Orientation Materials for VISTA Pre-Service Orientation

February 2010

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This guide and binder are work sponsored wholly, or in part, by the Corporation for National and Community Service, under Cooperative Agreement #05TAHOR001. Contents do not necessarily reflect the views of the Corporation for National and Community Service or any agency of the United States government. Permission to reproduce these binder contents in whole or part for use by educational, national service, or other not-for-profit agencies is granted with the inclusion on all pages of the footer contained herein. The VISTA National Integrated Training Program is staffed by Education Northwest and Bank Street College of Education (BSC). The Education Northwest/BSC team wishes to acknowledge the contributions of a core team of curriculum developers and others who have helped guide the development and implementation of this work. They include: Wendy Biro-Pollard, Jean Carroccio, Jennifer Goddard, Judith Gold, Cynthia Henderson, Nancy Henry, Cathy Lins, Bob Schout, Michelle Sugahiro, Amy Thompson, Nicole Trimble, Jewel Ware, and Kapila Wewegama. We also wish to acknowledge our colleagues at the Corporation for National and Community Service, particularly Jerry Thompson, Ellen Paquette, Patrick Triano and the following staff: Bernard Brown, Kathie Ferguson, Jerry Herman, Louis Lopez, Bethany Mancuso, and Kent Van Griffits. Also, special thanks to Judith Russell, Susan Schechter, Sam Schuth, and Donna Smith, for their contributions to this work. Finally, appreciations to Rhonda Barton and Eugenia Potter for editing and Kevin Jahnsen for formatting this document. Our thanks from the team at Education Northwest/BSC: Kate Baldus, Bethany Dusablon, Judith Gold, Nancy Henry, Kevin Jahnsen, Felecia Kelley and Mary Loudermilk.

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Contents
Day 1 Mission and Legacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The History of National Service and VISTA Since 1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 VISTA Impact Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Reflections on Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Day 2 Building the Learning Environment / The Mission of VISTA — Outcomes . . .5 7 Things About Me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Capacity Building Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Personal Perspectives of Poverty — Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Personal Perspectives on Poverty —Key Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Poverty Concepts, Insights and Strategies — Outcomes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Poverty: A Lack of Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Models of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Types of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Some Areas of Financial Asset Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Time Line of US Poverty Measures: The Poverty Threshold. . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Orshansky’s Poverty Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Poverty Thresholds for 2008 (By Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 How the Government Uses the Poverty Threshold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 2009 Poverty Guidelines (Dept. of Health and Human Services) . . . . . . . . . .24 Problems With Official Measure of Poverty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 US Population Density (2000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Percentage of Total Population in Poverty (2003) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Poverty Statistics Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 The Realities of Meeting Basic Needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Keys for Working With Those in Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Questions That Consider Context of Those Living in Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . .30 To All Advocates/Social Service Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Poverty Resource List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Day 3 Understanding the VISTA Assignment Description — Outcomes . . . . . . . . .33 VISTA Project Plan – Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 VISTA Assignment Description (VAD) SAMPLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Glossary of Terms for the Project Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 The Fieldstone Alliance Framework Graphic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 The Fieldstone Alliance Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
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Attributes of Successful VISTAs, According to Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Reflection Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Capacity Building Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Organizational Culture and Community Entry — Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 A Common VISTA Cycle of Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Workplace Values and Norms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Communication Styles Case Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Styles of Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 A Diagram of Cultural Adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 VISTA Site: Cultural Observation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Strategies and Suggestions for Effective Community Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Community Entry “Do’s” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Day 4 Civil Rights and Responsibilities — Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Your Rights and Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Civil Rights Statements Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Policies on Civil Rights, Equal Opportunity, and Harassment . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Civil Rights and Responsibilities of VISTAs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 VISTA Fraternization Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Volunteer Generation and Development — Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Overview of the Sustainable Volunteerism Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Trends Impacting Volunteer Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Implementation Rates of Effective Volunteer Management Practices . . . . . .87 Nonprofits Use Volunteers for Many Skilled Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Sample Task Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Volunteer Management Websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Resource Mobilization — Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 A Culture of Philanthropy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 Resource Mobilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 A Conversation About Your Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Get the Goals in Your Memory Bank Worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 How to Develop an Effective Resource Mobilization Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 Giving Pie: Sources of Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Giving Pie: Recipient Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 The Stages of an ASK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 The ASK Observer’s Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 Resource Mobilization Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Case Statement Outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
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Partnerships and Building Relationships — Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Action Plan: Meeting Gaston’s Community Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Reaching Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Who’s a Partner? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 The Stages of Group Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Partnership: Good for Everyone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Partner Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Keys to Successful Partnerships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124

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History and Legacy

Mission and Legacy
Corporation for National and Community Service Mission Statement The Corporation’s mission is to provide opportunities for Americans of all ages and backgrounds to engage in service that addresses the nation’s educational, public safety, environmental, and other human needs to achieve direct and demonstrable results and to encourage all Americans to engage in such service. In doing so, the Corporation will foster civic responsibility, strengthen the ties that bind us together as a people, and provide educational opportunity for those who make a substantial commitment to service. VISTA Mission and Legacy VISTA builds capacity in non-profit organizations and communities to help bring individuals and communities out of poverty. For over 40 years, VISTA has been helping bring communities and individuals out of poverty. Today, nearly 6,000 VISTA members serve in hundreds of non-profit organizations and public agencies throughout the country — working to promote literacy, improve health services, create businesses, increase housing opportunities, or bridge the digital divide. Overall Goals of VISTA Training By the end of the Pre-Service Orientation, you should be able to: • Describe the VISTA program and its mission in broad terms. • Explain how capacity-building relates to VISTA service. • Relate your assignment to capacity-building and fighting poverty. • Recognize skills and activities required to successfully build capacity in an organization. • Describe your service responsibilities and activities, based on your assignment description. • Formulate key questions to ask your supervisor about your assignment. • Expand your understanding of poverty in the United States. • Become inspired to fight poverty as part of your service. • Increase your awareness of the various dimensions of culture and how they may impact service. • Identify and honor key cultural aspects of your sponsoring organization/community.
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History and Legacy

The History of National Service and VISTA Since 1965
Service is and has always been a vital force in American life. Throughout our history, our nation has relied on the dedication and action of citizens to tackle our biggest challenges. In 1963, President John F. Kennedy spoke of a domestic volunteer program modeled after the newly established Peace Corps. The next year, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a “war on poverty” and signed the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. The Act created Volunteers In Service To America (VISTA) and fulfilled President Kennedy’s dream. The first VISTA members started in January 1965, and by the end of the year, more than 2,000 members were working in the Appalachian region, migrant worker camps in California, and poor neighborhoods in Hartford, Connecticut. By 1966, there were 3,600 VISTA members serving throughout the country. Throughout the 1960s, they helped develop some of the first Head Start programs and Job Corps sites. The first members started agricultural cooperatives, community groups, and small businesses that still thrive today. In the 1970s, VISTA merged with Peace Corps and the senior service programs, and the ACTION agency was born. Early in the decade, VISTA recruited trained professionals to serve. Doctors helped develop health care facilities where none had existed before, architects helped renovate and build low-income housing, and lawyers advocated for housing and health care reform. During the 1980s, VISTA’s focus changed to encouraging citizen participation and community self-help. Through their own initiatives, community members could increase awareness and participation in community issues. In 1986, the VISTA Literacy Corps was developed to create literacy councils and expand adult education. One-quarter of all VISTA members focused on increasing literacy rates throughout the United States. The 1990s began a resurgence of national service. In 1990, President George H.W. Bush developed the Commission on National and Community Service. Further expansion of national service took place in 1993. With the signing of the National Community Service Trust Act, President William J. Clinton developed AmeriCorps and merged the programs to create AmeriCorps*VISTA. Throughout the 1990s, VISTA members continued the long tradition of starting new and innovative programs. They helped develop tenant-owned cooperative low-income housing, expanded Individual Development Accounts to help people save, and focused on assisting people making the transition from welfare to work. In 2000, VISTA marked its 35th year with 6,000 members, the largest number serving to date. Members are continuing initiatives that began in the late 1990s to bridge the digital divide and promote welfare to work initiatives. According to a recent Accomplishment Study prepared by Westat, Inc. of Bethesda, Maryland, for every dollar spent on a VISTA member, $3.33 is returned to the community in the form of financial and in-kind resources and local volunteer time.

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History and Legacy

VISTA Impact Facts
In 2008, VISTAs helped raise more than $183 million in funds and in-kind contributions for anti-poverty efforts. In 2008, VISTAs helped recruit 1 million community volunteers. That is an average of 135 volunteers per VISTA. In the past 40 years, over 177,000 people have served as VISTA volunteers working with local organizations to strengthen communities and help people escape poverty. During 2008, 7,404 VISTAs served with approximately 950 project sponsors. Eighty percent of former VISTA members continue to volunteer in their communities after their term of service ends.

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History and Legacy

Reflections on Service
“We must use time creatively, and forever realize that the time is always ripe to do right.” — Nelson Mandela “You must do the thing you think you cannot do.” — Eleanor Roosevelt “Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it, whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connected.” — Chief Seattle “Service is the rent we pay for being. It is the very purpose of life, and not something you do in your spare time.” — Marion Wright Edelman “If you want one year of prosperity, grow grain. If you want ten years of prosperity, grow trees. If you want one hundred years of prosperity, grow people.” — (old Chinese proverb) “The journey is the reward.” — (Taoist saying) “Everybody can be great, because anyone can serve. You only need a heart full of grace, a soul generated by love.” — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. “Remember, we all stumble, every one of us. That’s why it’s a comfort to go hand in hand.” — Emily Kimbrough “You don’t get harmony when everybody sings the same note.” — Doug Floyd “Out of clutter, find Simplicity. From discord, find Harmony. In the middle of difficulty lies Opportunity.” — Albert Einstein, Three Rules of Work “To laugh often and much, to win the respect of intelligent people and the affection of children, to earn the appreciation of honest critics and endure the betrayal of false friends, to appreciate beauty, to find the best in others, to leave the world a bit better, whether by a healthy child, a garden patch, or a redeemed social condition; to know even one life has breathed easier because you have lived. THIS is to have succeeded.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Building the Learning Environment

Building the Learning Environment / The Mission of VISTA — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to: n Meet others in a way that underscores the importance of relationship building n Review the agenda n Establish working agreements n Define the capacity-building and skills transfer in relation to VISTA service

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Building the Learning Environment

7 Things About Me
My Name:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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Building the Learning Environment

Capacity Building Definition

Tasks and activities to create, expand or strengthen systems or processes in order to increase an organization’s ability to function effectively and meet its mission. These tasks and activities include the transfer of skills, products and relationships.

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Personal Perspectives

Personal Perspectives of Poverty — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to:

n Articulate your perspective and relationship to poverty n Identify stereotypes and assumptions about poverty to gain a broader understanding of it n Identify personal skills and life experiences you will bring to addressing poverty as part of your service

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Personal Perspectives

Personal Perspectives on Poverty —Key Points
n It is easy to make assumptions and not be aware of them. n Often our perceptions are based on feelings, judgments, stereotypes, and underlying beliefs. n It is important to examine our assumptions and judgments so we can make informed choices about what we believe. n It is important to gather evidence to support how we see and perceive different aspects of life. n The truth is that none of us has the truth about poverty.

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Poverty Concepts

Poverty Concepts, Insights and Strategies — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to:

n Discuss causes of poverty n Describe models and types of poverty and how poverty is measured n Relate poverty data and research to VISTA’s programmatic responses n Describe poverty from the perspective of those living in poverty

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Poverty Concepts

Poverty: A Lack of Resources
Resources can be defined as:

n Financial—having the money to purchase goods and services; however, financial resources are more than just cash. Assets such as credit, property and equity are also sources of financial resources.

n Emotional—Being able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly to negative situations without engaging in self-destructive behavior. This is an internal resource and shows itself through stamina, perseverance and choices.

n Mental—having the capacity to process information, evaluate a situation, and use prior experience to make decisions in daily living.

n Social Capital—having friends, family, backup resources and knowledge bases available to access in times of need. These are external resources.

n Role Models—having frequent access to appropriate adults who are nurturing and who do not engage in self-destructive behavior (mentors).

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Poverty Concepts

Models of Poverty
Absolute poverty is “a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to social services” (United Nations, Copenhagen Declaration, 1995). Relative poverty refers to deprivation that is relative to the standard of living enjoyed by other members of society. Even if basic needs are met, a segment of the population may still be considered “poor” if they possess fewer resources, opportunities or goods than other citizens.

Types of Poverty
Situational poverty refers to people living in poverty for a short time as the result of circumstance (unemployment, chronic illness,disability, divorce, or death of a family member). Generational poverty refers to people in poverty for two or more generations. Of the 34 million Americans living below the poverty line, about 75% are in generational poverty and the remaining are in situational.

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Poverty Concepts

Some Areas of Financial Asset Development
A microenterprise is defined as a small business with five or fewer employees with initial capital needs of $35,000 or less. Most microenterprises are sole proprietorships and can be any type of business—graphic design, cleaning services, jewelry making and t-shirt printing are some examples. Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) are incentivized, matched and restricted savings accounts. Those who qualify for an IDA agree to save a certain amount of money each month, which is then matched with money contributed by an organization or government agency. Depending on the program, participants receive 50 cents to four dollars for every dollar saved. Financial Literacy is the ability to read, analyze, manage and communicate about personal finances. It includes the ability to choose between different financial options, discuss financial issues, plan for the financial future, and understand general economic events and their impact on personal finances.

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Poverty Concepts

Time Line of US Poverty Measures: The Poverty Threshold
January 1964 After President Johnson declares war on poverty, the Council of Economic Advisors cite Orshansky’s paper in a report to the President. May 1965 The Office of Economic Opportunity uses Orshansky’s poverty threshold for determining eligibility. 1969 After other federal agencies follow the OEO’s lead in using Orshansky’s method, the White House adopts it as the official poverty measure. It becomes known as the “poverty threshold.”

1962 President Kennedy asks Council of Economic Advisors to gather statistics on poverty. Makes defining and measuring poverty a goal of his administration.

1960
August 1964 Congress creates the Office of Economic Opportunity.

1970

January 1963 Mollie Orshansky publishes paper that proposes method for determining the number of poor. Her method proposes poverty thresholds that are based on the most austere food plans set forth by the USDA.

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Poverty Concepts

Orshansky’s Poverty Threshold

$3.60 x 3 x 365 = $3,942
1950s studies showed families spent 1/3 of income on food Days in a calendar year Poverty Threshold Any family of 4 living on less than this amount was considered poor

Cheapest USDA Food Plan per day for a family of 4 ($3.61187)

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Poverty Concepts

Poverty Thresholds for 2008 (By Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years)
Related children under 18 years None One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight or more

Size of family unit

One person (unrelated individual) $11,201 10,326

Under 65 years..................................

65 years and over..............................

Two people 14,417 13,014 16,841 22,207 26,781 30,803 35,442 39,640 47,684 39,990 47,915 35,664 30,925 30,288 34,901 39,270 47,278 27,170 26,338 22,570 21,834 17,330 $17,346 $21,910 25,694 29,677 34,369 38,639 46,743 $25,301 28,769 33,379 37,744 45,864 $28,230 32,223 36,608 44,656 $30,955 35,426 43,563 $35,125 43,292 $41,624 14,784 $14,840

Householder under 65 years...........

Householder 65 years and over......

Three people...................................

Four people.....................................

Five people......................................

Six people........................................

Seven people...................................

Eight people.....................................

Nine people or more........................

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
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Poverty Concepts

How the Government Uses the Poverty Threshold
Orshansky’s formula = official poverty threshold Poverty threshold = the maximum amount of pretax cash income you can make in order to be considered in poverty, according to the US government. The poverty thresholds are used by the government in two ways:

Statistics
Gov’t agency: US Census Bureau
• Tells the government how many people are in poverty. • The data informs policymakers and the public.

Eligibility
Gov’t agency: Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS)
• Tells the government who is eligible for state and federal services. • States can increase allowed income amounts by anywhere from 105 – 400% of HHS’ maximum to allow more people to be eligible for services.

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Poverty Concepts

2009 Poverty Guidelines (Dept. of Health and Human Services)
Persons in Family or Household 48 Contiguous States and D.C. Alaska Hawaii

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 For each additional person, add

$ 10,830 14,570 18,310 22,050 25,790 29,530 33,270 37,010 3,740

$13,530 18,210 22,890 27,570 32,250 36,930 41,610 46,290 4,680

$12,460 16,760 21,060 25,360 29,660 33,960 38,260 42,560 4,300

Source: Federal Register: January 23, 2009 Available: http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/09poverty.shtml

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Poverty Concepts

Problems With Official Measure of Poverty
n How it defines INCOME—ignores all noncash government transfers (like Earned Income Tax Credit, food stamps, Medicaid, and housing and child care assistance). n … and therefore OVERSTATES poverty—ignores these sources of income. n How it defines EXPENSES—excludes payroll and income taxes, work-related expenses (child care and transportation), cost of out-of-pocket medical expenses. No adjustment for the substantial variation in the cost of living from state to state and between urban and rural areas. n … and therefore UNDERSTATES poverty—ignores significant costs associated with getting to work, medical and child care, and geographic cost of living when calculating income produced by a job.

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Poverty Concepts

US Population Density (2000)

Percentage of Total Population in Poverty (2003)

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Poverty Statistics Overview
Age Children comprise the greatest numbers and percentages of people in poverty. Race & Hispanic origin The highest numbers of people in poverty are white; however, people of color have the highest percentages of their population in poverty. Household type Out of the large number of married households, a small percentage of them live in poverty. Out of the small number of female-headed households, a large percentage of them live in poverty. Employment status The total number of people in poverty who worked full time or part time is higher than those who did not work at all. Educational attainment The more advanced one’s education is, the less likely it is that he/she will experience high rates of poverty.

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Poverty Concepts

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

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Poverty Concepts

The Realities of Meeting Basic Needs
(Dr. Donna Beegle, See Poverty…Be the Difference! Discovering the Missing Pieces for Working with People in Poverty, 2005)

Consider the following questions and reflect on your list of physiological and safety needs. Imagine the amount of time people in poverty spend meeting these basic needs. Think about the resiliency and resourcefulness of people in poverty. n Where can you cash a check without any identification? How much will it cost? n Where can you get a loan on your car title? How much will it cost? n From which dumpsters can you get returnable cans and bottles without being caught? n How can you get tons of newspaper and cardboard? Where do you sell these items? How much will you earn? n Explain what to do if you are being evicted and have no money to move. n Tell what you would do to survive without garbage service, utilities or a telephone. n Explain how to survive winter nights without heat. n Where would you go for help if your utilities were being shut off? n How do you show “proof” that you live in a neighborhood that you really don’t in order to get better services? n Explain how to go for days without food. n Which stores will let you get food and pay for it later? n Explain how to keep food cold without a refrigerator. n Explain how to cook without a stove.

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Poverty Concepts

Keys for Working With Those in Poverty
(Dr. Donna Beegle, See Poverty…Be the Difference! Discovering the Missing Pieces for Working with People in Poverty, 2005)

n Those who do work with individuals living in poverty must communicate with them effectively in order to honor and include their voices as planning for poverty services continues. n In order to serve people in poverty, individuals need to continually ask questions about context and experiences related to poverty so that they keep learning and growing.

Questions That Consider Context of Those Living in Poverty
(Dr. Donna Beegle, See Poverty…Be the Difference! Discovering the Missing Pieces for Working with

People in Poverty, 2005)

Contextualizing how people in poverty live is long overdue. Helping professionals and volunteers can ask the following questions to improve success: n n n n Does the intervention that I am suggesting or implementing make sense in their current context? Am I setting them up for success? Am I considering their situation, resources, and health before asking them to follow through with my organization’s programs or policies? Are there supports that I need to build in and help people connect to that will increase their ability to be successful?

If these questions are asked, outcomes for moving people forward will dramatically improve.

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To All Advocates/Social Service Providers
(Dr. Donna Beegle, See Poverty…Be the Difference! Discovering the Missing Pieces for Working with

People in Poverty, 2005)

Participants in Dr. Donna Beegle’s research groups suggested ways for advocates and social service providers to improve educational opportunities for students from generational poverty backgrounds: 1. Don’t ignore poverty realities. They won’t go away. Address the real situations people are in. Connect with people. Build relationships and trust. This demands more time and energy. 2. Encourage further education (more than simply getting low-wage jobs). Know about the financial aid process and be able to simplify and help students from poverty to see possibilities. 3. Develop programs that meet people’s basic needs so they can focus on education and other possibilities. Fund extracurricular activities focused on ensuring that students can read and understand math and science. 4. Work to change negative perceptions of people who are in poverty. Build relationships and understanding with them instead of judging. Operate on the assumption that people in poverty are doing the best they can in their situations. Understand each case and do not label people. Avoid stereotypes. 5. Change some rules. Make the rules less focused on middle-class values and priorities. Understand what the world of poverty is like. Study cases and change the criteria to fit the realities. 6. Be more aggressive with outreach for access to health care, housing and basic needs for those experiencing poverty. 7. Understand that people in poverty may have fears or negative attitudes about education and other social service organizations. Work to provide them a new, positive frame of reference. 8. Help with life skills and fitting into middle-class culture. Help to understand what normal behavior is in that culture. Uncover the secret codes. They need to know what middle-class cultures eat, how they talk, dress, act and speak in middle-class environments. Set up mentor programs where it’s safe to ask questions about these things in addition to health care, basic needs and education. 9. Be an advocate and make connections for people who do not have networks of support. Conceivably show them possibilities.

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Poverty Resource List
Books: n Understanding Poverty (2002) by Sheldon H. Danziger and Robert H. Haveman n The Working Poor: Invisible in America (2005) by David K. Shipler n The State of Working America 2004/2005 (2005) by Lawrence Mishel, Jared Bernstein, Sylvia Allegretto (Economic Policy Institute) n Field Guide to the US Economy (2006) by Johnathon Teller-Elsberg, Nancy Folbre, James Heintz (Center for Popular Economics) n Without a Net: Middle Class and Homeless (With Kids) in America (2006) by Michelle Kennedy n Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (2001) by James Agee, Walker Evans n The Grapes of Wrath (1939) by John Steinbeck Articles: n “Relatively Deprived” by John Cassidy (The New Yorker, April 3, 2006) n “Overcoming the Silence of Generational Poverty” by Dr. Donna M. Beegle (Talking Points, Oct/Nov 2003) n “Getting to Why’ to solve for ‘How’: Kids in Poverty Now on Radar.” An extended interview with national expert Dr. Donna Beegle on breaking through the barriers of generational poverty. From Northwest Education, Fall 2004, at www. nwrel.org/nwedu/10-04/beegle Reports: n “Getting Out — and Staying Out — of Poverty: The Complex Causes of and Responses to Poverty in the Northwest” (Dec. 2004) by David Harrison and Bob Watrus for the Northwest Area Foundation Web Sites: n The US Census Bureau (www.census.gov) n Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison (www.irp. wisc.edu) n National Center for Children in Poverty (www.nccp.org) n Dr. Donna Beegle’s Communication Across Barriers site (www.combarriers.com) n To look up the latest on your community, go to http://factfinder.census.gov. Click on “Get data” under American Community Survey. Be sure “2007” is selected, and click “Data profiles.” Use pull-down menus to select a geographic area. Click “Show result.” When demographic data appear, click on “Economic” or “Social” for more information. n Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) in your area, go to www.idanetwork.org. Click on “IDA Directory” in the left column.
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Understanding the VISTA Assignment

Understanding the VISTA Assignment Description — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to:

n Describe your service responsibilities and activities, based on your assignment descriptions n Relate your assignment to capacity building and to addressing poverty n List skills and competencies required to successfully carry out your assignment n Create a plan for getting started, including communication with your supervisor

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VISTA Project Plan – Example
Column A AmeriCorps*VISTA Project Plan
Community Need: Describe the community need to be addressed in relation to the problem(s) identified in your project narrative (Need). • • Studies have found that more than 500 children and youth in Waketa County have at least one incarcerated parent. About two-thirds of these children and youth (61%) live in households with incomes below the Federal poverty line and are more inclined to suffer drug use, diminished high school graduation rates and unemployment. Waketa Community Services (WCS) currently provides mentoring services to children and youth of incarcerated parents; however, WCS has had difficulty finding enough volunteers to meet the demand for mentors.

Column B Date(s)

Column C

Goal Statement: Describe the impact your project will have in addressing the community need identified above. This goal statement should cover the three-year project period. To help ensure that children and youth of incarcerated parents receive the educational, social and emotional support they need to help them escape the cycle of poverty, the WCS VISTA project will build the capacity of the organization by developing a sustainable Volunteer Recruitment and Management system for the mentoring program. Performance Milestone At least three Volunteer Recruitment and Management system components will be created and/or revised. Indicator: System components created and/or revised. These may include but are not limited to: volFebruary 2010 unteer recruitment database, screening procedures, mentor training curricula, and volunteer support resources. Target: Three system components will be created and/or revised.

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VISTA Project Plan – Example (cont.)
Column B Date(s) Column C

Column A AmeriCorps*VISTA Project Plan

How Measured: Volunteer Recruitment and Management System Checklist.

Description of Data Collection: The VISTA supervisor will use the Volunteer Recruitment and Management System Checklist approximately twice per month to track the status of each system component VISTA members are working on.

Performance Milestone New/revised recruitment systems are operational: 45 Volunteers are recruited. Sept 2009

Indicator: Volunteers recruited using new volunteer recruitment systems.

Target: 45 volunteers will be recruited.

How Measured: Volunteer Recruitment Log

Description of Data Collection: Volunteer Recruitment Log, completed after each recruitment event by VISTA member.

Performance Milestone New/revised Volunteer Recruitment and Management systems are effective: 75% (30 of 40) volunteers recruited, trained and managed using the new/revised Volunteer Recruitment and Management system will serve as mentors for at least 9 months. Sept 2010

Indicator: Volunteers recruited and managed using the new/revised Volunteer Recruitment and Management system serve as mentors for at least 9 months.

Target: 75% of volunteers will serve as mentors for at least 9 months.

How Measured: Mentoring Logs.

Description of Data Collection: Mentoring Logs, completed weekly by mentors.

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VISTA Assignment Description (VAD) SAMPLE
VISTA Project: Waketa Community Services (WCS) Site Name: Brownville VISTA Member Name: Sam Smith Assignment Area: Volunteer Development Date: November 10, 2008 Planned Period of Work

VISTA Member Activities and Steps Checklist Goal: To help ensure that children and youth of incarcerated parents receive the educational, social and emotional support they need to help them escape the cycle of poverty, the WCS VISTA project will build the capacity of the organization by developing a sustainable Volunteer Recruitment and Management system for the mentoring program. Activity 1: Research the history of volunteer programs at WCS. Step 1: Interview current staff involved in volunteer program. Step 2: Interview current and past volunteers as well as current and past mentees. Step 3: Identify strengths and challenges of the current program. Based on this report, make a plan for improvement. Activity 1 Comments/Summary of Accomplishments:

Jan. 09

Activity 1 Completed (date): June 09

Activity 2: Plan for outreach and recruitment Step 1: Identify skills, abilities and experiences sought in volunteers. Step 2: Write volunteer task descriptions that include: qualifications, activities, benefits, time commitment, and other expectations. Step 3: Develop partnerships with community organizations whose members are possible volunteers or who can support the organization in other ways. Step 4: Develop partnerships with people or organizations that understand the needs of children of prisoners and can support the training and support of volunteers. Step 5: Market the program to targeted audiences. Activity 2 Comments/Summary of Accomplishments:

Activity 2 Completed (date):

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VISTA Assignment Description (VAD) SAMPLE (continued)
VISTA Member Activities and Steps Checklist Activity 3: Develop systems for screening and matching volunteers Step 1: Develop an interview protocol and a system for assessing candidates. Step 2: Research and incorporate screening procedures required for working with youth. Step 3: Interview and screen prospective volunteers. Step 4: Develop criteria for matching mentors and mentees. Activity 3 Comments/Summary of Accomplishments:
Activity 3 Completed (date): Planned Period of Work Oct. 09

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Glossary of Terms for the Project Plan
The Community Need is the problem or issue in the community that your project will address. The Goal Statement describes the impact that the AmeriCorps*VISTA project will have on the community need during the term of the project, which is typically three years A Performance milestone is an anticipated result that the agency hopes the VISTA will achieve over the course of one year. Each performance milestone is followed by: • Planned Period of Accomplishment The anticipated date performance milestones will be completed for that program year. • Indicator/Evidence of progress The information that will be collected to determine if performance milestones have been achieved. • Target The level or amount of change expected to achieve as measured by the indicator. • How measured The method that will be used to collect data. • Description of data collection or measurement process A description of the data collection process including who will collect the data, from whom, using which instrument, when and how often.

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The Fieldstone Alliance Framework Graphic

From Strengthening Nonprofit Performance: A Funder’s Guide to Capacity Building by Paul Connolly and Carol Lukes. Copyright 2002 Fieldstone Alliance, Inc. Used with permission of the publisher. For more information about this and other Fieldstone Alliance nonprofit and community resources, visit www.fieldstonealliance. org or call 1-800-274-6024

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The Fieldstone Alliance Framework
Governance and Leadership: In an effective organization, board members are engaged and representative, with defined governance practices. The board effectively oversees the policies, programs, and operations, including review of achievement of strategic goals, financial status, and executive director performance. The organization is accomplished at recruiting, developing, and retaining capable staff and technical resources. The organization's leadership is alert to changing community needs and realities. Mission, Vision and Strategy: These are the driving forces that give the organization its purpose and direction. The effective organization has a clear mission, identity, and values. It is actively involved in regular, results-oriented, strategic, and selfreflective thinking and planning that aligns its strategies with its mission, values, and organizational capacity. It involves stakeholders in a way that ensures its mission and programs are valuable to the constituency it serves. Program Delivery and Impact: These are the nonprofit's primary reasons for existence, just as profit is a primary aim for most businesses. The effective organization operates programs and conducts activities that demonstrate tangible outcomes and impact appropriate to the resources invested. Programs are high quality and well regarded. The organization uses program evaluation results to inform its strategic goals. The organization understands community needs and has formal mechanisms for assessing internal and external factors that affect the achievement of goals. Strategic Relationships: The effective organization is a respected and active participant and leader in the community, and maintains strong connections with its constituents. It participates in strategic alliances and partnerships that significantly advance the organization's goals and expand its influence. It communicates well with external audiences. Resource Development: The effective organization successfully secures support from a variety of sources to ensure its revenues are diversified, stable, and sufficient for the mission and goals. The resource development plan is aligned with the mission, long-term goals, and strategic direction. The organization has high visibility with key stakeholders and links clear, strategic messages to its resource development efforts. Internal Operations and Management: The organization has efficient and effective operations and strong management support systems. Financial operations are responsibly managed and reflect sound accounting principles. The organization utilizes information effectively for organizational and project management purposes. Internal communications are effective, and the organization's culture promotes highquality work and respectful work relationships. Asset, risk, and technology management is strong and appropriate to the organization's purpose.

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Attributes of Successful VISTAs, According to Supervisors
n Flexible n Take initiative – “self starters” n Match the project plan to their long-term personal goals – want something out of the experience for themselves n Enthusiastic n Motivated n Strong networkers within the organization and the community n Self-confident n Good communicators n Work well with people from a variety of backgrounds n Understand the importance of the incremental steps on the project plan while aware of the vision of the elimination of poverty n Effectively advocate for themselves and the community

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Reflection Questions
Write about these questions in your VISTA Notebook too. n What are three competencies or qualities you have that will make you successful this year? n What are three things you will need to work on to be more successful this year? n What are your personal and professional goals for the next 12 months? n How can your VISTA service help you achieve these goals? n What do you need to share with your supervisor to ensure your service is supporting your goals? n What do you need to share with your supervisor about the skills, training and support you will need to achieve the project plan and your goals?

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Capacity Building Sessions
On the final day of the PSO, you have the opportunity to choose one of three sessions to attend. As you read through the descriptions below, think about the goals and activities listed in your VISTA Assignment Description (VAD) or your Project Plan. Which of these sessions will help you to build the skills necessary to fulfill your service activities? Volunteer Generation and Development How do you create a successful volunteer program? In this session, you will identify the steps to developing a sustainable volunteer program and engage in a small group experiential activity to learn more about each step. You might want to choose this session if during your VISTA service you have to: recruit, train and support volunteers. Resource Mobilization How do organizations raise the money needed to fund their valuable programs? What are the core elements of a resource mobilization plan? In this session, you will learn the basics of resource mobilization, what you need to know to make a development plan and practice asking for in-kind donations. You might want to choose this session if during your VISTA service you have to: organize an event, seek in-kind donations, develop a fundraising plan or build partnerships in the community. Partnerships and Building Relationships What does it take to build sustainable partnerships? How do you find common ground in the community? This is a hands-on session in which you will experience the opportunities and challenges of the partnership building process. You might want to choose this session if during your VISTA service you have to: build partnerships or networks, identify stakeholders in the community or apply for funds with other local organizations.

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Organizational Culture and Community Entry

Organizational Culture and Community Entry — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to:

n Clarify aspects of your own culture n Articulate the dimensions and communication styles of workplace and community cultures n Strategize effective organizational entry, applying specific tools and concepts and reflect on how to apply this to community entry

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Organizational Culture and Community Entry

A Common VISTA Cycle of Service

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Organizational Culture and Community Entry

Workplace Values and Norms
Power Distance Low Power Distance n It’s okay to disagree with or question the boss. n There is more interaction between the boss and workers. n The boss is more democratic. n Taking initiative is okay. n The boss sees himself/herself as one of the group. n Power is decentralized. High Power Distance n The worker does not question or disagree with the boss. n There is less interaction between the boss and workers. n Power is centralized and generally not shared. n The boss does not reward initiative. n The boss is more autocratic .

Uncertainty Avoidance Low Uncertainty Avoidance n There is less emphasis on conformity. n It’s okay to bypass the chain of command if necessary. n Conflict can’t always be avoided. n Taking risks is acceptable. Interactions are more informal. n Differences are interesting. n There is more emphasis on conforming. High Uncertainty Avoidance n It’s never good to bypass the chain of command. n Conflict must be avoided. n Taking risks is not attractive. Interactions are more formal. n Differences are uncomfortable.

Source of Status Achieved Status n You earn status through achievement, by what you’ve accomplished in life. n You get ahead based on your merit. n Status must be earned; it isn’t automatic, and it can be lost. Ascribed Status n Your status comes with your family name, wealth, and/or the groups you are affiliated with. n Achievements are important, but you can have status without them.

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Workplace Values and Norms (cont.)
Concept of Work Work as Part of Identity n Work has value in and of itself. n Your job is an important part of your identity. n You live to work. n Getting things done is inherently satisfying. Work as Functional Necessity n Work is the means to pay bills and meet financial obligations. n Work may be satisfying, but doesn’t have to be. n Life is too short to revolve around one’s work. n Work is what you do, not who you are.

Personal & Professional Personal/Professional Separated Personal/Professional Intertwined n Personal matters should not be brought to work. Personal/family obligations should be scheduled around work. n Personal and professional lives should be kept separate. n People don’t understand if you have a family emergency. n It is impossible to separate personal matters from work. n You may have to interrupt work to take care of personal business. n Personal and professional lives inevitably overlap. People understand if you have a family emergency.

Motivation Professional Opportunity n Professional opportunity and success are important motivators. n People want to learn, get ahead, move up in their professions and have greater power, authority and responsibility. n Job security is not as important as making more money and advancing in one’s career. Comfortable Work Environment n People want to have a pleasant work setting and good relationships with co-workers. n Job security is important, as well as a workplace that takes care of its employees. n Having more time off for family is very motivating. n More power and responsibility are not by themselves attractive, even if they mean more money.

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Workplace Values and Norms (cont.)
The Key to Productivity Results n Focusing on the task ensures success. n People won’t always get along, but you have to move forward anyway. n Harmony is nice but results are what count. n Getting results is ultimately more important than how you get them. Harmony n Working well with other people is the key to harmony. n Harmony in the workplace will ensure eventual success. n Results bought at the expense of harmony are too costly. n How you get results is just as important as the results themselves.

The Ideal Worker Technical Skills n What matters most in a worker is his/her technical qualifications: education, work experience and specific skills. n “People” skills are important, but they don’t contribute as much to the bottom line. n Competence is the key to advancement. People Skills n What matters most in a worker is his/her ability to work well with others and not rock the boat. n Experience and technical skills are important, but they don’t contribute as much to the bottom line. n Age and seniority are important for getting promoted.

Monochronic Time vs. Polychronic Time Monochronic Time n Sticking to the schedule is more important than completing the transaction. n A meeting should proceed without digression and people should stick to the agenda. n Deadlines should be respected. n Having to wait for a scheduled appointment is an insult. Polychronic Time n Flexibility is more important than sticking to the schedule. n Distractions and digressions are inevitable, and therefore, an agenda is just a piece of paper. n Deadlines should be viewed and followed as approximations. n Having to wait for a scheduled appointment is normal.

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Communication Styles Case Study
Marcus is a VISTA member from Boston who is serving in a rural ranching community in the West, with a population of fewer than 1,000 people. Part of his assignment is to engage community members and local organizations to help create a family literacy program at an elementary school. Although he is new to the community and the organization where he is serving, he is confident he will be able to successfully complete the activities in his Member Assignment because he has a Master’s degree and five years of work experience. Early in his service year, a member of his organization named Sharon is assigned to be his mentor. He is told that he can ask her for any advice or guidance. However, when it comes time to plan a series of evening “design meetings” to gather support and input from the community, he rushes headlong into organizing the meetings, without consulting Sharon. He sets an agenda and sends it with invitations to ten community members who he thinks would be instrumental in starting the program. To gain commitment he follows up the e-mail with phone calls. Marcus reaches eight of the 10 invitees by phone, all of whom say, “Sure, I can come to the meeting.” Encouraged, Marcus decides to live by the mantra, “If you offer food, they will come.” He buys chips, sodas, and cookies for the event. On the night of the meeting, only three people show up. Marcus waits 15 minutes before beginning. “I thought we were going to have more representation here,” he apologizes while scanning the room. “I expected at least seven. I’m not sure what happened to the others. Does anyone else know?” Marcus looks to the two men and one woman seated. The woman shrugs. One of the men shifts in his seat, but no one says a word. Marcus decides he needs to move on with the meeting. He tapes up his charts and begins walking through his agenda. The three attendees offer very few comments, even when he asks each in turn for their opinions. “Looks like you’ve got a pretty good plan,” is all one man says the entire evening. However, all three remain the full hour and a half, shake his hand, and thank him politely on their way out. As Marcus cleans up, he attributes the low participation to the poor turnout. Before the second meeting, Marcus e-mails the meeting notes to the 10 original invites. In his e-mail he says, “I hope you can make this very important second meeting. We really need your input and involvement. Help ensure that our family literacy programs reflect the needs of this community.” Again, he follows up with phone calls and gets eight confirmations of attendance; however, the only person to show up for the second meeting is Sharon, his mentor. After waiting 30 minutes, Marcus balls up his charts and tosses them in the trash. As they walk out together, Sharon suggests they have a debrief meeting the next day over lunch. During his bike ride home, Marcus begins to wonder if he is cut out for VISTA. n How would you assess what happend in the scenario? Discuss at your table.

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Styles of Communication
Degree of Directness Direct n People say what they mean and mean what they say. n You don’t need to read between the lines. n It’s important to be direct and tell it like it is. n Honesty is the best policy. n The truth is more important than sparing someone’s feelings. Indirect n People are indirect. n They imply/ suggest what they mean. n Understatement is valued. n You need to read between the lines. n Telling the truth, if it hurts, should be tempered.

1. In regard to “Degree of Directness,” I tend to be more ____________________. 2. How does this communication style relate to the case study? ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. What could Marcus have done to communicate more effectively? ______________________________________________________________________________

The Role of Context Low Context n Low context, heterogeneous and individualistic cultures: little is already known. n The message must be explicit and spelled out. n Words are the primary means of communication. n Nonverbal cues are not the key to understanding. High Context n High context, homogenous and collectivist cultures: much is already known. n The spoken word is not the primary means of communicating. n Much is implied but little needs to be said. n Nonverbal cues and the context are key. n What is not said may be the message.

1. In regard to “Low or High Context,” I tend to prefer communicating in ______________context cultures. 2. How does this communication style relate to the case study? ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. What could Marcus have done to communicate more effectively? ______________________________________________________________________________
Adapted from Culture Matters

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Styles of Communication
The Importance of Face Face is Less Important n Face has moderate importance. n The facts and expediency are more important than being careful about what you say. n Getting/giving information is the overriding goal of the communication exchange. n Criticism is straightforward. n It’s okay to say no, to confront people. Face Is Key n Face is paramount. n Saving face/not losing face takes precedence over the “truth”. n Maintaining harmony is the overriding goal of the communication exchange. n Confrontation is avoided. n Saying no is difficult. n Criticism is handled very delicately. n What one says and what one feels often are not the same.

1. In regard to “The Importance of Face,” I think saving face is __________________. 2. How does this communication style relate to the case study? ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. What could Marcus have done to communicate more effectively? ______________________________________________________________________________

The Task or the Person The Task n The task is separated from the person. n Do business first and then have small talk. n Establishing rapport and a good personal relationship are not essential to getting the job done. n The goal is accomplishing the task. n The Person The task and the person can’t be separated. n Begin with small talk and then move to business. n A personal relationship is a prerequisite to getting the job done. n The goal is building the relationship.

1. In regard to “The Task or the Person,” I think communication focus should be on the ________. 2. How does this communication style relate to the case study? ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. What could Marcus have done to communicate more effectively? ______________________________________________________________________________
Adapted from Culture Matters

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A Diagram of Cultural Adjustment
Acceptance, Adaptation, Integration Acceptance, Some Adaptation Excitement, Enthusiasm

Further Adjustment

Initial Adjustment

Initial Enthusiasm Further Shock Initial Shock
Frustration, Vulnerability

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VISTA Site: Cultural Observation Tool
Observe Nonverbal Communication n How do people dress? n How do they greet each other in the morning? n What is the protocol for going in and out of someone’s office? n Do people maintain eye contact when they talk? n How far apart do people stand? Observe Mono/Polychronic Behaviors (Behaviors Related to Time) n Do people come to work on time? Who does and who doesn’t? n What happens when someone who is talking to someone else gets a telephone call? n What does a third person do when approaching two others who are in conversation? n Do meetings start on time? n How long do people with appointments have to wait? Observe Power Distance Behaviors n How do subordinates treat their superiors? n How do superiors treat subordinates? n Do you see evidence of bosses delegating authority or holding on to it?

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VISTA Site: Cultural Observation Tool (cont.)
n Do you see evidence of subordinates taking initiative or just waiting for instruction? n Whom do people eat lunch with? Do they eat only with their peers? Communication Styles n How is conflict handled? n How is disagreement expressed? n How is bad news or a negative concern communicated? n How important does saving face seem to be? n Are people generally direct or indirect in their conversation? n Does this appear to be a high or low context workplace? Other Workplace Norms n When people interact, do they get to the task right away or talk more generally? n Do people work closely together or more independently? n Are women treated differently from men? If so, in what way? n What kind of behaviors in workers seem to be rewarded? What are people praised for? n What does the prevailing attitude seem to be about rules and procedures and the need to follow them?

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Strategies and Suggestions for Effective Community Entry
Strategies and suggestions for identifying and using a cultural guide/coach:
n n n n n n n n

Strategies and suggestions for learning the organization’s and community’s culture:
n n n n n n n n

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Strategies and Suggestions for Effective Community Entry (cont.)
Strategies and suggestions for effective organizational and community entry:
n n n n n n n n

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Organizational Culture and Community Entry

Community Entry “Do’s”
n Listen more than speaking. Move slower than fast to understand and be understood and accepted. n Seek out answers to questions in respectful ways. n Seek out a trusted and knowledgeable ally to be your cultural mentor. n Ask for help from reliable community resources to understand: n Major groups, sectors, and networks n Organizational and community structure n Formal and informal leadership - who are viewed as “spokes people” and the “elder voices” or keepers of wisdom and knowledge n Important values, practices, rituals, people, places, resources, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors n How respect is defined and practiced n How is service and helping others understood and lived out, what are the traditions of service n What are the “non-negotiables” n The history of the community – economic, diversity, social, political, major conflicts and struggles, major successes, significant cross-cultural, crossgroup collaborations n Current significant cross-cultural, cross-group collaborations n What is the rhythm of a day, week, season, year in the organization or community n Commit to suspending one’s assumptions. It is important to resist making quick judgments and overgeneralizations. Keep focus on the fact that one’s lense is one’s lense. n Understand that relationship building is key to almost everything related to one’s service project. Share oneself in ways that earn and garner trust, respect, and confidence. n Address cultural differences in ways that are not diminishing to anyone or group. n View one’s time in a community more as a privilege and special opportunity than as a right.

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Civil Rights and Responsibilities — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to:

n Recognize the key characteristics of discrimination and harassment n Know where to go if you experience or witness an act of discrimination or harassment n Know how to check one’s own assumptions, dialogue and attempt to resolve an issue before moving to the next step.

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Your Rights and Responsibilities
You are protected by VISTA and the Corporation for National and Community Service from being subjected to discrimination or harassment. You also have an obligation as a VISTA to make sure you do not subject anyone else to discrimination or harassment. This extends to everyone you come in contact with, including other VISTAs, clients, and volunteers and employees at your service site.

What Is Discrimination?

Discrimination is treating people differently because of who they are, where they come from, or the groups they belong to. Discrimination in a VISTA service setting is illegal when it targets a person or group based on such non-merit factors as race, gender, or religion, also known as protected classes, which the Corporation for National and Community Service defines as the following: • Race, color, or national origin • Sex/gender • Disability (physical or mental) • Age • Religion • Political affiliation • Sexual orientation Illegal discrimination: • BOTH targets a person or group because of a difference AND singles them out for different treatment • May be a one-time occurrence or part of an ongoing pattern • Can happen to anyone

What Is Harassment?

Harassment is verbal and/or non-verbal communication relating to an individual’s gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, or any other non-merit basis. Behavior is harassment when it is severe and pervasive and interferes with a VISTA’s performance, creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive service environment. Harassment includes but is not limited to: • Explicit or implicit demands for sexual favors • Pressure for one’s company • Unwelcome persistent letters, phone calls, emails or other media • Distribution or display of offensive material • Offensive looks, gestures, physical encroachment, or threatening behavior Illegal • • • • harassment: Includes – but is not limited to – sexual harassment Can be spoken words or unspoken actions Is more than just annoying or uncomfortable behavior Generally happens over a period of time
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Your Rights and Responsibilities (cont.)
• Creates a hostile, intimidating, or offensive service environment • Prevents a VISTA from serving effectively • Can happen to anyone

What Should I do if I Experience or Witness Discrimination or Harassment?

If you feel safe and comfortable doing so, you can approach and talk to the person you suspect of engaging in harassing or discriminating behavior directly yourself. If that doesn’t work, or if you do not feel safe and comfortable doing so, you can also talk to your VISTA supervisor. If you can not go to your supervisor, or you do and the matter is not resolved to your satisfaction, you can contact your state office (see list of state office contacts below). Finally, you can contact the Corporation’s Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness or OCRI (see contact information below). If you and/or your VISTA supervisor or state office contact chooses to contact OCRI, note that claims must be made within 45 days of the incident.

Useful Questions/Suggestions if you think you have experienced or witnessed Discrimination or Harassment?
• Have I (Can I) talk to the person involved? • What assumptions might I be making? How can I check out these assumptions? • Assume positive intent. Communicate to clarify. • Use statements such as, “It appears to me that…” • Speak with a supervisor (if you can). • Ask yourself: Is there something I can learn from this?

Where Can I go for More Information?

The Corporation for National and Community Service takes discrimination and harassment very seriously and makes the following resources available to you: • Corporation State Office Contacts – A list of state offices can be found in this Participant Manual and online at the VISTA Campus at www.vistacampus.org.

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Your Rights and Responsibilities (cont.)
• Contact Information for OCRI – Contact OCRI via mail, phone, fax or email at: 1201 New York Avenue, NW Suite 10800 Washington, DC 20525 (202) 606-7503 (hotline) (202) 606-3472 (TDD) (202) 606-3465 (fax) eo@cns.gov (email) • Complete List of the Corporation’s Official Policies on Discrimination and Harassment – These can be found in the following pages of this Participant Manual, as well as at the following online locations: o The online VISTA Member Handbook at www.americorps.gov/help/ vistahandbook/ o In the “Library” section of the “Becoming a VISTA” section of the “Essentials” page on the VISTA Campus (www.vistacampus.org)

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Civil Rights Statements Worksheet
At your table, read one of the following situations and discuss: • What would you do if you were in this situation or knew someone who was? • What steps would you take to resolve the issue? • How would you dialogue with those involved? 1. Upon “discovering” a VISTA’s age, a supervisor changes the VAD of a well-qualified, 45-year-old VISTA so that he’ll be working with the senior-citizen-focused programs instead of the youth-focused ones. 2. Ever since your team went out for drinks to celebrate your winning grant proposal, a coworker you are not remotely interested in keeps asking you out on dates. 3. A caseworker on your team often makes snarky comments about the clients your agency serves and refers to them using derogatory terms or stereotypes about their ethnicity or religion. 4. You notice that members of different racial groups seem to get disciplined differently for the same offenses, with some receiving written reprimands while others are just given verbal warnings. 5. A religious coworker has made it his special project to “save” you, inviting you to come with him to his congregation’s services, leaving religious pamphlets in your cubicle, and peppering you with questions about your own faith. 6. Not long after you brought your same-sex partner to the office holiday party, you find yourself abruptly moved to a different project group and re-assigned the VAD of a departing VISTA whose work always struck you as less interesting.

The following questions could help you with your discussion: • Can you talk to the person involved? • What assumptions might you be making? How can you check those assumptions? • Ask yourself: Is there something I can learn from this? Principles for initiating a discussion about civil rights: • Assume positive intent. Communicate to clarify. • Use statements such as, “It appears to me that…” • Speak with your supervisor (if you can)

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Policies on Civil Rights, Equal Opportunity, and Harassment
Corporation for National and Community Service Civil Rights Statement Regarding Volunteers, Service Participants, and Other Beneficiaries We continue to maintain the policy stated in our June 6, 1994, Civil Rights Statement: Recognizing that the fabric of our society is strengthened by the diversity of its citizens, the policy of the Corporation for National and Community Service is to ensure a mutual respect for all differences among us. Participation in the Corporation and its programs and projects will be based on merit and equal opportunity for all, without regard to factors such as race, color, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, political affiliation, marital or parental status, military service, or religious, community, or social affiliations. By adhering to this policy, the Corporation will be able to foster civic responsibility, strengthen the ties that bind us together as a people, and provide educational opportunity for those who make a substantial commitment to service. This policy applies to programs and projects we conduct, as well as those receiving federal financial assistance from us. For civil rights purposes, all programs and projects funded or receiving volunteers or service participants under the National and Community Service Act, as amended, or the Domestic Volunteer Service Act, as amended, are programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. Any grantee found to have unlawfully discriminated against a volunteer, service participant, client, employee, or beneficiary of such a program or project will be subject to a finding of noncompliance and administrative procedures which may result in termination of federal financial assistance from the Corporation and all other federal agencies. Any volunteer, service participant, client, employee, or beneficiary of a program or project who believes he or she has been subjected to discrimination in violation of nondiscrimination provisions of applicable laws, regulations, or this policy may raise his or her concerns with the Corporation’s Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness. However, discrimination claims not brought to the attention of our Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness within 45 days of their occurrence may not be accepted in a formal complaint of discrimination. Our Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness may be reached at (202) 6067503 (voice), (202) 606-3472 (TDD), eo@cns.gov, or through www.nationalservice.org. The Corporation’s Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness attempts to resolve concerns about discrimination promptly and, when possible, uses an informal conciliation process to do so. We encourage, but do not require, volunteers, service participants, and other beneficiaries to first bring concerns about discrimination to the director or appropriate personnel of the program or project. We likewise encourage directors of programs and projects to facilitate prompt resolution of these concerns. Directors of all programs and projects are requested to provide a copy of this policy to all volunteers or service participants. Corporation for National and Community Service Equal Opportunity and Workforce Diversity Policy for Employees and Applicants for Employment It is our policy to provide equal employment opportunity for all applicants for employment and employees of the Corporation. We do not discriminate in any aspect of employment because of race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age, mental or physical disability (including AIDS), sexual orientation, or any other improper criterion. We strive to provide a work environment free of sexual, racial, national origin, religious, or other unlawful harassment. Equal opportunity for all employees is an integral part of accomplishing the mission of the Corporation. As chief executive officer of the Corporation, I am strongly committed to fostering a workplace that is free of discrimination in any form. I believe that we should be committed to practicing inclusiveness, fairness, and participation of all employees in every facet of the Corporation. Beyond the basic policies of equal employment and non-discrimination described above, we aspire to provide an environment that is hospitable for all employees. We value diversity among our employees, and I am committed to promoting a climate of mutual respect and appreciation for the strengths that a diverse workforce brings to bear on our important work. In addition to making certain that our employees are treated with respect and according to the principles of equal opportunity in the workplace, we must make every effort to ensure that our employees, as they carry out their duties, do not discriminate on unlawful grounds against persons or organizations, volunteers or service participants, including subjecting them to any form of unlawful harassment. I expect every Corporation manager, supervisor, and employee to actively carry out our equal opportunity policy. Implicit in each employee’s “successful” performance level is his or her full and complete implementation of this policy. I call upon all managers and supervisors to ensure that all decisions affecting our workforce, service environments, grantees, and programs are consistent with the principles of equal opportunity and this policy. Any person who violates this equal opportunity policy will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action, up to and including termination. Any Corporation employee or applicant for employment who believes he or she has been discriminated against in violation of equal opportunity laws, regulations, or this policy, or in retaliation for having participated in an activity protected under these nondiscrimination provisions may raise his or her concerns with our Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness. However, discrimination claims not brought to the attention of our Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness within 45 days of their occurrence may not be accepted in a formal complaint of discrimination. Our Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness may be reached at

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Policies on Civil Rights, Equal Opportunity, and Harassment (cont.)
(202) 606-7503 (voice), (202) 606-3472 (TDD), or eo@cns.gov, or through our Web site at www.nationalservice.org. Corporation for National and Community Service Policy Against Sexual, Racial, National Origin, or Religious Harassment Our policy is to provide work and service environments free from sexual, racial, national origin, or religious harassment. Whether in Corporation or grantee offices, in other work- or service-related settings such as service sites, training sessions, or site visits, or at work- or service-related social events, such harassment is unacceptable. Sexual harassment involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or any verbal, physical or graphic conduct of a sexual nature when: 1. submission is explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of employment or service; 2. submission or rejection is a basis for work or service decisions; or 3. such conduct has the purpose or the effect of interfering with work or service performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work or service environment. Slurs and other verbal or physical conduct relating to an individual’s race, national origin, or religion also constitute harassment when that conduct’s purpose or effect is to interfere with work or service performance or create an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work or service environment. We expect Corporation and grantee supervisory and management personnel to immediately take appropriate action to prevent or stop any harassment of employees, service participants, or clients of which they become aware, whether the harassing conduct is by employees, service participants, or outside individuals such as service site or contractor personnel. Also, we will not retaliate or tolerate any attempt at retaliation against a person who raises harassment concerns in good faith. Any Corporation employee who violates our policy against harassment, or asserts a false claim of harassment with a malicious intent, will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action, up to and including termination. Any grantee that permits harassment in violation of this policy will be subject to a finding of noncompliance and administrative procedures that may result in termination of federal financial assistance from the Corporation and all other federal agencies. Persons who believe they have been subjected to harassment in violation of non-harassment provisions of applicable laws, regulations, or this policy may raise their concerns with our Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness. However, claims of unlawful harassment not brought to the attention of our Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness within 45 days of their occurrence may not be accepted in a formal complaint of discrimination. Our Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness may be reached at (202) 606-7503 (voice), (202) 606-3472 (TDD), eo@ cns.gov, or through our Web site at www.nationalservice.org. We encourage, but do not require, volunteers, service participants, and other beneficiaries to first bring concerns about harassment to the director or appropriate supervisory personnel of the program or project. We likewise encourage programs and projects to facilitate prompt resolution of these concerns. Directors of all programs and projects are requested to provide a copy of this policy to all volunteers or service participants. David Eisner, CEO Corporation for National and Community Service

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Civil Rights and Responsibilities of VISTAs
Here are some definitions and guidelines that are included in the VISTA Supervisor’s training materials: EO and Civil Rights VISTA members are: • not federal employees (except for some limited purposes) • not employees of the program, project, or site (for any purpose) where they are placed Service Member Rights • Absolute right not to be subjected to discrimination or harassment by the Corporation or any sponsor organization VISTA Member Sponsor Obligations • Absolute obligation to make sure their actions do not subject anyone else to discrimination or harassment • This obligation extends to: - clients they serve - co-workers, whether they are service members or employees - other beneficiaries of the program, project, or site • VISTA members are “beneficiaries” of federally assisted and/or federally conducted programs • Other beneficiaries include - clients served by our service members - members of the public entitled to receive the benefits of your programs, projects, or sites What Gives a “Beneficiary” Civil Rights? • 5th Amendment, US Constitution • Government-wide statutes: Title VI of Civil Rights Act, Title IX of Education Amendments, Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act, Age Discrimination Act • Corporation statutes and policies Service members are protected against discrimination or harassment based on their: race color religion sex national origin age disability political affiliation sexual orientation marital/parental status military service religious community social affiliations Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” Discriminatory activities include: • denial of services • differences in quality, quantity, or manner of services • different standards for participation • discrimination in facility built with federal funds • discriminatory employment practices • if employment practice causes discrimination against beneficiaries National and Community Service Act and Domestic Volunteer Service Act “An individual with responsibility for the operation of a project/program that receives assistance under this subchapter/Act shall not discriminate against a participant in, or a member of the staff of, such project…on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or political affiliation of such participant or member, or on the basis of disability, if the participant or member is a qualified individual with a disability…” “…[A]n individual with responsibility for the operation of a project…shall not discriminate on the basis of religion against a participant…or a member of the staff…who is paid with funds received under this subchapter.” Policy Statement of the Corporation for National and Community Service Participation in the Corporation and its programs and projects will be based on merit and equal opportunity for all, without regard to factors such as race, color, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, political affiliation, marital or parental status, military service, or religious, community, or social affiliations.

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Civil Rights and Responsibilities of VISTAs (cont.)
Enforcement of EO Compliance, Damages, and Process
Damages for Discrimination • If discrimination is found, the recipient (and/or sub-recipient) pays damages - may be prorated with Corporation if Corporation is partly responsible • A sponsor organization manager or supervisor may have to pay personally, if liable Enforcement of Compliance • Terminating federal funding/VISTA assistance • Refusing to grant federal funding/VISTA assistance • Refusing to continue financial assistance/VISTA assistance • Any other means authorized by law Enforcement Steps • Advise grantee or sponsor organization of failure to comply • Determine voluntary compliance cannot be achieved • Finding of noncompliance, after grantee has opportunity for hearing • File written report with Congress and wait until 30 days after filing this report VISTA Discrimination Complaint Process 1. EO counseling 2. Formal complaint investigation and adjudication 3. Remedial action, if necessary Federal Court Suit May Be Authorized • The statutes give the sponsor organization or complainant the right to file suit in federal district court. • If fund/VISTA assistance termination occurred, any aggrieved person may request judicial review. Resolution • Settling allegations does not mean a supervisor did something wrong • Settlements are usually negotiated between a program, project, and/or site and a complainant • Negotiation means each side gives up a little so both can live with the resolution

The Concepts
Discrimination vs. Prejudice • Prejudice is based on stereotypes • Discrimination is the acting out of prejudice Illegal Discrimination • Different treatment, coupled with a difference in race or sex or national origin, is not illegal discrimination • Illegal discrimination must be a treatment that is different because of a difference in race or sex or national origin One key thing to remember: There are two sides to every story – always! Methods To Determine Discrimination • Direct evidence of discrimination • Circumstantial evidence based on “before/after” behavior • Circumstantial evidence based on rebuttable presumptions - The only comparisons that count are those between “similarly situated” persons, i.e., persons you would expect to be treated the same - Don’t mix performance and conduct issues when determining “similarly situated” • Circumstantial evidence based on violating policies and procedures • Discrimination is applying rules and standards differently • Circumstantial evidence based on credibility • No witnesses does not mean nothing happened • Look at other evidence to determine the more credible person Some Absolutes • English-only rules not allowed • Denying time off for religious observances seldom allowed • Filing a discrimination complaint does not preclude taking disciplinary action

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Civil Rights and Responsibilities of VISTAs (cont.)
Disabilities and Reasonable Accommodation
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 “No otherwise qualified disabled individual in the United States…shall, solely by reason of his [or her] disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” Americans with Disabilities Act ADA Title III: Public Accommodations and Commercial Facilities emphasizes: • For barrier removal, “readily achievable” standard, i.e., easily accomplishable and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense • New construction for architectural accessibility if after January 26, 1992 • “Elevator exemption” if building less than three stories or less than 3,000 sq. ft. per story • Religious organizations/entities controlled by religious organizations are exempt • Enforced by DOJ or private lawsuits and civil monetary penalties for noncompliance may be assessed Defining Disability (Physical and Mental) A disabled person is one who: • Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities • Has a record of such an impairment • Is regarded as having such an impairment Terminology • Disability substantially limits a “major life activity”: walking seeing talking hearing breathing working • Qualified individual with a disability: - Individual with a disability who can, with or without reasonable accommodation, perform the essential functions of the position Specific Situations • Substance abuse - Is a disease and may legally be considered a disability - However, a person currently using illegal drugs by definition is not a person with a disability and does not have any civil-rights protection • Infectious diseases - Persons with diseases such as TB, HIV, or AIDS may be qualified individuals with disabilities - Disease may not pose a direct threat to the safety of self or others Ways To Establish Disability Discrimination • Direct evidence of discrimination (comments, slurs, stereotypes, presumptions) • Circumstantial evidence (same analysis as raceor sex-based claims) – disparate treatment or disparate impact analyses • Failure to provide reasonable accommodation, including site and/or program accessibility Reasonable Accommodations • Making facilities accessible • Job restructuring • Part-time or modified work schedules • Acquisition or modification of equipment or devices • Providing readers, interpreters, or auxiliary aids Architectural Accessibility If building is built before May 30, 1979: • “When viewed in its entirety” standard applies • Programmatic accessibility may substitute for architectural accessibility If buildings are built after May 30, 1979: • “When viewed in its entirety” standard does not apply • Programmatic accessibility may not substitute for architectural accessibility • Must comply with UFAS or ADAAG Undue Financial or Administrative Burden • Unduly costly, extensive, substantial or disruptive – results in significant difficulty or expense – high standard • Factors to be considered include: - overall size of the program in numbers of service members, facilities, and budget - type of operation, including composition and structure of service-member force

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Civil Rights and Responsibilities of VISTAs (cont.)
- nature and cost of removal or accommodation Questions and Technical Assistance About Disabilities • Corporation’s Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness at (202) 606-7503 (voice); (202) 606-3472 (TDD); or eo@cns.gov • Paula Sotnik, project director, the Institute for Community Inclusion (ICI), which has a cooperative agreement with the Corporation for National and Community Service to assist Corporation state offices and sponsor organizations with issues of inclusion, disabilities, and reasonable accommodation. Contact information: (617) 287-4343 (direct line), (888) 491-0326 (toll free voice and TTY), paula.sotnik@umb.edu, www.serviceandinclusion.org Access AmeriCorps at (202) 776-0404 (voice); (202) 776-0414 (FAX); or accessamericorps@ ucpa.org Job Accommodation Network (1-800-JAN7234; 1-800-526-7234); http://janweb.icdi.wvu. edu Access Board at www.access-board.gov President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities at www.dol.gov/odep State vocational rehabilitation agencies at www. ssa.gov Centers for Independent Living at www.ilru.org or (713) 520-0232 Associated Behaviors • Verbal - jokes with sexual connotations, sexual degrading language, barking • Nonverbal - leering, sexually oriented pictures, cartoons, letters, licking lips • Physical - touching, kissing, grabbing • Criminal - sexual assault/battery, rape “Hostile Environment” • Requirement #1: - Conduct must be unwelcome - Person must be put on notice of unwelcomeness - Person must continue conduct despite notice • Requirement #2: - Conduct must interfere with job performance - Conduct must be sufficiently severe - Conduct must be sufficiently pervasive

• • • • • •

Sexual Harassment Definition: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. Types of Sexual Harassment • Tangible Action: Submission is a term or condition of an individual’s service • Hostile Environment: Conduct has the purpose or intent of interfering with work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive service environment • Third Party: Requests for conduct of a sexual nature from someone else that adversely affects your status, requirements, or environment

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VISTA Fraternization Policy
Relationships between VISTA members and the staff members (including volunteer and contracted personnel) of the Corporation, sponsoring organization, and project site that are exploitive or that have the appearance of partiality, preferential treatment, or the improper use of position for personal gain, are prejudicial to the morale of VISTA members and will not be tolerated. Relationships between members and the aforementioned staff members are forbidden if the relationship compromises or appears to compromise supervisory authority or could result in preferential treatment. Relationships are prohibited if they appear to involve the improper use of rank or position for personal gain. All VISTA members must avoid nonprofessional relationships with other members or staff members that create real or perceived conflicts of interest, discord, or distractions that interfere with other members’ productivity, or potentially could result in charges of sexual harassment. These problems are serious in situations in which one person has authority over another. Inappropriate relations include, but are not limited to, • a Corporation state office staff member and a VISTA supervisor within that state; • a Corporation state office staff member and a VISTA member or leader; • a VISTA supervisor and a VISTA member at the same project; and • a VISTA leader and a VISTA member under his/ her coordination. Such relationships are strictly forbidden and will not be tolerated. Violators may be subject to disciplinary action, up to and including removal. Nonprofessional relationships between members and the aforementioned staff includes, but is not limited to, • intimate/sexual relationships • borrowing or lending money, automobiles, or other personal property • engaging in financial or business dealings, or acting as an agent or sponsor with any commercial services • allowing services to be performed (compensated or uncompensated) that have no reasonable connection with VISTA activities • gambling for goods, services, or money • any activity and/or relationship that, in the judgment of the Corporation state program director, may reasonably be perceived to undermine discipline, good order, and/or morale • socializing that might lead to the perception of a relationship or overtures to activities listed above Corporation for National and Community Service Office of Civil Rights and Inclusiveness 1201 New York Avenue Washington, DC 20525 Voice: 202-606-7503 TDD: 202-606-3472 FAX: 202-606-3465 E-Mail: eo@cns.gov EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IS EVERYONE’S RESPONSIBILITY

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Volunteer Generation and Development — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to: n Identify reasons why volunteers are key to organizations’ sustainability n Sequence steps in sustainable volunteer program development n Gain experience with the strategies VISTAs use in key phases of volunteer program development

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Overview of the Sustainable Volunteerism Activities
Plan This group’s assignment was to discuss current volunteer trends. They were to report out on five or more trends and determine: 1) Which trends & issues will have an impact on their organizations? 2) In what ways might these trends/issues have an impact? 3) How can our sponsoring organizations creatively respond to this trend? The handout they referred to is included in the binder.

Outreach This group’s assignment was to create a targeted marketing flyer either for a nonprofit of their choice or for a mentoring program.

Recruit This group’s assignment was to develop volunteer task descriptions for volunteers at a community center that is developing a health care program for the homeless. They could choose to draft descriptions for one of three different positions: 1) Conduct the street outreach using techniques that effectively communicate available services to potential beneficiaries; 2) Conduct fundraising activities for the health care program; 3) Secure expert trainers to provide training to volunteers on effective ways to interact with homeless populations. For the assignment descriptions they had to spell out: qualifications, activities, benefits, time commitments, and other experiences.

Train and Support This group’s assignment was to plan a volunteer orientation session. The presentation needed to include an overview of the plan, the content of the orientation, and how it will be delivered. The group needed to explain the choices they made.

Sustain This group had three choices: 1) They could create a symbol or picture of the components of capacity building in a volunteer program 2) Create a 3-D structure of what capacity building looks like in a sustainable volunteer program 3) Create a table of contents of the artifacts that would be included in a sustainability binder created by a third year VISTA. They could choose to do one activity together or split into more than one group.

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Trends Impacting Volunteer Programs
Time scarcity
Time scarcity is the number one barrier to effectively recruiting and retaining volunteers. People are working longer hours at paid jobs or working two jobs to make ends meet, overscheduling activities for their children and themselves, caring for older parents or raising grandchildren, or spending hours on e-mail and Web sites. As a result, more and more individuals are seeking volunteer opportunities that are project-oriented and short-term in duration. These volunteers are often identified as short-term or episodic volunteers. Today, the average volunteer will give 52 hours a year. In a 2005 report, the Bureau of Labor and Statistics says that 10% of Americans do most of the volunteer work and those who give more than 100 hours a year account for over 80% of the volunteer hours! Many organizations have volunteer opportunities and marketing materials that are still geared only for the long-term volunteer. Organizations need to develop marketing materials and expand opportunities for episodic volunteers that offer: n Flexible hours and schedules. n Well-defined jobs with task descriptions that are broken into several smaller ones so that the work can be shared. n Opportunities for individuals to volunteer with their children as a family activity, rather than having to make the choice of spending even less time parenting. n Streamlined requirements that reduce the volunteer’s time spent in orientation and training by utilizing technology including e-mail discussion lists, chat rooms, video conferencing, conference calls, and more. n Assurances that their time will not be wasted by extraneous requirements and meetings. n A chance to learn something new while volunteering. n An opportunity to have fun. Time-deprived folks need a recreational outlet. It is possible to do hard work and still have fun!

Changing expectations
VISTAs and agency staff need to be prepared to supervise and support volunteers of all ages—possibly six or more generations. Each generation of volunteers has its own unique patterns of living, thinking and interpreting information, which can be a real challenge for any manager!

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Trends Impacting Volunteer Programs (cont.)
Here is some information that may assist you in managing such a diverse workforce. Traditionalists or Silent Generation - 1928-1945 Traditionalists (also known as the Silent Generation) are in their 60s, 70s and 80s. About 95% are retired from the workforce. Many organizations depend heavily on this generation to fill their volunteer positions. • Hardworking: Often raised on farms and in rural America, Traditionalists brought a strong work ethic into industrialized society. They grew up during the Great Depression and World War II and consider work a privilege. This generation believes you earn your own way through hard work and they are willing to put in long hours to get ahead. Loyal: Traditionalists are civic-minded and loyal to their country and employer. Unlike younger generations, many worked for the same employer their entire life and were less likely to change jobs to advance their careers. Submissive: Traditionalists were taught to respect authority. They are good team players, adverse to risk and avoid conflict in the workplace. Tech-Challenged: They are slow to change their work habits. As a whole, they are less technologically adept than younger generations. Traditionalists may struggle to learn new technology and work processes. Traditional: They value traditional morals, safety and security as well as conformity, commitment and consistency. They prefer traditional lecture formats to online, webbased education. They favor conventional business models and a top-down chain of command.

Baby Boomers - 1946-1964 Boomers are in their mid-40s to early 60’s. By 2030, nearly a quarter of the population will be over 60. This generation has been deeply impacted by the current recession. When Boomers retire, many often work at least part-time, either by choice or by necessity. Don’t call them seniors --they are “experienced,” “50+!” • Work-Centric: Boomers are extremely hardworking and motivated by position, perks and prestige. Since they sacrificed a great deal to get where they are in their career, this workaholic generation believes that younger generations should pay their dues and conform to a culture of overwork. Boomers may criticize younger generations for a lack of work ethic and commitment to the workplace.

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Trends Impacting Volunteer Programs (cont.)
• Independent: Boomers are confident, independent and self-reliant. They grew up in an era of social reform and turmoil and believe they can change the world. They questioned authority, challenged the status quo, are not afraid of confrontation and will not hesitate to challenge established practices. Goal-Oriented: They are achievement-oriented, dedicated and career-focused. Boomers welcome exciting, challenging projects, life-long learning and strive to make a difference. Competitive: Since Boomers equate work and position with self-worth, they are quite competitive in the workplace. They are clever, resourceful and strive to win. Boomers believe in hierarchal structure and may have a hard time adjusting to workplace flexibility trends. They believe in “face time” at the office and may fault younger generations for working remotely.

Generation X - 1965-1980 This generation is significantly smaller than previous and succeeding generations. Gen Xer’s are largely in their 30’s and early 40’s. On the whole, they are more ethnically diverse and better educated than the Boomers. Over 60% attended college. • Individualistic: Gen X came of age in an era of two-income families, rising divorce rates and a faltering economy. Women were joining the workforce in large numbers, producing an age of “latch-key” kids. As a result, Generation X is independent, resourceful and self-sufficient. They value freedom and responsibility. Many dislike authority, structured work hours and being micro-managed. Technologically Adept: The Gen X mentality reflects a shift from a manufacturing economy to a service economy. They are the first generation to grow up with computers and technology. Flexible: Many Gen Xers lived through tough economic times in the 1980s and saw their workaholic parents lose hard-earned positions. Thus, they are less committed to one employer and more willing to change jobs to get ahead than previous generations. They adapt well to change and are tolerant of alternative lifestyles. Value Work/Life Balance: Unlike previous generations, members of Generation X work to live rather than live to work. They appreciate fun in the workplace and Generation X managers often incorporate humor and games into work activities.

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Trends Impacting Volunteer Programs (cont.)
Millennials, Generation Y, Echo Boomers - 1981-present With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, The Millennials are the fastest growing segment of today’s workforce. • Tech-Savvy: They grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed with all kinds of computer and cell phone gadgets, Millennials are plugged-in 24/7. This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-to-face contact and prefers webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations. Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Millennials who are willing to trade high pay for fewer hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. Achievement-Oriented: Millennials are confident, ambitious and achievementoriented. They have high expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to question authority. They want meaningful work and a solid learning curve. Team-Oriented: As children, Millennials participated in team sports, play groups and other group activities. They value teamwork and seek the input, guidance and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-behind generation, they are loyal, committed and want to be included and involved. They may benefit from mentors who can help guide and develop their careers.
Source: About.com

Recession trends: Historically, recessions have prompted an increase in volunteerism, but only to the point that the unemployment rate reaches a “threshold.” When unemployment reaches a threshold of 9-10%, people move from saying, ‘This is the time to rise up and help my community,’ to, ‘Times are really tough and I need to focus on making sure my family has what it needs to get through this hard time.’ A 2009 report on American civic activity, found: • • • • • 72% 66% 55% 43% 11% say they have cut back time for volunteering say Americans were more concerned with looking out for themselves said they gave food-money to needy people gave food-money to a relative allowed non-family member to stay in home or on property

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Trends Impacting Volunteer Programs (cont.)
Rate of volunteerism by age: • 43% • 35% • 42% 15-44 45-64 65+

Volunteers by income • 29% • 51% <50k more likely to give food, money, shelter +50k

Source: Chronicle on Philanthropy, Caroline Preston, August 2009, reporting on a study, America’s Civic Health Index, by the National Conference on Citizenship. Work value trends: • Because of the recession, there is a growing number of skilled unemployed. Some may be in between jobs and want to keep their skills polished and enhance their resume. • The increased percentage of women in the workforce has decreased the time available from the largest segment of the volunteer population. • The number of individuals working from home is increasing. This often allows more flexibility in their volunteer hours. • More volunteers have “high tech” skills learned at the workplace. Educational trends: • • • • • Volunteering rises with education and is less common in high poverty areas. Career experience is a major motivator of youth volunteers. Educational institutions are requiring more community service. The need for internships for work experience is growing. Training is a major motivation for most volunteers, especially if the training increases their job skills or enhances their resume.

Volunteer expectation issues: • People are more interested than ever in issues and causes. • People are more demanding about the nature of their volunteer work and want meaningful, challenging projects. • People are becoming less tolerant of authoritative management and bureaucracy. And because of the increasing number of highly skilled volunteers, many expect to be treated professionally.

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Trends Impacting Volunteer Programs (cont.)
General facts: Volunteering can make you healthier Over the past two decades there has been a growing body of research that indicates volunteering provides individual health benefits in addition to social benefits. This research has established a strong relationship between volunteering and health: those who volunteer have lower mortality rates, greater functional ability, and lower rates of depression later in life than those who do not volunteer. Older volunteers can gain greater health benefits than younger volunteers. Several studies that keep track of adults over a longer period of time have found that those individuals who volunteer at the beginning of a study tend to have lower mortality rates at the end of the study, even when taking into account such factors as physical health, age, socioeconomic status and gender. Research on the relationship between volunteering and depression found that older adults who volunteer (ages 65 and older) are significantly less likely to face depression than those who do not volunteer. College students like temporary volunteer assignments. College students tend to be in more of a state of flux than most other adults. This has an impact on their volunteering habits. Compared to the general adult population, college students are more likely to be episodic volunteers, serving fewer than two weeks per year with their main service organization, or occasional volunteers, serving three to eleven weeks per year with their main service organization. Mentoring is very popular among college students. In 2005, tutoring, teaching, and mentoring were the most popular activities performed by college student volunteers. Over a quarter of college student volunteers tutored or taught (26.6%), and 23.8 percent mentored. In comparison, among members of the general adult population, 21.3 percent tutored or taught, and 17.6 percent mentored youth. In fact, tutoring, teaching and mentoring are the most common volunteer activities for college students, when they are analyzed as a group. For both males and females, tutoring and teaching, followed by mentoring, were the most popular activities. The trend was similar for whites and other races. For black/African Americans, however, mentoring was the most popular volunteer activity, followed by tutoring or teaching. Homeowners boost volunteer rates. Often when someone makes an investment in a home, they also commit to investment in the local community. This investment, however, is more than just financial--it involves a personal commitment to cultivating a community that offers a high quality of life. Because homeowners tend to remain in a community for a longer period of time than renters, this commitment can also develop into deeper attachments to others in the community. Volunteering is an expression of this commitment and a way of making a positive contribution. Thus, it is not surprising that we should find that metropolitan areas that have a higher rate of homeownership also have higher volunteer rates.

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Trends Impacting Volunteer Programs (cont.)
Shorter commutes leave time for service. The study, Volunteering in America: 2007 City Trends and Rankings, shows that cities with shorter average commutes are more likely to have higher volunteering rates. It may be due, in part, to the fact that those who spend a considerable amount of time commuting to and from work have less time for other activities. Long commutes may also indicate that individuals spend more time isolated in their car and disconnected from both the communities in which they live and work. Volunteers caught the travel bug. In 2007, approximately 3.7 million volunteers provided service at least 120 miles outside of their home community. While most American adult volunteers serve within their own community, or close to home, many others travel a considerable distance to volunteer in other parts of the country. In 2007, about 6% of all volunteers age 16 and over (3.7 million) reported doing at least some longdistance volunteering, traveling at least 120 miles to volunteer with an organization located within the U.S., but outside their communities. The Gulf States (Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida and Texas) were still frequent destinations for longdistance volunteers in 2007. As one might expect, a lot of long-distance volunteers serve in the largest states, which tend to contain the largest cities and other tourist attractions. Volunteer retention remains a significant issue. In 2007, more than one of every three volunteers (21.7 million) stopped volunteering. The right types of volunteer opportunities and management of volunteers can encourage an individual to continue volunteering. On the other hand, as with paid employment, a poor fit between a volunteer and a nonprofit increases the probability that a volunteer will not be retained. For nonprofits that depend on volunteers, turnover results in the need to incur substantial additional costs associated with recruiting, orienting, and managing new volunteers.
Source: Volunteering In America, Related Research www.volunteeringinamerica.gov/ research_findings/fast_facts.cfm#shorterCommutes

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Implementation Rates of Effective Volunteer Management Practices

Regular supervision and comunication with volunteers
67% 46% 26%

30%

Liability coverage or insurance protection for volunteers
45% 32%

Regular collection of information on volunteer numbers and hours
45%

Screening procedures to identify suitable volunteers
44%

42%

Written policies and job descriptions for volunteer involvement
35%

37%

Recognition activities, such as award ceremonies, for volunteers
30%

47%

Annual measurement of the impacts of volunteers
25%

32%

Training and professional development opportunities for volunteers
19%

49%

Training for paid staff in working with volunteers

46%

100% Adopted to large degree Adopted to some degree

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Nonprofits Use Volunteers for Many Skilled Activities
Percent of nonprofits that use volunteers for:
Event planning 59% 58% 48% 40% 34% 30% 29% 28% 28% 27% 25% 24% 23% 18%
19%

Fundraising/development

Marketing/communications

Strategic planning

Operations/project management

Computer hardware/software

Staff management/team leadership

Internet/e-commerce

Accounting/finance

Information technology Legal services

HR/recruitment and training

Grant proposal writing Counseling

Medical/health services

17%

Source: Hart Survey of nonprofits 2006 (N=1024)

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Sample Task Description
Agency: Job Title: Supervisor, phone, e-mail: Length of Commitment: Dates Needed: Old McDonald’s Farm Park Animal Caretaker Lisa Grove, 431-288-0945, lgrove@omcdfarm.org At least 3 months, 2-3 hours per week Immediately. Volunteers choose a day of the week to come in (i.e., Mondays) and will come in weekly for a minimum of three months. Farm Park-647 S. King Rd., Jonesville 18+ (younger with an adult chaperone) Caring for the farm’s small animals (chickens, ducks, geese, rabbits, sheep, a peacock, and miniature pig). This includes feeding, watering and cleaning the animals’ habitats. • Volunteers should be able to perform duties of moderate physical difficulty. (Will need to be able to lift 30 lbs.) • Those with allergies to dust, animals, or hay may encounter problems as an animal caretaker. • No experience necessary.

Location of Volunteer Work: Age Requirement: Duties:

Desired Qualifications:

What is meaningful As an animal caretaker, volunteers can gain experience about this position? working with animals in a farm setting. This provides a unique opportunity that may not otherwise be available in suburban Jonesville. Training provided: Step-by-step training will be provided as well as a detailed manual of procedures.

Number of At least one to two for each day of the week. Volunteers Needed: Comments: This position offers families an opportunity to volunteer together while supporting the Farm’s mission to educate the community about life on an early 1900’s farm.
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Volunteer Management Websites
Developing and Managing Volunteer Programs Free management library— complete and integrated for nonprofits and for-profits http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/outsrcng/volnteer/volnteer.htm #anchor1270354 DOVIA Directory of North America A list of membership associations at provincial, state, and local levels for professionals who lead volunteer programs. DOVIA’s are often connected to a local Volunteer Center or United Way. http://www.energizeinc.com/prof/dovia.html Energizeinc.com An international training, consulting and publishing firm specializing in volunteerism. Stay current on the latest issues and news in the field of volunteer management. www.energize.com Idealist.org Idealist is an interactive site where people and organizations can exchange resources and ideas, locate opportunities and supporters, and take steps toward building a world where all people can lead free and dignified lives. http://www.idealist.org/en/resources. html On-line Discussion Group for Volunteer Managers http://groups.yahoo.com/group/cybervpm/ Resource Center Repository of over 8,000 nodes of training tools, publications, and effective practices to support volunteer programs, nonprofits, and people involved with the AmeriCorps family of programs. http://nationalserviceresources.org/topics/service-activities Serve.gov A comprehensive clearinghouse of volunteer opportunities. Americans who are interested in volunteering can use this tool to locate opportunities to serve across the country and around the world. Be sure to register your project! www.serve.gov Volunteer Match A leader in the nonprofit world dedicated to helping everyone find a great place to volunteer. Post your volunteer opportunities. www.volunteermatch.org Volunteer Spot Free on-line tool enables anyone to quickly mobilize and coordinate volunteers in their community, congregation and social network. www.volunteerspot.com Volunteering In America Provides access to volunteering trends, statistics, tools, resources, and information for the nation, U.S. regions, states, and major cities. www.volunteeringinamerica.gov

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Resource Mobilization — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to:

n Relate resource mobilization to capacity building in organizations n Introduce a VISTA project n Identify the core elements of a resource mobilization plan n Apply the “rule of three” when requesting resources n Ask for in-kind donations

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A Culture of Philanthropy
n For a not-for-profit organization to be truly successful and effective, the organization must develop a culture of philanthropy.

n This means that everyone in the organization — from the janitor to the president of the board — understands that philanthropy and fund development are critical to organizational health AND that each individual (both the janitor and board president) has a role in the process.

n First and foremost, everyone is an ambassador for the organization’s service, philanthropy and fund development. Being an ambassador means doing one’s own job well, understanding how all the various jobs in the organization create one integrated system, and — most especially — treating all of the organization’s customers (clients, donors, volunteers, community people, etc.) with care and respect. Source: Simone P. Joyaux, ACFRE

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Resource Mobilization
n n n n n Is people-based and requires strong relationship building skills. Requires interpersonal and organizational skills similar to those used to recruit and manage volunteers, and to organize projects. Is very closely linked to marketing and communications. Is successful when there is a plan for diversified and stable avenues of participation, and that plan is worked systematically. Secures cash and/or in-kind resources which are critical to the long-term life of poverty-fighting projects.

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A Conversation About Your Project
Use the previous examples to give you ideas about stimulating interest in your project through conversation. Write your response in the boxes below. Pair up with a partner. Practice. Switch roles. Opener: “So what do you do?” Interest Tickler:

n n

n n

Opener: “Oh? What do you mean?” Interest Piquer:

n n

Opener: “Really? How?” Interest Captivator:

n

Other:

Adapted from Campaign Consultation

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Get the Goals in Your Memory Bank Worksheet
In order to respond to opportunities immediately, you need a clear outline of required funds, donations, and services. Complete the following:

Dollars Needed: $_____________________ purpose_______________________ $_____________________ purpose_______________________ $_____________________ purpose_______________________

Donated Items Needed: ______________________ purpose_______________________ ______________________ purpose_______________________ ______________________ purpose_______________________

Services/Help Needed: ______________________ purpose_______________________ ______________________ purpose_______________________ ______________________ purpose_______________________

Source: Campaign Consultation

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How to Develop an Effective Resource Mobilization Plan
You’ve heard the old adage before: If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.

Too many non-profits jump from one fundraiser to the next, without a clearly developed, carefully planned resource mobilization program. Effective development involves much more than a series of isolated special events, which lack direction and cohesion. Before you undertake any development efforts, you need to create a well-thought-out resource mobilization plan. This document should highlight all the programs intended to generate revenue and assets for your organization in the next 12 months. Planning helps give your fundraising efforts direction, creates a clear process to follow, and clarifies resources and costs. It enables you to map out your community or non-profit’s resource mobilization program for the next year in a way that incorporates research, action, and evaluation. It serves as a resource and guide for board, staff, and volunteers. And it helps you tie your development programs to your non-profit’s aims and objectives. When should you start planning? Start planning as early as possible - perhaps four to six months prior to the end of your group or organization’s fiscal year. Remember, you’ll need enough “lead time” to get the necessary commitment and input from others and to conduct the appropriate research in the early stage of planning. You’ll also need to allow enough time for the management committee to review, question, dismiss, and approve your resource mobilization plan. Whom should you involve in your planning efforts? Invite key people to provide input into developing your resource mobilization plan. Depending on your group or organization, you might want to include a mix of key people in the planning process, including board members, staff, committee members, fundraising volunteers, service recipients, client, and donors. Tip: People are more likely to support your resource mobilization plan if they feel a sense of ownership in it. Instill this sense of ownership by seeking their input through all four stages of your resource mobilization plan. Make others a part of your plan by asking their opinions, insights, and feedback. Let them know you truly value their role in developing the plan.

STAGE ONE: RESEARCH

To help you create an effective resource mobilization plan, you first need to conduct research to look inside and outside your non-profit organization. Research gives you the perspective and insights you need to forge ahead in creating a custom-tailored resource mobilization plan. Use the following questions to help you jump-start your research.

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How to Develop an Effective Resource Mobilization Plan (cont.)
n What local fundraising/resource mobilization trends can you spot in your community? n What’s working and not working for other community or non-profit organizations? n What is your resource mobilization history? Describe the types of programs, duration, amounts raised, resources used, time of year conducted, etc. n What are your community or non-profit organization’s resource mobilization strengths and weaknesses? Who is currently involved in this effort? How will your efforts be coordinated with theirs? n How can you make the most of technology in your resource mobilization program (i.e., computers, Internet, fax, telephone, etc.)? n Who are your potential donors and what are their interests? n What return can you expect on the money and time you invest? n Do you have resource mobilization commitments from both staff and volunteers? n How do your resource mobilization goals tie into your community or non-profit organization’s long-range plan? n What are the latest resource mobilization techniques, and how can you effectively incorporate them into your resource mobilization program? n What currently limits your resource mobilization effort?

STAGE TWO: PLAN

After you’ve got a clear picture of where you stand in terms of resources, needs, constraints, and capabilities, you can now begin to create your resource mobilization plan. At a minimum, your plan should include the following components: Goals n Why do you want to raise the money?

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How to Develop an Effective Resource Mobilization Plan (cont.)
n What do you want the funds to accomplish in your non-profit organization? You must identify the need(s) that your resource mobilization plan hopes to satisfy. And, to ensure support, you must tie your resource mobilization goals to your group’s aims and objectives. If not, you’ll waste time and resources - and damage your credibility. To pave the way for resource mobilization success, you must keep your resource mobilization goals consistent with your organization’s aims and objectives. Objectives n What type of funding, resources, or in-kind donations will you seek? n What amounts? n From whom will you solicit these funds? n What type of programs will you conduct? n How many activities for resource mobilization will you conduct in the next 12 months? You must make your resource mobilization objectives as specific and measurable as possible. (For example, determine the cost effectiveness of a program by estimating the ratio between the money spent and the funds received.) This will make the evaluation stage easier. You should also select a “point person” to take charge of each resource mobilization activity. This helps coordinate the resource mobilization team’s efforts, and it holds someone accountable for each activity. Strategies n Specifically, how will you accomplish your resource mobilization objectives? n What resources do you need to accomplish these objectives (i.e., funds, person power, supplies, space, transportation, etc.)? n Who will be responsible for each strategy? This “meaty” section of your resource mobilization plan includes all the nitty-gritty details that specifically explain what needs to be done and who will do it.

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How to Develop an Effective Resource Mobilization Plan (cont.)
Timeline n How long will each fundraising activity last? n When will you conduct each element of your various resource mobilization activities? n How long will it take to complete each strategy? Include deadlines for all the key elements of each resource mobilization objective and strategy. Regular monitoring of your deadlines will give you a quick update to see if you’re on schedule.

STAGE THREE: CONDUCT

Now that you’ve outlined the “who-what-when-where-why” of your resource mobilization plan, it’s time to put it to the test. Mobilize your resource mobilization team and arm them with the training, resources, and support they need to conduct the plan. Make sure your team is well-prepared before they embark on any fundraising effort. Conducting the plan involves implementing strategies, delegating tasks, allocating resources, training and motivating resource mobilization team members, and following up as needed. Important: Periodically check the progress of your resource mobilization plan and individual programs to ensure your efforts are on target. Situations might change, dictating that your resource mobilization plan might need to change, too. Remember, your resource mobilization plan serves as a guideline, but its contents are not etched in stone. Keep your plan flexible to adapt to change.

STAGE FOUR: EVALUATE

To wrap up your resource mobilization plan, you need to incorporate evaluation as the final stage. You need both periodic and year-end evaluations. n How did you do this year? n What worked? n What didn’t? n What would you do again next year?

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How to Develop an Effective Resource Mobilization Plan (cont.)
n What would you change, add, or delete from next year’s plan? n What strengths did you capitalize on? n What weaknesses could you improve upon? Provide a detailed explanation of when and how you plan to monitor and evaluate your resource mobilization efforts. Check to see if you achieved your objectives. As stated earlier, the more specific you make your objectives, the easier it will be to evaluate them. (For example, did you raise a specific amount from your special event? Did you achieve a certain percentage response from your direct mail campaign? Did you reach the target market you intended to? Did you reap any non-financial benefits from a program, such as public relations or goodwill?) With careful planning and attention to detail, your community or non-profit organization stands a much greater chance of success in your resource mobilization efforts. Adapted from Non-Profit Nuts & Bolts Bonus, a quarterly supplement to NonProfits Nuts & Bolts newsletter published electronically 12 times a year by Nuts & Bolts publishing, 4623 Tiffany Woods Circle, Oviedo, FL 32765-6102. Phone: (407) 677-6564. Fax: (407) 677-5645. Website: www.nutsbolts.com. There is an annual newsletter subscription rate.

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Giving Pie: Sources of Contributions
2008 contributions: $307.65 billion By Source of Contributions
(Dollar amounts are in billions)

Corporations $14.50 5% Foundations $41.20 13%

Bequests $22.66 7%

Individuals $229.28 75%

All figures are rounded. Total may not be 100%.

Source: Giving USA Foundation™ / Giving USA 2009.

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Giving Pie: Recipient Organizations
2008 contributions: $307.65 billion By Type of Recipient Organization
(Dollar amounts are in billions)

Grants to individuals* $3.71 1% International affairs $13.30 4% Environment and animals $6.58 2% Arts, culture, and humanities $12.79 4% Public-society benefit $23.88 8%

Foundations $32.65 11%

Unallocated giving $19.39 6%

Religion $106.89 35%

Human services $25.88 9% Health $21.64 7% Education $40.94 13%

All figures are rounded. Total may not be 100%. *Foundation grants awarded to individuals

Source: Giving USA Foundation™ / Giving USA 2009.

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The Stages of an ASK
Open • Establish relationship • Explain mission/purpose • Identify needs Discover • Their motivations • Their frame of reference/point of view Present “the ASK” • Frame the presentation from their view • Capture their hearts and minds • Talk about what they can do to… • Help you and/or the organization • Probe current needs • Satisfy their interests Listen • Focus • Don’t interrupt Respond • Draw out more information • Attempt to overcome objections Closure • Check for understanding • Follow up immediately • Leave the door open

Source: Campaign Consultation

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The ASK Observer’s Sheet
Was the ASK made?

Were resource development, skills, and knowledge used?

What could make this ASK better? Could they have asked for something more? Less? Different?

What strengths did you observe?

Source: Campaign Consultation

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Stakeholders
Brainstorm a list of people, organizations, and systems who currently have a special interest or should have a special interest in the activities and accomplishments of your project. For each individual/group listed, identify (from their perspective) what’s in it for them. Identify (from your perspective) the key benefit of involving them in your project as early as possible. Stakeholders Current and Potential What’s in it for Them? Key Benefit to Us

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Resource Mobilization Additional Resources

Resource Mobilization Resources
The following resources will assist you with ongoing fundraising efforts, trends, and circumstances relative to philanthropy and resource development. A few sites require annual membership fees, such as the Foundation Center; most do not. If you feel you want to become a member, think creatively. As a nonprofit, ask your vendors to give back to the community by subsidizing a three-year membership. If the cost is too high for one vendor, ask several to split the cost. In addition, you can ask your board members, stakeholders, and local partnering organizations to chip in as well! Be sure to show them how their contribution will benefit all involved. American Association of Fundraising Counsel (www.aafrc.org). Professional organization of fundraisers that prides itself on having high ethical standards. BBB Wise Giving Alliance (www.give.org). Profiles US charities in order to enhance the decisions of givers and monitors the standards of charitable organizations. Benevon (www.benevon.com) A consulting firm that coaches and trains non-profits in sustainable fundraising. The archive provides articles and tip sheets on many aspects of resource mobilization. GuideStar (www.guidestar.org). A database of non-profit organizations and charities that includes financial details for each group, and a profile of their purpose and programs. Independent Sector (www.indepsec.org). A coalition of non-profits, foundations, and corporations that assist in strengthening not-for-profit initiatives, philanthropy, and citizen action. Has news, programs, and facts. JustGive.Org (www.justgive.org). Guide to charitable giving offers details on a variety of non-profit organizations and provides instructional tips for making donations. Foundation Center (www.fdncenter.org). Comprehensive directory offers links to provide foundations, corporate-giving programs, and other sources of non-profit funding. Has an extensive biographic database on the practice of philanthropy and the non-profit sector. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (www. cbpp.org). Research institute analyzes government policies and programs, particularly those affecting low- and middle-income people. Non-Profit Times (www.nptimes.com). Covers issues of concern to non-profits and reports on news and developments regarding such organizations. Network for Good (www.networkforgood.org). Searchable organization of non-profit foundations and charities provides an opportunity for people to make a donation, become a volunteer, or speak out about a topic. National Society of Fundraising Executives and Association of Fundraising Professionals (www.nsfre.org). Helps its members find education opportunities and become certified. Volunteer Match (www.volunteermatch.org). Provides information to help individuals nationwide find volunteer opportunities posted by local non-profit and public sector organizations. America Taking Action (www. americatakingaction.com). Find childcare in any state categorized by type such as family providers, day-care centers, and camps. Volunteer Solutions (www.volunteersolutions. org). A Volunteer Matching Application that helps connect individuals to volunteer opportunities in their communities.

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Resource Mobilization Additional Resources

Case Statement Outline
Preparing a case statement is a fundamental resource mobilization activity. All formal and informal resource development efforts require you to make the case for your organization’s existence and for the potential investment a donor is asked to make. Case statements are useful in grant writing and in outlining oral presentations. Remember that chance favors the prepared mind.

1. Who are you? • Brief history: include highlights of the past year. • Mission: What difference do you make? • Board members and staff list. 2. The problem today • What issues and/or problems concern your organization? Describe the issues/problems. Use statistics and research when possible. 3. Solutions and future plans • What strategies and/or programs have you created to address the issues/problems? Describe these fully. • How is your organization/program uniquely qualified to implement these strategies/programs? • Brief history: include highlights of the past year. 4. Challenges • Why do you need the money/in-kind donation? • Are these new programs or have costs increased? • Why aren’t the traditional sources of funding enough? • Explain the “price tags” for strategies/programs. 5. Opportunity • What is the organization doing to meet the challenges? • What is the opportunity the potential donor now has to help meet the challenges? For example, “Our board is pleased to announce that we are launching a new/expanded giving program in which you can participate to help meet the challenges.” • How exactly will the money be used?

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Partnerships

Partnerships and Building Relationships — Outcomes
By the end of this session, you will be able to:

n Relate partnership building to capacity building in organizations n Identify opportunities and challenges you may experience in building partnerships n Apply the principles of partnership-building to your service assignments

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Action Plan: Meeting Gaston’s Community Needs
What values guide your organization? What does your organization believe are the greatest needs to be addressed in the Gaston community?

What resources does your organization have that can help support the need? What resources does your organization need that you could potentially get from partners to help support the need?

Do you need partners to address the need? What organizations or types of organizations should you partner with?

How will you measure success? What does success look like for your organization?

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Reaching Out
Reaching Out: Partnership Selection (One) 1. The group/organization we would like to partner with: 2. What’s in it for us?

3. What’s in it for them? 4. Group/organization(s) interested in partnering with us:

Reaching Out: Partnership Selection (Two) 1. The group/organization we would like to partner with: 2. What’s in it for us?

3. What’s in it for them? 4. Group/organization(s) interested in partnering with us:

Response to the “State Fund for Youth” funding opportunity: 1. Are you interested in applying for (or partnering with others to apply for) these funds? 2. If yes, describe the outcomes of your program and how they will be measured. 3. Ideally, which group/organization(s) would you partner with in this grant proposal?
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Who’s a Partner?
In short, anyone with a stake in building permanent infrastructure to help bring individuals and communities out of poverty (see list below) should be involved. Success depends on involving a good mix of people and organizations in the partnership to put together and implement the plan. Some people who live outside the community may even have an important role to play because they benefit from or have an impact on the culture and economics of the community.

Partners
Mass media

Contributions
• • • • Coverage of community events Human interest stories Understanding of local information needs Ability to get information out quickly

Property owners and managers

• Trustworthy information sources • Role models • Peer pressure • • • • Influence over management decisions Linkage with property owners Prestige for partnership Funding for programs

Financial institutions

Businesses and industries

• Distribute information and influence decisions • Sponsor service project days • Donate equipment and services • Funding for programs • Knowledge of environmental constituencies • Awareness of problems and issues • Committed and knowledgeable memberships • Political leadership and credibility • Land use and resource management decisions • Financial support for projects • Financial and technical support • Policies and decisions that affect the community • Logistics, equipment, and related support • Data collection and analysis expertise

Environmental and conservation groups

Local elected officials

Local government agencies

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Who’s a Partner? (cont.)
Partners
Chambers of commerce

Contributions
• Compatible, broader goals for local economy • Concerns and interests of businesses • Influence over efforts in the future • Ideas and creativity • Time and energy for “repetitive” tasks • Influence over values and beliefs • Ability to shape future generations • Source of information • Influence over family decisions • Interest and concern for health issues • Ability to mobilize and motivate members • Commitment to stewardship • Ability to appeal to higher values • Credibility and legitimacy • Time and talent for teamwork • Understanding of local conditions • Credibility in community • Ongoing program activities • Interest in and concern for community • Fund-raising skills • Influence over and credibility with different community groups • Role models • Connection to community • • •

Students

Teachers

Women’s groups

Religious leaders

Retired persons

Civic organizations

Cultural Groups/Organizations

Others?

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The Stages of Group Development
Charting the Progression of Group Development

There is a tendency for all groups, whether newly formed or experiencing a change in leadership, to go through predictable stages of growth and regression. An awareness of group development stages is important in helping to increase positive results. Stage 1: FORMING / ORIENTATION Members try to determine their place in the group along with the procedures and rules of the group. Stage 2: STORMING / DISSATISFACTION Conflict begins to arise as members resist the influence of the group and rebel against accomplishing the task. Stage 3: NORMING / RESOLUTION The group establishes cohesion and commitment, discovering new ways to work together and setting norms for appropriate behavior Stage 4: PERFORMING / PRODUCTION The group develops proficiency in achieving its goals and becomes more flexible in its patterns of working together.

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The Stages of Group Development (cont.)
STAGE 1: FORMING / ORIENTATION – Trying To Find My Place Characteristics During the forming stage, members discover what behaviors are acceptable to the group. For newly established groups, this stage is the transition from individual to member status. For groups with new leadership, purpose, or members, this stage is a period of testing behavior and dependence on the group’s leader for guidance in a new, unstructured environment. Group begins to experience: • Feelings of excitement, anticipation, and optimism; also feelings of suspicion, fear, and anxiety about the job ahead • Identification of its reason for existence • Self-orientation • Identification of the task to be accomplished • Exploration and discovery of how to interact with one another as a group As the group forms and matures, natural leaders will emerge. The members in these roles will change several times during this phase of group development. This stage is also characterized by the following: • Attempts to identify tasks in terms of relevancy and decide how the group will accomplish the tasks • Decisions on the type of information needed and how it will be used • Hesitant participation • Initial feelings about the group • Complaints about the organizational environment • Suspicion, fear, and anxiety about the new situation • Little work is accomplished In this stage, the leader needs to encourage members to get acquainted with each other. Close supervision and direction are needed. Common Concerns • What role will I play in this group? • How do I want others to perceive me? • What can I contribute to this group? • What will I contribute to this group? • What kind of group will we become?

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The Stages of Group Development (cont.)
STAGE 2: STORMING / DISSATISFACTION Characteristics During the storming stage, members become hostile or overzealous as a way of expressing their individuality and resisting group formation. Members recognize the extent of the task needed and may respond with animosity or apathy. Some group behaviors and attitudes: • Negativity • Dissatisfaction • Hostility • Crisis mode • Adjustment anxiety Differences and suppressed tension begin to surface. Members further define the energy level they dedicate to the task or project at hand; questions arise: - Do I feel passionate about the purpose of this program? - Do I like how they are planning to meet the needs? - What am I going to do or say that will get my opinion heard? Other characteristics of this stage include: • Infighting, defensiveness, and competition • Disunity, increased tension, and jealousy • Polarization of group members • Sharp fluctuations in relationships and reversals of feelings • Concern over excessive work • Establishing a pecking order • Little work is accomplished The leader can help the group move through this stage by encouraging and supporting members and emphasizing areas of agreement. Control and Influence Questions • Will I be able to influence others? • How much will others try to influence me? • Will I be a respected member of this group? • Will the group’s goals include my own goals? • Will the group leader be effective? • What kind of conflict will we have in this group?

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The Stages of Group Development (cont.)
Common Behaviors Displayed • Trying to influence or control • Forming subgroups and coalitions • Resisting leadership • Conflicting with others STAGE 3: NORMING / RESOLUTION During the norming stage, members accept the group norms, their own roles, and personality traits of fellow members. Characteristics “We’re all in this together!” Some group behaviors: • Cohesion around shared goals • Resolution of conflict • More acceptance of diversity in the group • Reconciliation; show of affection • Re-evaluation Members have seen the coming together (forming), the semi-separation (storming), and now they have reconciled themselves to working together (norming) despite their differences with a new definition of purpose. Other characteristics of this stage include: • An attempt to achieve maximum harmony by avoiding conflict • A new ability to express emotions constructively • A sense of cohesiveness with a common spirit and goals • Establishing and maintaining group boundaries • Developing effective decisionmaking techniques • A moderate amount of work is accomplished • A sense of connection characterized by confiding in each other, expressing opinions, and discussing team dynamics As the group assumes increased responsibility, the leader continues to encourage and support participation by all.

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The Stages of Group Development (cont.)
Relationship Questions • Will I be liked? • Will I like the other members? • What roles do I know others play in this group? • What can I predict to be true of each issue? • What do others expect from me? • What are the unwritten rules that influence the way we operate as a group? • What do and don’t we discuss? STAGE 4: PERFORMING / PRODUCTION Now that the group has established its own norms, it becomes capable of diagnosing and solving problems and making decisions. Characteristics • Interdependency • Have a sense of ownership • A great deal of work is accomplished “Getting Things Done!” • Cohesiveness • Teamwork • Leadership • Performance The group is starting to utilize its newly found “norms of trust,” and can begin focusing on the service to be done; there should be enough drive, creativity, and cohesiveness to take on most tasks. The leader provides minimal input to the group. GROUP EFFECTIVENESS QUESTIONS • What can I do to help the group accomplish its task more effectively? • What can I do to help maintain and improve relationships in the group? • What can we do as a group to become more effective? Help members evaluate the group and realize that the group is not an end in itself—that most of the work takes place outside the group

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The Stages of Group Development (cont.)
STAGE 5: ADJOURNING Characteristics “Now What?” Possible group feelings or reactions: • Negativity • Dissatisfaction • Hostility • Purging • Crisis The group is realizing the end of service is near; it has been a year of sharing and growing with each other and now members are going to separate. For many, the group has been a safety net and truly has become their community.

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Partnership: Good for Everyone
It is important to remember that both parties entering into a partnership require something in order to make the partnership worth their time, effort, and resources. With every partner you work with, think about what each of you can get out of the relationship that will serve as a “win.”
Partner What does the partnership contribute to this partner? What does the partner contribute to this partnership?

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Partner Profile
This profile form will help you document your partnerships for current and future work and to record vital information.

Contact Information Partner – Organization or Individual:

Key Names and Titles, as applicable:

Physical Address:

Phone Numbers:

Fax:

E-mails:

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Partner Profile (cont.)
Basic History Information Partner History With Community:

Partner History With Your Organization:

Contact History:

Current Relationship (Includes notes about strengths and challenges):

Other Special Notes:

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Keys to Successful Partnerships
Positive Climate, Communication, and Relationships Shared Purpose and Outcomes Resources and Support Clear Process and Structure

POSITIVE CLIMATE, COMMUNICATION AND RELATIONSHIPS

Establish relationships first and continue to focus on positive relationships throughout and in the end. It is important to remember to first understand and then be understood. Know your community – politics, norms, values, history, people, etc.
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT: n n Time is taken to build trust and relationships; resolve issues; and build common ground History of collaboration or cooperation in the community - Things that happened in the past can either help or hinder an effort – preparation and research are essential in this area Collaborative group seen as a leader in the community Political/social climate is favorable Mutual respect, understanding, and trust Appropriate cross-section of members - diversity of members are chosen that represent the appropriate stakeholders and types of individuals needed Ability to compromise Open and frequent communication

n n n n n n

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Keys to Successful Partnerships (cont.)
n n Established informal and formal communication links Competition - Too often, organizations come together simply to obtain resources for existing efforts i.e. funders requiring collaboration, likely to get a grant, etc. – so basically, the organizations are still competing - not truly collaborating Conflicts are addressed within collaboration as soon as they arise, allowing for all to be heard Appropriate members are retired, while new members are added Celebration is initiated at all stages

n n n

SHARED PURPOSE AND OUTCOMES

Know where you are and where you want to go – have clarity of purpose and goals – create a common understanding of why the partnership is worth pursuing.
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT: n n n n n Shared vision - all stakeholders are involved in creating a shared vision statement that tells everyone where the group is going Unique purpose Concrete, attainable goals and objectives leads to an understanding of accomplishments the group wants to make Ideology – Shared values and beliefs Members see collaboration as in their self-interest - group obtains information that gets at individual/organization gains; powers; commitments; and availabilities

RESOURCES AND SUPPORT

Partnerships must be supported by individuals who can facilitate the process and responsibilities. In addition, other resources such as money, skill sets, people, and time are also required.

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Keys to Successful Partnerships (cont.)
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT: n n Skilled convener - Convener is chosen that has needed skills and qualities to facilitate a diverse group of stakeholders Leadership - If no one has enough power to bring the needed partners together, people will quickly disband – if the wrong person leads meetings, the group might fail Power - Rarely equal, yet we can equally value different powers. Successful collaborations find ways to balance the inequities among all members Resources - Potential partners may be unable to contribute what is needed i.e. representatives cannot be sent to meetings, time required causes a hardship to organization, lack of skills, etc. Initiator - collaboration begins with an initiator that presents the vision and results that attract others, but are open to include input from others People who have access to resources are identified Authority is obtained from home organizations of all stakeholders through letters of commitment Staffing is determined, if applicable, that help to move collaboration onward Sufficient funds - Both in-kind and cash resources are identified and plan to secure them is created Decisions are made as to what role home base agencies play

n n

n n n n n n

CLEAR PROCESS AND STRUCTURE

Create clear and written systems that allow partnerships to move forward. However, recognize that community work is full of surprises and as such partnerships require flexibility and patience.

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Keys to Successful Partnerships (cont.)
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT: n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n Structure for collaboration is determined that illustrates roles and authority and determines how work will be done Members share a stake in both process and outcomes Multiple layers of decision making — Decision-making protocol is decided upon that outlines who can make decisions and what type of decisions can be made Adaptability and flexibility are constantly promoted Joint agreements are created and signed that outline agency partner responsibilities Effective meetings are held that include beginning and ending time; agendas; refreshments; action items; relationship building; success showcasing; etc. All stakeholders are involved in the meetings Planning is valued and process taken along the way is well documented Authority is clarified within the collaboration Roles are assigned for all stakeholders based on interests and strengths of the members Communication plan is created that addresses both informal and formal communication required to keep stakeholders informed Action plan is laid out that is specific; sets responsibilities; produces a budget; communicates with all people; and starts small to ensure success Evaluation is valued by all stakeholders and involves a variety of methods Evaluation plan is created Feedback is constantly requested, leading to continuous improvement

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