor's clerk recovered d amages from a
railway company on account of injuries received from
the open door of a star ting guard's compartment. He
apprehends that, in view of that d ecis ion, tho railway
c )mpanies will be compelled to make the train wait till
the guard ha<t entered and shut his d oor before a s tar t
c \.n be effected. If be were correct in that assumption
there would truly be a vast amount of time wasted every
day amon~st all our trains, but the difficulty is easily
avoided. On some guards' vans the doors open in-wards,
and with vans so arranged the possibility of such an
accident is not to be thoug ht of. The only possible result
of this decision will be to cause a11 vans to be so fitted.
Yile need not burn d own the house to get roast pork.

Yours, &c.,
Nvvemb9r 3, 1893.
B. \ V. GrNSBURn.



SrR,-Tbere is a point in the letter of "J. T. B." on
the recent curious decision of the Court of Appeal, in
your last issue, which I t hink is worthy of notice.
J .. T. B." s~~s tha~ ' ' the. decision, logically tak~n to its
endmg. probtbtts t ra ms bemg star ted until the guard has
entered his compartment and closed the d oor. "
I would. poi~t ou.t that there a_re many passenger brake
vans runmng 10 th ts country whJCh have tbeir doors made
to open inwa rds; with these, such accidents a.3 the case in
point, would be impossible.
Yours faithfully,

R. S.




SIR,-A corresp~nd_en t has called my attention to th e
fact that my descr1pt1on does not agree with t he figures
on page 482.
I t will be found quite correct if th e foll owing words ar~
added after "that if" in line 4 of the second column

" the ru]e is written :

m. e.


p. = {Ptl

byp. log. E x

and " .. .
Yours faith fully,
November 8, 1893.


N ovemb er 1, 1893.



To THF. EmTon OI-' ENG INJ;~JmrNo.

Sm,-Mr. Lawrence .Hargra ... e's letter and illus trations
of the above,_appearing in your issue of the 27th ult.,
h~ve greatly mter ested me, as a devote~ to mechanical
fl tgh t.
He has thus, I thin~, undoubtedly contributed some
The Cleveland Iron JII~l~~~~Roucn, W ednesday.
: oalueable (becautsle practlca.l)_and distinctly or iginal matter fairly n u m er ous attendance ~n -c~~~dg:y h!~:rebu~asthae
xper1men a aeronaut1cs moreover he has
k t

earned the gratitude of other ~orkers in that wid e th o~geh mar t e wastmda. vBery epressed state, and httle business
thi nl .
,11 d 6 Id b
was ransac e
uyers wer e very backward and would
. Y peop e
e . , Y m ost generously placmg h1s ex- , only purchase in small lots for
d ' d r

but6~v~1:~~d:~~. ';.t;m{;:tC:i,:
ere y, t e other btrd bemg the r~tiring plagiaris t.
eh ants as a r~le w~re. '~ill in to d is )10Re1ron, u mer1
helh~~o~~~dbbfs1e:i~1~ ~~~/~~~~ [~ ~~~~~~~~i~~e;~:h ibality_at 3404~d., and a fewgparcels chan~!d tt~:d~~~~
his ingeniously designed flying model~.
N ts fr~c~4 3nde or tdwo buyE'rs ~nd~avoured to obtain

My little exper 'e

t 1
a ~. ., an wer e not m cltned to offer more
in$ with vari~us t~;~:-;;t ~~ldel :~i~~/!~da :!~~ir::O~b- The{~ wer; ~o quot~ti~ls for forwar d d eli very. The lowe~
Wltb many encouraging results-enables me to recogni;~ qua 1 lesNo P4Jgfwered a.Ir y steady, and w~re r epf)rted rather
oun ry was put at 33s. 6d., and grey forge


E N G I N E E R I N G.


at 32s. 6d., both for prompt deli very. 1\liddl~sbrough

warran ts wer e weak a nrl quiet at 34~. 3d. cash buy~rs.
L ocal hematite pig iron was i!a id t o be a s hade easier,
mi xed numbers being put at 43s. for early delivery, but
some firms were not dt spo~erl to accept less than 43s. 3d.
Spanish ore was q uietish. Between 12:; ~d . and 12s. 6d.
was mentioned for r ubio.
'fo-day affairs were very
quiet, bu t what slight change th ere was in the market
was not for the worse. Prices were, if anything, a.
shade fi rmer, but they were really nob quotably altered.
Middlesbrough warrants advanced to 34s. 4d . cash
buyers, and this was about the only change. Almos t
everybody spoke m ost discouragingly of the early
The Make and D isposal of Cleveland P ig I ron. - Tb e
ironmast ers' r eturns for October, issued a day or two ago,
&how the make of Cleveland pig iron to have been 116,099
t ons, or 2781 tons more th a n the make of the previous
month, the t otal for September being 11~,318 t ons. Tb a
make of oth er kinds, in cluding hematite, s piegel, and
basic pig iron, was 113,826 tons, or a. d ecrease of 3164 t ons
as compared with the previous m onth. The tot al make
of all kinds was 229.925 tons, agains t 230,3(18 tons for
September, being a decrease of 383 tons. 'Ibe make of
Cleveland pig in October, 1892, was 1700 t ons more tha n
last month, and hematite, spie~el, and basic pig were also
5500 tons mor e. There were then 94 furnaces in blast,
compared with 85 at present. This is four furnaces less
than in September las t. :r.fakers' stocks a.nd stores
amounted to 93,528 t ons, as compared with 106,962 t ons
in September last, showing a decrease of 13,434 t oa s.
Tbe quantity of pig iron in public stores was 1215 tonE~,
compared with 2065 tons las t m onth; and in Connal's
stores 8R,077 t ons, th e t otal quan tity in makert~'
stocks and public stores being 182,820 tons. Furnaces
were d amped d o wn at Bolckow, Vau~ han, and Co.'s
works at Laclrenby, at Clay-lane, at Sir B. Samuelson
and Co.'s Newport W orks, and at the Conc;etb Iron
llfam.~factu?e<!- Iron and Stcel.-There i~
hope .of ea~ly Jm provem~n t in these two

no ground for
important industnes. ::Several estabhsbroents are only partially employed, and one or two firms may d ose their works very
shortly. Competition is very keen, and new orders are
most difficult to obtain. One or two small contracts have
rece~tl y been entered into at prices which mus t leave ex
ce~dmgly small, if a~y, pr~fi t, j ust in order to keep works
gomg. . The fo~lowmg prices a re generally m entioned,
bu t busmess. m1gh~ be d one at less: Iron ship-plates,
4l. 13s. 9d. ; 1ron ship-angles. 4l. 12~. Gd. st eel ship-plates
5l. ; and s teel ~h ip-angl es, 4l. 153.-alll~ss the customary
2i_per cent. d1scount for cash . Heavy sections of steel
ratls are 3l. 12s. 6d . net a.t works.
The F uel Trade. -F~el is d oar. On Newcastle Exchange 14~. has been patd for best Northumbrian steam
coal ~ o. b., a~d several sellers a sk more. Blastfurnace
coke 1s be~~mng r ather scarce, as little is being produced,
and here 1t 1s generally quoted 13s. for d elivery at Cleveland works.

.c::===== =

FISHPLATES - The Steel \Vorks Company of

France has j us t obtained an ord er for 60 t ens of st eel fishpla tes for the F r ench State Railways. The contract was
taken at 7l. 8s. per t on.


H .l\I. S. " R ESOLUIION. " - Tb e first-

class battlesh1p Resolution, which was built and engi ned by

M essrs. Palmer and Co., Jarrowon -T yne, aft er testing her
above-water torpedo gear on the previous day got under
w~y on Wedne_sday, the ~s.t inst ., from Spith~d for the
tr1 al of her mam and aux1ltary gun m ountings As soon
as a. cle~r offing was obt~ ined outside the Nab 'Lightship,
th~ test1~g of her ma_chm e anq 6-pounder and 3-pound er
qmck finng g uns, which are dtstrtbuted on the military
tops ~nd superstruc~ure, wae begun. ]i~ verything passed
o ver m t he most sat1sfactory manner . In fact, it may be
obser ved that the armament~ mountings_. and hydraulic
~ystem on board th~ R esolutton ar e p1emsely the sam e as
m th e Royal Sov~re1gn and Ramillies (see page 241 ante),
and that ~be testmg, tbo?gh ueces~ary and expedient as
a. precautwn, was practtcally a mere matter of r outin e.
T~o rounds were subsequentl y fired from the 6-in. quickfi~mg guns on the broadside on the main and upper d ecks
wtth <:barges of 13 1~. 4 oz. of cordite. The flash of the
ex ~lo~10n was dazzhng, and the r eport sharp and earsphttmg. There was, however, little or no sm oke so that
the travel of the 100 1~. projectile could be follow'ed with
ease. \ Yhen fired h<?rtzontally there was no r icochet, but
when d1scharged wtth 11 ?eg. of elevation there were
several grazes ?P t o th~ hor1~on. The r ecoil in each case
w~ about 13~ m. In every m stance a fter r ecoil the spiral
sprmgs above t~e gun brought it hack to the fi ring posi~ton . The ~estmg of th e hydraulic mountings for the
61 ton guns m t?e barbettes was next undertaken. The
full charge cons1s ted of 630 lb. of ~-B. C. powder, and the
~ed~ced o~ three- quarter charge of 472~ lb., while t h~ proJectt~e wetgbed 1250 lb. Th e second round from the r 1ght
gun 10 t~e for e barbette and th~ second r ound from the
left. gun 1n the after barbette wer e fired with extreme<?n (13 d eS,'.), for t.h ~ purpose of a scertaining the
ma.xunum r ecoil. In each m etance the r ecoil was 4 ft 4 in
The first and seco~d round s from each gun in both bar:
bettes were fir~d mdependen tly, and the third simultataneously. the ~ eel of the ship with both guns run out
on the beam bemg about a foot . Th e t r ials proved em 1nently successful. The Resolu~ion . a fterwards t ested h er
two under-water torpedo tubes m ~okes Bay under full
spe('d. The bar was p ushed out wtth a pneumatic pressure of 80 lb., and the torpedo shot from th e ship with a.
pr~ssuro of 3!) lb .. \ Vhen compl eted, th e R~eolution will
r eh eve the H o'"e m the C hancel Squadron .



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E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. 10, 1893.]


In reference to the question of gun-fir~, it m~y

be well to point out-for fear ,?f being . misAGENTS FOR "ENGINEERING."
The N ew Cunarders "CAMPANIA" and ., LU- understood- t hat the water " line of ~ ship at
AUSTRiA, Yienna : L ehmann and W entzel, Karntnerst rasse.
CAPE TowN : Oordon an_d Golch.

CANIA ;, and the WORLD'S COLUMBIAN sea, especially when steaming at speed,. IS no deEDINBUnau : J ohn .Menztcs and Co., ~2, Han_ove~-~treet.
fined straight line. Owing to the motwn of _the
F RANCE, P aris : Boyveau a nd Chevtllet, L1 bram e Etrang~re, 22,
Rue d Gla Banque; M. Em. T erquem, 31bla Boulevard Ha.u ma.nn. The Publlsher begs to announce that a Reprint Is waves, the heeling of the vessel when turnmg,
Also for Advertisem ents, Agence Ila,as, 8, Place d e la Bourse.
the disturbance of water level due to the pronow
mustra(See below.)
Qs~w Berlin : Me s rs. A. A h er and Co. , 5, Unter d en Lmden. tlons contained ID the Issue of ENGINEERING of areas of the ship, and to o~her causes, the area of
' Leipzig : F. A. Brockh aus.
Aprtl 21st, comprising over lSO pages, with ntne the ship's side alternately Immersed and exposed
Mulhouse : H. Stuckelberger.
two - page and four single page Plates, printed is of considerable size, and the chances of gun
GtAsaow : William Love,
I NDLA Calcutta : Thacker, Spm k, and Co.
throughout on special Plate paper, bound ID cloth. wounds resembling, to this extent, a ram blow

' Bombay: Thacker and Co., Limited.

gUt lettered. Price 6s. Post free, 6s. 6d. The ordi must be considered.
I TALY : U. B oepli , Mila n, a nd ~n y post office.
nary edition of the Issue of Aprtl 21st Is out of print.
In the design of battleships of the c]ass n~w under
Ln""ERPOOL: Mr . Taylor, Landmg tage.
M.ANCIIE TER.: J ohn Ileywood , 143, Dean sgate.
consideration the ends above the protective deck
Ngw souTu WALKS, Sydney: T urner and llenderson , 16 and 18,
are frankly given up to destruction, if t?e e~emy
Hunter-street. Gordon a nd Ootch, Oeorge- Lreet.
QCEE.~S LAND ( OUTII), Brisbane : Gordon and Gotch.
It 1s cla~ed
TIIY. I ~sTr'l't'Tt ON Ol' cn1L ENGIN&ERS.- At 25, Ore~t George- elect to turn his gun-fire on to them.
(NORTIJ), T ownsville : T. W illmett and Co.
Westminster , S. W. Session 189394. Ordinary m eetmgs. No that their flooding would not destroy the flotatiOn
RoTTERDAM : H . A. Kro.n~er a nd Son ..
vember 14, address by Mr. Alfred Qiles, President, and presenta- or stability of the ship.
She would naturally
SOUTU Al'STRALl.t\ Adela 1de: W . C. R:tgby.
UNITED STATES, New York: W. li. W1ley, 53, Ea3t ~Oth s~re~t.
in the water, but the armoured
session . November 2 l, papers to be r ead w1th a v1ew to dt s,~us sink deeper
Chicago: H. V. H olm es, 44, La ke 1de BUlldtng.
VICTORIA bhLBOURNB: l\Iel vi lie, Mullen and Slade, 261/264, Collins- sion : " The Tansa Wor ks for t he Water i:>Upply of Bombay, by central part, and the ends bel?w the armoured ~eck,
Mr. William J . B. Clerke, B.A., C.I .E., M. Ins t . C.E. "The
street.' Qordon and Gotch, Limited, Queen-street.
Th1s, of
Baroda Water Works " by Mr. Jagannath Sadasewjee, Assoc. M. would afford the required displacement.
Inst. C. E. "The W~tcr Supply of Jey pore, H.o.jputana," _by course is a matter of ordinary calculation to any
we be"' to announce t hat American Subscr iptions to ENalNBERING Colonel S. S. J acob, C. I.E., Assoc. Inst. C. E. " On the Des1g n naval ~rchitect having access to the drawings of ~he
may no'~ be addressed either direct to the publis her, ~l a. C. R. of Masonry Dams," by .Mt. Franz Kreuter (Professor of ~i v il
and the constructive department cla1ms
Jo u~so~, at t he Offices of this J ournal, Nos. ~5 and 3G, Bedford- Engineeri ng a t the Royal T echnical Academy of Mumcb). ship
streeL trand London , W.C., or to our a~cred 1ted Agen ts for the - Students' meeting, 1~rid ay , November 17, at 7.30 p.m. P aper to that' these calculations have been made, and that
United tates ' Mr. W. H . WtLEY, 53, E ast l Oth- t reet, New York, be read: "The Filt ration of Potable Water," by Messrs. James
Conand Mr. H . 'v. Holmc , 4-1, Lak e ide Building, Ch icago. The and Richard Good man, Students Inst. C. E. Mr. James .Mansergh, they result in the vindication of the desig~.
prices of ub cription (payable in advance) for one year a re.: For Member of Council, in the ohair.
structors' calculations are, however, one thmg, and
thin (foreign) paper edition ~ 1l. 1~s. Od. ; fo r t h1ck (ordma.ry)
RoYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOClETY.-At the ordinary meetin~ OD the conditions of wind and waves, or shot and shell,
paper edition, 2l. Os. 6d., or tf rem1 t ted to Agents, 9 dollars for Wednesday, the 15th instant, at 26, Great George-street, West
Certainly a battleship, of the type
mins ter, at 8 p. m., the following papers will be r ead : " T he are another.
thm and 10 dollars for t hick.
Great Droug ht of L93 and its attendant Meteorological Pheno r uling in the British Navy, with her ends above the
m ena," by Mr. F rederick J. Brodie, F . R . Met. Soc. "Thunder
The char~e for adverLisements is t hree shi~l~ngs fo~ the first f<?ur and H ail Storms over England and the South of Scotland, July 8, armoured deck flooded, would be a very uncomlines or under, and eigh t gence for each ad d1t1onal hne. The hne 1893," by Mr. William Maniott, F . R. Met. Soc.
fortable vessel to be on board in even a moderately
averages seven words. l aymen~ must _acc<?mpa~y all orders for
Comfort, however, is not a feature
single aA:h<erti ements, oth erw1se thetr m sertton cannot be vember 13, i n the ball of t he Literary and Philosophical Society , rough sea.
guaranteed. T erms for displayed :vh:er t isem ents <?" t_he wrap~er Corporation -road, Middlesb rough, at 7.30 precisely. Paper" On much to be considered during a naval engagement,
and on the in ide pages m ay h e obtamed on a.ppltcat10n. Senal Vessels Constructed for t he Oversea Bulk Oil Trade," by Mr. E. H.
and the question for the designer is whether
advert isements will be inserted with a.ll practicable reg-ularity, but
Cragg s, Middlesbrough.
absolute regularity cannot be ~ruara.n teed.
Cu&~IICAL SoctET\'. -Thursday, November 16, at 8 p . m. "The the end upper works are most likely to draw
Advertisements Intended for insertion in the cur- Norm$1 Bu tyl, H ep tyl, and Ootyl Esters of Active Glycerio the gun-fire, or whether th~ en.emy_ will not bo
rent week's Issue must be delivered not later than Acid," by Professor P ercy F rankland , F. R.S., and Mr. John more likely to attack the m1dsh1p citadel, where
5 p.m. on Thursday. In consequence of the necessity MacGregor, M. A. "The Ethereal Salts of DiacetylGiyceric Aoid
for going to press early with a portion of the editto~ in t.b eir Relation to Optical Ac tivity," by Professor Percy Frank- the men are sit uated, and where ar e the guns
alterations for standing Advertisements should be la nd, F.R.S., and Mr. J'obn MacGregor, M. A., and other papers. . by which destruction is dealt.
received not later than 1 p.m. on Wednesday afterTuB SUB.VEYORS' INSTITUTION.-Monday, Novem ber 13, ordtThe illustrations we give show very clearly the
noon in each week.
nary general meetin~. when the Presideut, Mr. Charles J .
The sole Agents for Advertisements from the Con Sho~pee, will deliver an opening address. The chair will be taken locality and extent of the damage sustained by the
ttnent of Europe and the French Colonies are the at e1g ht o'clock.
Victoria, as far as the details are known or can be
AGENCE BAVAS. 8. Place de la Bourse, Parls.-====ordina ry m eeting. Opening add ress of the 140th session by Sir fairly surmised from the evidence of wit nesses, or
Richard E. Webster, Q.C., M.P., ohairman of the Coun cil.
can be deduced from the condition of the Camperdown's bows after the collision. The penetration was
ENGI~EERING can he s upplied, direct from the publis her,
probably 5! ft. to 6ft. for the vertical portion of the
post free for Twelve Mouths at the following rates, payable in
advance:stem. The extreme pointorspurof theCamperdown's
For the United Kingdom ................ 1 9 2
ram bow projects about 7ft. before the upright part,
" all places abroad :FRIDAY, NOVE!J!BER 10, 1893.
and this spur pierced the thin plating below the
Thin paper copies .......... .. .. 1 16 0
protective deck, which "it was designed to do," as
.............. 2 0 6
the report pertinently adds. Notwithstanding t he
All accoun ts are payable to "ENG IN EERING," Limited.
Obeques should be crossed "Union Ba nk, Cha ring C ross Branch."
THE SINKING OF THE "VIOTORIA. " form of the athwartship section of the Victoria
Post Office Orders payable at, Bedford-street, Stra nd, W.C.
L'f our last issue we made reference to the report at the part rammed, as shown in Fig. 7, the
When foreign ubscri ptions a:re sen t by Post, Office Orders
on the loss of H.M.S. Victoria, which had then spur of the Camperdown was driven about 9 ft.
advice should b e sent to the Pubhsher.
Foreign and Colonial Subscribers receiving just been issued.
We dealt mor e particularly within the side plating at a depth of 12 ft.
Incomplete Copies through News-Agents are re- with the 1\iinute of the Board of Admiralty, leaving below water.
It is further pointed out in
quested to communicate the fact to the Publisher,
the more important part of this official publication, the report that the Victoria was moving directly
together with the Agent's Name and Address.
01Bce for Publication and Advertisements Nos. that consisting of the r eport of the Director of across the bows of the Camperdown at a speed of
85 and 36, Bedford-street, Strand, Londo~ W.C.
Naval Construction, until a closer examination of 5 or 6 knots, and that the bottom must have been
its contents could be made. This report we n ow torn open for some distance abaft the first breach,
propose to consider, and on pages 574 and 579 we if the forward motion of the former ship, compared
reproduce some of the illustrations which accom- to the latter, had continued. What actually hapENGINEERING is registered for transmission abroad.
pany it, in order that a very fair idea may be pened was that the Camperdown's how was virREADING CAS'ES.- Reading cases for contain ing twenty -six
numbers of ENa lN ERRr~a may be b ad of Lh e publis her or of any formed of the arrangement of the ship forward, tually locked in the protective deck of the Victoria,
newsagent. Price 6s. each.
and of the effect of the blow delivered by the so that the relative forward movement of the latter
Camperdown's ram.
ship was practically destroyed-at the expense, it
The first and most important issue hanging may be added, of the Camperdown, which thus had
P.\aE II
upon the results of this mishap is, what is the her bow wrenched across.
The Instit ution of :MeohaniNotes from Cleveland and
cal Engineers ............ 559
the Northern Counties . 573 condition of other battleships of the Royal Navy
In regard to the important question of waterThe Sinking of the "VicThe Marseilles and St.
with regard to liability to sink ; and here we may tight doors -upon which the value of subdivision
Louis Elect ric Road Railtoria " (Illm trated) . . . . 576
at on ce say, from general knowledge, that the depends, for unpierced bulkheads are practically
way (lUu&ttated) ........ 66 l The Earnings of British
The British Association .. .. 5M
Locomo tives . .. ......... 576 Victoria is as well designed as other vessels of her impossible - we last week quoted a sentence from
The Engineering Cong ress
My E~perience as a Judge
at Chicago ............ .. 5G5
at the World's Fair .. .. .. 577 class in regard to subdivision, so that what is true the Board's Minute, which is so important that it
Pullman Cars at Chicago
London Societies.-No. X LI. 678 of the Victoria is broadly true of other ships.
should be repeated. Speaking of the Victoria,
(l llmtrated) .. .. . . .. .. 569 Notes . . .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. 5 79
In dealing with this question, it will be necessary their L ordships say : ''According to established
Locomothes at the World' s
Hy dro-O xy Gas . ......... 6SO
Columbian Exposition ( I lr
Notes from t he Nort.h . . . .. . 5&1 to keep in view the distinction that must be drawn practice of the Admiralty in all class~s of ships, the
lmtrated) . . ........... . 669 Notes from South Yorkshire 581 between damage to t he ship t hat would result from number of water tight doors is made as small as
Pneumatio Gate for RailNotes from the South-West 582
way Crossing at the
Miscellanea .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 gun-fire, and that from the blow of ram or tor- possible consistently with the essential conditions
World's Columbian ExpoWell-Boring Machine (ll
pedo. If the Victoria had only been injured above for working and fighting the ship." It will be
sition (l llmttated) . . . . . . 571
lustrated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583
Open Side Planers a.t the
Indust rial Notes .... ... 683 the armoured deck, she would probably have been noticed that the blow was struck almost on an
afloat now, but the blow being what it was, no prac- important bulkhead, and Mr. White points out
Explosion of a Paper-Dry ing
World's Columbian E xposition ....... . ........ 571 11 Cylinder .... .... ....... . 584 ticable amount of" armoured end " would have saved that a number
of the waterti<Yht doors in
Notes from the United States 572 The Working of S~eam
Tbe Recent Earthquake.. . . 572
P umps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 her. A glance at the section, Fig. 7, page 574, will the neighbourhood of the point of collision
Lubricators and Injectors at
Ball Bearings for Thrust
well illustrate t his. It may be that a thick armour were open, and could not subsequently be closed ;
Blocks (Illustrated) . .... . 672
the World' s Oolumbian
" the shock of the collision no
The Loss of H.M.S. "Vie
E xposition (Illustrated) .. 687 belt would have done much to stop the penetration and, further,
. ' ' . .... .. ..... ...... 572 Compressed
to r1a
of the whole of the Camperdown's stem (although doubt destroyed the ahsolute water-tightness of
Railway Travelling . . . . . . . . 573
Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587 the horizontal armoured deck is a better disposition
some of the partitions adjacent to the place where
Estimating the Mean EffecThe Auxiliary Pumps of
tive Pressure in Proposed
Steam Engines (lllm.) .. 589 of material for the purpose), but we do not the blow wa~ stru~k, ~? allo.wi~g wafer to pass
Steam En.1dnes ......... . 573 Launches and Trial Trips . . 590 anticipate that any one advocates armonring ships' throug~ the In~e~stiCes .
This Is a very candid
Cellular Kitf:S .... .. . ..... 573 1 " Engineering " Patent Re
Concrete : Its Humorous
I cord (IUustrated) ... . ... . 591 sides so far below water line as the depth of the sub- expressiOn of opmwn on the part of the Director of
Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 1
mersion of a battleship's spur. Even if ~he pene- Naval Construction, and it may here be said
With a Two-Page E ngraving of a MOTOR CAR ON TilE t ration had been far less, the hole wo uld have been generally that Mr. White's report, as will be seen
M.4RSEILLES .AND ST. LOUIS ELECTRIC RO.AD amply large to admit all the water required for the by our extracts, .is characterised ~y an impartiality
fatal work.
and absence of bias not always d1splayed by official

. ...




E N G I N E E R I N G.

documents destined for public perusal. In the lower deck t here is mor e subdivision, with longic~se of the Victoria collision, a large weight of tudinal bulkheads, the central one apparently pre~ate~ found its way in a 'fery short time into the venting the water going to the port side, and th us
1nter10r, and p~ssed for a considerable distance gtving the ship the obser ved list to starboard.
for e and aft. A very gr eat depression of the bow Reserve coal b unkers are at t he side her e, and are
was observed within three or four minutes of the divided off by longitudinal bulkheads. As the
stem of t he Camperdown did not get as far as
Mr. White consider~ the cause of failure to close these bulkheads, it was to be expected that they
the door a, hatches, &c., is to be found in the vory would have stopped t he flow of water to other parts
s hort time before the collision that orders were of the deck, had their doors been closed. Pregiven to make the attempt. Mr. vVhite does not s umably t hey were not, and the q uestion arises
attribute this failure t o any shortcomings on t he whether they would be closed in action, a fact which
part of the officers or crew of the ship, he would be naturally would depend upon whether coal were retravelling outside his sphere were h e to do so, but quired from these bunkers. Probably it would not
he q uotes the statement of Captain Bourke that, be.
under ordinary conditions of drill, three minutes
So far we have dealt with t hat part of the ship
were required t o close the doors, &c. From the which would be freely open to damage by g un-fire,
evidence, it appeareci. that the order to close the and it is to be presumed that, so far as regards t his
doors was given about one minute before the part, the ship had r eceived no \'ital injury, but we
collision ; so the doors evidently were not closed now proceed to the portion beneath the armoured
t o any large extent . The result of this is clearly deck. Here we do not find the same conditions of
shown in t he illustrations we publish, where the longitudinal subdivision; a fact d ue, no doubt, to the
large spaces undoubtedly flooded are evidently exigencies of design of the ship as a fighting engine.
more than sufficient t o account for the loss of the There is, however, a thwartship b ulkhead, close
upon which t he spur of the Ca.mperdown entered,
L ike Mr. White, we are n ot concerned to in- penetrating deeply into the carpenter's stor e, but
quire whether there was any laxity on the part of not far enough to destroy the foreand-aft bulkhead
the officers of the Victoria. Such an accident as which separates t hat compart ment from t he other
this during peace time, sad and serious as it is, is par t on t his level, namely, the capstan engine
altogether dwarfed in importance by the serious - room . The destruction of the thwartship bulkhead
n ess that would follow such a disaster during here admitted water to the torpedo flat, which
b~ttle. The vital q uestion, therefore, is, What extends right across the ship. The capstan engine
is the v ulnerability of our warships during r oom was also flooded, owing to openings being
actual fighting ~ It is evident that if all, er unclosed. The large space aft of this was also
n early all, the watertight d oors shown are necessary flooded subsequently, also on account of doors
for fighting the ship, subdi vision ag practised being left open. Other spaces at this level may
is little good as an answer to ram or torpedo, t o also have had water admitted to t hem, but of this
say nothing of damage from shot or shell below t here is no sure evidence. On t he lower level we
the line on t h e ship's side to which water find a large compartment devoted to carpenters'
r eaches, which, of cvurse, is a different thing to the stores undoubtedly flooded, whilst an adjoining
draughtsman's "wa.ter line." To answer this ques- wing compart ment was probably opened up. The
t ion in a manner to satisfy public doubt requires submarine mine compartment was possibly filled
a public and independen t inquiry, which should with water.
Four minutes after the collision the bow had
certainly be something mor e than a departmental committee. There is n o doubt t hat, sunk 10 ft. This change of trim continued, and
logically or otherwise, public confidence in the two minutes later t he men were called away from
present manner of settling designs of ships has been the for ecastle. Th e ship was listed to starboard
rudely shaken by r acent misadventures. This until there came a lurch, the ship fell over on her
mixt ure of naval architects' and naval officers' de- side, and fi nally sank by the head at an angle of
signs appeara to be a compromise which does n ot 20 deg. or 30 deg. from the vertical. The ve sel
lead to good results ; at any rate, neith er division was still steaming ahead slowly with both scr ews.
appears satisfied with the influence of the other- I mmediately befor e the lurch the water was washing
speaking, of course, of t he two bodie3 at large. into t he open turret ports nearly 100 ft. from the
Nominally, and as a matter of procedure, the con- bow and 14 ft . above the original water-line. This
structors have n o voice in the matter; they are the would bring the upper deck r ight forward 13 ft.
subordinates of the naval officers on t he B oard, and under water, or 23 ft. below its nor mal position.
have simply to do as they are told. Practically, Nearly half t he length of the ship would then be
h owever , they are able to get a great del.! submerged, the after part being lifted considerably.
of their o wn way, t he extent varying with The rising of t he water at the turret and its flowing
the ratio of strength of character between the through the ports a llowed it to pass into the
representatives of t he two parties . . This . H Pull, r edoubt, but, apart from this, the armo ured door in
devil pull, baker," method of setthng affaus does the oblique bulkhead was open, and water was thus
not aiways lead to harmony of design, and it makes passing into the battery, and accumulating on the
the onus of responsibility so uncertain in its inci- starboa.rd side, whilst the two 6-in . gun ports on
dence that there is al ways an excuse for either the starboard broadside were noted to be just
p:uty. According to some persons, constructors awash.
Without going further into details, it will be
are all p edants, and according to others, naval
officers are all blockheads. Although these are evident that in such condition of change of trim,
fool ish views, t.hey represent t~e extremes .of tw o by reason of the vast quantities of water that had
parties, and t he public would hke. to form 1tis own entered forward, t he conditions of stability, due to
the design of the vessel at anything like her n ormal
opinion to which side the balance 1n?l~es.
Tu return, however, to Mr. \Vhite s repor t, we load water-line, must be entirely changed ; in fact,
fi nd that when the Camperdown had cleared, the one hardly expects a ship to be stable with her
Victoria continued to settle by the bow and increase fore part under water and h er stern in the air.
h er heel to starboard. F or nine or ten minutes How much longer the Victoria would have floated
these movements continued to proceed grad ually had she not turned over is an open question, but
and steadily. Then came a 1urch. to sta.rbo1.rd, it would be absurd to let conditions of stability,
which commenced suddenly, the slup fell over on when a ship is in the condition the Victoria was
her side, and turning bottom up, finally sank by when she t urned over, govern <1. design. Whether
the head at an angle 20 deg. or 30 deg. ~o t~ e t he ship can be arranged so tha.t she will not. take
vertical. At the instant the lurch began the V10tor1a in water in the manner which occurred in the case
was steaming slowly ahead with both screwd, her of the Victoria, is quite another matter , and one
which mainly depends on the amount of communihelm being hard-a-starboard.
By refer ence to our illustrations it will be se.en cation necessary on ser vice.
Mr. \Vhite has had made calculations showing
ho w large a part of t he ship was flooded of necess1ty
by the blow. This space extends over all the mess t he effect upon trim and ~ransverse inclination
deck up to tho thwartship armour forwa:rd, only due to the water taken on board by the Vie
t he extreme forward part of the ve3~el bemg free. toria. I t was found that the flooded compartThe space is divided by a bulkhead wtth two water- ments, nineteen in number , had a capacity which
tight doors, but this bulkhead appears to have b3en involved a total loss of buoyancy of 1110 ton9.
injured by the blow, or at any rate suffer~d when Of this amount less than 110 tons were in
the Camperdown swung sideways, wrenchmg open compartments above the protective deck, and
the r ent still further.
The water flowed also about 1000 in the spaces below that d~ck. It
arou nd the a rmoured breastwork of the turret, and will be seen from t hese figures, whtch are
flooded the cabins forward on this deck. On the

[N ov.



the extent to which the "unarmoured end" problem governs the position. The following figures
bring out the case more clearly. The loss of bt:oyancy in compar tments so far forward produced a
moment of change of trim of a Lout 140,000 foottons. Of this total moment the 110 tons above the
protective deck account for only 15, 000 foot-tons-the balauce (nine-tenths of the whole) being due
to the water below t hat deck. \Vith water above
the protective deck only, t he change of trim would be
3 ft. only. Although t his would be no inconsiderable
amount with vessels of the Victoria type in a fairly
r ough sea, it would be insignificant compared to the
effect of water admitted below the armoured deck
in parts which are fairJy safe from g un-fire. The
addition al moment due to the 1000 tons below the
protective deck brings t he change of trim to 29 ft.
The depression of the bow would be 21 ft., and the
rise of stern 8 ft., as compared to the normal. I t
is, in the face of these figures, absurd to take the
sinking of t he Victoria as an objectlesson upon the
folly of unarmoured ends, and a proof of the virtues
of continuous belts. Whatever may be the merits
of the two systems, t he Victoria disaster certainly
does not prove the triumph of the latter ; perhaps
it is a vindication of those who uphold t he former.
The total volume of water which t he ship had
taken in when the Victoria made the final lurch is
put down at 2200 tons, but this n eglects water
which may have entered through t he turret ports.
Mr. White explains that the sudden ent ry of water
into the 6-in. gun battery, above the upper deck,
through the open port.s and door, caused the final
lurch which led to the capsizing and foundering of
the vessel. He says : ' ' Had the ports in battery
and turret, and t he armour door , been closed, and
water excluded from both battery and turret, the
V ictoria would not have capsized, and would have
r emained afloat for a much longer time, even if
eventually she had foundered. "
C~lculations were also made to find the probable
effect had all doors, hatches, &c. , been closed at the
time of the collision. The flooded compartments
would t hen have been twelve in number, and would
have involved a loss of buoyancy of 680 tons, and
of this loss 600 tons would haYe been below the
protective deck. The change of trim resulting
would have been 13i ft., or less than half that obser ved before the lurch began. The upper deck
and t he stem head would h;).ve remained just above
water. The heel to starboard would have been
about 9 deg., and the metacentric height would
have been 2i ft. Under these circumstances, as
Mr. \Vhite says, the Victoria would have been
under control and navigable.
Mr. \Vhite has done his part as a naval architect,
and it now remain~ for the Admiralty to consider
whether i t is possible for a battleship, subdivided
as the Victoria, to be fought to fullest advantage
with watertight doors closed. We may depend
that in action captains will put their ships into the
best fighting trim, irrespecti\re of other considerations. If a watertight door obstruct duty in
action, that door will be opened, ril\k or no risk,
and in spite of all r egulations. It is necessary to
guard men against t hemselves sometimes, and the
ship should be arranged with this view. We
quite agree with the r eport that an automatic
closing door which would meet the occasion is
not likely to be introduced, but it would be well
to arrange many of the communications so that
t here would be no inducement to leave them
open during the progress of a fight. In the
meantime, the sinking of the Victoria has shown
how vulnerable our battleships are under certain
conditions. The blow of the Ca.mperdown was one
out of many hundreds that are pos~ible. I t has
taken the naval worJd by surprise ; hardly a naval
officer in the fleet thought the ship was going to
sink ; and however satisfying Mr. \Vhi te's calculations may hP, could we forget what did happen,
and had only to speculate on what might happen,
the great moral of t he event is that an independent
inquiry should be held whilst t his object-lesson
from real life is still fresh in memory. Such a
concession is due to the public from those who make
such heavy demands on their purse-strings.


THERE are on the railways of the nited Kingdom
17,439 locomotives of all types, of which 85 per
cent. belong to England and Wales. This total
does not give one locomotive per mile of railway,


E N G I N E E R I N G.



although io England and \Val~s the proportion just

exceeds one per mile. Still in cotland the number
of locomotives is only equal to . 59 per mile. In
Ireland there is but one locomotive to every four
miles of rail way, and, curiously enough, this proportion has remained constant for many years, the
number of locomotives growing in the same ratio
as the mil~age. In Scotland, too, there has been
little change, while in England there has been an
increase in ten years from . 92 to 1. 04 locomotive
per mile. J ~ all countrie~ the traffic has been
steadily growmg, but only In the case of Scotland
has this traffic been overtaken without a more than
proportionate increase in the number of locomotives. It r esults that in Scotland each locomotive earns a larger amount now than in past
years, and more than the locomotives in other
part~ of the count ry.
.The_ year 1883 was a
period of marked prosperity In trade throughout
the country, and consequently the railways found
it easier to earn a large amount for each locomotive.
Following that year there was depression, and ,
although we have since had more activity in most
industries, the average amount earned per locomotive has not recovered the level of 1883, except in
the case of Scotland. It seems r easonable to
assume that the locomotives in 1883 were worked
for exceptionally long periods. The companies
certainly continued to add to their stock, notwithstanding shrinkage in traffic, but not until
1888 did the total receipts recover the 1883
level, and by that> time 1200 more locomotives
were working for the same earnings. It is really
the necessity to be prepared for abnormal increases of traffic, not only temporary but for
extended periods, that tends to a larger number
of locomotives being ordered than is absolutely
necessary for ordinary working. Each locomotive
in the United Kingdom in 1883 earned 4714l. 5s.
for its year's work; but three years later, when
the condition of trade was dull, the earnings ha.d
dropped by nearly 400l. By 1889, when there was
an improvement, the sum recovered to 4629l.,
while in 1891 something like the total of 1883 was
again touched (4647l. 15s.). Last year the t otal was
4503l. Th e same general result is brought out
when the figures for England alone are considered.
A verage Earninos of L ocomotives.

I 1883. I 1886.


S ;otland


Uaited Kingd om

4380. 4
.. , 4714.




4202 6
432 ~. 7

4662. 1

4657. 8

4490 6
4360 6

In 1883 the total for locomotives in England and

Wales was high er than for the kingdom, having
been 4774l. 5s. In three years there was a drop of
over 400l., with a partial recovery to 4657l. 15s. in
1891. L'lst year th& total again declined, and was
4490l. lls. 6j., nearly 300l. less than in 1883. In
Scotland there have been fluctuations, but they
have not been so decided, nor has the ultimate
result been backward. It is true t hat in 1883 the
total was much less than that for English locomotives- 4380l. 83. - and that there was a drop of
200l. in three years ; but since then there has been
a very decided improvement, and each locomotive
now earns 4660l., nearly 300l. more than in 1883,
170l. more than the locomotives of England, and
310l. more than the locomo~ives of Irela11d. They
have in cotla.nd little more than half the number
of loc.>motives existing in England per mile of raHwp,y (.59 against 1.04), but their receipts are correspondingly le3s- 2748l. against 4680l. per mile of railway open. Pro ba.bly the sudden increases of traffic,
due to holidays, are less pronounced, and therefore
there is less need for a large r eserve. In Irel~nd
the position is liko that in England, although the
fluctuations are not pronounced. In 1883 the
earnings were more than in Scotland, 4455l. 5s.,
and dropped 2507. in three years, steadily recovering to 4481l. in 1891. L ast year, however, the
total again r eceded t.o 4350l. lls. 6d. - 100l. less
than in 1883. Of cour3e cheaper fares and fewer
first and sec')nd class passengers have had much to
do ~ith th~ result, but against these must be put
t~~ ~ncreasmg tendency to travel, and the possihihttes, therefore, of more duty for each locomotive.



IT was on Saturday, J\I~y 13, that I received

official notice from the Secretary of the R oyal

Commission of my appointment as one of the judges

for the Chicago Exhibition. My preparations were
speedily made, and the 18th found me on the Allan
liner N umidian, bound for Quebec. Aa I was not
expected to meet my colleagues in the 'Vhite City
he fore June 15 - so I learned from a telegram that
reached me at Moville- I was not particularly
anxious for a rapid passage, provided, of course,
that we should meet neither ugly seas nor the trail
of a cyclone.
In this I wa~ gratified beyond expectation, and
on the appointed day, I was able to present
my credentials to Mr. John Boyd Thacher, chief
officer of the Bureau of Awards. I was received
with much kindness and affability, and was told in
a tone of deprecation that the work of the judge~
would not begin before July 1. I w ~n not sorry
for the delay, because I wanted to study, for my
own purposes, certain sections of the Exhibition
that would not come within my purview as judge.
On July 1, I again appeared at the Awards
Department, braced and eager for work ; but
again I was told that the members of my committee would not be summoned to organi~e before
July 15, the fresh delay being due to the opposition
raised against the system laid down for granting
the awards. This postponement was disappointing
and unfortunate, as it entailed an unprofitable expenditure of time- of time limited, in my case, by
long-standing engagements as well as by arrangements for final departure. I t was not only unprofitable and regrettable, but also disquieting and
ominous, as it spoke of discontent and opposition
that might indefinitely r etard all action. Di:;cordin
us magnae dilabuntur came unbidden to my mind.
During this critical period, the single judge "
system was subjected to a scathing criticism by a
few commissioners, some leading exhibitors, and
other interested parties. Its deficiencies and unpractical character were described in communications to the chief local papers, and its abolition
urgently demanded. This drastic measure, however, could not be carried without an Act of
Congress ; and, as the Washington machinery has
no inconsiderable moment of inertia, it was
evident that, if awards were to be made at all, they
must be given, at least ostensibly, on the objectionable system.
Accordingly it was with more than a 30npyon
of impltience and anxiety that I awaited the dawn
of July 15, the day fixed for the preliminary meeting of the judges in my section of the Liberal
Arts. 'Ve met at midday in the Assembly Hall,
and were called to order by Mr. John W. Hoyt,
ex-Governor of the State of Massachusetts. All
storm signals were gradually lowered, and nascent
difficulties yielded to the suavity of the Governor's
manner, his winning deference and diplomatic
tact. Within less than an hour, we had our full
complement of officers, and were r eady to embark
on our n ovel enterprise. But before adjourning
it was decided that we should meet three times a
week to r eceive reports, discuss difficulties, and
give mutual h elp.
These tri-weekly sessions soon revealed the complex nature of our undertaking ; for the few that
attempted to make a start with their work had
nothing to give but accounts of perplexity and ent~nglement
that baffled their efforts. These
ac~ounts were laid before the committee usually
with an earnest and sometimes pathetic appeal for
counsel or co-operation. It happened but very
rarely that an impulsive member would infuse his
superfluous energy into a philippic, making the
c1mmittee-room ring with his grievances. Dr.
Bi.inz, our distinguished chairman, ever mindful
that we were in a free country, interfered with such
orators only when their vehemence carried them
centrifugally away from the subject of discussion, or
hurried them into a paroxsysm of infelicitous
temper which sought r elief in uncongressional
phraseology. Indeed, it required n o ordinary proficiency in the management of deliberative assemblies to guide successfully these initiatory debates.
Our able chairman was assisted on all occasions by
General Eaton, whose conciliatory ways and great
experience were invaluable, and by such men as
Principal Fol well, Judge Schinn, and Professor
Gore. Order was at last evolved from this Columbian chaos, and the judges finally set out on their
various circuits with determination, if not with
It was very soon found that the only way to
accelerate business, or even to advance at all satisfactorily, wae to form small groups and examine the

exhibits together. This soon. became the c_ommon
system followed in my com11'!1~tee, and _to It I attribute the despatch and efficiency which characterised that body. Of course such a method of
working was unollicial. It was neither suggested ~y
the instructions issued nor contemplated by their
framers. But the letter of the law was inva~iably
observed, for every exhibit assi~ned to _a particular
judge was seen by him and hiS assoc1ates,. and a
brief report written out on the form supplied for
that purpose, and then signed by th~ judge to
whom the exhibit in question had been 1ntrusted.
All these reports were read at our triwee~1y
meetings. I n most cases, they were passed with
but little discussion. It sometimes happened that
objections were raised, which led to their being
r eferred back to their authors for ampler details, or
even for reconsideration. A fe w instances did occur
in which a judge declined to reconsider h~ s award,
maintaining that he had carefully examined th_e
merits of the exhibit, and saw no reason for modifying his conclusion. Of course, the co~mittee
in all s uch dilemmas finally accepted the Judge's
decision. It had no alternative; for every duly
appointed member h eld from Congress a mandate which made him a Columbian judge, and
invested his decisions with finality. There never
was question of submitting his reports to any
one, howevor eminent, or to any body of men,
however competent, for approval or emendation.
He was to examine the exhibits assigned to him by
the Bureau of Awards, and formulate over his sig
nature the conclusion he would come to r egarding
their merits. He h&d plenary powers, and was
amenable to no Exposition tribunal. If his findings were to be challenged, it ehould be by the
world at large, and n ot by any committee. Under
the Thacher system, pure and simple, the existence
of these B oards was indefensible. There were
many of us who were fulJy alive to this fact,
and to the irregularity of our proceedings. Yet
no objection was ever raised, because we Eaw in
these committees powerful levers for good. On
the one hand, they would be a check on prodigality,
whilst on the other they would secure careful
analyses of the points of exce1lence of each rewarded exhibit. Besides, an abstract of each
report being publicly read by the Secretary, a
sentiment of amo11' p1opre would naturally be
awakened, which, in turn, must lead to felicitous
results. I may say that there were just a few
members of my committee who appeared to be
pretty easily satisfied as to th~ ingenulty or novelty,
value or excellence of an exhibit; but fortunately
there were many who assumed a befitting standard for themselves, and who sought at the triweekly meetings to restrain every tendency to extravagance in others by an unrelenting though
courteous severity.
Thanks, then, to the modification introduced, a
working system was early adopted, which greatly
facilitated inspection, and tended at the same time
to secure for the World's Fair an honours list of
the usual average value of international expositions.
I am here speaking of what was done in my own
section of the Liberal Art.a ; but I know that a,
similar course of action was followed in other departments, and with equally fruitful results.
The end of August was fast approaching. I
had been on my daily rounds for nearly six weeks,
and that, too, in the fiercest of the dog-days.
During that sweltering period, little was done to
attenuate the hardships of judicial life on the shores
of Lake Michigan. Our \Vestern members were the
first to relieve its monotony by their a ftern oon social
in the Minnesota Buildin~. Our Oriental colleagues,
the Japanese, followed with a most refreshing fiveo'clock tea. But it was reserved for the Board of
Lady Managers to show, in their brilliant reception
of Wednesday, August 23, how happily grace and
elegance ma:r ~ield the po.wers of .oratory and poesy
for the alleviatiOn of worr1ed offictals and vacationless judges.
The da:y !allowing this memorable event, I paid
my last v~s1t to J ackson_Park. It was Illinois Day,
but, d~spite the swarmmg crowds, I succeeded in
threading my way to the Administration BuildinO'
where I found the chief authorities engr ossed with
the despatch of business. I at once introduced the
official nature of my visit, referred briefly to the
ex~iration of ~y _time, and effected my departure
amidst appreciative assurances of the services
rendered to the Exhibition by British judges.
As I had some r eason to b elieve that. about this
time, the favourite steamers would be rather crowded ,

E N G I N E E R I N G.



1893 .

I had taken the precaution to secure a berth in the

Campania for September 2. The Campania! W henever I chanced to mention that 1 had selected this
boat for my homeward passage, my s tatetnent invariably elicited an expression of regret from my
friends. I expected congratulations. I got instead
a dole of commiseration. One said she rolled fearfully, another that she vibrated awfully, whilst a
third assured me that after this trip she would go
into the dry dock for repairs. Yet none of my
well- meaning informants had any experience
or authentic knowledge of the ship's performance when battling with the wind and waves.
I, therefore, did not allow myself to be intimidated
by such unsubstantiated reports. I had every
confidence in the Cunard Line, and was determined
to form my own opinion of the Campania as a greyhound of the Atlant ic. I am glad to-day that I did
so, were it only to be able to say h ow unfounded
were those disparaging statements. The Campania left New York on Saturday morning at 10.15,
and reached Queenstown at 8 A.M. on the following Friday, having made the passage between
Sandy Hook and Roche's Point in 5 days 13 hours
55 minutes, thereby breaking all previous eastbound records. She then steamed up to Liverpool in ten hours, not to lie up for repairs, but to
reload for a fast passage westward . It is true
there were vibrations, but they were not noticeably
unpleasant, except forward or astern. I suffered
no inconvenience, nor did I hear a single cabin
passenger refer to them deprecatingly, though I
took the trouble to discuss the s ubject with several
fellow-passengera, three of whom were Colum bian
judges. As to her rolling qualities, I have nothing
to say, as no opportunity occurred of judging
them. We encountered no adver~e winds, no
angry billows, n ot even a. little swell by way of
Such a homeward trip on a palatial vessel was
indeed a pleasant ending to the experiences and
wanderings connected with the work of a judge at
the Chicago Exhibition.
M. F. O'R.

air is exhausted by an air pump, chilling is produced by the application of a portion of t-he h eat
of the air to generate 'Vis viva. The heating in the
first case may be called "dynamic heating, " and
the chilling in the second case "dynamic chilling."
Further, the radiation of a gas which has been
heated dynamically is ''dynamic radiation, " and
the absorption of a gas which has been chilled" dynamically" is '' dynamic absorption. " Placing a
thermo-electric pile at the end of the experimental
tube, the latter being exhausted, the gas to be
examined is p ermitted to enter the tube ; the gas
is heated, and if it possess any sensible radiative
power, the pile will receive its radiation, and the
galvanometer connected with the pile will declare it.
Proceeding in this way with gases, Professor
Tyndall found that the radiation thus manifested,
and which was sometimes so intense as to urge the
needle of the galvanon1eter through an arc of more
than 60 deg., followed the exact order of the absorptions which he had already determined.
After the heat of the radiating column of gas
had wasted itself, the air pump was worked at a
certain rate, the rarefied gas within the tube became chilled, and the face of the pile turned towards
the chilled gas became correspondingly lowered in
The dynamic absorptions of various gases were
thus determined, and they were found to go strictly
hand in hand with the dynamic radiation.
In the case of vapours, Dr. Tyndall pursued the
following method : A quantity of the vapour,
sufficient to depress the mercury column 0.5 in.,
was admitted into the tube, and this was heated
dynamically by a.llowjng dry air to enter till the
tube was filled. The radiation of vapours thus
determined followed exactly the same order as the
absorption which had already b3en measured.
The dynamic absorption of the vapour was obtained by pumping out in the manner above described, and it was found to follow the same order
as the dynamic radiation.
In t hese experiments the air bore the same relationship
does to a coat of varnish laid over it. Neither the
silver nor t he air, both of which are elements, or
D.a. TYNDALL'~ researches into the obscure mixtures of elements, possesses the power of agiphenomena of heat, h elped by his skill in creating tating in any marked degree the luminifer ous
in others definiteness of conceptions, even though ether. But the motion of the silver being comat the expense of delicacy, drew t he attention of municated to the varnish, and the motion of the
engineers more forcibly to what was always in air being communicated t o the vapour, molecules
their minds-namely, the want of what may be are agitated which have t he power of dist urbing
called '' storage of heat " until required as energy in a very considerable degree the ether in which
in their machines.
they swing.
His experiments on radiation and absorption by
By strict experiment it was found that the
gases and vapours excited hopes not as yet realised, dynamic radiation of an amount of boracic ether
that the solution of the problem might perhaps be
vapour, possessing a tension of only 1 012 ~00 000
found here.
Those who have walked through any of our great of an atmosphere, is easily measurable.
With a. tube 33 in. long the dynamic radiation of
factories where m1.chinery is extensively employed,
will have been sufficiently impressed with the aid acetic ether considerably exceeds that of olefiant
which the mighty power of heat renders to ntan. gas, while in a tube 3 in. long the dynamic radiaEvery wheel which revolves, ~very chis~l, and tion of olefiant gas considerably exceeds that of the
plane, and saw, and punch wh1eh forces Its way ether.
Aqueous vapour was subjected to a special
throuah solid iron, as if it were so much cheese,
deriv:s its moving energy from t he clashing atoms examination, and Dr. Tyndall found it a common
in the furnace. The motion of these atoms is com- fact for the aqueous vapour contained in the atmomunicated to the boiler, thence to the water, whose sphere to exercise sixty times the absorption of t he
particles are shaken asunder, and fiy from e~ch air itself. The further he pursued his attempts to
other with a repellent energy commensurate w1th obtain perfectly pure and dry air, the more did the
the heat con1municated. The steam is simply the air approach t he character of a vacuum, t hus
apparatus through t~e intermediary. of whi?h the pointing to the possibility of determining the temperature of space by direct experiment.
atomic is converted 1nto the mechanical motwn .
Scents of various kinds were examined. Dry air
Is the mechanical effect of steam due to 1ts
power of heat a. bsorp t .wn, and can " s t earn , b e was passed over bibulous paper moistened by the
made to h old to carry, to convert a larger amount essential oils and carried into t he experimental
of heat per pound of coal consumed, or . if . not tube. Small as the amount of matter here enter" steam n will any other vapour bo more efiecttve 1 ing the tube is known to be, it was found that the
T o th~se questions Dr. Tyndall's e?Cperiments absorption of radiant heat by those odours varies
gave one decided answer : The absorpho~ of h~at from 30 to 372 times that of the air which formed t he
by a vapour is dependent on the complexity of Its vehicle. The absorption of terrestrial rays by the
structure. Therefore air and the elementary gases odour of a fiower-bed may exceed in amount that of
can only be economicall~ used a~ h eat starers and the entire oxygen and nitrogen of the atmosphere
converters 'when used In machines. of .en ormous above the bed.
To comprehend radiation through the eart~'s
bulk as compared with the steam eng1ne, 1n proporatmosphere we need therefore to affix defin1te
tion to the amount of work to be done.
By a series of experiments he went on to the s?lu- physical ideas, both to the term atmosphere and
tion of the foll owing remarkab}~ and at fir~t s1ght the term radiation. The elementary atoms of
utterly paradoxica~ ~roblem : To detormn~e the oxygen and nitrogen may be figured. as s~a.ll sp~1eres
absorption and radtatwn of~ gas ot vapour wtthout scattered t hickly in the space Immedtately
any source of h eat external to the gaseous body surrounds the earth. They const1tute about 99.5
per cent. of the atmosphere. Mixed with t hese
itself. '
. .
d b th atoms are others of a totally different character ,
When air enters a vacuum 1t 18 heate
~ . e
stoppage of its motion ; when a vessel conta.ming viz., the molecules or atomic groups of carbonic

acid, of ammonia, and of aq ueous vapour. In

these substances diverse atoms have coalesced to
form little systems of atoms. The molecule of
aqueous vapour, for example, consists of two atoms
of hydrogen, united to one of oxygen, and they
mingle as little triads among the monads of oxygen
and nitrogen, which constitute the great mass of
the atmosphere.
These atoms and molecules are separate, b ut in
what sense 1 They are separate from each other
in the sense in which the individual fishes of a shoal
are separate. The shoal of fish is em braced by a
common medium , which connects the different
members of the shoal, and renders intercommunication between them possible. A medium also
em braces the atoms of oxygen, nitrogen, and
aqueous vapour. Within our atmosphere exists a
second, and a finer atmosphere, in which the atoms
of oxygen and nitrogen hang like suspended grains.
This finer atmosphere unites not only atom with
atom, but star with star; and the light of all suns,
and of a.ll stars, is in reality a kind of music propagated through this interstellar air. The atoms
must n ot only be figured as suspended in this
medium, but they must also be figured as vibrating
in it. In this motion of the atoms consists what is
known as heat . '' What is heat in us," as L ocke
has perfectly expressed it, ''is in the body heated
nothing but motion. "
This motion communicated to the medium in
which the atoms swing, is sent in ripples through
it with inconceivable velocity t o the bounds of
space. Motion in this form, unconnected with
ordinary matter, but speeding through the inters~llar medium, is radiant heat, and if competent to
excite the nerves of vision, is then called light.
Aqueous vapour is an invisible gas. Vapour was
permitted to issue horizontally with considerable
force from a small boiler. Dr. Tynda.ll illuminated
the track of the cloud of condensed steam by the
electric light. What was seen, however, was not
vapour, but vapour condensed to water ; beyond the
visible end of the jet the cloud resolved itself into
true vapour. A spirit lamp was placed under the
jet at various points, the cloud was cut sharply off
at that point, and when the flame was placed near
the efflux orifice the cloud entirely disappeared.
The heat of the lamp completely prevented precipitation. This same vapour was condensed and congealed on the surface of a vessel contajning a freezing mixture, from which it was scraped in quantities
sufficient to form a small snowball. The beam of
the electric lamp was, moreover, sent through a large
receiver placed on an air pump . A single stroke of
the pump caused the precipitation of the aqueous
vapour within, which became beautifully illuminated by the beam, while, upon a screen behind, a
richly-coloured halo due to diffraction by the little
cloud within the receiver fiashed forth.
The waves of heat speed from our earth through
our atmosphere towards space. These waves dash
in their passage against the atoms of oxygen and
nitrogen, and against the molecules of aqueous
vapour. Thinly scattered as these atoms are, we might
naturally think meanly of t hem as barriers t o the
waves of heat. vVem ight imagine that the wide spaces
between the vapour molecules would be an open
door for the passage of the undulations; and that if
those waves were at all intercepted, it would be by
the substances whichform99.6per cent. of t he whole
atmosphere. Dr. Tyndall, however, has proved that
this small modicum of aqueous vapour intercepts
30, 40, 50, 60, or 70 times the quantity of heat
stopped by the whole of the air in which it is diffused. No doubt was entertained that the aqueous
vapour of the air which filled the Royal Institution
theatre during the delivery of t he discourse* absorbed 90 or 100 times the quantity of radiant heat
which was absorbed by the main body of the air of
the room.
L ooking at the single atoms, for every 200 of
oxygen and nitrogen there is about 1 of aqueous
vapour. This 1, then, is 80 times mor e powerful
than t he 200; and hence, comparing a single atom
of oxygen or nitrogen with a single atom of aqueous
vapour, it may be inferred that the action of the
latter is 16,000 times that of the former.
This was a very astonishing r esult, and it naturally excited opposition, based on the philosophic
reluctance to accept a result so grave in consequences
before testing it to the uttermost. I t was urged that
the result was on the face of it improbable ; that
there were, moreover, many ways of accounting for

- -

--- ----

* Royal Institution Proceedings, vol. iv., page 6.

Nov. 10, 1893.]



E N G I N E E R I N G.




Page 575.)

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,: Proh o/ filled a/ler rU:Wy.g bit:ts were sqJJmerge:-l
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it without ascribing so enormous a comparative

a~tion to aqueous vapour. F or example, th~ cylinder
which contained the air in which these experiments
were made, was stopped at its ends by plates of rock
salt on account of t heir transparency to radiant
heat. R ock salt is hygroscopic ; it attracts the
moisture of the atmosphere. Thus a layer of brine
readily forms on t he surface ?f a .plate o~ r ock ~alt,
and it is well known that brine IS very Impervious
to the rays of heat. Illuminating a polished plate
of salt by the electric light, and casting, by m eans
of a lens, a magnified image of the plate upon a
screen, Dr. Tyndall breathed for a moment through
a tube on t he salt; brilliant colours of thin plates
(soap bubble colours) flashed for th immediately
upon the screen, these being caused by t he film of
moisture which overspread the salt. Such a fi lm ,
it was contended, is formed when undried air is
sent into t he cylinder ; it was, t herefor e, the
absorption of a layer of brine that was measured,
instead of the absorption of aqueous vapour.
Dr. Tyndall met this objection in two waysfirstly, by showing t hat the plates of salt, when
subjected to t he strictest exa mination, show no
t race of a film of moisture ; secondly, by abolishing
the plates of salt altogether, and obtaining the
same results in a cylinder open at both end'3 .
It was next surmised that the effect wa.c; due to
the impurit.y of the L ondon air, and the suspended
ca.rbon particles were pointed to as the cause of the
opacity to radiant heat. This objection was met by
bringing air from Hyde Park, Hampstead Heath,
Primrose Hill , Epsom Downs, a fi eld near Newport. I le of Wight, St. Ca.therine's Down, and the
sea beach near Black Gang Chine. The aqueous
vapour of the air from these localities inter cepted
at least seventy times the amount of radiant heat
absorbed by the air in which the vapour was diffused.
Experiments made with smoky air proved t hat
the suspended smoke of the atmosphere of Vvest
London, even when an east wind pours over it the
smoke of the city, exerts only a fraction of the destructive powers exerci. ed by the transparent and
impalpable aqueous vapour diffused in the air,
The cylinder which contained the air, through
which the calorj fie rays passed, was polished within,
and the rays which struck the interior surface were
reflected from it to t he thermo-electric pile which
measured the radiation. The following objection
was raised : You permit m oist air to enter your
cylinder; a portion of this moisture is condensed
as a. liquid film upon the interior service of your
tube; it~ reflecti ve power is thereby diminished;
less heat, therefore, reaches the pile, and you incorrectly ascribe t o the absorption of aqueous
vapour, an effect which is really due to the diminished reflection of t he interior surface of the cylinder.
But why should the aqueous vapour so condense ?
The t ube within is warmer than the air without,
and against its inner surface the rays of heat are
impinging. There can be no tendency to conden




sation under s uch circumstances. Further, Dr.

Tyndall sent in 5 in. of undried air into t he t ubethat is, one-sixth of the amount which it can con tain. These 5 in. produced their proportionate
amount of absorption. The driest day, on the
d riest portion of the earth's surface, would make
no approach to the dryness of the cylinder when it
contains only 5 in. of air. Make it 10 in., 15 in.,
20 in., 25 in., 30 in., the absorption is exactly
p roportional to the quantity of vapour present.
But lest a doubt ehould linger in the mind, not
only were the plates of rock salt abolished, but the
cylinder itself was dispensed wit h . Humid air was
displaced by dry, and dry air by humid in the free
atmosphere ; the absorption of the aqueous vapour
was here manifest, as in all other cases.
Dr. Tyndall has, t herefor e, established the extraordinary opacity of this substance to the rays of
obscure heat; and particularly such rays as are
emitted by the earth after it has been warmed by
the sun. It is perfectly certain that more than
10 per cent. of the terrestrial radiation from the soil
of England is stopped within 10ft. of the surface of
the soil. This one fact is sufficient to show the
immense influence which this property of aqueous
vapour, discovered by Dr. Tyndall, must exert on
the phenomena of meteorology.
'fhis aqueo us vapour is a bb.nket mor e n ecessary
t o the vegetable life of England than clothing is to
man. Remove for a single summer night the
aqueous vapour from the air which overspreads
this country, and every plant capable of being
destr oyed by a freezing atmosphere, would be
d estroyed. The warmth of the fields and gardens
would pour itself un requited into space, and the
sun would rise upon an island held fast in the iron
grip of frost . The aqueous vapour constitutes a
local dam, by which t he temperature at the earth's
surface is d eepened ; the dam, h owever, finally
overflows, and we give back to space all that we
receive from the sun.
The sun raises the vapours of the equatorial
ocean, they rise, but for a time a vapour screen
spreads above and around t hem. But the higher
they rise the more they come into the presence of
pure space; and when, by t heir levity, they have
penetrated the vapour screen, which lies close to
the ear t h's surface, what must occur?
Dr. Tyndall has shown that, compared atom to
atom, the absorpt ion of an atom of aqueou3 vapour
is 16,000 times that of air, and that the power to
absorb and that the p ower t o radiate are perfectly
reciprocal and proporticnal. The atom of aqueous
vapour will therefore radiate with 16,000 times t he
energy of an atom of air. This powerful radiant in
the presence of space, with no screen above it to
check its radiation, pours its h eat into space, chills
itself, condenses, and the tropical torrents are the
consequenee. The expansion of the air, no doubt,
also refrigerates it ; but in accounting for these
deluges the chilling of the vapour by its own
radiation plays a most important part. The rain
quits the ocean as vapour ; it returns t o it as

water. The vast stores of heat set free by the

change from the vaporous to the liquid condition
are for tho m ost part disposed of by radiation into
Similar remarks are made by Dr. Tyndall as regards the cumuli of our latitudes. The warmed air,
charged with vapour, rises in columns, so as to
penetrate the vapour screen which hugs the earth;
in the presence of space the head of each column
wastes its heat by radiation, condenses to a cumulus, which constitutes the visible capital of a.n
invisible column of saturated air.
It is the absence of this screen, and the consequent copious waste of heat, that causes mountains
to be so much chilled when the sun is withdrawn.
Its absence in Central Asia renders the winter there
almost unend urable. In Sahara the dryness of the
air is sometimes such that, though during the day
" the soil is fire and the wind is flame," the chill at
night is painful to bear. In Australia also the
thermometric range is enormous, on account of the
absence of this qualifying agent.
A clear day and a dry day, m oreover, are very
different things. The atmosphere may possess
great visual clearness, while it is charged with
aqueous vapour, and on s uch occasions great chilling cannot occur by terrestrial radiation. Sir ,John
Leslie and others have been perplexed by the
varying indications of their instruments on days
equally bright ; but all these anomalies are completely accounted for by reference t o this discovery of the r adiating and absorbing powers of
aqueous vapour. By its presence it checks the
earth's loss ; its absence, without sensibly altering
t he transparency of the air, would open wide a door
for the escape of the earth's heat into infinitude.

N 0 T E S.

H. M. s.


ON Tuesday last the trial of H. M. S. Speedy was

brought to a successful conclusion, and the last of
the torpedo gunboats was thus added to the Navy.
This vessel is especially interesting from the fact
that she is fitted with the Thornycroft water-tube
boiler, and that her builders, M essrs. J. I . Thornycroft and Co., had promised 1000 indicated horsepower over other vessels of the class.
guarantee for the r est of this class has been 2500
indicated horse-power with natural draught and
3500 with forced draught.
The Speedy' was
guaranteed for 4500 forced draught. The contract was exceeded on both trials, no less than
4674 indicated horse-power being the mean on
Tuesday. The revolutions were 247 starboard
and 243 p ort engine, the steam 193 lb.
day w~s a for the purpose, a strong northeast Wind, which blew through the niaht
and dur0
ing t he trial, making a nasty sea; the course being
from the Nore t o t he Nor~h Foreland. The speed,
however, was 20 knots, whiCh could be considerably
exceeded under favourable conditions. \Ve shall
return to the subject of these vessels in a future


E N G I N E E R I N G.

iss u e , ~ h en w e sh all give f urt h e r d etails of t his

very satis fact ory p er form an ce. The b oile rs throughou t work ed excelle n tly , a s did t h e r est of the
m achinery.


The. two n e w Cunard st eam ers Camp a n ia a nd

Lucan1a h a ve b ee n breakina each oth e r 's r ecords
ag ain , the on e hom ewards ~nd th e oth er t o the
w est. The Ca mpania in h er v oyaae
h om e wa rds
l ast week m a intained t hrough ou t t h e wh ol e v oy age
a m ean sp eed of 21. 28 knots, but on t h e four t h d a y
out s h e ave r aged a bou t 2Hl knots. The time taken
o n th e voy age o f 2812 naut ica l miles was 5 d ay s
1 2 h ou rs 7 ~inu tes, a n imp r ovem ent of 2! hours
on h er prevwus run a m on t h ago, a nd n early
1t h ours b etter than t he r ecord o f t h e Lucania a
for tnig ht ago. The runs to n oon o f ea ch d a y wer e
47, 491, 4 90, 491, 50 5, 495, and 293 m iles. This is
th e second round v oyage on which r ecords have b een
r educed b oth wa y s , the Lucania havina a for t night
ago, complet?d a sple n d id performan~e ; but n o w
t he Campanta h as co.ver ed the d o uble v oyage in
11 ~ays 1 h our 30 mmutes net ste!l.ming t ime, as
agatnst 11 d ays 3 h o urJ 15 min u tes, th e best r o und
voyag~ of the Lucan ia. T wenty-fhe or thirty y e:us
ago th1s would h ave b een r egard ed as a good r ecord
fo r h alf the v oyage.
The Lucania in h er outwar d
trip ~as at t h e same t ime ex celling the Campania's
prevwus w estward run, finishing t h e t rip in 5 d ays
12 h ours 47 minu t es. durin a wh ich she cover ed 2780
n au tical miles, the d aily ru~s h avin g b een 481 542
536, 490, 535, a nd 196 miles to S a n d y H ook. ' Th~
!llea.n SJ? eed is, ther e for e, 20. 93 knot s . The passage
1s 68 m mutes b etter t h a n the L uca nia's run a mon t h
a!So, and 36. minu tes b ett er than the Campan ia's
hme a fort~tght. ag~ . I t is i n ter esting , if n ot imp o rtant, to 1nq u1r e 1f, according to presen t a rra n gem en ts,. p assengers get t h e full advantage of these
splen d 1d runs , and t h e fact t h at the Paris cr ossed
to the west with t h e Lucania, a n d t h at h er
~ondon passen ger s s p e n t less t ime on t h e
JOUrney, sh ould be n oted, m ore esp ecially as t h e
vessel from S outha mpton was n ot running on the
ocean at t h e same speed a s t h e Lucania, and t h er e fore n ot at t h e s a m e exp enditure for fuel. The P aris
p assen gers l eft L on don on the S aturday m orning
at 9.40 A. M. , a nd th e Lucania's ordinary passen gers
at 11. 30 A.l\I.-1 h our 50 min u tes la t e r-but the
Pa.ris a rri ved at 6 P.M. on t h e s u cceeding F rid ay
even in g , a nd the Lucani a at 9 P . M. , three h ours
N eithe r vessel was in time to p ass Q ua ra ntine b efor e s unset, and b oth h ad t h er efore to lie in
N e w York B ay unt il Saturday m ornina the Paris
la n d ing her p assenger s in N ew York at 45 a nd t h e
Lucan ia at 11.12 in t h e fo r en oo n. Of course t h e
Lucania p assenger s wh o wen t 'liia Queenstow~ d id
not leave L on don until 8. 20 on Saturday n igh t ,
about el even h ours after the P a r is passengers.
The mails also went with t his t rain.
B ut
n ot o nly d oes t h e journ ey via Q ueenstown
i nvol ve m any changes from t r ain a n d b oat, b ut an
addition al exp enditure of 3l. 6s . for fi rs t a nd
50s. 6d. for secondcl ass passen ger s for r ailway
fa res t o Q ueenstown, instead of 29s ., 21s. 9d . , or
16s. 6d. for fi rst, secon d, and third to Liverpool.
T he wai t of t h e Lucania in the M er sey for t he
trans fe r of passenger s from t he train at a d istan t
station, a n d again at Q ueenstown for t h e S unday
m ail t rain, m ake it diffic ult, if n ot impossible, to
get up t o Q ua r an tine in N e w Y or k Bay befor e sun s et on the F riday, wh e r eas if the vessel could l eave
Q ueensto wn earlie r in th e d a y, p assen gers mi gh t b e
abl e to la nd at New Y ork on Frida y nigh t , j ust as
t h ey a r e la n ded at Liverpool on the r eturn journey.
Of cour se wi th the m ail contract a rearran gem e n t is
very diffic ult . The P a ris and New Yor k, on the
oth er h a n d , a r e quite a ble, if worked at t h eir best,
to arrive at Q ua rantine befor e s u nset on Fri day,
a n d when t h e n ew st eam e rs a r e p ut on t h is is t o
b e t he arr a n gement each week.






T he Rail way Commissioners of Sou t h A frica ar e

1naking an effor t to wor k all t h e l ocomotiYes i n t h e
col onies t h er e with n ative coal, and it is anticipated
that wh e n t h e W elsh coal n ow un d e r order is cons um ed, t h er e will b e n o need to orde r mor e. F or
so me years n ative coal h as b een used on some of
the locon1otives, bu t t h ese only in t h e vicin i ty of
t h e coal drifts, w hi eh a r e for t h e m ost part sit uated
far in t h e inter ior. Welsh coal was used on the
l en gths of r ail way r unning from t h e ports of Cape
T own, Port E lizab eth , &c. T he q u estion is r eally

on e of econ omy, a nd w h en this is o n the sid e o f

n ative industry, an additional incen tive is found.
F or the y ear e ndin g June last 27 ,000 ton s of ' elsh
coal wer e got, at a cost of 34s. 1ld. p er t on , d elivor e? ~n th e col on y, a n d .30,000 tons ~t 28s. 10d.,
bu t 1t IS n oteworthy t h at m t h e l ast s tx months of
~he fiscal y ear t~ t;, q u a n t it y was only h alf t h at got
1n t h e firot s1x m on t h s .
From native d rifts
s it uated close to t h e Ea~ t L on do n line, t h e coal cost
20s . per ton , but q uite lately a m ost satisfactory
and c h eap er f uel h as b een found in t h e Viljoen s
Drift, si t u ated in t h e Transvaal near t h e border
wi t h t h e Ora nge Free State, 80 miles so ut h of P retoria, and 960 n or t h -east of Cap e T own . The d e p t h
of t h e mine f rom su r face to coal bed is 89 f t.
The t h ickness of t h e seam aver ages a b out 10ft.,
and h as devel op ed su fficien tly to fall b ack upon
170,000 ton s with ou t extending further . The r oof
supp or ts a r e 60 f t . squ ar e pilla rs of coal, a n d th e
wor k ings a r e lighted by el ectricity. I t may b e
ad~ed .t h a t un~erneat~ t h e coal seam th er e is clay,
~h1eh Is made 1nto bncks for J oh a nn esbu rg b uild
Ings. The coal is i n som e par ts m ixed wit h sandsto n ~, b ut in t h e so ut h e rn po rtion of t h e seam it is
unmtxed, t h e seam being 1 2 ft. th ick. The price
ch a rged for V iljoen s Drift coal waCJ last y ear 11s.
p er t on of 2000 lb. I t is ther efor e cl ear t h at the
price i:~ much less than oth e r n ati ve coals, as well as
th~t of W elsh coal, so that th e latter is only n ow
b e1ng used so ut h o f B eaufort Junction, 500 miles
from Cap e T own. The 22,000 ton s ord er ed for t he
y ear for t h is l ength , at 25s. 3d. p er ton , a nd t h e
4000 t ons at 3 1s. 6 d. for the western section , m ay
b e t h e last Welsh coal used. The r elative efficien cy
of th e n ative coal i:~ an important p oint, a nd the
con sumption of Vilj oen s Drift coal is as 1 ~ to 1 o f
W elsh. Trials wer e m ade wit h a n eig h t-wh eel ed
l ocom oti ve a nd a full y load ed good s t rain , a n d it
wa~ fo~nd that the mean consu mption of 24,862
t ram miles was 90. 27 lb., which, wit h the price at
123. 7d. p e r t on, works ou t t o 6. 82d . per t ra in mile .
Oth er tests wer e made with t h e same en gin e and
load to tes t t h e r elati\'e cost of V i ljoens against
Cyph ergat, a n other n ative coal r ecently l a rgely
U3ed , a nd n ot only was t h e actu al weight of coal
used less, but the p rice being m uch l ower, the
r esult wor ked ou t at 3. 79d. p er t r ain mile against
The consum ption p er t rain m ile in the
l atter case was 60. 02 lb ., b u t in the l onger trials
it was g r eater.
T ests two or t hree years ago
sho wed that over a lon g d istan ce in South Africa
the consumption per t rain m il e was 34. 74 l b. of
Welsh coal. I t seems, t h e refore, t h at a great Eaving
m ust r esult, sin ce t h e V iljoen s coal can b e got at
least a t hird of the p rice of ' Velsh coal. I n d eed ,
a n official repor t states t h at t h e chan ge will m ean a
saving, at t h e lowest estimate, o f 32,000l. p er
annum. The N atal Government use n ati ve coal,
got a t D un dee, s uper ior in q u ality t o V iljoen s, t he
consumption being as 1 ~ to 1 of W elsh . The p rice
is Ss. 6d . p er ton, bu t whe n a l ar ger q uan tity of
V ilj oens is t a k en by the Cape r ail ways th e price
will b e r educed , t h e proposal b ein g to r ed uce the
price with incr ease in t h e q u an tity r equired.
THE question of keeping gas up to the required
standard of illumination is one that now engagE's the
attention of gas engineers. As long as t here were
abundant supplies of cannel coal the matter was easy
enoug h, and 16, 20, or 25 cand les were at tained with out much difficulty. But now the supply of cannel
is lessening, and, as a consequen ce, the price is rising
steadily. T he primary cannel of '\Vigan is partly
worked out; t he Cu rley cannel of North \ Vales can
only be obtained with difficulty; in Scotland several
old seams h ave d isappeared; it is to Der byshire and
Yorkshire t hat t he gas works have now to look for the
most plentiful supplies. Naturally the owners of t hese
cannel beds take advantage of their posi tion t o get the
best p ossible prices. On the other hand it is the
p olicy of gas comp anies to reduce their pr ices, although
this is a stat ement which does not fi nd much p opular
accep tance. I n most instances t here is a clause in their
Acts e nabling them to increase their dividends as t he
price per 1000 ft . is reduced, and once t hey have
managed to get below the line at which this augmentat ion commences they are ver y loth to repass it. \Vhen
shareholders have r eceived ll or 12 per cent . for two
or three years t hey a re a p t to resent a return to 10 per
cent. Quite apart, however, from shareholders'
int erests, no gas manager likes to have t o raise the
price of his commodity to the public; there is a.
strong feeling of hostility arising against municip al
monopolies wh ich some <.h.y will cause their extinction.
and it is not desirable to hn the feeling by increased




The scarci ty of cannel has caused many other subs tan ces to be tried in place of it, and at a recent meeting of the Gas I nstitute not less t han three pa pers
dealing with the subject of gas enrichment were read.*
'rhese all dealt with t he employment of gas or vap our
from oil of some kind, generally of petroleum or shale
oil. I n one paper i t was stated that at Rothcrh ithe
ordi na ry coal gas of 16 cand le-power costs l s. p er 1000
cubic feet in the holders. vV hen t his is en riched by
t he use of can nel gas to 17 cand le-power , t he cost i!l,
at present rat es, 14. 6d. per 1000 cubic feet of the enr iched gas. If the enriching is done wit h petroleum
vapour, the cost is reduced to 13. 92d. per 1000 cubic
fee t, bu t if by oil gas the cost is l 4. 17d. per 1000
cubic feet.
'o that on thi5 showing enriching by
oil gas costs about ~d. per 1000 cubic feet l ess than
by cannel gas, a nd but id. more than with petroleum.
At Beckton a light p etroleum sp irit called "carburine, " costing 9j, per gallon delivered, is used. From
1. 75 to 2. 25 gallons of oil are required to raise 20candle gas t hree candles. No condensation of t he
vapour is found to take place. The cost of raising
gas from 20 to 22 candle-power is said to be l. 47d. per
1000 cubic feet ; from 16 to 18 candle-power the cost
is l. 3J.
Another method of rais ing t he illu minatil:'g power
of gas has bee>n tried at Ramsgate by Mr. Valon.
I n place of t he small percentage of air- ! t o H per
cent.-which it has been customary to add t o gas to
a id in its pu rification, he em ploys . 6 per cent . of
oxygen. The result is that the gas which, with . 75
per cent . of a ir added , usually gave 13.5 can dles, was
rep orted by Mr. Valon to give, with oxygen used in
place cf t he air, about 16.5 can dlepower. The
incr ease of one candle-power was credited to the
removal by aid of t h e oxygen of a n extra 1 per cent.
of carb onic aciJ, leaving t he remainder to be accounted
for by t he direct action of the oxygen and t he discont in uance of t he . 75 per cent. of air .
'Ve have quoted t hese instances of t he use of petro leum an d oxygen as en richers, used separately, in order
to lead us to the consideration of a new process,
patent ed by Mr. E. Tat ham, and now being intr oduced
by t he Hydro.Oxy Uas Patents Proprietary, Limited ,
of 11, alisbury-square, F leet-street. E. C. I n th is
both oil vapour and oxygen are used, wit h the result
of obtain ing an increased and more economical effect
than attends the use of either separately. The oil
used may be petroleum, blast fu rn ace oil, naphtha resid ues, or green oil ; i t is distilled or cc cracked" a t a
comparatively low temperature - about 1000 deg.
Fahr. - and leaves but about 5 per cent. residue of
carbon in the retorts. As it issues from the retort
it mingles with a stream of oxygen p roduced by
the Brin process, the proport ion of oxygen being
aLout 15 per cent. The immediate effect of the
oxygen is to render the oil vap our in condensible, and
t o convert it from a substance burning with a thic k
smoking flame, to a lighting gas of 80 to lOO candlepower, giving a flame of dazzling intensity, and of ,ery
characteristic appearance. Under similar condi lion~ of
burner and pre3sure, the hydro -oxy gas g ives a flame
somewhat larger than t hat given by town gas, a n d
instead of t h ere being a la rge blue non -luminous centre,
surrounded by a brighter margin, the luminous port ion imades the dark centre and al most overpowers
it;, while it is itself so white and brilliant t hat the
ordinary gas flame looks dark yellow beside it.
It will probably strike t he reader that the use of
oxygen must be a very serious expense, judging from
the p rices charged for it for limeligh t purposes. But
when prepared on a la rge scale by the Brio process, and
used on the spot, it is comparatively inexpensi ve. I t
will be remembered t hat the Brin process consists in
passin g at mosp heric air over h eated oxide of barium
in retorts until t he material is sat urated with oxygen,
after wh ich the p ressure is reduced and the gas given
off. According to Mr. Valon's figures, to make 10,000
cubic feet of oxygen per 24 hours requi res an initial
expenditure of about 3000t. , while t he maintenance,
fu el, a nd l abour amount to fro m 1s. 6d. to 2s. 6d. per
1000 cubic feet of oxygen produced. The amount of
oxygen required is less than 20 per cent . of the oil
va pour. According to Dr. Thorne, 5 per cent. of t his
rnixture, added to coal gas, increased its lumin osity
by 3~ to 4 candles.
The d emand for very h igh candle-power gas is, of
course, very limited. Itmay be used in railway carriages
and buoys and ot her places where the gas wust n eeds
be stored in a compre~sed state, if used a t all. Formerly t here was a separate service of 25 candl e power
gas in some parts of the west end of London, and consumers could b e connected to ei tber set of m 1.ins as
they desired. But we believe that the manufacture
of this gas h as been discoptinued for some years. Probably there would be difficulties in the way of using
such powerful gas, even in a system that was laiJ out
specially for it. It is expected that the chief benefit
to be derived from the hydro-oxy gas will be in its
substituti()n for cannel gas or other enrichers now nnployed. Possibly i t will enable the carburisation of

* ~ee


vol. liv., page 81.

N ov.


E N G I N E E R I N G.


and the width being increased to 8.0 ft. r. Ma~~ e~t~

the coal to be carried farther than at prcsen t, and lots of 500 tons of Cleveland and 500 to?s of qumberland mates that in the event of the piers. bemg. sunb ob t
instead of the process being stopped when 10,000 ft. h ematite iron were done at ab:>ut hst pnces. The rock, th e cost of rebuilding the bndge . w1ll e a ou
have been extracted from a ton, 10 o.r 20 per cen t . closing settl ement prices were-Scotch iron, 42s. 6d. per 80,000l. It is said that t he Edinburgh eng10eers, Mes~?
more gas, of lowe r q uality, may be obta1n~d! and th en ton; Cleveland, 34s. 3d. ; Cumberland and Middlesbroug~, Blyth and Cunningham, thoroughly approve of
raised to the r equired quality by the add1t10n of t he respectively, 44s. 4~d. and 4~s. 3d. per ton. T o-day s Mason 's plan.
new materiaL The Corporation of H uddersfield lll.s forenoon market was active, some 15,000 tons of ~co~ch,
A P roposed Railwa!J L i1tejr01n F ort W illiam to ~nvcr'vif:
laid down plant for the procl ucti~n
hydro.-oxy gas, 5000 tons of Cleveland, and 2000 ~ons of h~ma.ttt~ Jron -A survey is now bemg made of the route from ort
and the results of t h e first fortn1ght s rworkm g g~ve, being dealt in, generally at firm pn~es. Bus~ness m t he lia.m to Inverness, which has for its objeco th.e construcaccording t o th e statement of ~lr. \\ . R. H errmg, afternoon was ra-ther idle, bub prtces con t1nued fi rm, tion of a line in three sections from Spean Brtdge to the
capital. As ail present proposed, ~be rst sect heir manager, an increase of .)~ candles for 5. 96 per 423. 2~d. per ton cash being obtained for two lots of Highland
iron. The following are some of the quota- tion of the new line would run from S pean Bndge to Fort
cent of hydro-oxy gas used. Other towns and com- Scotch
tions for No. 1 special b rands of makers' iron : Gart- Augnstus the second section from the fort to tb e end . of
panies have the matter under consideration. ~he fa~t sherrie and S ummer lee, 49s. per ton ; Cald~r, 50s. ; .Colt- L och Nes~, and the third section from Lochen~ to a pomt
that the use of petroleum vapour ~s an e~nch er 1s ness, 553. Gd. ; L angloan, 56s.- tbe foregomg all sb1pped on the farm of D al veigb, Invern ess, from whtch .a shorJ
becoming widely diffused, and that 10 one 10s ta nce, a.t Gla!:gow ; Glenga.rnock (shipped at Ardrose~n), 49a. ; branch would be made to connectJ with .the ;Htghlan
at least , oxygen has been found to ~i~plify and i!f1- Shotts (shipped at L eith), 51s. ; Carron (sh1~ped .at Rail wa.y near Cla.chnaba.rry. The survey ts bemg ma.~e
prove the puri.fica~ion _of gas,. and 10Ct~lentally to 10- Grangemouth ), 5~s. Gd. per ton. L ast weeks shtp by Mr. Forman, C. E ., Glasgow. In Inv~rness and dt~
crease its lummostty, 1s suffic1ent to ra.1se a presump- men ts of pig iron from all Scotch ports amou~ted t o trict t he new scheme is excitin~ much m~erest, ~ut 1D
t,ion in favour of the claims pu t forward for the new 3820 t ons, as corn pared with 5813 tons . 10 the railway and 0fficial circles it 1s not be1ng . s~r10usly
T hey 10cluded viewed. In the ~vent of the n~ces~ary Parhamentary
process of combining the two gases. T hose who a rc corresponding week of last year.
interested in the matter can see the manufactu:e and ~70 tons for Canada, 630 tons for Italy, 834 tons powers being applied for, the Btll I S s~re, however, t o
Germa.ny, 556 tons for H olland, smaller - meet with opposi tion from ~he Caledoman Canal Com
the results in alisbury-square, and fo rm thetr own for
tities for other countries, and 1171 tons coastwJse. missioners, the Highland Ra.tlway Company, and others
1'he number of blast furnaces n ow in actual operation in deeply interested.
The installation for the production of hydro-oxy gas Scotland is 53, as compared wit.b 7~ at t his time last y~ar.
I nstitu tion of E ngin.ee1s and Shipbuilders : G-radua~es'
a.t Huddersfield is being laid down in insta-lm ents. There are 20 working on hema.ttte tron ore, 32 are makmg
- The open ing meeting o~ the Graduates' S~ct10n
Eventually it will consist of an oxygen plant, and ordinarv iron and one is making basic iron (at Glen gar- Sofection.
this Institut10n was held last 01ght, ~h en the p~es1d ent,
fou r bays of oil gas retorts~ capable toget~er of nock). Two f~rnaces h ave been put ou t of blast ab Carron ~1 r. ~la tthew Tay I or Brown, B. Se. , dell vered. an m teresta. daily mak e of 200,000 cub1c feet of oxy-oll gas. \Vorks and on e has been damped d own at Summerlee ing introductory address, in th e course. of wbtch be dealb
The oxygen plant, ~rected ~y Brin's Oxygen Company, Works~ I t is reported t hat in several cases the stocks of somewhat minutely with th e constructiOn of t~e Glasgow
comprises two sect10ns, wb tch can be worked together special brands in makers' bands are rat her scarce. T~e sewage treatment wor~s, which are n;ow nea.rmg compleor separately and will produce 30,000 cubic feet of stocks of pig iron in M essrs. Conn al and Co.'s pubhc tion, and are to deal w1th about onefifth of the s~wag~ of
warrant stores stood aL 328,611 tons yesterday after:noon, the city. H e also touched upon son:e oth er eng10eermg
oxygen per d~y. Only one bay of t he oil plant is con;- against
329 328 tons yesterday week, thus show1n g a. topics. Subsequent] y be present.ed ~Ir. James W els.h
plete as y et ; it will produce 50,000 ~eet. per. day. In 1t decrease for' the week amounting to 717 tons.
with the sil ver medal of the sect 10n on account of ~ s
t here are fifteen cast-iron r etorts, 8 m . 1n ch ameter and
Glasgow Copper Markct.-Copper was firmer last Thurs- Ea per of last session on " The Friction of a. Small ~:Iarme
7 ft. long, h aving 5! ft. of heated lengt h betw~en day,
and changed hands both inside and outside the Engine."
the walls.
They are set w ith a fall of 1 10. market at a n advance of 2s. 6d. per ton, and at th~ same
N ew Shipbuilding Contracts.- It is stated to~dS:Y that
towards the back, and the oil is fed into th em price, 42l. 6s. 3~. per ton,. in both cases. There wer e no
through 2-in. iron pipes a rr:r.nged in duplicate, pass- official transactiOns on F rtd ay, but 50 tons ch anged hands three fast sea.going torpedo boat destroyer~:~, aJmtlar to
ing through the front CO\'e~d terminating about in the afternoon a.t 42l. 6s. ~d . per ton cash, with buyers re- those recently ordered of Messrs. Thorny croft and M essrs.
half-way along the r etorts. The oil is s upplied to maini ng a.t that price. One lot of copper changed hands, Yarrow are to be built by a. prominent Clyde firm for
t hese feeds by sy phons cl.rrying floats so arranged 25 tons, on ~Ionda.y forenoon at 42l. 15s .. t~ree mont~s, the Ad~iralty an d two by a Paisley firm. It is a.lEo
that an ~rder has been placed with Messrs. J ames
that any back pressure., caused by stoppage in t h e sellers wanting 1s. 3d. per ton more. A stmtl ar quanttty stated
and George Thomson, Clydebank, for a paddle-wheel
feed pipe or p ressure m t he r etort, r atses the float
steamer similar to the one which they launched last May
and sbu ts off the oil supply. The bottom and hottest
Spani~h Iron Ore I m ports at Clyde.- The landings of for the Belfast and Bangor passenger service,
retorts are used for crack ing the r esiduals from the Spanish iron ore at the ports of Glasgow an~ Green<;>ck
upper retorts. The oil is crack ed a.t a low r ed heat, during the month of October show a very sen ous falhng
and the oxyaen admi tted t o the vapour soon after it off, owing chiefly to the ~lowing out of a.bout on.e-half .of
leaves the retor t, and whilst it is still warm ; the two
SHEFFIELD, W edn esday.
gases go through the condenser together. Two met ers,
M idland I nst itution of Engineers.-A special meeting
16,096 tons-a. decrease of 32,927 tons as con t rasted with
coupled together, insure t hat the tw? gases shall be in the imports in October last year. For t he ten months the of the members of this Instit ution was held on Satursuch proportions t hat th e oxygen ts 15 per cent. of imports show a falling off to the extent of 157,556 t ons. day, at Chesterfield, under the presidency of Mr. J. G.
the oxygen -oil gas.
The imports in 1891 were smaller, but for th e first five Binns, of Burtonon-Trent, in the absence of Mr. A.
months of that year there were the strike and lock-out of Ba.rnes, J .P . The following papers were discu~sed :
" Witwatersra.ndt Goldfield," by Mr. J. P. Hamilton;
"Notes on Natal Goldfield~:~" by Mr. J. P. Hamilton ;
GL.-\SOOW, W ednesday.
" Geological History of the Rawdon and Boothorpe
T en Months.
Glasgow P ig-I ron M arkcl.- Th ere was a. dull tone in
Faults in the L eicestershire Coalfield, " by Mr. W. S.
Vessels. T ons. V easels. Tons.
the warrant market last Thursday, and prices of iron
Gresley, F .G.S. ; "A P ortable Safety Lamp, with
. ..
16,095 20! 327, 99G
went easier. The price of Scotch pig iron in the foreOrdinary Oil Illuminating F lame and Standard Hy1892
49,022 306 485,552
noon receded ~d. per t on, and a. decline of anoth er ~d.
drogen Flame for Accurate and D elica.te Gas T esting, ''
. ..
. ..
32,880 16-t 218, 1-t8
was made in the afternoon. Cleveland iron fell in price
by Professor Frank Clowes, D . Se. ; " The Estima1890
13,950 292 425,725
3d. per ton, over rumours a.s to the monthly returns.
tion of the Actual Effecti 1e Pressure or Water
43,579 279 393,4t4
At the close of the afternoon market t he settlement
Gauge in the V entilation of M ines, " by Mr. T .
prices were-Scotch iron, 42s. 3d. per ton ; Cleveland, From th~se fi gures it \Vill be seen that the imports for A. Southern ; ''Experiments upon a. Waddle Fan
~Hs. 3d.; Cumber)and and 1'Iiddlesbrough hematite iron the ten months show a falling off to the extent of 157,556 and a Capel F an working on the same ~line at
respecti vely, 44s. 6d. and 43s. 4~d . per ton. Business t one.
Equal P eri phery S12eeds, at T evereal Colliery," by ~.Ir.
was very quiet on F riday forenoon. Only about 4000
Copper Ore I mports at Glasgow. -The landings of B. C. Hendy; "Spontaneous Combustion in Coal
tons of Scotch iron were dealt in, including several lots S panish copper pyrites at Glasgow for. the m~nth of Mines," by P rofessor Arnold Lupton i.. '' A New M eth od
at 42:~. 4d. per ton, with a. call in eight days. October 1893, amounted to 3523 tons, bemg an mcrease of L ayi ng Coal Dust," by Mr. H . .tt. H ewitt; ''The
Cumberla.nd hema.tite iron fell ~d . per ton at 44s. 4d. of 178! tons over the receipts for the correspond ing month Support of Buildings," by Mr. W . Spencer, F.G.S.
sellers. The market was more act ive in the afternoon, last year. For the ten months the landings show a n in- \Vith regard to Mr. Southern's paper, Mr. Stokes Eaid
wh en 42s. 2~d. cash to-day and 423. 3d. ca-sh on Monday crease of 10,066 tons over those for the same period in the writer bad opened up a question worthy of great con were paid for Scotch warrants. About 10,000 tons 1892 and 3829 tons over those for th e t en months in 1890, sideration. It was very timely. Some of them had
changed hands, and notwithstanding a somewhat persis- whi~h sho wed an exception ally heavy import. The formed certain ideas respecting certain matters many years
tent offering of hematite iron, the quotation at the last pyrites were chiefly for the Tha.rsis Copper and Sulphur ago, and it was necessary their ideas should k eep pace
was steady at the forenoon's closi ng quotations. Some Company's Glasgow works. The returns specially com- with the times. A number of new members were elected.
unofficial business was also done at 42s. 3d. per ton this piled were:
A vote of thanks to the ch airman closed the p roceedings.
week, with a "plant. " Nothing was done in Cleveland
T en Nionths.
Sheepbridge Coal and Iron Company, Limited.- The
iron, but 1000 tons of Cumberland hematite iron changed
V essels. T ons.
annual report of the directors of this company has been
bands a.t 44.s. 6~d . one month. The closing settlement

issued. It states the net profit for the year amounts to

prices were-Scotch iron, 42s. 3d. per ton; Cleveland,

30,918l., which, added to the balance brought forward,
34s. 3d. ; Cumberland and Middlesbrough hematite

makes a total of 47,217l. The interim dividend alr eady

iron, 4is. Gd. and 43s. 4 ~d. per ton respectively.

paid absorbed 17,884l., leaving a balance of 29, 553l. for

On Monday forenoon a. comparatively good business

disposal, which the directors r ecommend should be
was done in Scotch iron, some 10,000 or 12,000
F i1tished I ron and Stcel.- There is a fairly active condi- di vid ed as follows : 12s. Gd. per share on fully paid
tons changing hands, including a. line of 4000 tons at
42s. 3~d. one month, with 1s. forfeit in sellers' option. tion of things ruling at most of the finish ed iron works, shares, and 5s. per share on 10l. shares paid to the C
The cash price was unch anged from Friday at 42s. 3d. the maker s of being in most cases able to keep full shareholders (paid on July 15), 12s. 6d. per share t o the
per ton sellers. Some 2000 tons of Cleveland were done shifts going. Home users are t aking the great bulk of A sbareholrler~:~, and 5s. per share to the B sba.rebolder1,
at 3-ls. 6d. one month, and the cash quotation marked a the current production of manufactured iron, the shipping paya.ble on Nuvember 22; the balance of 11,4481. being
rise of ~d. per ton from Friday. N o business was done in demand being slow. Common bars are quoted at 5l. 5s. carried to a strike reserve fund. Since the end of the
hematite iron, and the quotations remained unaltered. to 5l. 12d. Gd. , and besb bar~ up to 6l. 2s. Gd. per ton. The financial year the directors have bad many difficulties to
The market was firm in th~ afternoon for S cotch iron, makers of sheets lately h eld a m eeting, a.t which they re- combat, resulting from the action of the colliers, and
and at the last the cash quotation sh owed a. gain of ~d. solved tu continue th e prices on the basis of 7l. 7s. 6d . per they have thought it neceRsary to take a. considerable sum
per ton on the day. About 5000 or GOOO tons were dealt in. ton for iron singles. Last Friday the Lanarkshire makers from the funds in band to meet the loss that will arise
Business was don e ex-officially a.t 42s. 2~d. , with a. of steel held a. meeting, at which it was agreed to advance through the presentJ strike. U nder the ad verse circu m "plant" on Friday. At the close the settlement prices were the price of steel plates for shipbuilding purposes to the stances of the times they of opinion that the dividend
-Scotch iron, 42s. 3d. per ton ; Cleveland, 34s. 3d.; Cum - exten t of 2s. Gd. per ton. It is stated that the highprice should be considered satisfactory.
berland and M iddlesbrough hematite iron, respectively, of fuel was th e cause of the price being raised. TubeH ull Coal T 'rade: Disastrous R esttlts of the Strike. makers
44s. 3d. and 433. 3d. per ton. Business was again quiet
The lock-out in the coalfields has bad an effect on the
on Tuesday forenoon. About 11,000 tons were dealt in,
T he Glasgow Bridge D i.(ficulty.- It is understood that Hull shipping trade unprecedentd in its history. Yorkall except 1500 tons of Cleveland being Scotch iron. the plan lately suggested by Mr. ~:Iason, a well-known shire is practically wiped out of the list as a. coal -exporling
The prices varied to some extent. The market was loc 1.l contractor, and for several years a. prominent county. The r eport, which is given each month from
steady in the afternoon, with a fair amount of businf!ss member of the T own Council of Glasgow, for the recon - Hull in refer ence t o the trade of the porb, is for October a.
doing in S cotch iron. Officially abi>ut 5000 tons were struction of the Broomielaw Bridge will be adopted by long series of blanks. Durham has been the mainstay
dealt in, and the cash price was unchanged at 42~. 3d. the Bridges Committee, and eventually by the council. of what trade has been done, and it is due to the
at the close. In addi tion, 4000 tons were done ab S hould that prove to be a. correct surmise, the present large supply gained in that county that th e total
42s. G!d. three months fixed, and business also took bridge (Telford '~) will be taken down and rebuilt on the imports only show a falling off of 75,776 tons as compared
place a.t 42s. 2d. c1sh, with a "plant " at 2d. for a, s~me site, cylindrical p il\rs and foundations being used, with the corresponding month of 1892. The total tons



E N G I N E E R I N G.




Main Colliery Company at Bryncoch. The promoters of of coal last year, compared with 1891, shows a considerthe enterprise have also in view the ultimate extension able decrease both in quantity and value. The decrease
appears to be mainly due t o the r eduction in the con
of t he line from Bryncoch to
sumption of coal within the C'Olony. The export of coal,
as a whole, shows comparatively small diminution; in
deed, the quantity sent to foreign ports shows an
D URING the past month it appears that grey forge pig increase, the decrease being to intercolonial ports, but
iron has been sold in A labama at 27s. 3~d . per ton. If there was a reduction all around in the price of coal,
this rate could be m aintained, our export trad e in metal which has not been so low since 1881. In 1892 the t otal
goods would certainly be in jeopardy.
output was 3, 780,966 t ons, valued at 1,462,388l. , or an
The M ersey Harbour Board, prompted by the success- average price p er ton of 7s. 8.82d. ; of this production,
ful operations for deepening the entrance t o the port, 1,318,008 tons, of 587,016l. ' 'alue, were sent to interhave resolved to sp end an additional 20,000l. in removing colonial port~, and 873,697 tons, of 441,379l. value, to
foreig n ports, leaving 1,589,263 tons for home consumpthe Mersey bar.
tion. In 1891 the total production was 4,037,929 tons, of
The premium offered by the Corporation of the City of 1,742,795l. value (average price per ton, 8s. 7.58d.), of
Winchester for the best sch eme for electric lighting the which 1, 397,256 t ons, of 700,380l. value, were shipped to
city, on the award of their consulting engineer, Mr. intercolonial ports, and 847,473 t ons, of 460,595!. value, t o
1'1organ Williams, has been awarded to the Brush foreign ports, leaving 1, 793,200 t ons available for home
Electrical Engineering Company.
The seventy-fi fth session of the Institution of Civil
The Briti~h Consul at St. Petersburg, in his last report,
Engineers will be commenced on the 14th inst ., and the gives the details of the scheme for constructing a railway
meetings before Christmas are likely to be occupied, in across S iberia, which was decided on in November last.
addition to an address from Mr. Giles, presid ent, with It is to be built consecutively in three stages or sections.
the design and construction of impounding reservoirs for The work is to commence with the first section, on the
water works at Tansa. (Bombay), B aroda, and Jeypore, completion of which the second will be taken in hand,
with machinery for the manufacture of casks. and with and the third will be proceeded with when the two other
the development of hydraulic power supply in London.
sections have been complet ed. T he fi rst, or Western
M essrs. Palmer and Co., Jarrow, have just received an , iberian section, will extend from T cheliabinsk to the
order from the British Admiralty for the entire construc- River Obi, a length of 885 miles ; thence to the town of
Irkutsk, a d istance of 1169 miles. Simultaneously with
Card~u:-The demand for steam coal has continued
the building of this portion of the line, the work no w in
strong, and prices have shown a hardenin g tendency.
progress on the VJadivostock-Gra.fsky section will be conThe best d escriptions have been maki ng 14s. 6d. to 15.!. speed. They are to be about 200 fb. in length, and tinued, and the construction of a line connecting the U ral
p er ton, while seconda ry qualities have brought 14s. to similar t o those recently placed by the Admiralty with mining and Siberian trunk line with Ekaterinburg will
14s. 6d. per ton. H ousehold coal has also been in good 1'Iessrs. Tbornycroft and M essrs. Yarrow. This is quite be commenced. This portion of the work is to be comd emand, and contracts for future delivery have been con- a new class of work for the district.
pleted not later than 1900. The second stage will consist
clllded at high rates. No. 3 Rhondda large has made
As an antidote to late trains, it was suggest ed by a in the construction of the portions of the project ed line
14s. p er t on. Foundry coke has been quoted at 20s. 6d. writer in the T imes recently that when a train was more which extend from G rafsky to Kabarovka, 195 miles,
t o 2ls. per ton, and furnace ditto at 18s. 6d. t o 19s. per than a certain percentage of its scheduled time late, the and from the station of Mysovskoi, the sts.~.rting point of
t on . Iron ore has exhibited little change. About an company should refund the fares. It is interesting to the railway on the other side of the Baikal L ake, to Streaverage business has been passing in the manufactured not e that this scheme was actually tri ed in Lhe U nited tinsk, a distance of about 673 miles. In the third and
iron and steel trades. Some rail orders have been secured States in 1883, wh~n the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- final stage will be constructed the Circum-Baikal portion,
at 1-Ierthyr Tyd vil. Heavy section steel rails have made pany undertook to refund the fares if their limited 195 miles, and the section from Stretinsk to KabaroYka,
3l. 15s. , and li ght section ditto 4l. 10s. to 4l. 12s. 6d. per express train between New York and Chicago was more a length of al>out 1333 miles. In this manner the trunk
than an hour late. Apparently the arrangement did not Siberian line, starting from T cheliabinsk and terminating
Survey of P lyrMuth Souncl.- The field work of the work well, as the guarantee has since been abandoned.
at Kabarovka, will extend over a length of aboub 4487
Admiralty survey of Plymouth Sound has been closed for
The Shipley Local Board have decided t o adopt the miles. The cost of the construction of the first section is
the season of 1893. The work has included all the area plans of sewerage and sewage disposal for their district estimated at 15,000,000l., this sum including the cost of
contained by an east and west line, two cables south of prepared by Mr. M. Pat~rson, ~I.I.C.E., of 35, 1'Ianor- connection with the Ekaterinburg line. The money asthe Draystone Rock on the sou th, up to the Rubble Bank row, Bradford. The disposal works will be situated at signed will be paid yearly, in sum s not exceeding 4,000,000l.
in Hamoaze on the west, and a line passing across the Dockfield, near the junction of the Bradford and L eeds In connection with the Siberian Railway the consul says it
Plym, half a mile abo'\e the L !t.ira Bridge, on the easb. and Liverpool Canals. The total cost of the scheme is is interesting to note that the sea route to the Y enisei,
The Cattewater has been sounded on a scale of 30 in. to estimated at 23,569l., made up as follows : Sewers, the pioneer of which was Captain \Viggins, will be utilised
the nautical mile, while the rest of the work is on a scale 9300l. ; pumping station, 4209l. ; sewage works. 4062l. ; for the purpose of conveying along it railway mat~rials
of 13.2 in. Numerous tid e experiments have been made la nd filtration works, 3717l. ; contingencies (engineering for the new line. These materials will be carried by
in the n eighbourhood of the Devil's Bridge and Devil's difficulties, law costs, &c.), 2482l. The land and ease- vessels starting fr0m Russian ports to the mouth of the
Point. The survey will be resumed in the spring.
ments will probably cost about 8000l. more, and th e Yenisei, from which point they will be transported to
K ingsbridge Ra:ilway.- A further inspection was made annual cost of working is estimated at from 600l. to 700l. Krasnoyarsk in barges t owed by powerful tugs.
on Wednesday by certain Great \Vestern officials of a
The new torpedo boat destroyer Havock, built by
n ew line between Brent and Kingsbridge. The line Messrs. Yarrow and Co., was again taken out on Friday
RAILWAY AcciDENT IN T ASMANia.-We have received
throughout id in a forward state, and in a few weeks it last for an eight hours>trial at an economical speed, with from J\tir. T. S. Cleminshaw, Launceston, Tasmania, a
will b e ready for public use. The l ine will be worked a view to ascertain the distance she would steam with photograph showing the results of a criminal attempt to
upon the electric staff principle, and each station is in the fuel supply she can carry on board, upon which plunge a railway train over a bridge into a deep gorge.
telephonic communication. At Ga.ra Bridge station, depends her radius of action. It was found that, at a On WedneEday, September 20, a tram of the :Main Line
about midway b&tween Brent and Kingsbridge. there is a speed of 11.2 knots, the consumption was under i ton an Rail way Company was approaching the Horseshoe Creek,
d oub]e line, with a platform on each side. Loddiswell hour, while at 10 knots it was 3~ cwt. an hour; and, as the when it suddenly left the metals a few feet from the
station, the n ext one t o Kingsbridg(', has a single lifle and bunkers have a. capacity of 60 tons, it follows tha.t the bridge. The driver immediately applied the vacuum
platform, with la.rge siding accommodation. Avonwick distance the Havockcansteam without coalingisabout3500 brake, but of course it was powerless to prevent the
knots. The Admiralty authorities consider this new engine passing on to the bridge, which is an open trestl.e,
btation is similar to L oddiswell.
vessel a very great success in every respect. The H avock without decking, ballast, or parapet. The whole tram
Pollution of the A von.-The Bath Town Council on will
no w be provided with a fe w remainin g fittings, and ploughed its way over the sleepers until it came to a
M onday adopted a resolution recognising the necessity of
standstill a few feet from the other end of the bridge, the
cleansi ng ~he A ven. from s<3wage pollu~ion, an~ ins.truct- she is expected at Portsmouth the end of this month.
The following is a list of those who have been recom- engine falling over at an angle of 45 deg. , one set of
ina a spe01al commtttee to take steps m the d1rect10n of
being wedged between the ends of the sleepers and
se~uring provisional contracts, select ing a n engineer ing mended by the President and Council of the Royal wheels
the longitudinal timbers of the bridge. On examination
expert, &c.
it was found that the fishplate bolts bad been broken off
Ba11y Gravin{l Doe~.-~be directors of th~ Barry
near the entrance of the bridge and the rails spread apart,
Graving- Dock and Engmeermg Company, at thetr meetwhile ab the other end of the bridge sleepers had been
secreing on Tuesday, had under consideration the accounts for
piled on the line. The gorge is 150 ft. across and 100 ft.
the past financial year. Subject to andit, they decided
deep. No lives were lost, thanks to the brake and to the
to carry 6000l. to reserve and re.ductio:n .of capital, and to
pluck of the men in stickin g to the engine.
recommend the payment of a final dt vtdend. of 103. per
share, making 10 per cent. for the year, leavmg 1310l. to A lexander H. Green, Sir J obn Kirk, Professor Oli ver J.
BELGIAN COAL 1VIINING.-The production of coal in
be carried forward to the next account.
H. Perkin, the Marquis of Salisbury, Professor .J. K Belgium last year amounted t o 19,583,173 tons, as comCoal in South Wales.-The success of the Llanbradnach Burd on Sanderson, Adam Sedgwick, Professor Thomas pared with 19,675,644 tons in 1891. The value of the coal
Company in the Ca~rph illy Valley has prompted other E. Thorpe, Professor \Villiam A . Tilden, and Professor raised in Belgium last year was 8,051,420l., as compared
with 9,898,160l. in 1891. It will be seen that the average
capitalists t o come mto the valley. Among otbere, the W. Cawthorne Unwin.
value last year was s~. 2d. per ton, as compared with
Abercarn Coal Company and the Risca Company propose
The Board of Trade returns for the past month are on 10s. 1d. per ton in 1891. The average depth at which
to commence operations.
the whole less unsatisfactory than might have been ex- working ope.rations were carried on in Be1gium last year
T he T elephone in the West. - The N ati_onal T elephone pected. The import3 amounted to 35,~56,469l. , a n in was 1366 ft., as com?rared with a corresponding average
Company, Limited, has at;tnou~ced th~t m future a ~on crease of 1.8 per cent., and the exports of Briti~h goods of 1333y ft. in 1891. fhe number of workpeople employed
tinuous day and night servtee wtU be g~ven by th~ Bristol were valued at 18, 119,792l., a decrease of 2. !J per cent. below gr0und last year was 88,806, as compared with
and Clifton exchanges. Upwards of 100 subscrtbers are The quantity of coal exported showed a decrease of 90 248 in 1891. The number of workpeople employed
connected with these exchanges.
450 520 tons as compared with the corresponding month ab'ove ground last year was 29,772, as compared with
T ips for Bar1-y. - The first of a n umber o! new ~ips to be last year. H~d it not been for the lar~e sryipment of 28 735 in 1~91. The average number of workmg days of
placed on the western side of .Barry D ock 1s nowt? course t elegraphic wtres and apparatus, amountmg m value to ea~h miner last year was 292, as com pared with 286 in
of erection. Several mora wtll be put up a~ qUickly as 246 081l. against 3l,l98l., the decrease in the value of 1891. The amount paid away in wages last year was
possible, so as to enable the C~ID:pany to provtde adequate metals exported would have been greater than it is. The 4,540,360l. , as compared with 5, 169,880l. in 1891, giving
decrease of iron is 12,790 t ons in quantity and 256,413l. an average of ~Bt. 5s. 7d. per. head last year, as compa~ed
accommodation for vesse]s arr1vmg at Barry.
in v~lue. Of copper the decrease is 46.' 112 cwt., while with 43/. 8s. 9d. p er bead m 1891. The other workmg
Welsh R ailway Projects.-A proposal ~son foot for the the value is less by 119,629{. Steam engmes were valued expenses which had to be provided forlast year amounted
C'onstruction of a line to connect the ~ft~lat;td system at ab 367.802l. against 245,374l:, the chief i~crease being to 3 040,680l. , as compared with 3,293,840l. in 1891. It
Ponta.rdawe with the Great Western mam hne at Neath. found in stationar~ and agr10ul~~ral ~achme.s. Larger foll~ws that the gross working expenses last year were
An undertaking to be called the. P~nta~dawe, B~ynco~h, shipments t o Russ1a and the ~r1t1sh ha~t account 7,581,000l., as compared with 8,463,720l. in 1891. The
and Graigola Railway and CoiJ!ertes Compa:ny 1s bemg for the increase, but Argentm.a also ts ta.kmg larger net profit realised last year was, accordingly, 470,4801. ,
formed for the purpose of a;cqUirmg and workmg the Pon- quantities of agricultural ma.chmery, both steam and of as compared with 1,434,410/. in 1891. It will be seen that
ta.rdawe and Bryncoch Ra.1lwav. recently c~ns~ructed .by other kinds.
the average profit realised l?er ton last year was 6d., as
Messrs. Thomas Brothers, of A lltwen. Thts hne, whtc.h
compared with a. correspondmg average of l s. 6d. per ton
connect~ with the Midland Railway. at Pontardawe, IS
in 1891. The scantiness of last year's profit will not
intended to serve the Primrose Colhery, the ~ryncoch just been issued, from wh10h 1b appears that the output escape attention.
Little Pit, the Graigola L evel, and the new ptt of the

imported last month were 127,096, the figures for October,

1892, being 203,872. There is this startling difference,
however, that whereas the return shows that in October,
1892, aU the coal c:ame from South Yorkshire and the
adjacent coal centres, the present return shows one main
source, Durham, with 115,048 tons-previously an almost
entirely blank entry . From Yorkshire only 1760 tons have
been exported by eight collieries. Another feature of the
r eturn is the absence of any exports, save 200 t ons for
D enmark, against 121,425 sent to foreign countries in the
tnonth of October, 1892. Last month Hull had n o coasting trade, as against 95,000 tons in the pre'\1 ious Oct ober.
I ron, Coal, and Steel.- Very great disappointment is
manifested, not only in commercial circles, but amongst
the colliers themsel ves, at the failure of the conference to settle the coa.l dispute. The iron and st eel trades
are going from bad to wor:ie. Manufacturers are not only
unable to execute the ordera they have on their books,
but are losing many and profitable lines through their
fatlure to give any approximate idea as to delivery. Much
of the injury inflicted on trade will be of a permanent
character. This is acknowledged on all sides, and, further,
that there can be no improvement until coal and coke are
in full supply at reasonable prices. Some 70,000 miners
in this distri ct are still on strike, and they appear as
d etermined as ever to allow no con cession s in wages. The
greatest distress prevails amongst the working classes.

Nov. 10, 1893.]

E N G I N E E R I N G.

posals were formulated. This conference also was

abort ive.
The coalowners through the secretary of their
federation, then ex'pressed thei_r . willingness to meet
the men's represeutatives at a JOIUt conference. That
letter of the coalowners' secretary was considered a.t a
meeting of the executive of the .M iners' Federation
held a t Derby on Monday, October 30..The conference
was thereupon arranged, and met on Fnday and Saturday last at the \Vestminster Pala~e Hotel. ~he
miners' delegates represented York~hire, L an.cashire,
the Midland Federation, Derbyshire, N ottmghamshire Leicestershire, North "\Vales, and Monmouth,
also t he coal porters. Including the officials, there
were 36 or 37 delegates present. Mr. Chambers, coalowner, occupied the chair. 'rhe employers propo~ed
the following terms as a basis of agreement, pendmg
a final settlement : l. That there shall be a meeting
of an equal numbe~ of coalowners a nd miners' representatives, with the joint secretary of each bo?y as
ex o.tficio members, and three other pe~sons appomted
to act as conciliators, and at such meetmg, or such adjourned meeting as may be agreed upon, an endeavour
shall be made to arrange terms of settlement. 2. That
the gentlemen appointed to act as conciliators. shal,l be
agreed upon b~tw~en the coalowners. and mmer.s representatives Withm - - days from tbts date, or, If not
so agreed upon, - - - shall be requested to nominate
them, and they shall be appointed by the joint committee. The Miners' Federation submitted counterproposals, as follow : 1. That the men resume work
at the old rate of wages up to April 1, 1894. 2. That
the minimum &tandard rate of wages be 30 per cent.
above that of January, 18 8. 3. That a board of
conciliation be formed to deal with wages. 4. That
when the board is formed it shall determine the rate of
wages from Aprill , 1894. Those resolutions, or proposals, were discussed on the first day of the conference
without any decision being come to. On the second
day the discussion was renewed, when the chairman
stated that the coalowners could not accept Mr.
Pickard's proposals. But, inasmuch as one of the
chief difficulties appeared to be the terms upon which
the men should resume work pending the settlement,
the coalowners desired to submit further proposals.
The furth er proposals submitted to the conference
by t he coalowners were : 1. That a board of concilia... ..
tion, consisting of ten representative owners and

ten representatives of miners from different dis.....

trict federations, should be formed forthwith, to
meet on Wednesday, the 8th inst. 2. That the board
should proceed first to choose a. chairman-umpire, to
be independent of both parties; failing which at that
sitting, the chairman umpire shall be appointed by the
Speaker of the House of Commons, or some other
high authority. 3. 1~ hat the board shall have power
to deal with the present difficulty and decide the rate
of wages to be paid from the resumption of work, and
t o deal with the general wages question. 4. That to
settle the present difficulty, each party to be entitled
to bring what eviden ce they please before the board at
two full days' sittings, and after that has been done,
--the chairman-umpire may be called upon by either side
to give his decision as t o the rate of wages to be paid
from tha t date (the 8th inst.), and his decision shall be
"\YE illustrate on the present page a well-boring
TnE public will regard with deep concern and regret binding on both parties. 5. That the pits should remachine designed for use either with the diamond
boring bar, or with the percussive drill. The machine the failure of the conferenc-e of coalowners and miners' start work immediately after the decision of the board
is intended t o be driven by belt from a portable engine, 'es, held at the \ Ves tminster Palace Hotel on the terms of his (the chairman-umpire's) decision.
and is itself mounted on wheels, so that it can be on Friday and Baturd;ty last. 'l'h e confer <:- nce was pro- These proposals were discussed for some time, when
moved with facility. It is shown arranged for boring longed, being in session for several hours on the two Mr. Pickard ultimately stated that the matter would
with the diamond bar. The spindle shown is hollow, days, but the standpoints of the two parties were so have to be referred t o the men. The conference then
and is rotated by bevel gearing from the main shaft. much at variance that no settlement WSl.S arrived at. broke up, the employers making a fin al offer of arbitraThe successive 10-ft. rods pass through, additional \Yithout criticising the policy of t he two parties, tion. After the conference, the coalowners held a
lengths being added as the boring p roceeds. The feed which is, as a r ule, outside the pun~ie w of " Industrial private meeting, when the following decision was
is effected by the weight of the rods, but as the hole N otes," we may Yenture to express disappointment at arri ved at: tc In view of the position taken up to-day
grows deeper, the pressu re would be t oo great were the result, a result which is calamitous not only to coal- by the miners' delegates, the coalowners a re willing to
it not regulated. To this end the shackle over the owners and miners, but to the whole of the industries open their pits at a reduction of 15 per cent., such
rods is connected by two pitched chains to a mo,ra.ble of the kin gdom, and t o the community at large. The amount of 15 per cent. to be paid into a bank to the
platform at the back of the machine, aud on t his pla t- conference was so important, by reason of the vast credit of t he coalowners and of some one nominated
form weights can be placed to partially balance the interes ts a t stake, that a careful statement of the by the men, such sum to remain in the bank until a
rocls. ~'or withdrawing the rods there is provided a facts, in so far as they arc made public, will be of ser- final settlement of the dispute. \ V hen such settlement
lifting gear at the back of the machine, actuated by a vice as a record of a great opportunity lost, a failure is come to, the money in the bank to be then paid in
rope and handwheel, through the intermediary of a. all the more deplorable because of prolonged dispute, accordance with the decision arrived at at such settlepinion and spurwheel. The water for con\rerting the the losses and suffering endured, and the expectations ment." This was the situation at the close of the
borings into slurry is supplied by a pump at the back of a speedy settlement which had been raised by t he 1 day's conference, and of the private conference of the
of the machine.
mere fact of the conference having been arranged. To employers held subsequently on the same day, atur"\Vhen the soil to be bored is loose and friable, make the record complete, the ea.rlit r events which led day. The actual change in affairs was not very o-reat.
diamond drilling is useless, and recourse must be had up to the confer ence shonld be rest ated.
ome weeks
The representathes of the Miners' Federatio~ also
to the percussion system. The bearing of the ver t ical ago the Mayor of beffield called a conference of the met and passed the following resolutions: "(1) That
spindle is then removed, and the rods suspended mayors of several towns more or less directly afl'ected the employers' offer to have the present dispute settled
clirectly from the main rope barrel. This is driven by the coal dispute, with a view of endeavouring to by arbitration be placed before the men. (2) That this
from the pulleys through gearing and a friction clutch, effectu. settlement, or to suggest a basis for n egotiations conference regrets that no settlement has been arrived
and is controlled by a foot brake. The attendant is between the two parties. That conference was abor- at by the joint conference to-dc.y seeing that such
consequently able to lift and drop the drill with great tive in so far as its original intention was concerned, great interests are at stake. \Ve 'are confident that
ra.pidity, having it always under complete control. but it led t.o the withd rawa:l by the coalowners of their had the e~ployers. bee~ as conciliatory as the men's
The entire machine is fixed under a derrick, which is former notices for a reduchon of 25 per cent., and the representatives, thts disastrous conflict would have
constructed in parts which allow of its ready removal substitution therefor of 15 per cent. reduction. Be- terminated, and the responsibility must rest on the
and transport.
yond that nothing practically was done. The men re- employers for its continuance." It is evident that
Our engraving is from a photograph of a machine fused to accep t the 15 per cent. reduction, as they had each side will blame the other for the disastrous
sent by the makers, :Messrs. C. I sler and Co., of Bear- done p;eviously the 25 per cent. reduction. After failure of the conference. The public must judge.
lane, 'outhwark, London, to a mining company in some ttme had elapsed, a fur ther conference of the All the facts that could be gathered are given in the
Chili, who wish to be ahle to drill to a depth of m~yors was ~ eld, w~1en regret ~as expressed at the summ~ry ?f proceedings above, without any bias or
1200 ft,
fa1lure of theu previvns suggestiOns, but no new pro- . colonrmg m favour of either party. The conflict i~


E N G I N E E R I N G.
far too serious to be exaggerated or misrepresented in n.s compared with 576 idle on benefit, exclush~e of all
other members, making up a total of 6257. The
any case.
members have voted lOOl. to the miners by a Ycry
The news of the failure of negotiations was received large majority, and also decided to make the grant
in various district. with som ethin g like consternation. out of the funds rath er than by levy at present.
It is said that the Derbyshire men received the news
The report of the Accountant to the Board of Conwith gloom and despair. Hopes had been entertained
that some modus zil'emli would have been found, so that ciliation and Arbitration for thE), manufactured iron
work might have been resumed, p ending a final settle- and steel trade of the North of England shows an
ment. In Lancashire, especially in the St. Helens district, average selling price of 4l. 16s. ll~d. p er ton. This
there was dismay at the failure of the negotiations. In leaves the wages as previously under the sliding
Yorkshire there is an uneasy feeling, especially among scale. The question of wages and the revision of the
the tradespeople, who have given credit to the men to scale was discussed at a r ecent meeting of the worka considerable amount. In the Sheffield district there men's representatives on the Board, when it was
were eager expectations of a compromise, which the decided to instruct the operatives' representatives t o
failure of negotiations has dashed to the ground. In agree to a rene wal of the sliding scale on the condition
Staffordshire things are not so bad, but it was hoped that the whole of the claims for the revision of rates to
that some arrangement would have been come to for be paid in the manufacturing iron department should
the resumption of work. Generally it is felt that the be withdrawn; the question affecting the steel rates
conference ought not to have separated finally until to be submitted to the Board, and, if necessary, t o an
some decision of even a temporary character could iudependent arbitrator ; failing this, to ask that the
have been arrived at, so that the pits could re-start. ~lidiug ~cale basis of 2s. abo,e shillings for pounds be
In most districts the funds are wholly exhausted, the m creased, so as to maintain the recognised proportions
families subsisting only upon the casual subscriptions compared with the Midlands. This does not look as
collected, the levies of those in work, and the credit if a uniform scale will be accepted by all parties.
In the Staffordshire district the Wages Board
allowed by local tradespeople.
announce that there is a drop of 7s. 3d. per ton in the
--The Northumberland coalowners have conceded an average selling price in twelve months. Compared
ad,ance of 5 per cent. for twelve weeks, that is, on with two years ago, the drop is 5s. 4d. per ton.
conditions Rimilar to those conceded by the Durham Wages, however, remain unaltered at 7s. 6d. per ton.
coalowners about a. week or so ago. The representa- The value of the scale is seen in the regularity of the
tives of the men accepted the advance on those condi- rates paid.
tions, but they say that no such conditions have ever
The Royal Commission on Labour have been meeting
before been imposed, either on a n advance or in the
case of a reduction. It is a new departure in those to consider their report. A draft report has been
prepared, but it will take a considerable time to distwo counties.
cuss all its details, and agree upon one general r eport.
Efforts are being made t o heal the deplorable There are rumours of a minority report, and some
differences which ha.Ye for some time existed between think that there will be more than one. But some of
the several bodies of miners in South "\Vales, and which the members are not so keen upon certain points as
led to the recent strikes in the Principality. The they were at the outset.
--main difference was with respect to the sliding scale.
The condition of the engineering trades in LancaThe South \Vales men contend that the federationists
must accept the scale as a basis of wages in the manage- shire has not undergone much change, nor can it
ment of the affair.a in , ou th vValee. An assurance on while the coal strike lasts. Operations are to a
that m l.tter will pave the way for the resumption <.J large extent interfered with, owing to the dearth
friendly r elations with the federation, and co-o peration and dearness of fuel, otherwise there is a more.
as regards the eight hours, a.nd the Mines Regulation hopeful tone as to the future. In some cases more
i_n quiry is reported, and t he outlook is regarded as
Bill of the miner~.
somewhat more favourable than it was. Generally,
Proposals are on foot for the establishment, or rather however, engineering establishments are only modeit should be the re-establishment, of a Joint Concilia- rately supplied with work, very few having pressing
tion Boa.rJ in Durham. For several years t here was orders. Machinists are quietening down in so far as
such a Board, but in some way it broke down a few the weight of new work coming forward is concerned,
years ago. "\Vith recent experiences it is possible that and there is less pressure in those branches which had
the difficulties formerly met with will be overcome. been tolerably busy up to the coal dispute. In the
The miners before consenting have asked for further iron trade, business remains very much in abeyance,
information as to the exact proposals, but they show pending the reopenin g of the coal pits, th e hope being
that the conference wonlcl settle the dispute. Manuno host11ity thereto.
factured iron only experiences a moderate request for
The miners of :Ivlid and East L~thian struck work present purposes, but prices are tolerably firm. In the
early last week in consequence of the non-concession steel trade there is very little doing, prices being about
of the 10 per cent. rise in wages which they had de- as they were. There are no labour disputes of any
manded. On the day after the strike th e coalowners consequence in any of these branches of industry, the
met, and decided to concede the advance, thus ending rates of wages being well maintained.
the di~pute, without further cessation of work.
The Cleveland miners are mostly at work again ;
The Scotch miners, at a conference held on Friday only twenty-six are out of work over the "ratchet"
last, agreed to invite the English and 'Velsh miners strike, and these are to be paid weekly 15s. per week
to an " international" conference, to be held in some and l s. 6d. per child until the 18th inst ., when strike
central place in England, with the view of discussing pay is to cease. The Cleveland men are levying themand arranging a general line of policy in the matter of selves for the federation miners out on strike.
output, to apply t o all the mining districts of Great
Britain. The Scotch miners are strong on this p oint.
In the " ' olverhampton district trade generally has
The Parliamentary Committee of the Trade Union continued fairly good. The demand for pig iron is
Congress have issued an appeal to all the trade unions fully equal to the output, and evcu stocks have been
of the country urging the claims of the miners to their drawn upon to meet the requirements of consumers for
consideration in the dispute now subsisting between prompt delivery. The demand for first-class brands is
them and their employers. A meeting of "English- not so good ; but for other sorts or classes, such as
women" was held in St. J ames's Hall on Tuesday merchants' iron plates, sheets, hoops, &c., the orders
last, to appeal for help for the starving families of come in sufficiently regularly to keep the works going.
miners, irrespecti ve of the merits or demerits of th~ The large steel works are in full swi n~, but ma kers
dispute. Several miners' wives were in vited, and a say that orders have to be accepted Lelow profitable
number of "leading ladies " promised ass istance in the rat es at the present p rices of fu el. The forges are only
m ovement. One newspaper h a~ collected between in partial operation in some cases from this eau~ e.
ll,OOOl and 12,000l. , another over 5000Z., and another There are no labour disputes of any consequence in any
about 600l., irrespective of local subscriptions in the of the iron, steel, engineering, or cognate branches of
provinces and the levies of the miners at work, th e indust ry in the district.
grants of trade unions, and the private subscriptions of
In the Birmingham district bu3iness was somewhat
members of Parliament. But with all the help there
is dire distress, and it is becoming more and more better during the past week, as orders which were
acn te. The privation has extended to othe~ trade_s, being held back in the hope of easier prices appra r to
in maoy instances as the result of the coal d1spute, m have been placed. But these were mostly for present
others by r eason of the depression in various Lranches requirements. The supply of pig iron was scarcely
equal to the demand, with the r esult that prices were
of industry.
well maintained. There has been an increased inq uiry
--The report of th e Ironmoulders of Scotland is not so for bedstead strips and angles, an indication of a. little
depressing as some recent ones ba,re been. There ap- improvement in those branches of local trade. The
p ear to be fewer out of work, the demands upon the major portion of the staple industries of th e district
funds are not so great, and the income has exceeded are in a quiet condition, with little to indicate the
the expenditure, len.ving a balance to the good of 27:3l. usual incr ease of activity at this season of the year in
in the mouth. The total number working was 4237, certain branches. There are no labour disputes of any




consequence in the district, and no rumours of reductions in wages.

In Parliament there is some anxiety over the Em

ployers ' Liability Bill. Several of the Government
supporters are pledged to vote against the clause which
forbids contracting out of the Act. A good deal of
canvassing is going on in favour of the London and
North-Western scheme of insurance, while some favour
a universal sche~e of compensation for injuries from
whatever cause. In this conflict of opinion the fate
of the Bill is in the balance, though the second reading
is, it is said, assured. It is argued that the London
and North-Western wonld not really be prejudiced at
all by the Bill, for it is doubtful if any of their men
would e\er attempt litigation under the Act, inasmuch
as the provision made is regarded as satisfactory. Rut
the legal right would exist in any case, with, of course,
all the dangers of litigation, not only to the company,
but to the men. The latter would lose more than the
former by any lawsuit.

THE Board of Trade have just issued, under the provisions of the Boiler Explosion Acts, 1882 and 1890, an
interesting report on the explosion of a. cylinder used in
the process of paper manufacturing, whiCh occurred on
June 10 last at the works of the Mill End Paper Company, Rickmansworth, and by which three men were
scalded, one of them severely. The cylinder in question
was a cylindrical cast-iron vessel, 4 ft. 6~ in. in dtameter,
and 5 ft. 0 13~ in. in length. It was supported on trunnionf',
one at each end, on whicb, when at work, it revolved,
motion being communicated to it by a. steam engine fixed
in the same building. It was heated by steam taken
direct from two Cornish boilers, the steam passing from
them into the machine-room through a 1!m. wroughtiron pipe, then through a brass stopcock into a 1-in.
pipe, by which it was conducted through the trunnions
into the cylinder. There was an escape for the condensed
water and steam through the trunnion at the opposite end
of the cylinder by means of a brass stopcock into a. pipe
which led to a tank placed below the machine. The
inflow and outflow of steam were regulated by means of
brass stopcocks, according, as the Commissioners were
told, to the temperature required in the cylinder, for, when
there was thick paper to be manufactured, a higher temperature was reqUired than was necessary for thin paper.
The condensed water fell, as it formed in the cylinder, to
the bottom 1 and was collected or wa.s caused to flow into
a. cast-iron dish by means of an iron plate bolted to the
inside of the cylinder. This plate extended the whole
length of the cylinder, and water was raised by it ss
the cylinder revolved, and a similar plate placed
radially was arranged to cause it to flow into the dish.
The thickness of the cylindrica.l part of the vessel varied
from ~ in. to {j in. One end was cast in one piece with
the cylinder, a.nd its thickness at the outer edge ranged
from ~ in. to t-& in., and near the centre from 1! in. to
1lrr in. There was a.n elliptical-shaped manhole opening
in this end, measuring 14 in. by 10~ in., to which was
fitted a cast-iron door, secured by two bolts and crossbars.
The other end was e:ast separately from the cylinder, and
was secured to the flange by means of ;! in. square-beaded
screws, s_paced 8g in. apart. Its thickness ranged from
H in. to g in. at the outer edge, to about 1! in. near the
centre. 'l'he age of the cylinder could not be ascertained,
but the evidence obtained by the Board of Trade went to
show that it was more than forty, and probably more
than fifty years old. The boilers which supplied the
steam were worked at 45 lb. pressure, the safety valves
blowing off at 50 lb. on the square inch.
The cylinder gave way at the ends, both of which were
brokon into several pieces, while large portions of the
main body were also broken and hurled to considerable
distances, one piece falling on a lawn 25 yards away. The
roof of the building, the steam engine, and other
machinery were wrecked, a.nd the brickwork was scattered in all directions. It is probable that one of the
ends first gave way, and that the other was broken
inwards by the force with which it a.nd the cylindet' were
dashed against the wall of the building.
The explosion was due to over-pressure. What the
pressure actually was could not be poPitively determin ed,
but the Corr1missioners state that there i3 very little
doubt that it was nearly equal to the pressure on the
boilers at the time, which was by the stoker in
charge to be 48 lb. on the square inch. The Uommissioners
further say : " \Ve are of opinion that in cvnsequence of
the inlet and outlet cocks being improperly adjusted, and
the absence of any relief valve being fitted to the e:ylinder
or the steam pipe, the pressure gradually increased in the
cylinder until i tl exploded.,
At the formal investigation, conducted by Mr. Howard
Smith and Mr. Mcintyre, some valuable evidence was
given by Mr. E. B. Donkin, of the firm of Messrs. Bryan
Donkin and Co., of Bermondsey, and Mr. G. E Brown,
engineer surveyor to the Board of Trade. Messrs.
Donkin have manufactured cylinders of this description
e>er since 1803, but the one in question was not made by
that firm.
Mr. Donkin stated that the cylinders they turned out,
although more strongly constructed than the one which
had exploded (inasmuch as their plates were thicker,
their ends domed and not cast in one with the cylindrical
part, and there being no manhole), were formerly intended
to be used at a pressure of from 4 lb. to 6 lb. only. In
later yeare they had allowed this pressure to be increased
from 6 lb. to 8 lb , the limit of safety which Mr. Donkin

Nov. 10, 1893.]

stated be would assign to them be~ng that. of 10 lb. Ile
also stated that it wa~ the practl ce of h1.s firm to ~ t a
relief valve on these cyl inder s or on th~1r steam p~pes,
and if they fitted the m up t hey were m the h a b1t of
fi ng a steam pressure gauge to be used as a check on t~e
rJief val ve. The cylinders we~e t est erl . b~ hydra uhc
ressure to 15 lb. or 20 lb. accordmg to their Size.
p ~Ir Brown in his ev iden ce stat ed that the ex plosion
! due to the ends being too weak for the pressure to
:hioh the cyl inder wa.~ subjected , which ~as probably
between 45 lb. and 50 lb. One end was paf~wula.rly_ weak
at the inner edge of the manb~le. Acco~dmg to hts ca.l
ula.tions the ratio of the opemng of the mlet cook at the
~ime of the explosion to that of the _outlet was 4. 34 .to 1, so
that the steam would go in four times as fast a.s It cat?e
out, and th e ou tle t cock would affC?rd n o practical reh e f
to the cylinder. The safe worklDg pressure for th e
cyl inder, in Mr. B~o wn's opinion,. ~as only about 7 1~.
per square inch, whHh, the CommiSSlon~rs state, p~actt
ca.lly agreed with the result they had arnved at by md ep endent calcula t ion. It was manifest, therefore, that the
cylinder could not have been worked at a. pressure exceed in 10 l b per squa re inch w ithout d anger.
the B~ard of Trade attributed blame. t~ Mr. J: A.
Wells, the ma naging owner, for not as<?erta.mmg d efimt ely
the safe working pressure of the cyhnder, and ordered
him to pay the sum of 20l. t owards the costs and e xp enses
of the invest igation.
The report concludes ":i t~ the r ecommend ation ~hat
"on cylinder s of this descrtptwn, or on the st~a.m ptpes
leading frora the boilers which supply them With st eam,
there should be fitted a. relief valve, and also a steam
gauge to be used as a check on su ch a valve. The
maximum pressure at which a cylinder could be sa fely
worked should then be determined, and the relief valve
weighted accordin gly. "

On the Workin9 of Steam P umps on the R ussian South Western R 'Lilways. *
By Mr. ALEXAN DER B oRODIN, Engineer -Director .
THE steam pump! employed for t.h o water suppl~ t o
the stations of the South-W ast ern R :Hl ways are of va rtous
kinds, and in consequence of the gro~th of the traffi c,
new pumps la rger and m ore econom10al, are constantly
having to b~ procured . With a. v.iew to r ed?ce the cost
of working and main tenance, a. s.en~s of exp~rtments we re
made wi th the pumps at the prmctpal st a t1on s for ascsrta.ining the c:>st of the water supply and the useful work
performed by the d ifferent kinds of pumps, as well as by
individual pumps of the same .kind .working under di~e
rent conditions. The successt ve tnals h_ave ~een ca.rrted
out during the p!lst few years, and are sttll g~mg on; the
results alrea dy arrived at, h owe ver, are plam enough to
be now made known.
The experiments were all alike conducted in the following manner. E aoh trial lasted from four t o nine hours ,
during which time obser va tions were made of th e fuel
consumption of the boile r feed -water, of the number of
strokes of the pump, and of its t f>tal d eli very.; the las t
waa ascertained either by a wa ter m eter or by dtrect m easurement of th e water le vel in the s upply tanks. At the
same time the pressure or h ead of wa.ter in the d eli very
pipe close to the pump was n oted by a pressure ~auge,
both when the pump was at work, and also wh en It was
standing with the delivery pipe full of wa ter . . T o ~he
delivery bead when at work was added the suct 10n ltft,
so as to ge~ the total heig~t h in. feet to wh_ic~ th~ wa ter
was raised by the pump, 1ncludtog the frtct 10n lD both
pipe3. Then the weight in p ounds of water w pumped
per hour being also known, th e horse-p0wt:r of the u 3eful
work done by the pump would be H .P. = w x h +
(60 X 33, 000).
From these observations was determined-firstly, the
weight of water pumped in p ounds per pound of steam
or rather of feed water, a nd p er pound of fu el ; second ly,
the consumption of st eam Ol' of feed water p er honr and
per useful hor~ e-power ; and thirdly, the foot-pound s of
useful work p erformed by the pump p er p ound of feed
water. Moreover, by comparing the volume en gendered
by the pum{> with the volume of water d eliver ed during
the same time, the efficiency of the pump itself was
arrived at. The evaporation p er p ound of fuel was
also determined ; and in soms cases the con sumption of
fuel for getting up steam.
The experiments were mad e by several obser vers, a nd
with great care. and all necessary precautions were ta k ~n .
The wa.ter level in the boiler was brought back to th e tJame
heigh t at th e end of th e trial as at the baginning. \V here
the boiler was fed direct from the d eli ve: y ptpe of the
pump, the feed water was added t o the quantity of water
deli vered io to the ta.nk; and no water was drawn off from
the tank du1ing the trial. The fuel consumed WM a ccurately weighed. rrhe following pumps wer e all tried in
th eir ordtna.ry working condition, w ithout any sp ecial
p reparations being made for the trials.
1. R eschitz Pu.mp1.- These are pumps of old make, put
up twenty year3 ago at the time of the Od essa line b eing
C!>nstructed. They are driven by a. h orizon tal engine witb
flywheel, whioh through gea.ring gi ves a r eciprocating
movement t o a lever; connecting-rods from the lever
work the p um ps, which are fi xed in a. well at suoh a d epth
a.s to be a.l wa.ys above wa ter. ThA ob ject of th e g earing
is to give the pumps a. slower piston speed than th e s team
piston, because in tho~e early days it wa s found necessary
to work th e p umps very slowly. These machines are exceed iogly bulky and heavy, taking up a great deal of
room, and requiring strong foundations ; they are troubl esome to e rect, and also to maintain.

E N G I N E E R I N G.
2 . Cail P umps.-These are also of old ma~e, dri ven by
a portable engine with belt pulley, from wht ch th e power
is t a ken through a b elt and gearing and connecti~ g-.rod to
a h or izontal pump; th e centre lin.e of the pumi? IS m the
same vertical pla n e as the con t re ho e of the eng me. These
mach ines a re still bulkier t h a n the preced ing, and take up
a good d eal of r oom leng~hw~y s ; .they r equire costly
fouod ations, and are ex pensi ve 10 m a mtenance.
3. Ord inar y P umps and V ertical EtVJi"'}e~.- O_ne from
the Lilpop Rau W orks was pu ~ up at Jme r.mka I!l 1878;
and another at Kieff at the t1me of the hne betng con
atructed. Wh ere the latter waR made is not known.
4. Cockerill Pumps and H or izontal E ngines. - The
engines are of good m~ke, with doub!e slide-valve~ and
flywh eel the pump is e1ther worked direc t by the plston r od of th ~ st eam cylind er, or else is driven off the flywh eel
Fha.ft through gearing for r educing the speed of the pu m p .
These a re amon g the m ore p owe rful s team pumps, worki ng on long pipes wi th great differ en ces of l.e vel. B ot.h
engines and p ump s are well worked out 1n all th etr
de tails and well m ad e ; but they ara bulky a nd cost ly,
occupy'ing a la rge space and r eq uiring exp ensive foundation s.
5. P u.lso'ffUters and I njectors.- T en or fifteen years ago
these a p plia nces wer e for som e time m uch in vogue,
o wing t o _their _ll i!Dplicity, comp~ctness, and ch eapness.
They a re In s tnkmg contrast with the hea Yy and bulky
machin es a lready d escribed.
G. B ayu:ard T yler D irect-A cting .P umps. - Th~se a re
d evoid of flywh eel or ext ernal movmg parts, ha.vmg t h e
pump p iston on the same h ori zontal . rod as the s team
piston. They are r emarkable for their compactness, for
the sm all sp ace they occupy, and for t~e ingenious diAtribution of the st eam by means of a sltde va.l ve a rranged
ins ide the h ollow. pist on of th e steam cylind er . They
need scarcely any found ation, and can be placed on a
li ghtly fixed beam.
7 and 8 . Worthtng ton Ord inary and Cumpound P umps ,
and B lake Compound P umps.- These pumps, of Ame!ican
invention are l ike the Hayward Tyler, hor1 zon t a.l duecta cting, a~d r~markable for compa~tness, for facility of
erect ion a nd for the sm a ll founda t iOn s they n red. The
Worth i~ g ton pumps esp ecially, owin~ to the high . speed
of the p ump pist on s, are rema rkably h ght . small, s1mple,
and ch eap in spite of h aving two st eam cylmders and t wo
pumps ar;anged close to each other; the pis ton -rod of
eac h pump m oves th e slide-val ve of the st eam cylinder of
the other pump. The hi~h .sp eed. o~ the pump on in
the \Vorthi ngton pumpa ts m stnkmg contrast .with that
in the old kind of pumps, in which the p ump ptst on h ad
to be worked at a ve ry low speed. For exam ple, the
R eschit z pump at Katerinovka s ta tion a nd the Cock erill
pump at W essiolly ~oute station ~ork at only 33.5 ft.
and 39.4 ft. p er mmute .. res pect1 v~ly; wh ereas the
Worthington PU!D P at ~rl J Opol stat~on ~or~s at 100ft.
per minute, and Its ma.x1mum s peed 1s et1ll h1gh er. All
n e w pumps that are now .being p ut up on t~ e South'Vest ern Railwayd are exclustvely of the Worthmgton or
Blake kind.
Trials.- All the eogi~es tried in. these exp~riments
were working without condensa tiOn, exceptmg the
H ayward Tyler pumps a t Zl.bnlotie s ta t ion a nd the
vVorthington pumps at B irzoub. In t h ese cases, h owever the condensers were inferior; and in the two tria ls,
th er~fore as seen in T a ble IV. append ed, n ot much good
r esult.ed from con den sing the st eam. F r om the princ ip:1l
r esults observed, which are given in Table IV., the
following con clusion s may be dra wn .
F irstly the effi ciency of the steam ex p ended m rats tn g
water for' the supply of a. rail way s tation d e pends largely
upon the quantity of wa t er suppli e~ per h~ur; an~ t~e
greate r this quantity, up t o a certa.m m axtmum ltmtt,
the m ore ad vantageou sly d oes th e pump work. U nd er
the conditi ons of ordinary working, T a ble I . sh ows the
head in feet against the different pumps, the delivery in
gallons per hour, and in pounds per pound of stea m, and
the work in foot-pounds per pound of steam .

I.- Work D one by Steam Pumps.


Name of 'Pump and

Head of Water.





Ff ~"'''a."d -Ty l Pr .

3 l ft. to 46 f t.
Zdolbounovo .. 3654
E l i zave t~ rad . .
Razdelnaia 1327
184 ft. to 207 ft.
Gol r.a. . .
26 H

Demkovka. 2223
Wo rthin~ton non\'ka .. 3i01
compou nd .
- . f'hdstino
1\ aza.tine

112ft. to 131ft.
8 0-l
;- Zriolboun ovo . .

184 fli. to 190 ft. { Ogenine

'Wo r th i n~ton corn- ""

I' Birzoula.

fi5S ft. to 591 f t. J
Blake compound. }

068 ft. to 591 tt.

{ ..


Pound Pou
Steam. Steam.
36 1

58 5



I 10,760
11,4' 0


1 000
19, 46:>







S econdly, the effi ciency of the steam d ep ends like wise

upon the size of the pumps, which aga in depends upon
th e quantity of water d eli vered p er hour, a~ well as upon
the height t o whic h it is lifted; and the con sumption of
st eam per useful horse- power diminishes a s the work done
by the pump increa ses. This is illustrated i n Table IT.,
which for each of four kinds of pumps gives a. comparison
*' rea.d before the Institution of Mecha.nic.ll of the steam consumption p er horse-power per hour in
various examples of the same kind.


II. - Steam Con sumption in Steam Pump s.



Eliza V('tgrad


1. os
Po1ooshnaia. ..


1 97

2. 47
Gol ta. ..

Ka.terinovka. .

a.7 L

Demkovka. ..

1. 78

. . 2. 12
Worthington non- Koublitoh
4. 04
Ki vertzy

' ] 5 62
o!~ nin e
Z olbounovo
Kri jopol

Wortbington com { Gaim ne
Wessiolly Koute H .7CI
.. , 28. 41
{ Razd t:lnaia
Blake compound .. Kazatine

Steam used
per Horse.l'ower per



.. I



'i $



The slight discrepancies noticeable in Table II. are

d oubtless owing t o accidental causes. The large; consumption of st eam p er h orse-p ower per hour m the
smalle r pumps is explained by the well-known fact. that
the useful effect of small engines is less, while the mfluence of their useless r esista.nces is greater .. The same fa~t
explains also the gen erally large consumption observed m
all t he steam pumps tried, which ranges in Table IV.
from 690 lb. down to 50 l b. p er horse-power per hour.
For comparing the steam con sumption in these ste!'l'm
pumps with tha t of ordinary high-pressure non-conde~sm~
engines, which ranges from 30 lb. down to 20 lb. per lD~l
cat ed horse-power per hour, the useful horse-power m
th e pump would have to be r eplaced by the ind~cated
horse-power in the steam cylinder. U nfortunately m the
experiments h er e d ealt with n o indicator diagrams w e re
t a k en; and the subs titution of the indicated horse- pow~r
in the cylinder can ther efor e be f ffec ted only by the aid
of observations made on other steam pumps. In M r . F.
Colyer 's work on "Pumps and Pumping Machinery "
(1882 p ages 64-80), a d escription is giv en of various experi~ents on la rge condensing pumping engines ; from
whi ch it appears that in steam pumps developing from
100 to 300 horsep ower the u seful work forms from 72 to 82
p~r cent. of the indicat ed h orse-p ower; or inversely, the
indicated power exceeds the u seful work by 39 to 22 per
cent. In trials made of a pumping engine at Colmar
the useful work amounted to 77 p er cent. of the indicated
p ower . Doubtl e~ s in small pumps, su ch as those for t h e
s upply of railway stations, fri ction and other u seless
resi stances absorb a large portion of the power developed
in the steam cylinders; and the smaller the J?Ump the
greater is this loss. Experiments made in England
on a small engin e in a. mec hanical laboratory show
tha t with 10.53 and 14.29 indicated horse-power the
corr~ p o nding brak e h orse-power w as 6.85 and 10.60
resp ecti vely, that is, the indicated exceeded the
brake hor se-power by 54 to 35 p er cent. (ENGINEERING,
D ecember 25, 1891, page 744}. On the oth~r band, in
direct-acting n on conde nsing steam pumps, without any
revol ving shaft or connecting gear-such as the \Vorthington, Blake, and other pumps- the internal resistances a r e
less than in the more complica ted condensing engines
having flywh Eels and connec tin(S' gear for d riving the
pumps; thus, according to expenme nts made by MeEs r ~ .
Mair a nd Simpson on a Worthington pump developing
n early 100 h orse p ower, the u seful work even r eached as
much a.s nearly 90 p er cent. of the indicated power. I t
will p robably be n ot far from correct t o assume that in
the Worthington compound pump at :Birzoula., d eveloping
28 useful horse-power, the indicated horse-power was
40 per cent. higher , amounting to 40 horse-power; in
which case the cons umption of 53 lb. of steam p&r u seful
horse-power will be equivalent to 37 l b. per indicated
horse-power. If that be so, it would seem that even the
best and most p owerful pumps for the supply of railway
stations-such as the 'Vorthington vump among those
her e dealt with- may req uire from 40 to 50 per cen t . more
steam than modern non-conden sing engines. IT.l the r es t
of the pumps tried, the s team consumption was considera bly greater still.
It will further be seen how far the small pumps employed at railway stations are inferior in efficiency t o the
large pumping engines u sed for mines or wat er work s .
In the best Cornish and oth er pumping engines, Mr.
Colyer states that 1 c wt. of good Engli h coal produces a
duty of fr (lm !H to 112 million foot-pounds of work.
Assuming that 1lb. of coal, burnt under favourable conditiot s of holler firing, will evaporate as much as 10 lb.
of water, it follows that 1lb. of steam will produce from
84,000 to 100,000 foot-pounds of work. Now the mobt
economical of the steam pumps a lready d escribednamely, the non-condensing W orthington compound at
Birzoula, gi ,es only 37,400 foot-pountis of useful work
per pound of steam, or 2~ times less than the best
pumping engines of large size. The latter, it is t rue,
are all condensing engines; yet when the same W orthin gton pump was worked conde nsing, though with an
i nferior conden ser, its duty was increased only to 39,700
foot-pounds per p ound of st eam. The rest of the steam
pumps gave still less economical r esult s. It may be
observed that water works pumping engines f3.ll far short
of the duty of Corni ~b engines ; thus the engines recently
erected at Sa.mara yield a duty of only 51,600 foot-pounds
per pound of steam, ins t ead of 100,000 foot-poun d~.
Thirdly, when the results of the present e xperiments



[Nov. 10, 1893.


- - - - ---

Steam Con



P n tP.





8 .


















Per Hour.


New P umps.


Work Done.

.. -



Water Raised.

parison can be made of the results obtained with the old

and ~b e n.e~ pump, in water raised per pound of steam,
and m effieten cy or foot-pounds of work done. This com parison is shown in Table III.
T ADLE III.- Comparison of W 01k done by Old and


Old and New Pum ps .

Pumped Done Per
per Pound Pound of
of Steam. StPam.




4 7. 5

ft.- lb.

Old Reschi tz pu mp ..
{ New Blake compound . .
Old Cail pump . .
lb. lb. lb. lb. revs. p. c. ft. gals.
New Worthington ordi lb.
h.-p. ft. lb. Krijopol ..
/ Za.ti chi ~..
. . Donetz coal 88.4 40
540 145 6. 10 13.6 76 397 1,850 18,500 34.3 3.71 13,620
nary ..
.. 103
Katerino,ka. . .
46 f) 40
Old Cockerill pump ..
306 114 6.53 13.1 328 1,620 16,200
53.0 2.69 17,390
Golta. . .
86.9 45
452 183 5.20 14.3 78 !84 2,640 26,400
58.5 2.47 10,760 Wessiolly Route \ New Worth ington com.
Reschitz ..
. . . . Razdelnaia
. . Cardiff coal
pound ..
13.0 . . 207 1,330 13,300
280 203

47.5 1.38 9,840

Shestakovka . .
Olct Hayward Tyler .. 129
525 266 6.58 13.2 70 256 1,530 15,300
28. 1 1.97 7,190
Pomoshnaia . . Donetz coal 46. 7 22
New Worthington ordi304 279 6.50 18.0 71 210 1,020 10,200 33.5 1.09 7,050 Zdolbouno,o, Elizavetgrad . .
59.5 22
276 279 4.90 17.0 78 197 990 9,900 36.1 0.99 7,090
> Bl~~~Ycon,;pound. pu~p 52.6
29, ~30
. . .. Worthington compound

withou Lcondeneati0n
Fastov ..
97. 0 35
254 136 2. 40 14.6 97 128 2,820 28,200 120
1.87 16,360
.... Simultaneously wi th the change of pumps t he source of
Vertical, Lilpop
supply was also changed, whereby the gross head against which
~ diffe- . .
Ra.u Works .. Jm6rinka
341.7 45 Ll46 136 3.35 29.8 70 361 4,600 46,000 3<3

8.41 13,710 ~h e pum~ w_ork ~d was i_ncreased from 46 ft. up to 128 tt., includrent
Vertical, origin unmg the fnctton m the p1pes.
known . .
. . Kieff
313 129 3.60 21.5 90 919 4, 970 49,700 164
56 0 40

2. 42 15,060 The superiority, howe ver, of the newer kinds of pumps

to ~be older will nob follow directly from this comPereorestovo . . Donetz l'Oal 134.9 60
747 81 6.50 10.9 81 604 3,020 30,200 40.4
9.21 24,380 panson; for all the newly erected pumps, being d esigned
Cockerill ..
Wessiolly Koute
9.6 80 640 2,n30 25, 300 39
96.6 60 650 79 6.73
8.19 24,940 for a larger quantity of water than the pumps th ey
562 108 6.38 11.3 77 4i2 2,180 21,800 38.9 5.21 18,05(}
supersed ed, should on that very account b e more econoc.
Klestoh ely
. . Deal wood 163.1 60

364 860 2.23
. . 38 ~. 200 22,000 6t
0.42 2,300 mical. The consumption of fuel p er gallon of wat er

Injector ..

178.6 60 397 14?1 2 23
~ 1,410 14,100
0.28 1,310 raisGd at these s tations fell off in prop ortion I o the

increased efficiency shown by the figur es in Table Ill.

Fifthly, it is inter esting to compare with the r esults
Hayward Tyler.
Without condensa- 1 Zdolbounovo.. .. OJ.k wood 109.1 50
46 3,650 36,500 129
284 310 2.68 84.4 76
0.92 5,9JO observed on the South- Wes tern Rail ways th ose obtained
.. f Zabolotie
33 2,460 24,600
122.6 50
276 69(J 2.24 99.4 . .
0.40 2,950 elsewhere by other observers as to the p erformance of
With condensation
136.0 60
. . 33 3,020 30, ~00 101 0.4 9 3,310 pumps. ~ome of the prin cipal m a y ther efore b e quotAd
2~8 610 2 .Hl 103. 7
l{rijopol t
. . Donef z coal 86.9 70
633 77 7.28 60
83 249 6,510 65,100 103
8.19 25,690 m conclus10n.
In the J ournal of the S ociety of G erman Engineers
Zdol hounoyo .. Deal wood 166.2
604 107 3.62 50
88 128 ~.8oo 88,000 152
5.67 19,460
Og6oine . .
. . Firewood 151.0 '/0
551 9fs 3.65 50
8 9 18J 6,100 61,000 111
6.62 20,4 10 (1886, page 16) is briefly quoted the comparative fu el
Worthiogton ordi~ < Kazati ne
151.9 60
478 104 3.15 60
85 131 6,890 68,900 144
4.58 18,600 consumption in raising water by m eans of a pulsometer
nary, from Liszt Ki vert zy
106.7 60
375 93 3.50 50
86 141 6,680 56,800 152
4.04 21,460 and of s team pumps both ordinary and compound con~
Works, Mos~ow Koubli tch
. . Donetz coal 38.6 GO
251 11 ~ 6.50 50
85 190 2 , 2~0 22,200
88.5 2.12 16,830 densing ; the results in the three cases are in the ratio
CbrisLioovka . .
60.9 75
326 183 6.40 oO
85 112 3,300 33,000 l Ot
1. 78 11,4!50
, Deokovka
83 112 2,220 22,200 102
28. 0 65
216 1R3 7. 75 50
1.18 11,380 20:10: 4. The con c;umption of twice as much fuel with
the pulson:'eter as 'Yitb the ordinary pumps agrees with
Worthiogton com-" Gaicine . .
51.6 75
333 94 6.45 50
82 323 2,190 21,900 66.9 3.55 21,200 th_e foregomg expenments. But _as for the cons umption
pound, with coo- ' Wessiolly Koute
895 61 7.03 3JA 97 71 5 4,070 40, 700
14.7 32,810 w1th an ord mary s team pump b emg reduced in th e ratio
densflt ion
. . .,~ Birzoula
80 1429 60 5.88
90 591 9,550 95,500 67. 1 28. 4 :39, 700 ?f 10 to 4 by altering ~be engine t o compound condensing,
With heating and
1t appears t o the wrtter that such a statement greatly
without condeoex aggerates the actual saving.
260.1 80 1486 b~ 5.7S 85
90 59. 9,420 9 1, 200
63.4 28.0 37.400

In th e Journal of the Franklin Inst itute (October 1889
Without heating and
pages 276-293) a re published som e interesting ~x peri~
"\\ i 11ont coodensatbn
275.6 80 1587 56 5. 74 85
90 591 9,460 94,600
59.7 28.3 35,270 menta bv Mr. I sh erwood, engineer -in-chief of the U nited

" coal ..
S tates Navy, on the compa r a ti ve work d on e by an ordi558
nary steam pum p,_by a r otary pump driven from the fly141 11,040 ll0,400 166
. . Firtwood 207. 7 60
Ela k e compound
666 84 8.~0 26
7.89 23,590

516 t o 3.18 20
91 135 8,410 84,100 163
5. 76 22,0 0 wheel of the ordmary st eam pump, and by an inj ector.
162. 0 60
. . Cardiff coal
Works ..
.. Razdclnah
474 92
2231 4,530 45,300 95.8 5.13 21,460 All three .wer e employed during the trial in pumping

out the bilge-wate r of a vessel and d eli vering it to a

hei~ht of 17 fb. 8 in. Their d eliveries p er hour wers-e* At Zdolbounovo until 1891 the feed -water was supplied from a well situated in the station by means of a Hayward Tyler ordn~a~y
pump, 4520 gallons ; rotary p~mp, 3920 gallons ;
pump ; since 1891 it has been obtained from a stream by means of a Worthington pump.
t From America.
and mJ ector, 25~0 gallon s. In comparmg these with th e
corresponding results from the pumps at Zaholotie and
are classified according to the several kinds of pump emthe inj ect or at Klest chely, it will be noticed that the
R eschitz pump.
ployed. the following conclusions are arri ved at.
quantity of water is g reater in the former. but the h eight
c. The steam pumps in most exten sive u se cannot of su ction less. 1\Ir. I sb erwood 's experiments last ed
f.J, . The least economical in st eam con sumption are the
inj ectors , and n ext t o them the pulsom et ers. The in- easily be arranged in order of useful effect, for want of from 24 to 72 boura, and wer e made with the greatest
jectors tri ed are at leas t 84,000 -:-- 1310 = ()4 times inferior sufficient accuracy in the trials, as well as owing t o the care, and the chief results were as follows:
to the Cornish pumping engine, and the pulsomAters great diversity of the condition s under which they work,
84,000 + 2300 37 times. This arises n either from their in r egard to h eight of lift, quantity of wa te r r aised, and
Ordi nary Rotary
1nsmall size nor from the small d epth from which they can stat e of r of the pumps them se-1ves. The R eschitz
l Pump.
Pum p. jector.
draw by suction; but from the very nature of th eir con- pumps, however, are in all c1ses at thA b ottom of the
s truction, in conseq uence of which the h eat of the steam scale; their maximum effi ciency at Pomoshnaia, Eli za- Working bead , inoludiog fri ction, f t. 1 17. (i7
Delivery per hou t
. . gals.
is lar~ely wast ed m uselessly h eating the water lifted. vetgrad, Shesta.kovka., and Ra zdelna.ia was not m ore than Use
ful effect
. . per oen t.
Practically the u seful effect of inject ors and other similar
Boiler pressure above atmospher e
appliances d oes n ot d e p end ab all on their size or on the this may b e partly ex)Jlained by their being so small,
11.>. per sq. io.
qua ntity of water th ey d eli ver ; a s the height to which d eveloping less than 2 h orse-p ower. The larger pumps Water raised per pound of steam llJ.
they deli ver increases, their efficiency, unlike that of other of the same kind at Zatichie and Kateriuovk a yield ed a Work done pet pound of steam ft.- lb.
s t eam pumps, falls lowe r and lo wer, and soon r eaches a useful effect of 13,620 to 17,390 foot -pounds. It 1s evident
minimum, b elow which they are no longer of any u se for that, a s the power of a pump diminishes, a larger propor- Thus_t~e work d on e per p ound of s team by the pumps
raising water . Although in this r espect the pulsometer is tion b ecomes absorbed by the r~i stan ces ; and in pumps and mJector was rath er lese than at Z abolotie and
much b etter than the inj ect or, y et even under th e mo3t of very low power, su ch a s only 1 to 3 horse-power, the ~lestchely station s, w~icb is a ccounted for by the confavourable circ umstances it r equires a boiler two or three power absorbed by inte rnal r esis tances and by loss of h eat stderably lower h ead m Mr. I sherwood 's experim ents.
times larger than would b e n eeded for a steam e ngine, is much greater than the useful work. N evertheless, on In both ex pAriments alike the inj eot or was low in ecoand as pumps of such simple make can now b e bad so ch~ap, comparing. for instance, the R escbitz pump ab Zatichie nomy. '1;he inferiority of the r otary pump t o the ordinary
there is no longer any need to ha \'e recourse t o these kmds with th e W orthington compound at Gaicine of about th e pump wtth flap valves was p roba bly owing to leakage of
of appliances, not even on account of their costing less t o same p ower, it appears that, while the work of the former water past the revolving piston s.
In the Proceedings of the Mulhouse Society (1889, p age
pub up. Appliances of these kinds can b e u sed only in was only 13, u20 foot-p ounds p er p ound of steam, that of
exceptional cases, where t h e cosb of fu el is of no conse- the lat t er was 56 p er cent. greater, amounting to 21,200 151) the r esults of t rials of a T a n gy e pump a re quot ed by
M. Walther -Meunier. This pump belongs to the class of
quence, or whe rA ther e is m or e steam than is wanted, or foot -pounds.
The three followjng pumps produced gen erally a larger direct -acting pumps without flywh eel, like the Hayward
where the re is no room and n o time to put up a s team
pump or, indeed, where the water is wanted to b e amount of useful work than the foregoiug. 'rhe ordinary Tyler. In the trials qu~ted it r aised nearly 800 gallons
heated', so a s t o b e u_sed, for instance, a s_ feed water, in Worthington pumps rose to 21,460 foot-pounds p er pound of water p er hour t o a h e1ght of 36.7 ft. It thus com par es
which case these apphances, though otherwtse most waste- of steam at Ktvertzy station, and that at Kri jopol station with the pu mp at Z abolotie, though of smaller size than
to 25,690 fo ot -pounds ; the latter is of large siee and of the latter. The best r esults obtained in the series of trials
ful, may pro ve dis tmctly econ omical.
b. The next pumps of low economy are the Hayward- American make, while the others are from the Liszt with this pump wer e as follo ws :
W orking h ead, including fricTyler. In r egard t o these it must be m entioned that the \Vorks, Moscow: The Blake compound pumps r ose t o
tion . ..
. ..
. ..
36.7 ft.
one ab Zabolitie station which shows a particularly low 29,~30 foot-pounds at Birzoula st ation . The Worthing ton
D elivery p er h our
797 gallons
e fficiency is among the number of those tha t have al- compound at the same station gave 37,400 foot -pounds
B oiler pressure aboYe atmor eady become worn by u se ; the original pistons and when non-condensing, and 39,700 foot -p ounds when con sph ere, pounds p er sq. in .. ..
42. 7 lb.
elide-valves have b een re placed b y oth ers m ad e on the densing . The comparatively high results obtained from
Useful work, h orse-power .. .
spot, and it is quite posRible thab the original dimen sion s this pump, it should be observed, are t o be ascribed n ot
Water raised p er pound of
and the arrangement of the steam ports may have b een m erely to the excellence of the class it represents, but also
st eam ...
altered however slightly; the working would be all the t o its large size; it d elivers 9460 gallons per hour t o a
Weight of st eam used per
more affected by any sue~ alteration, o_wing to the co_m- height of 590ft., and develops more than 28 horse-power.
horse-power p er hour
855 ,
plicated shape of the ptat ons and shde- va.lves, whiCh It should also be observed that the saving of 6 p er cent.
Work done p er pound of st eam
23 L6 foot-p ound s
r equire to b e finish ed with the greatest a ccuracy. A pump due to the condenser is nob as much as was exp ected,
These r esults are sens ibly accordant with those obtained
o f the same kind at Zdolbounovo station worked much owing to the condenser being itself d efective.
Ji'ourthly, where a pump of one kind was r eplaced by at Zabolotie, and the lowe r useful effect is due t o the
b ettt'r, and fell but little short of the R eschitz pumps of
small size; it gave 5940 foot-pounds p er p ound of s team, another of a. differ ent kind at the same sta.tion, a com smalle r size of the T a ngye p ump.

------------ ----------1--------




.. l



f ..
ll ,



E N G l N E E R I N G.

Nov. ro, r8g3.]







Fig . 1.

Fig. 2 .


SeG~ on

11'tfl 3 .

line. [F.


Scctwn CD





Sca(un, o"' luw A 8

2DH~ '--'








Fws. 1 to 3, above, show theNa than triple sight feed

locomotive lubricator. This has been designed with
a view of furnishing a simple and effective device for
oiling the air pump, as well as the cylinders, of a locomotive engine from th e same oil vessel. Steam from
the boiler enters at a, and is condensed in the vessel
b. The oil is filled into the lower vessel c through the
plug n. The water of condensation flows down through
the pipes cl and the glass pipes e, e, e, and displaces the
oil, which rises thr ough the nozzles/, and flows away
as shown in Fig. 3. The rate of feed can be regulated
by the cocks, while an increased and occasional feed can
be given through the cups h, of which there is one for
each main cylinder and one for the air pump. j , j are
safety valves; at k a gauge-glass is fitted to show the
amount of oil in the container c; l is the waste cock,
m the water valve by which water can be blown direct
out of the condenser b into the container e.
Fig. 4 represents the standard monitor injector
(Pennsylvanian Railroad pattern) constructed by
t~e Nathan .M~nufacturing Company, 92 to 94,
~tb.erty-street, New York. It is provided with a
liit1~g nozzle .a in the overflow pipe b, steam being
ad~nt.ted to 1t by the valve c and handle cl. The
ma.m steam supply is admitted, after water appears
at .the overflow, by the valve e and handle f . It then
~ams ac~ess in succession to the steam nozzle g,
mtermedtate nozzle h, and condensing nozzle ?. and
finally to the delivery nozzle 7., and the non:r~turn
valve. The water valve l is operated by the handle m
an~ can be set according to the requirements of th~
~o1ler. The heater cock is marked n. This valve n
1s closed when the water in the tender is to be heated
and at no other time.

PIG ~N GER~!ANY. -The pro~uction of pig iron in Ger-

many m the nme months endmg September 30 this year

waa 3,532,018 tons.


I nve&tigations atnd Experiments m Compressed A ir Sound

Signals. *
. General.Remarks o~ So.und_ Signa~.-Sound signals only
g1 ve very mcomplete mdicattons. 'l'he hearing of a sound
d_o~s n~t enable u~, in fact, to appreciate with any preCISion either the distance of the source of sound or the
direction from which it comes. Their only effe~t is to
warn the navigator of the proximity of a dan~er and if
he has not already taken the precautions d1ct~ted by
foggy weather, such as using the lead and slackening
speed, th~y .warn ~im that these precautions must be
taken. Ltmtted as 1s the part they play, however it has
appeared sufficient to lead most maritime nations t~ make
use of such signals on their coasts.
A~ first these signals were obtained by bells but the
mot1ve power that we can utilise in the ca-se of' such instrume~ts. is always very smalL For example, with a
bell we1ghmg 2i tons-a considerable weight-the hammer only ~eighs 30 kilogrammes (GG lb.), and the work
correspondmg to its fall is only 7~ kilogrammetres
(54 foot-pounds), whilst with the sirens now in use, the
work expended t o produce a sound of 3 seconds' duration
reaches, and sometimes exceeds, 12,000 kilogrammetres (~6,800 foot. pounds). It has thus been necessary
for all signals of Importance to abandon bells alJd in
general, all instruments whioh make use of perc~ssion' on
solid bodies.
T~e shock produced on atmospheric air by the explostve escape of gas, vapour, or compressed air enables
on the other band, motive powers to be used of wbateve:
amount may be wished. The rapidity of expansion of the
g.ases d.eveloped by explosives is sufficient to produce the
stgnal m thts case by a single Fhock. On the contrary,
With the usual pressures of steam and compressed air the
complete e~pansion of these ga.-ses would produ{'~ no
sound. It 1s necessary, then, only to employ the initial

* Paper read a.t the International Maritime Congress,

London 1\Ieeting.

velocity of the escape, and for a time so short that the

surrounding air offers by its inertia a resistance to the flow
of the escaping gas. 'l'he effect of this resistance is to
crea~e a sho<?k, an? to transform the kinetic e!lergy of the
movmg gas mto vtbratory ener~y of the extertor air. The
same shock repeated at short mtervals produces a continuous sound.
Two kinds of apparatus are employed to realise this
r~sult. They are the horn with vibrating reed, and the
siren. In the first, the opening and closing of the orifices
of escape of the compressed gas are obtained by the
vibrations of a. steel plate which iEt alternately closed on
the orifice by the J?ressure of the gas, and separated from
it by its own elasttcity. In the second, the gas escapes
throug~ a series of o~enings arranged in a circle, and
before tb, rotates umformly a flat or annular diso furnished .wi~h equal and similarly situated openings. To
each comctdence of the fixed and the movmg openings
corresJ?Onds an escape, which is immediately and suddenly mterrupted. The rotation of the disc is obtained
in certain cases by mechanical means. If we arrange the
tLxed and moving orifices with opposite inclinations the
rotation is produced automatically by the flow or' the
These arrangements are not the only ones to which we
can ~a~e recourse. . We h~ve, in fact, made use of another,
consiStmg of a cylmder m communication with the compressed gas, and in which moved a piston exposed on one
of its faces to the l?ressure> of the ga-s, and on the other to
the act~on of a. sprmg. Under the action of the gas and
the sprmg the piston underwent an alternate motion in
whic~ it uncovered. and covered successively orifices' in
the s1de of the cybnder, throu~b which the compressed
gas produced on the exterior a1r similar shocks to those
produced in the case of the other instruments. Other
similar arrangements may be conceived but the continuous circular motion of the siren appea'rs to us to offer
more. regularity a~d s.ecurity, and in point of fact it is
the siren alone whtch ts made use of for signals of great
power. We shall therefore confine our attention to this
. JJieetns of E~ti1n:ating the E.flicicncy of Sirens.-The sirens
m use ar~ prm~lpally of h~o types. The first is that of
the Amencan suen mecharucally rotated fed with steam
~t a pressure of 5. kilo. per sq_. cm. (71' lb. per square
mch), and consummg a~out 1 k1lo. (2.2lb.) per second of
sound. The consumpt10n corresponds to an expenditure
of energy of about 15,000 kilogrammetres (108 500
foot-pou?ds) per second.. ~he second type is that of' the
a~tomat1~ compress~d-atr suen, formed of a fixed cylinder
p1erc~d a ~rtam number of equidistant longitudinal
O_Pe!lmgs m .which revolves a cylinder furnished with
l:llmiJar openn:~gs. The steam siren has been given up in
France, at;ld 10 sever~! other <?Ountries, because it does
not adapt Itself well either to mstantaneous starting on
the appearance of a fog, nor to the installation of the
apparat~s at t~e most favour~ble point for being heard,
The. s1rens 10 use. have different consumptions correspondmg t? expendttures of energy varying from 1000
to 4000 k1logrammetres (7000 to 29,000 foot-pounds)
per secot;ld of sound. Whatever may be the system, the
mstalla.t10ns are> very costly. It should then be inquired
whether the result produced corresponds with the expense .
. It has been attempted to estimate this result by mea.sur~ng the range of sound ; but the ranges varr for the same
mstrument between such wide limits, accordmg to the state
of the atmosphere, ~hat very numerous measurements
~re necessary to arnve at averages characterising each
mstrument. Measurements of this kind have been under

taken on the French coast, but several years will be required before conclusions can be drawn from them.
In th e meantime it was of importance to find some
means of investigation for th e study of son orous instrum ents. Direct measures of the intensity of sou nd
analogous t o those given for light by photometric
processes would have enabled us quickly to reach this
~nd. In the absence of a ny such method in practical
use, we have sought, if possible, t o have recourse to the
different processes used in physical scien ce to record
sonorous vibrations. We h ave not succeeded in utilising
any of them under practical conditions. There is also a
general cause which invalidates d eterminations of intensity made by r ecording vibratory movements. This is
that the harmonics of the fundamental ton e which are
produced in greater or less number by every instrument,
are only translated on the graphic rec.:ord by imperceptible
differences in the outline, whilst they have a considerable
influence on the impression received by th~ ear. For our
purpose, then, we can only depend on comparisons made
by the ear.
To realise t his purpose, we have established a &tandard
sound formed by a bellows, on which was mounted either
a. h orn with a free reed, or a small siren of the same note,
and having practically the same "tim bre" as the sirens
to be compared. The pressure of air furnished by the
bellows and its deli very being exactly determined, the
standard was mechanically defined in every way. It was
placed at a con venient distance from the instrument to
be observed, and was mad e to emit consecutive sounds to
those of the latter. The observer found such a position
that the two sounds to be compared appeared to him of
equal intensity. The in verse ratio of the squares of the d istances gave the ratio of the intensities. We hasten to add
that, the ear having little sensitiveness to small differen ces of intensity, the precision of the method was far
from perfect. TherP-fore it has only been employed in
cases where direct comparison was impossible.
This latter has been made in two ways: (1) For comparing two different instruments; by establishing on a
point of the shore each of the two instruments, and
making them sound alternately at d etermined intervals,
and with different rhythm. The observer was on a steamboat at a distance, and determined the distance at wbi ~h
h e failed to hear each of the two instruments. Or otherwise by producing two consecutive sounds near together
of the same pitch by two instruments, and by estimating
which of the sounds was the louder, several observers
being employed at widely distant points, and not being
aware in what order the two instrum ents were used.
(2) For comparing different methods of installation of
the same instrument ; by obtaining two installations of
the same instrument in the required conditions, and
making observations such as have been above described.
It may well be conceived bow troublesome and slow
such a system o~ investigation is. On the othez:. hand, it
is very conclustve, and has enabled us to arnve at a
certain number of interesting results.
Many of these ~esults, relati ve in parti cu~ar to .t he
influence of the p1tch of the sounds, of their mustcal
intervals if they are in groups, and of the h eight of the
sonorous' instrument, and relative to the compari~on of
sirens with horns, and to the arrangement of the s1rens,
have been explained in a memoir on tb~ exhibit. of the
L ighthouse Department of France at Ch1cagg, wh10h has
been presented to the present Congress. W e shal~ ~ot
dwell on that but shall confine ourselves to exammmg
special points' connected with automatic compressed-air

Pressure to be Used. - F or the same motive power the
weight of compressed air per second is so much ~reater .as
the pressure employed is lower. ~n t~e ~ucce~st ve ennssions of air the mass of the body 1mpmgmg wtll be then,
for the sam~ expenditure of power, so much greater as the
, ruling pressure is less. We thus see that there .m~st be
an ad vantage in employing low pressures. . Thts 1s confirmed by direct ~xperiment, both by measurmg the range
and by comparison of intensity. In France the pressu.r es
employed have been successively reduced from . 5 ktlogrammes to 3 kilogrammes (71 lb. per square mob to
43lb.}, then from 3 kilogrammes to 2 kilogrammes (43 lb.
per square inch to 2~lb. ).
D imensions of Strens. -Sue~s have been . made of
different dimensions ; a certam n~mber e~1st ~hose
m oving drum of 10 centimetres .diameter IS pter?e~
on its circumference br. .28 opet;nng~, each 28 m~lh
metres in h eight and 3 mllhmetres m wtdtb . .The ~us10al
tone of this siren is theE of 326 complete v1~ra~10ns per
second. It follows that the speed of rotat1~n IS abo~t
12 revolutions per second. The consumptiOn of a~r
is 400 litres (14 cubic feet), measured ~t the atmosph~r1c
pressure, per second of sound, th.e ruhng l?ressu~e b~mg
2 kilogrammes (28 lb. per square mch). yYith this siren
we have compared another, whose movmg. drum h ad a
diameter of 15 centimetres, and ~hose opemng~, .tw~nty
eight in number, ha~ the same h etght of 28 milhmetres,
but had a width wh10h gave for th e same tone and th e
same pressure the same fiow of 400 litre~ per second. of
sound The experiment was carried out m the
way. The two sirens established beside one. another without trumpet moutha produced, at. fixed mter vals, two
sounds, each of 3 seconds' duratiOn. sep~rated by. an
interval of 2 to 3 seconds. In these oond1t10ns the p1tch
and the " timbre " of t~e soun~s were th e same, and the
ear could easily appreCiate wh10~ of the ~ounds was the
loud er. Observers posted at dtffe~ent d~tances, an~ at
various heights, n oted th ei r impressiOns wtt~out knowmg
the order of the operations. There .was m . ev~ry case
complet e agreement between them m ~onstdermg the
siren of 15 centimetres diameter to gtve the louder

E N G I N E E R I N G.


IO, I 893.

the mass of air which recei,es directly the shock of the is, during the emission of the sound, an important fall of
compressed air, whose inten~ity is the principal element pressure near the openin gs, and a large dimin ution of the
in the transformation of the energy. Other considera- flow.
tions, rela ting in particular to the weight of the revolvWhen the siren is placed at the summit of the lighting part, and to the instantaneous sp eaking of the siren, house, the reservoir on which it i~ mounted cannot in
do not allow us t o increase the diameter much beyond practice have a capacity of more th an 500 litres. This
15 centimetres.
capacity is insufficient for a sound of a duration of three
Ar'rangement of the Optnings.-The vibratory motion seconds to be given out, with the air provided only from
which 1t is desirable to establish is sinusoidal motion . this reservoir. It is n eceesary that during t he sound,
For that purpose it would be n ecessary to g ive to the air air should be supplied by a vertical pipe frum the resernot only compressions, but dilatations. It would be voirs in th e engme-bouse. Under these circumstances
necessary further that these compressions and dilatations we have determined that the loss of pressure in the pipe
should follow certain laws, and should be of equal dura- was much greater th an that given by the usual formu] re.
tion. A method of realisin~ the first of these conditions This follows from the discontinuity of the flow, and from
might be imagined by establishing between two sue- the inertia of the air that has to be moved, which elements
cessive o~enings of the fixed drum special orifices to put cannot be allowed for in formu]re. According to experitb e in ten or of the sir en in direct commun ication wi t h the ments, for a flow of 400 litres (14 cubic feet) per second,
atmosphere. This arrangement has not been triPd. A s we ought not to reduc~ the intbrior diameter below
regards the other conditions, all that we can do is to 12 centi metres for a pipe of 25 metlres in length, when the
secure th e equality of the successive periods of opening air-pressure is 2 kilogrammes (28 lb. per square inch).
and closing. It is easily seen that this equality is arrived
W e have in vestigated by num erous measurements bow
at when the width of the openings measured along th e the flow of a siren Yaried when the width of the open ings
circumfer ence is equal to one-third of th e widt h of the was varied, other things being qual. Theoretically, it
closed spaces between them.
would appear that the flow per second of sou nd should
R egulation of P itch.- The regulation of the pitch is be proportional to the square of the width of the openings,
obtained by means of fo\lr moving masses carried by arms since th e ratio of the total durati on of the coincidences
fixed to the shaft of the moving cylinder. The pressure of to the duration of the sound is proportional to this width,
these masses against a circular track under the action of and since, during each coincidence, the average opening
centrifugal force limits the variations of the speed of rota- is proportional to the same width. Nevertheless, th e
tion of the cylinder which might result from varia tions of flow increases much less rapidly t han this square. With
the pressure. In the siren of 10 centimetres d iameter the sirens of 10 and 15 centimetres diameter, t he open ings
weight of the moving cylinder and its shaft is 25GO being t wenty-eight in number, each having 28 millimetres
grammes ; the weight of the moving masses is 910grammes. of height and an air pressure of 2 kilogrammes (28 lb.
In the siren of 15 centimetres diamet er th e weight of th e per square inch ), we have obtained the following results
moving cylinder and its shaft is 4390 grammes ; th~ per second of sound:
weight of the moving masses is 770 grammes. In these - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - conditions we observe that to produce a variation in the
Flow (Measured at
numbPr of complete vibrations per second from 310 to
Width of Openings. Atmospheric Pressure).
335, a variation of pressu re must be made of 0. 6 kilogramme (8! lb. per square inch ) with the siren of
10 centimetres, and of 0.85 kilogramme (12lb. per square
I. Siren tif 0.10 met1es.
inch) with the siren of 15 centimetres. The latter, owing
to its weight, ~iv es a note of greater stability. In prac2
tice the stren 1s established with a reservoir of such capa3.0
city that the pressure does n ot '\'ary during the emission
II. Siren of 0.15 metres.
of sound by more than 0.25 kilogramme (3! lb. per square
inch) ; the variations m pitch are th en insensible to the
Pa;rt P la,yed by the Trumpet.- In horns with vibrating
reeds the trumpet acts as a sonorous pipe. It must be of
a length calculated to suit the wave length of the
sound to be emitted; by modifying its length we can
It is t o be noted that in experiments Nos. 3 and 8, the
alter the pitch of th& sound produced. On the contrary,
with the siren, the length of the trumpet has no influence sum per second of th e durations of total or partial coincion the principal note, which is governed by the speed of dence of the fixed and moving openings is . 558 second and
rotation and the number of openings. It was then .458 second. The flows per second of coincidence are
accepted for a long time that the principal object of the 734 litres and 873 litres. These latter flows are what
trumpet was to direct the sound towards th e horizon. must be considered, if we wish to arrive at the speed of
Experiments have shown us that it has further a very the air in the orifices, which attains more than 200 metres
considerable effect on the loudness of the sound, and that per second.
Range of Sirens. - U ntil we possess the result of
this effect varies with its length and shape.
Different sirens have been put in action without any the systematic observations organised on th e French
trumpet, and then with trumpets of different kinds, and coast, we can only produce observations, comparatively
their r elative intensity has been estimated by seveml small in number, made by G>bservers stationed on steam er~,
observers comparing consecutive sounds. In every case with regard to the range of sirens installed at Cape
the addition of the trumpet h as considerably reinforced Grisnez and at Boulogne. These measurements were
the sound, but this reinforcement is produced in very fifteen in number at least, for each instrument, and made
different proportions according t o the kind of trumpet under very different atmospheri c cond itions. T he average
employed. The trumpets definitely adopted for different of th e figures obtained for each instrument is given in the
sirens have been arrived at tentatively. This action of Table below as the mean range of the instrument. W e
reinforcement is explained by the fact that t he trumpet haY e taken as a measure of the power of each siren th e
causes the mass of air inclosed in it to share in the number of kilogrammetres which the escap~ of the comshocks produced by the siren, whilst the direct opening pressed air or steam can produce per second of sound.
of the si ren into t he atmosphere facili tates the fl ow.
There are formed also in the mass of the trumpet a system
Sonorous j Mean
of stationary wa.ves, vary ing according to its form, which
Description of
Int~ nsity R~nge
modify the reinforcement. When the trumpet exceeds a
Kgm.-ms Knots
certain length, effects of resistance t o t he transmission of
the vibratory motion come into play, and thP-y may, on
the other band, weaken the sound.
Range varied from 2 to 14

T rcmsmission of Sound in P ipes.-In one experiment Steam siren . .

the sound of a siren was carried in an earthenware pipe, Compressed air siren
Range varied from 1. 75 to
11, 080 metres in length, and 30 centimetres in interior
0.125 m. in diam.
13 mil es.
diameter, buried underground. At the end of the pipe Compressed air siren
Raoge varied from 1.25 to
0.176 m. in diam.
2. 75
6.4 miles.
only a very faint sound was observed, and much deeper
Range vari ed from 0.30 to
in tone than the initial sound. A complete deformation Compressed air siren
0.042 m. in diam.
66 1- 1.25
1.85 miles.
of the wave of sound took placA in consequen ce of the
resistance of the sid es of the pipe, and the loudness was
much less than if th e sound bad travelled in free air.
These figures are only to be taken provisionally. W e
This result, due to the small diameter of the pipe, shows must also point out that t he observations of limiting
the importance of th e deleterious effects that might arise range are made with t he ship stopped, and all noise on
board suppressed as far as possible.
from too great a length of trumpet.
Quantit31 of Flow in Sirens.- In order that the work
Motive P ower R eqttired by a Sircn.-These figures,
done by the compressed ai r escaping should be trans- neverth elees, enable us to recognise that the mean range
form ed as completely as possible into energy of vibration, increases less and less rapidly as th e power of the instru
th e essen tial condition determining the p ower of a sirrn men t increases, n.n rl t hat bf"yond a certai n magnitude of
is th e q na.ntity of it gives out under a. given pressure. moti ve power, we do not obtain, h owev ~ r we increase the
It is impossible t <? estimate beforelu~nd this fl ow by any power, more than an insigni licant incrC'nse in th e ordinary
of t h e formulre m use for calculatmg the flow of air range of the sirens. " ' e must also remark that if in
under pressure; we are here concerned, in fact, with a favourable weather even weak sounds can be beard at
series of partial flows, each limited to a period during very great distances, the range, on t he other hand, of the
which there is no permanent regirnc. Only experiment most powerful sounds often falls below the average t hat
can supply data concerning the flow. The experiments we give. Further, whatever th e atmospheric condit ions
that we have made for this purpose bave led us to several may be, th e noises of the sea and the ship cause the
minimum perceptible intensity to be much greater th an
important observations.
Without altering the dimensions .of the si ren, its flow in the experiments, wh en there was silence on board, and
may be varied considerably acco!d mg to the arrange- the observers were specially prepared.
This being so, it seems to us illusory, with the instrumen ts of t he admission-pipe for air, an~ th e conduits by
which th e air is conveyed to the openmgs. T his effect ments available, to hope to surpas!l, in any great measure,
appears evident, but the pheno~enon is produced with the usual limits of motive power expended per second
great sensitiven ess. If the sect1on of flow afforded by of sound, which is, in :France, 3000 to 4000 kilogrammetres, in order to obtain an increase of ran ge. ' Ve
sow:=may, besides, un~erstand that it . ought t~ be so, the pipe and the conduits is n ot very much larger than shall obtain, for the present, better results by improving
for in increasing the d1ameter of the suen we mcrease that of the openings of the siren (ab least double), there

E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. 10, 1893.]

Then we find for th e donkey engine :

2000 X 200
. .
x 0. = 0.4 md1cated horse-power,
and a feed-water consumption of 0. 4 x 90 =- 36 lb.
For the air-pump engine it will be sufficient to take an
efficiency of 0. G. Taking also 90 lb. feed-water consumption per indicated horse-power and hour, we get
2000 X 25 X 50
. .
x 0. = 2.1md1cated horse-power.
or 2.1 x 90 = 189 lb. feed-water per hour.
For the two auxiliary pumping engines, therefore1 we
get 36 + 189 = 225 lb. feed-water as a. "plus," wnich
must be pumped into the boiler. But in the case of independent pumps we economise th e above-mentioned 2.2
horse-power for actuating the pumps connected with the
main steam engine, and consequently for exerting the
same number of effective horse-power measured at the
driving belt, we shall have a total feed-water consumption
per hour of
(100- 2. 2) X 20 + 225 = 2181lb.,
or 9 per cent. more than in the first case. (Taking the
coefficients for the separat~ steam pumps, these 9 per
cents. have already been considered.)
Now, using the exhaust steam of the pumping engines
for heating the feed-for this is the first condition for

the instrument itself, and increasing its Pffici~ncy as a

transformer into vibratory energy of the potential energy
of the compressed air or steam.


By OTTJ H. MGELLER, Civil Engineer, Buda-Pesth.
THERE are two ways of actuat~ng the auxiliary pumps
of steam engines (feed pump, atr pump, the p~~ps for
drawing the inject10n water, and t~ose for dram1n~ the
steam jackets). These P.UIDJ?S can etther be mechamc~lly
connected with the engme 1tself by means of eccentrtC8,
levers, wheels, belts, &c. , or they can be .established as
steam pumps, each ?r ~ome _of ~hem formmg a separa~e
pumping engine wb10h 1s qmte mdepe~dent of the mam
engine. \V"hich of these arrang-ements ts preferable ? .
Let us at first consider the feed pump and th~ a.1r
pump. W e generally find the~e pumps conne.c ted d1rect
1iO the engine, and mo~t en~meers prefer t~1s arrangement, because thf'ly thmk tb mor~ econom1c~l to con
nect them with the large economtcallyworkmg steam
engine, than to arrange them as sepa~a.te steam
But this is not true, and I shall show It by the followmg
calculations :
First Case.-In the fi rst place, let us deal with a s1ngle
cylinder condensing engine working with 90 lb. gauge

Fl.9 1.

Non return vulve

on botler

Non return


To Botler
Steam & Wat er

- > From Jackets



,.,.., ..



Wat er






pressure, exerting 100 indicated horse-power, and consuming 20 lb. feed-water per indicated horse-power and
Pig 2 .
per hour, or 2000 lb. per hour. The feed-water, being
to.ken frow the hot-well, will have a. temperature of, say,
92 deg. Fahr. To convert 1 lb. of this water into steam
of an absolute pressure of 104.7lb., we need
rrom Jflckct.s
1214 - 92 = 1122 thermal units,
and consequently the total consumption of heat in one
To 8 o1ler
hour will be
2000 x 1122 = 2,240,000 thermal units.
The feed pump must deliver the before-mentioned
quantity of water against a. head of 6 atmospheres=
200 ft. But as this pump is al ways proportioned for the
triple quantity, and constructed with J?lunger and
stuffing-box, and while in the most cases 1t i3 actuated
by an eccentric, and has to overcome much friction by
valves, bends, pipes, &c., it will meet the truth if we cal
oulate the necessary amount of indicated horse power
~rom Hoi -well
measured on the steam cylinder, to be three times &fl much
ntO 8 .
M the theoretical work.
Consequently the feed-pump
2000 x 200 x 3 = 0. 6 indicated horse-power.
economical working of this arrangement-we have at our
3600 X 550
disposal in each pound of the exhautit steam 1134 thermal
umts - 92 thermal units (because the water to be heated
The air-pump has to deliver 25 times the feed-water has a temperature of 92 deg.) = 1042 thermal units. But
quantity. (Many engineers take 30 times and more, but as there will always be some small losses of heat through
this does not alter anything in our calculations.) This radiation, we will only take 1000 thermal uni ts.
quantity must be delivered against a pressure of 1 atmoThe feed-water temperature will then be increased by
sphere, equal to a head of 33ft., but the process of com225 X 1000
pressing the mixture of steam, air, and water, and the
= 103 deg.,
friction of valves makes the total resistance equivalent t o
a head of 50 ft., as can easily be seen from air-pump
diagrams. Taking the lofts by friction of the moving and its temperature wHl be raised to 103 + 92 = 195 deg.
The beat consumption for the whole arrangement will
parts between air pump and steam cylinder as 20 p~r
cent., or the efficiency as 0.8, we get the work done in therefore be
the steam cylinder necessary for actuating the air pump as
2181 (1214- 195) = 2,222,439 thermal units,
2000 X 25 X 50
i.e., 21,561 thermal units less than with connected pum{>S.
3600 x 550 x 0.8 = 1.6 indicated horse-power.
Secon,d Case.-We will now calculate the results attamable with a compound condensing steam engine, working
We therefore can say that 0.6 + 1.6 = 2.2 horae- with 7! atmospheres, equal to 108 lb. gauge pressut e,
power from the above-mentioned 100 horsepower are indicating 100 horsepower, and consuming 16 lb. feed
onsumed in actuating the feed and the air pump.
water per indicated horse-power, or 1600 lb. feed-water
Let us now see what happens if we replace the above- per hour. Then the total heat consumed per hour
~entio~ed feed and air-pumps by separate small pump will be
mg engmes.
1600 x (1218 - 92) = 1,801,600 thermal units.
}"or feed we may t ake a continually working rotary or
In the case that the auxiliary pumps are connected
~duplex (Worthington) pump. It will be pretty correct
1f we take all losees by friction, &c., as 50 per cent., and with the engine, the circumstances remaining t he same,
the steam consumption as 90 lb. per indicated horae- the feed pump will require
pown and hour.
1600 X 248 X 3
= 0.6 horse-power,
* Paper read before the Hungarian Architects and E ngineers' Society.
and the air pnmp

1600 x 25 ~ 5.Q_ = 1.26 horse-power,

3600 X 500 X 0.8
together 1.86 horse - power, measured at the steam
In the arrangement of independent steam pumps we
shall find for the donkey engine,

~1600 x 248

= 0.4 horse-power,

36v0 X 550 X 0,5

with 0.4 x 90 = 36 lb. feed wa.ter; and for the air-pump

1600 x 25 x 50
1.66 horse-power,
a600 X 550 X 0.6
with 1.66 x 90 = 150 lb. feed water; t ogether, 36 + ~50
= 186 lb. feed water. The total feed water consumpt10n
will be (100 - 1.86) x 16 + 186 = 1756 l b. The feed
water will be heated up by the exhaust heat of the pumping engines by
186 x 1000 ::::: 106 deg. Fahr.

and become 92 + 106 = 198 deg.

The total heat consumption per hour will then be
1756 (1218 - 198) = 1, 791,120 thermal ux~its, or less. with
10 480 thermal units than in the case w1th m echamcally
Third Case.-Finally let us consider a. triple-expansiOn
condensing engine, working with 10! atmospheres
= 155 lb. gauge pressure, indicating 100 horse-power,
and consuming per indicated horse-power and hour 13 lb.
feed water, or 1300 lb. per hour .
Total heat consumed per hour :
1300 (1226 - 92) = 1,474,200 thermal units.
With auxiliary pumps actuated by the engine itself we
have for the feed pump
1300 x 345 x 3 = 0.68 horse-power
3600 X 550
and for the air -pump
1300 x 25 x 50 = 1.02 horse-power,
3600 X 550 X 0.8
or 1. 7 indicated horse power required for both pumps, and
measured at steam cylinders.
Using independent steam pumps for feed and air pump,
we find for the donkey engine
0.45 horse-power,
- 1300 x 3453600 X 550 X 0.5
requiring 0.
45 x 90 = 40.5 lb. feed water ; and for the air

pump engme
1300 x 25 x 50 = 1.36 horse-power,
3600 X 650 X 0.6

requiring 1.36 x 90 = 122.4 lb. feed water ; together,

16~ lb. feed water.
Total feed water consumption (100 - 1. 7) x 13 + 163
1441lb.. The feed water can be heated by
~ 3 x 1000 = 113 deg. Fahr.
up to 92 + 113 = 205 deg. Fahr.
T otal consumption of heat: 1441 (1226 - 205) =
1,471,261 thermal units, or less with 2939 thermal units
than in the case with connected pumps.
It is not the intention of the author to prove by these
calculations that applying independent pumping engines
for feed and air pump is more economical than connecting
these pumps with the main engine, because the advantage can only be expressed in per milles, but it can be
seen from the same that if any difference exists this will
be to the credit of separate steam pump~ .
Now, considering the practical advantages, we shall
see from the following that separate pumping engines are
pr eferable in nearly every respect.
Concerning the feed, we must demand that the feeding
apparatus should a lways be placed in the boiler-house,
and the author finds it astonishing that this has n ot been
prescribed by law. The only man who has to manipulate the feed pump is the stoker, who must regulate its
motion according to the height of the water in the gauges,
and t his man only is responsible for inconvenience arising from incorrect feed. However, if the feed pump is
connected to the engine, he must absent himself from his
boilers, and perhaps creep in a. dark corner of the engine
foundation, whi<;h, regardmg his responsibility, is not at
all admissible.
From this important reason alone the feed apparatus
should be situated in tho boiler-house at the exclusive
disposal of the stoker, even in the case of the smallest
Further a.d vantages of donkey pumps are the following.
They can be more e:.\Sily regu]ated for continual feeding
than pumps with a. fixed number of strokes per minute,
and for this purpose the duplex (Wor thington) pumps
are especially suitable; they can be kept in motion
when the main engine stands still; they can be adapted
for filling up the boilers, which is Vf'ry important for
marine engines; th ey can be reva.lved or repacked or put
in order without disturbing the working of the whole
plant; they can be adapted also for other purposes, i.e.,
as a fire pump.
As regards condensation, a. separate air-pump engine
has also eminent advantages.
Having the air pump connected wth the main engine,
it follows, from the dissimilarity of situations, that in
one case the air pump must be placed below the engine,
in another case on the same level, on the crank end or
behind the cylinders, on the high-pressure or on the
low-pressure side, and this is always connected with

E N G I N E E R I N G.

alterations of the patterns and a. longer time for d elivery.

But making separate air-pump engines we sh all have
~1 ways an. engin~ of the same form w~ich can be placed
at any pomtl wh1ch may be found smtable. With such
an engine we can also make a. vacuum before starting the
main engine, which is a point of gr eat convenience in the
case of engines which have to start with a. considerable
load, for example, pumping and hauling engines. We
can also maintain a vacuum whilst the main engine
stops, for example, with hauling engines, marine engines
and. gene.rally. with reversing engines, by which th~
engme-dnver lS better secured against getting water into
the steam cylinders. The air-pump engine can also be
employed as a. fire-engine.
An ai_r-pump engine is especially suitable for use in
con?ect10n w1th very slow or very fast running main
engm~s, f<;>r example, .with the.large engines
used m mmes, and w1th the htgh-speed engmes of electrical light stations, and in all case~:~ where several steam
enginl::ls can be connected with one air-pump engin e.
It is a. very bad practice to fit air-pump engines with
centrifugal governors, and this ia the reason of many
failures. An air-pump engine, which very often- as at
centra:l .electric stations- h as to deliv er very different
quant1t1es of water, must not be k ept on a uniform speed
put must maintain a. uniform vacuum. To perform this'
n o separate governing is necessary, because if the VM)UU~
falls, the air-pump engine wiJl go faster and restore the
vacuum, and vice versa.
If local conditions render necessary a sel?arate pump
for .drawing the injection water, there are dtfferent ways
to actuate it. I n no case will it be reasonable to make
separate engines each for feed, air pump, and cold water
pump, but the air pump ought to be connected with the
engine, and the cold water delivered by a separate engine.
This arrangement will be a necessity in all cases where
the cold water pump must be located far from the enginehouse. But in many cases, where air-pump engines can
be applied, the auxiliary engine for supplying cold water
can be entirely done away with, because the air-pump
engine can be put in any place not so far away from the
e~gi ne-house,. and this is one advantage more of separate
alr~ump engmes.
To actuate the air pump and the cold-water pump by
one engine would be justifiable only with surface cond ensers, but not with jet condensers, because on the same
spot, where a pump can draw water, th is can also be
drawn by the vacuum of a condenser.
With the drainage of pipes and jackets we shall deal
later; meanwhile we may consider what is the best mode of
transferring the heat of exhaust s~am into the feed water.
If only the ~eed is effect~d by ~ separate engine
(donkey), the s1mplest method is to lead the exhaust
steam direct into the suction pipe by means of a so-called
suction pipe condenser, which is a simple non-return
valve, preventing the water enteri ng into the exhaust
pipe. If several pumping engines deliver their exhaust
steam for heating, the best way is also to apply this
suction-pipe condenser for each pump, but not to connect
it with the suction pipes, but with a tank or cistern,
where the feed water is collected before suction. In
this way a part of the mud contained in the water
will also be precipitated, and the water purified a
little. To apply the usual closed feed-water heaters with
tubes inside, will only be neces::Jary if there is plenty of
exhaust steam. But in such a case it is preferable to use
more economical pumpins engines, for example, compound duplex pumps for atr-pump engines.
To waste the exhaust steam of the auxiliary pumping
engines is, of course, very uneconomical, but, on the other
hand, care must be taken that not too much steam is
used for heating purposes, as the author found it in a
central station for electric lighting, where the exhaust
steam from all donkeys and from a number of secondary
engines, which exerted about five per cent. of the work
d one by tbe whole machinery, has been used for feed
heating. As can be seen from our calculations, it is not
suitable to use for actuating auxiliary pumps more than
about 2 to 3 per cent. of the power of th e main engine.
The costs of separate pumping engines are small, as
these engines h ave become entirely an object of special
manufacture. E specially suita.ble for the above-mentioned purposes are duplex or W orthington pumps.
Many people call them " steam-eaters," because they work
with full admissionh but these critics do not take into
consideration the . igh mechanical efficiency of the
duplex pumps, even of small sizes, and the fact that t he
usual donkeys must also work n early with full admission
at a low speed.
General experience shows that, especially with larger
plants, the numerous pumps attached to the engine are
a considerable source of disturbance, as even for trifling
d efects the main engine must often be stopped. It
will therefore be preferable to arrange independent
pumping engines than to spend money for pumps in
Steam jackets and steam pipes were formerly drained
by water collectors (separators) fitted with draining cocks
and water gauts"es. Later on automatic steam traps were
used, from whtch t he water flowed off; this is th~ practice in many places up to to-day. In several cases this
water is pumped bac~ into the boilers, and finall~ many
engineers do away w1th the traps, the latter bemg not
always reliable in their work, and pump the water direct
from the jacke.ts into the boiler. (~n such oases1 where
pi~es and cyhnders are upon a h1gher level tnan the
bo1lers, the water goes back by its ow.n gravity.)
But these jacket pumps do n ot gt ve perfect satisfaction they often fail, because they must pump water and
stea~. Under these circumstances the stuffing-box is
liable to leakage; and on the place where the mixture of
water and steam mixes with the colder feed-water, very
often a. cracking noise takes place.

However, steam pipes and jackets can be drained per fectly, .and t~e condensed water can be brought back into
the boiler wtthout traps and without separate draining
pumps, as the author found out by an accident and as
will be seen from the following :
A 100 horse-power compound condensing engine, constructed by the author, was fitted with a draining arrangement, sho'!n i~ Fig. 1. . The condensed water passed,
before ge~tmg ~nto the _Jacket-draining pump, through
an equahser, m the Jacket of which circulated the
feed water. The purpose of this arrangement was to
cool the jacket water, and by this means to accelerate
the circulation in the jackets and to heat the feed-water
so that in the point where these two waters mixed
together (behind the non-return va.l ve e), the temperatures
of both were not very different. (gee ENGINEERING
1884, Febtuary 19.)
The feed pump was fitted with a back-flow cock for
adjusti ng it for continual feed, and this cock communi
cated wibh the rising main and with the inside of the
P.ump. The jacket pump wa8 constructed without suction val ve., the water falling in from above, filling the
pump, bemg cut off by th e plunger and pressed out
through the ~alve O? the bottom of the pump, kept up by
means of a spual sprmg. (See ENGIKEERING, 1886, vol. xlii.,
page ~41.)
This arrangement worked very satisfactorily, and the
feed water became very warm. Now it happened that
ab~ut a year later the draining pump bad to be repaired,
owmg to wear and tear. The plunger was taken out and
sent to the works; in the meantime the stuffing-box of the
pump wa~ closed by a flans-e.
~ome time a~ter the engm~e~ in charge told me that in
sp1~e of shuttm g off the drammg pump the jackets were
dramed perfectly and the feed water got quite as warm
as before. This strang~ information caused me to look into
the matter. I found what the engineer bad stated quite
confirmed, and after sorr,e examination the reason was
The feed pump was working as usual with partially
opened back-flow cock. During the up-stroke of the
P.l unger it sucked partia.l ly from the hot-well, but partially also through the back-flow cock, the pipe a, the
non-return valve e, the pipe b, the deli very valve and the
pump-room of the jacket pnmp and through the pipe c,
the condensed wa.ter from the jackets, and during the
down-stroke both water~ were delivered into the boiler.
Durin~ the suction period the non-return valve f kept back
the b01ler pressure from the pump, whilst e and the delivery
valve of the draining puml? operated as suction val ves in
connection with the suct10n valve of the feed pump.
During the period of delivery the valve e clo~:~ed and f
opened. The jackets were under full pressure (about
110 lb.).
.Under the~e ~ircumstances. the author now does away
w1tb th~ drau1:mg pump en ttrely, and drains the jackets
by the mrculat10n cock of the feed pump, which always
gt ves perfe~t satisfaction. The equaliser for temperatures
can be omttted, and the arrangement assumes the simple
form of Fig. 2.
If a donkey is used for feed, the above-mentioned
prif?-oiple can also be applied. But a simpler way is to
dram the steam jackets through the cylinders of the
donkey, if applying duplex pumps, in wh ich case water
in cylinders does no harm, whereas flywheel donkeys
would be brought into danger.
Having seen the considerable advantages of independent pumps, the author suggests that the question how
to actuate the auxiliary pumps of steam engines is important enough to be thoroughly studied, especially in
the case of large electric light and power installations
and he is convinced that actuating the pumps separately
will be more and more applied in fu ture.
COAL AT HAMBURG.-The lock-out in the E nglish coal
trade has bad the effect of increasing the deliveries of
Westphalian coal to Hamburg. The quantity forwarded
in August was 91,500 tons, as compared with 78,218 tons
in August, 1892.
POLLUTION OF THE CALDER.-At a special meeting of
the Elland Local Board, held on Wednesday, the 1st
inst., the scheme for intercepting the domestic and
trade liquid refuse of the district, and for the treatment of the same prepared by Mr. Malcolm Paterson, M. Inst. C.E., was presented, and a resolution
unanimously adopted approving of the same, and directing an application to be made to the L ocal Govt~rnment
Board for powers to borrow 13,000l., the estimated cost
of works. An agreement to leaae in perpetuity 20 acres
of land has been obtained from L ord Savile on ad vantageous terms, the method of treatment being precipitation and land filtration, for which the land is specially
OuNDLE W A1'ER W ORK!'.! AND SitW.ERAOE.- These two
schemes have now been suc:cessfully carried out, and the
certificate of completion has been given to the contractors.
Some difficulties were encountered, particularly through
the subsidence of the engine house, which was obliged to
be built on a bad natural foundation. The floor sank
1~ in., and broke a pipe and put the machinery out of
level, but this was soon made good again. The scheme
involved the use of a comparatively new design of pumping machinery for raising sewage at points away from the
central station, and this caused some little trouble before
it was gob into working order, as is usual with experi
mental work. Water is now being supplied to the town.
The contract amount for both schemes was G450l., and the
extras 257l. 18s. 9d. , which amounts to less than 5 per
cent. on the contract amount. In spite of the diffi culties
encountered, the work has been very well executed by the


IO, I S93


THE Sl?anish cruiser Infanta Maria Teresa, described in
a recent tssue (page 338 (lll'l,te), has completed her series of
trials with a long test as to coal consumption. The vessel
lef.t Ferrol at. three <;>'clock on October 18, the weather
bemg fine, w1th a. shght swell from the Atlantic. The
vessel ran six times over the measured distance of 1. 412
nautical miles, and afterwards proceeded on a twelve
hours' run to sea, finishing next morning at six o'clock.
Four double-ended boilers were employed to supply the
steam required for the main engines, and one sin~le
ended boiler for the steam for steering gear engme,
electric light engine, auxiliary circulating pumps, and
bilge pumps. The coal consumption per indicated horsepower per hour allowed by contract was 680 grammes
= 1~ lb. Two sets of diagrams were taken from each set
of engi nes every half-hour, and th e mean indicated
horse-power developed during th e twelve hours was
1238. The coal consumed in the main boilers during the
twelve hours was 62 measures, previously weighed, each
containing 165kilogrammes =10,230kilogramme9, or at the
rate of 852.5 kilogrammes per hour. It was computed that
the two main circulating pumps, and the two main feed
pumps, would consume double the fuel per indicated horse-power of the main engines, and on this
assumption the consumption of the main engines worked
out at 597 grammes per indicated horse-power per
hour. But even if the consumption of the pumps be
included, the consumption is well under contract. The
resul ts of the working of the single-end ed boiler for eight
h~urs showed a consumption of 1980 kilogrammes, or 247.5
kilogrammes per hour. The power was as follows: Two
auxiliary circulating pumps, 19; two fire and bilge pumps,
40; steering gear engine, 75; electric light engine, 55;
auxiliary feed pump, 13; total, 202. The consumption was
therefore 1. 22 kilogrammes pP.r indicated horse-power per
hour for these auxiliary machines. On Thursday, October
19, the vessel went through turning trials at 10 and 16
k nots speed, with satisfactory results. She subsequently
proceeded on single-ecrew trial. This latter was run
with the port engine, and tlte speed was 12! knots, with
the engine making 85 revolutions. It may be here noted
t hat the natural draught speed with both engines making
106 revolu tions was 18~ knots, while with forced draught
the speed was 20~ knots, with the engin es makin~ 118
revolutions. There was then a trial to find the minimum
speed at whi ch th e engines could be run. This proved
to be 13 revolutions, which was kept up for about
10 minutes. This is equal to 2.62 knots, without allowing
for slip. The trials from first to last were exceptionally
severe, and equally satisfactory, and the commissioners
f~om Ma~rid expressed. themselves a~ being highly delighted w1th the exhaust1 ve tests to whtch the machinery
had been subj ected, and expressed the opinion that no
navy in the world had a finer ship, or machinery which
had been put to such severe tests, and with such excellent

-The Ailsa Shipbuilding Yard, Troon, launched on the

28th ult. a passenger and cargo steamer intended for

the Indian coasting trade of Messrs. Shepherd and Co.,
Bombay, and built to the order of Messrs. Dunsmuir and
Jackson, engineers, Glasgow, who are to fit her out with
a set of triple-expansion engines. The dimensions of
the Bahaduri are: Length over all, 255ft. ; between
perpendiculars, 246ft. ; breadth, moulded, 36 ft. ; depth,
moulded, to spar deck, 22ft. 6 in. Her engines will have
cylinders of 20 in., 33 in., and 55 in. in diameter, and
::$6 in. stroke.
The steel screw steamer Maori, built by Messrs. C.
S. S.wan and Hunte~, V!allsend, for the Shaw, Savill, and
Alb10n Company, L1m1ted, London, went on steam trial
on October 28. The engines have cylinders .29 in.,
46 in., and 77 in. in diameter, each with a stroke of 48 in. ;
they were supplied by the Central Marine E ngintj
Works, West Hartlepool. The dimensions of the
steamer are 415 ft. over all, 48 ft. in breadth, with a
moulded depth of 32 ft. 6 in. A mean speed of 12 knot.s
was attained on a succession of runs.

BELCIAN BRIQUETTES.-The exports of briquettes from

Belgium in the first seven months of this year amounted
to 271,558 tons, as compared with 182,228 tons in the
corresponding period of 1892, and 207,893 tons in the
corresponding period of 1891. The exports to France in
the first eight months of this year were 131,474 tons, as
comparPd with 102,420 tons in the corresponding J?eriod
of 1892, and 106,496 tons in the corresponding penod of
Urrox&TER vVATER WonKs .- These works are now
completed, so far as the Bramshall part of the scheme is
concerned, and water is now being supplied to consumers.
A covered service reservoir to hold 150,000 gallons has
been built. New mains have been laid throughout the
town, and all the old fittings connected with the old water
\:vorks have been tested, and replaced where found faulty.
The total cost of the works has been 4792l. 2s. 11d., and
the ex tras on the general contract only amounted to
22l. 12s. 8d. So many persons asked for th e water during
the construction of the works, that the local authority find
themselves with an income of over 400l. a year on the
completion of the works, and applications for water are
still coming in. The scheme has, therefore, proved a great
financial success. The engineer previousl y advised that
the Bramsball springs would not prove sufficient for the
consumers, and the authority have, therefore, decided to
take st9ps to bring a further supply of water from the
Somersball springs, which lie about 3~ miles from the
town. The engineer to the scheme is Mr. W. H. Rad{ord, C.E , of Notti ngham.


Nov. ro, 1893.]


latter ie out of the b reech. The ahaft E Is provided with a hand

lever E' for operating the breech mecbamsm, this shaft being
provided with an endlese screw E2 keyed o n it. Fl is a worm
wheel fitted to turn freely on the '\"eriical shaft F, and d riven by the
worm. This abaft forms a pivot on which the carrier ring ia
turned to and a way from the breech. A pin ion with helical
SBLB<tl'BD ABBTRAai'S OF RECENT PU1HJBHED BPEOIFIC.lTIOllB teeth is cast with the wonnwheel, and a pinion 0 , also with
helical t eeth, gears with it. An endlees acrew with mu ltiple
UNDBR THE Aal'S 1883-1888.
The numbtr of oiews given in tht Speciji.caticn Drawi.ng1 i1 stated
Fig .1.
in each ctUt ; where none are mentioned, tht Specijicatum. i8
~not illmtrated.
Where Jnoentionl are eommunicau d from a~road, tht Namu ,
&:c of the Communicatorl are given in italics.
copiU of Specijicatiom ma11 be obtaimd at tht Patent O..{tu
Sale Branch, 38, Curntorltrut, Chancery-lane, B. C., at tht
un;formpriu of 8d.
Tht date of the ad-vertisement (If the acceptance of a compute
~ecijica_tion i8, in ea-ch C(J.It , giwn after tht O!Jstr.act . unless the
Patent llal been seaud, when the da.te of sealmg \8 guJen.
Any per1on may at any tiFM within two m onths from th! da~ of
t~ advertilement of tht acuptanu of a ccnnplete apte\jicatton,
give Mtice CJt the Patent Office of oppontion to tht grant of a
Patent on any of the ground.s mentioned in the A ct.
threads geared with the pinion 0 has ita axis parall el to that of
the pinion, and is supported at iL8 ends in beanngs in the carrier
bracket. B' is a toothed sector witb inclined teeth formed on
1"485. F. B . and B. Nald er, C. W. S. Crawl ey, a n d the breech screw and geared with the endless aore w H . The teeth
A. aoamea, London. Multiple Point Switches. of the gear wheels F2, G, and endless sorew and sector, are
[5 Pigl. ] July 27, 1893.-This inventipn ooneiets in mounti~g inclined at an angle of 45 deg. The axea of the pinions, wheels,
the two awitoh levers on t.he aame aXIs, 80 that they . move lD and screws bear on bard metal convex surfaces to minimise the
parallel pla nea at only a short distance apart, but suffictently far fricuon. (A cupted S eptem ber 27, 1893).
t o admit the contact blocka between them. a Ja a slab of elate, b a
cast-iron frame bolted to the slab and carrying an inner frame,
having four r&dll\l arms. whioh support the axis c. pair of
16,808. G. Barrett, London. Driving Pulley. [2
arms b2 a1ao carries two concentric aro.'l, the larQ'er arcs carrying Figs.] SepteJ'!lber 20, 1892. -This . in vention relates to .rope
between them the insulating arc e of vulcanised ftbre. A series gripping d rlv10g pulleys, and oonsl8t8 of a number of paus of
of gun-metal contact blooka r are ftxed by bolts to the a rc t. gripping jawa b placed around the pe riphery of t he pulley wheel.
Down the middle of each I& a web e which ftts into a slot <'Ut
t ransversely in 'he wh eel, and which takes the driving strain of



gland C is provided with a collar E fitting into ~he enlarged

bored-out t'nd ottbe cylinder J. A steel buffer ring H ia .in~rted
into the end and between it and the tlan~e E an elast1o mdia
rubber butfe~ F is placed, 80 as to keep a light preaaure. on the
packing G. When C'o mpre88ed air ia admitted to the cyhnder J,
while the piaton -rod K makes its return atroke, the steel bufftr
rintt H is preseed outwards and compresaes the rubber buffer F,
wh1ch p revents any leakage of the preBSure ftuid while workinr.
( A ccepted September 20, 1893).

3076. B. Bod.dtngto~ N e w Wortl ey Lee4.8, a n d
E. Gar4Der, Lataterdyke. B an way alciiantnc A P
paratua. (5 F igs. ] February 11, 1898.-This inve ntion bu

reference to railway si~allinr apparatus. On pulling tbe "diJo"

signal lever for an en,me to paae over the main croeaing, from up
t.o down malo, the end of the rod G forming the connection with
a pivoted catch, and "croaa-over , diec" signal lever , engage&
with iti projection upon the pivoted catch, eo releasing it
and the projection upon ~he eliding indicating plate 0 , wbich
instantly drope in front of t h e ., down malo home " lever, and
indicates " line blocked." On pulling off the u down main arlvanoe " signal, the eliding indicating plate C is returned to it&



..- -6---------.. ' ~

{ .. .&.1----Q 'J
--- ---- - --.- ._........... ...-, ~
,... ..----- - --..: --.~






The ends of theae jaws b extend towards the

the pulley rope a.

centre of the pulley wheel, and are connectt>d in pairs by springa
l which draw the ends together, thus keeping open the gr1ppiog
jaws until they are brought into cont~ct w1th the rope, when they
are closed by the a ction of the latter. The jaws are prevented
their positions, due to centrifugal force. (Acupted Sep
Ar03 of vulcanised ftbre and gun-metal r esl)fc tively are ftxed leaving 27,
~-o that the latter are insulated from the frame. One of the arcs
is oonneot ed by a conductor with the dynamo ; the other by an20,818. J . F . Boole, D arn a U, ShefBeld. Conpllnga.
other conductor with tbe external circuit which supplies the [5 Figs. ] November 17, 1892.-Thl-J invention r elates to couplamps. Each le,er d ca rries a .. brush" composed of cur ved lings for connecting the ends of shaft ing, the object being to conpla~s or sheet copper, euperposed the one on the othe r, and ia in- struct one that is used without keyways sunk in the shaft. T wo
aulated from the lever by vulcanised ftbre. Each hand lever d has circular coupling plates A , AI, with extending central boseee
a locking bolt, which, when the band lever is grasped, le lifted, B, B 1, are ueed. The couplings are bor ed out from the face side
e.nd then the lever ia free to be moved t o ahift the brush k from towards the outer end of the bose, the hole tapering from front to
one contact block to another . The same a rea or the frame which back, and larger at the amaller end t han tbe abaft. The bole
support the contact blocks also lock the band levers. (.Accepttd through the r emaining part is bored to ftt easily on the shaft, and
s~pttmber 27 . 1893).


B. Jenktn.a, Boaton, U.S.A. B eatin g by

Kleotrtctty. (2 F igs. ] March 28, 1893.-Thi invention relates

to meaoa for producing and applying induced electric currents

for beati ng, &c. Tbe commutator consists of a diec having alter
nateJy insulated a nd conducting segm ents and a projecting conducting cy linder Cl. Two wues F. G extend to a source of
electricity comple ting the circuits. From the wire Fa shor t one d
extends to a binding post d' of the motor, and from 0 another short
one goes to the binding post d2 of the motor the circ uit through

Flfl 1.

... A.

. ./:


partitions so as to form separate chambera, but eac h communicatIng with a common steam space above the water . The feed water ie
admitted to the chamber which is moat remote from the ftre. and





to a team boilers. The water spaoe is divided by several transvene


. .. '
-- ... 4 -
------ , . J . -.----
-------. . -- . . . - J . . .

c ----,.. ..


20,788. P . Va Uance, Cootham. Snaez.
Boners . [1 .Fig. ] November 16, 1892.-Tbia invention relatea




I-t.g 2


normal position by means of an arm carried upon the axis, engaging with a hook-shaped projection . On pulling off the "home ''
signal lever S-' to allow a train to draw inside the "home " or up
to the ad vance elgnal, on placing the home signal at danger the
projection sa is released from the catch 85, and eo allows the
lever S2 to tllt upon its ful crum untll its motion is arrest. d by a
atop. The tilting of the rod causea another rod S' to be pulled
downwards, and the end of tbe catch rod H forming the connection with the home signal and the pivoted oatch engages with
ita projection upon the pivot catch, eo releaalng the eliding
indicating plate and droppmg it Into position for indicating ., line
blocked." (.A ccepted September 27, 1893).

... .......-.



--- ---- -- -- --- -------------- ---


through this colla r of metal rectangular keyways F are formed.

The keys G a re made long enough to pass throu~h both coupl ngs
o.nd to project at both ends, and are made to t aper from the
centre to each end on the top side only, and curved to fit againCJt
t!le i~ide of the coupling when it ia bored out taper. The under
stde ts concave to ftt the sba!t. The d isc faoea have bolt-boles
a!Jd bolt~ for drawing the two parts togetbt'r, and both are proVlded wtth threaded boles and set screws, by which they are
forced ap~rt. (~ccepted S eptember 27, 1898).

when it is full, flows over the partition &Pparating it from the

next, and eo on until it reaches the end. The boiler haa internal flues traveraing all the chamben, and the gas~s before
they enter the chimney p&88 through that part of the ftues surrounded by the comparatively cold feed which has recently
entered, and are so cooled. (~ ccepted S eptember 20, 1898).
847. A. Sowd~n~ Br~dford. Valv~s.
[6 Fig1.
13,311. T . K eunert, L eed s. Yorka. Roc k Drtlla. January H, 1898.-ThlB m ventton relates to a tr1p rear tor elide
[S Figs.] July 8, 1893.- This invention relatu to rock drills. A valves of ate~m e~gines. Two b~ocks 1 are employed, one near
each end of tb~ ehde 2, _a nd ?arrted on the epindlea 12, which pue
through slote m the tr1p shdea 4. One end of each block i& auapended just clear of the abaft 8, on whic h are formed wide

the ~otor bting operative followi_ng these wires d, g , whether the

clrcutt through the commutator 1s interrupted or not. 'Ihe wi re
F la connected to a branch wire F' wbicL extends to the upper
endofthe core A and winds down on it from left to right forming
a helix from wbiob a wire extends to the wire 0. 1,' J, K are
tbr~e contact plates, the two former of which bear on t he
per!phery or the disc part or the oommutator, the latter bear ing
aga10at the drum C1 (4 cctpttd S epttmbtr 27, 1893).


i0,697. B. B. Lake, LoDdon. ( J . B . G. A. Can net,
Pan.~). Breech lllechan tm for Or dna n ce. (5 F igi.J

. .. . .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .

~. J.

November 16, 1892.-This invention r elatu to breech mechaniam

A la a pad of tbe body of the gun, B the breech plug, C a metai
end plate a~tacbed to the breech end of the gun, and conatructed
for aupportang the breec~ meobani.Jm. D ie the carrier ring hinged
to the end plate ~t the s1de of the breech, and a bracket ia formed
with. r.nd projectmg rearwardly from the carrier r ing, and supporting .the breech plug when it ia withdrawn. A catch locka ate~l c~>Ver A is provided wi ~b an i otern~l stuft\ng . box B Into
the carr&er ring to the end plate when the plug lJ In }llaoe wbtc~ 11 fttte<;t ~steel gland C leaving a apace D in the stuffingand alto the carrier ring and breech screw together aa aoon u tb~ box, mto wbtch rounds of gland packin~ 0 are Inserted. The

tappets, and which ie driven by gear wheels. The blooka 1 JiUI

through the elide 2 and travel to and fro with it. On the oppoelte
aide of tbe aUde 2 to the tappet &haft 3 are the two trip slidee '
one at each end, and connected by linka cranks on the ''alv~
spindle 7, and connecting-rod with the ~yllnder In which are
placed the1prlnge for actuating the valve1. (.Acc~ttd Septtmb?:r
20, 1898).

1'123. W . Akhnrat Aahfor d , Kent. Cy11Ddera of

ComponDd Steam EDgtne,
(6 Fiy1.] January 26,


E N G I N E E R I N G.

1893.-This invention relates to the cylinders of compound steam
or compreBSed air eng ines, and consists of the faced and scraped
joint Z, which is fitted" ith stead y pins in order to insure its
always going back in the same position as when bored, and
secured together with studs and nuts. The cylinders (Fig. 2) are


stroke, and the exhaust port closes, the hot air is compressed
into t he clearance spaces, and on the admission of the steam at
the end of the stroke all the surfaces with which iD comes int o
contact have been raised to such a temperature that initial
condensation is reduced. The heated air is admitted to the
cylinder a through valves e placed in the sides or cover. c is the
bot-air valve chest, d the inlet for the heated air. The ports 11
for conducting the heated air into the cylinder are shaped
so as to deliver it in a. longitudinal direction. The vahf's e are
held closed by springs i until, owing to the opening of the
exhaust val~es, the pressure of fluid in the cylinder is sufficiently
reduced to allow the pressure of the heated air to open them.
(Accepted Septembe1 27, 1893).
11,577. A. J. Boult, London. ( J . .A bell, T oronto,
On tario, Canada.) Steam Motors. (3 Figs. ] June 13, 1893.
-This invention relates to steam motors. In the body of the
cylinder is formed a. steam reservoir A communicating directly
with the boiler, and protected so as t o prevent condensation. At
each end of this reservoir and at the end of the cylinder is a
chamber B which is connected by a. short port C to the
interior of the cylinder and to t.he exhaust port D. A
plug E is divided into two parts and shaped to ftt the cylin
drical chamber B, both being slightly tapered so that the plug '
can be made to fit steamtight, and at the same time be readily


10, I 893

of these cylinders are provided with inlet and discharge valves,

and at the top of each is a float valve which rises and closf:s the
air pipe to the main cy linder if the pumping cylinder becomes full
of the substance being raised. Opening into the air pipes at
points between the main and pumping cylinders are air valves,
which are capable of being set so as to allow any desired quantity
of air to be delivered to the cylinder, and thus regulate the
amount of vacuum alternately exerted in the pumping cylinders.
(.Acupt'Ui September 20, 1893.
18,683. G. HcNetll,HtdlothtaD, N.B. Papermaklng
Machines. (3 Figs.] October 19, 1892.-Thia invention relates
to papermaking maobines, and t he object is to obviate thicks and
thins, tbP. weight of fibre let off to the paper machine being
always the same, no matter how ttte consistency of the stuff in
the chest alters. The cook at the inlet of the regulator is opened
and allows more stuff to flow up through the cylinder A than is


.Fig. 1.

f\tted with movable covera at t he ends a, b, and internt.l covers

c, d ~ade in halves and fttted into grooves turned in the cylinders.
The mtemal glands e, f are fttted with plain spring rings and
grooves bored in the halved covers to re ceive them. (A ccepted
September 20, 1893).
21,328. W. D. Grlmahaw, AccrlDgton, Lancs. He
chantcal Stokers. [2 F igs.] November 23, 1892.-This in
vention relates to mechanical stokers which feed the coal to the
furnace by means of a fan. One fan a is used, and in the centre
of the opening a~ of the fan box a' in to the furnace, a plate b is
mounted on a. vertical pivot b', which, as the fan a throws the


.1 .

Ftg . 3.

required, the surplus being convfyed back to the stuff chest br

the other outlet. As it passes through the cylinder, t he ftoat :K
is raised and kept in suspension, and being attached to one end
of the lever, and the sluice Q in the outlet to the other end, as
it rises the sluice closes, and vice versa. Thus if the stuff gets
thick or heavy the float rises and the sluice is closed in propor
tion. (.Accepted Septembe1 20, 1893).
8205. J. T. Ptckertng, Londoa. Pulley Blocks.
[4 Figs.] April 24, 1893.-This imention relates to a form of
framing and bellmouthed chain guides for Pickering pulley
blocks. a is the frame, b a divided boss forming part of the
frame. On one part of t his boss the loadwbeel c runs ; d is an
axlt: running in the boss b ; e the fixed wheel with internal teeth ;


Fig .Z.


removed. A space between the valve seats F, G communicates

with the port C. Gridiron openings are formed in the seats F, G,
the valves H and I being provided with corresponding apertures.
The bead K is connectt>d to an arm L having fixed to it two other
arms N, 0, the former being joined to a spring set so that its
tension holds the valve H closed ; a bar being pi voted on the end
of the arm 0. A wiper Q engages with the hook a at each re
volution, drawing upon the bar to the extent of the engagement
fuel on the fire, is caused to oscillate o~ i.ts pivot. Upon ~be between the wiper Q and book a. Means are provided for makcentre of the worm wheel c is mounted a. p1mon d revolvm~ wtth ing the opening of the valve H variable to suit the load being
it, and actuating the toothed wheels dl, whicb; 9:re provided with carried at any particular time. (.Accepted September 27, 1893).
crankpins e each connected by a. rod f to a shdmg rack g gearing with a pinion h giving motion to a. similar pinion i on the
pivot bl of the rocking plate b. (A ccepted Septembe1 20, 1893).
23,889. B.. A. Barker, Tovn, Kent. Pumps. [7 Figs. )
16,686. w. Bargreaves. Newchurch, ~ancs. Auto- December 27, 1892.-This inventioo relates to pumps in which t he
matte Lubricator for Cylinders. [2 FyJS.] ~eptember substance to be moved is raised by air pressurt>. The main
19 189l.-Tbis invention relates to an automat10 ~ubnca.tor for
lo~pressure engine cylinders formed with a reservou q,, and feed.
A veesel c is attached to the outflow end of the reservou, between


the eccentric is fast on the axle d ; 11 the internal pinion ; h anti

frict ion rollers fitted in the boss of t he pinion g, and surroundin~
the eccentric. The sprocket wheel k 11 fast on the axle d, and
the guide blocks m are attached to arms n pivoted to the frame,
these blocks having cruciform openings) through which the
chain passes, and whereby the chain is guided and prevented
from twisting. (Accepted September 13, 1893).
11,119. R.. J. Bammond, Wanstead, Essex. Ster~
wheel Propelled Vessels. [3 Figs.] June 6, 1893.-In
this invention, stem wheel vessels are constructed with a chamber
extending downwards from the d eck to within 4 ft. of t he keel
into which the paddlewheel and crankshaft work, and are thus

Fig .7.

it and the cylinder, this vessel having opening:s to .the atmosphere,

and being provided with a small YalYe wh10h 1s closed ~y the
ressure of steam within the cylinder, ::md. t~us any ~aste 18 pr~
~ented, this valve being opened and pe.rmtttmg ~he mgress of 011
the receptacle when the pressure m the oyhnder falls be1ow
t~~~tmospheric line. (.A ccepted Septern1Je1 27, 1893).
17 372 J Musgrave and G. Dlxon, Bolton, Lancs.,
d. E Field and F. S. Morris, London. Stea~
::~gtn~s. [13 F igs.] September 29, .1892.-Tbe obj~ct of tb1s
invention is to reduce the consumptiOn of steam 111 steam

.RfJ .2 .


Iig .Z

protected from injury. The t hrust disc c is mounted with baJls d
so as to take the weight of t he pa.ddlewhet>l when the ship rolls
heavily. These d iscs, which are fi tted on each side, close to the
paddlewheeJ, are keyed on to the crankshaft, and the balls d bear
upon tbe plummer blocks e ft tted over the shaft bearings instead
of upon the brasses. (A ccepted Septembe1 23, 1893).



engioee by means of heated air. or gas. ~eated air or gas is

introduced into the cylinder durmg th~ per1od of exhaust, and
is caused to take the place of ~he m!Jdure ~vhlch has already
done work, so that when the ptston 1s nearmg t he end of its

Descriptions with illustrations of inventions patented in the

United States of America from 1847 to the present time, and
cylinder a is provided with a doubleacting pls~on 6, ~apted, while reports of trials of patent law cases in the United States, may be
drawing the ~.~tir from t he top of one of the s1de cyl.m~ers b, c, to consulted, gratis, at the offices oi ENGINEERING, 36 and 36, Bedford
deliver air under pressure to the top of the second stde one. Both street, Strand,