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Textures
Volcanic
of texturesin volcanicrocks
A guideto the interpretation

J McPhie
M. Doyle
R .Al l e n

Centre for Ole Deposit and Exploration Studies


U ni v er . i q rr f T r . m ani a

'I-he
publicationof tl.risbooku-ouldnot har.ebeenpossible
u'ithourstrongsupporr
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t\ustr:rlianRescarchCouncil
Uniycrsitvof Tasmaniir
Abcrfbr.'leResources
l):rsnrinco
Explolation
RcnisonGoldfleldsF.xplor:rtiorr
BI IP N{inelals
(lcopcl<o
Pancon
rincoral trlininq
W\{Cl F.xploration

O 1993COI)L..SKcy Centre
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Liniversioof lirsmania,CPO Box 252C.,Hobart,
ia 7001.

National Librarv of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry


\lcPhie. focelln.
\rolcanic textures:a guiclc to the interprctarionof texturesin lolcanic rclcl<s.
Biblioeraphr'.
Inclu,ics inclex.

lsBN 0 85901512X.
l. \rolcanicash, rufl. crc. 2. Perrofabricanalvsis.I. Dolle, \{. (Nlar.k).ll. Allcn,
R . ( R o d n e v L e s l i e )1, 9 5 8 - . l l l . U n i v e r s i r lo f l i r s r r a n i : r( .l e n t l e f b r C ) r e D e p o s i t
'l
ancl l.xpkrration Studics.I\l
itle.

t 52.2

Desigr anclcleskrop
publishingbv lune l)ongratz.
(lovernmcnlPrirrrin!,t)illcc.
Printeclantl bounclin'Iirsnriuriatrv the'lirsnranian

Contents

Part1. nterpreting
textures:
terminology
andtechniques

I
....,,.....................---.
The imprint of geneticprocesses
on texturesin volcanicdeposits..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. . . . . . . . . .
E n r p h r . i..r n do r g J r i . J t i o n . .
c eposirs.............................................
A r . ra p p l o a c ht o t h c g c n e r i ci n r e r p r e t a t i oonf t e x t u r eisn v o l c a n i d
c n dv o l c a n i c l a s t i c .
........................,.....,........3
T w o t e x t u r acl a t e g o r i ecso: h e r c nvto l c a n i a
v
o
l
c
a
n
i
c
l
a
s
t
i
c
.
.
.
.
.
.
...............................,....,...
f or rec o h e r e nvro l c a n i a
c nd
deposits
D e s c r i p t i vrc. r o m e n c l a t u
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l.2. . . . . . . . .
L r a p h i cl o g g i n tge t h n i q u c
. . . . . . . .l .5.
I m p o r r a nt e
r x l u r cJ\ n d \ r r u c r u r ( \ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
fiaturesof the seafloorn.rassiye
sulfideenvironment....................................
A summarvof rhc essential
............,.........,,............ 15
Introductionto the Mount ReadVolcanics

r
Part3. Lavas,syn-volcanic
intrusions
and relatedvolcanrclastic
deposits

Subaqueous
silicic lava flows, domesand syn-volcanicintrusions
................. (rI
Subaqueou
s isl i c i cl a v af l o w sa n d e x t r u s i vdeo m e s . . .
.......................61
S u b a q u c o upsa r t l ye x t r u s i vcer y p t o d o m e s . . . . . . . .
...............................64
Subaqueou
s ys n - v o l c a nsi ci l l sa n d d y k e s . . . . .
....................................64
Volcaniclastic
dcpositsassoci:rted
rvith siliciclavadome eruptionsin shirllowrvater................................65
-1}smania........66
CascStudy:Partlyextrusive,
submarine,
dacitecryptodome,SockCreekSouth,rvestern

Part4. Pyroclast
c, resedirnented
vo caniclastic
and volcanogenic
sedimentary
deposts
Geneticclassification
of volcaniclastic
deposits
( r u p r i . n \a n J p v r o c l a s d
Erplo.ire
r iccp o . i r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E x p l o s i vm
e a g r r a t i ce r u p 1 o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P h r c J l o n r J 6 n rcl tr iucp t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I'hrcaro
i . r s r c a me r u p r i o n . . . .
R e s e d i m e n t se vdn - e r u p t i vveo l c a n i c l a sdt iecp o s i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V o l c a n o g e nsi ce d i m e n t a d
r ye p o s i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T i a n s p o rat n d d e p o s i t i oonf v o l c a n i c l a spt iacr t i c l e.s. . . . . . . . . . . . .
M a s sm o v e m e nat n d n a s s - f l o w
deposrts...............
Prin.rarypyroclasti

.................94
.................... q<
.................................... 95
............qb
......................()t'
...........96
..................................97
........................97
............98

T r a n s p o rat n d d e p o s i t i o n p
a rl o c e s s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
................................99
C h a r a c t e r i s t oi cf sp y r o c l a s t fi lco w d e p o s i t s
...................................100
Cornponenr.
. . . . . . . . . . . . l. u. .i.).
T1pcs,,fJep,'.irs.
. . . . , . . .l .0. i ,
'lbxtures
a n d i n t e r n aol r g a n i s a t i oonf d e p o s i t i o nu: rnl i t s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
................102
Cr.rde..................
..........101
G e o m e t r y: r n da s p e crta u o. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
. .0. .4. . . .
D i m e n s i o nosf p y r o c l a s t fi lco r vd e p o s i t s
................................105
Proximalto distaltexturalvariations
.........10i
( o m p o r i r i o nzaol n a r i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . l. O
. . i.
Significar.rce
of pyroclastic
florvcleposits
...........
105
S u b a q uoeu s l y - e m p l adcpey r o c l a s t - r i m
c ha s s - f l o dr ve p o s i t.s. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .0. .6. . . .
T r 2 p . g r c s s i o rf r l r o r e l i r r eb.y p y r o c l . r . r fi cl o w ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .l .0 t ,
'Welded
ignimbriteinterbedded
rvith submarinesedimentary
sequences
...................10(r
N o n - w e l d e dp,y r o c l a s r - r i cshu,b m a r i nm
e a s s - f l o dr ve p o s i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 0. .7. .
'Water-sr.rpporte
massflowsand their deposits.........................................
d and gravity-driven
volcaniclastic
109
L o w d e n s i r yt u r b i d i r yc u r r e n t s
H i g h . d e n , ' irruyr b i d i rcyu r r e n r . ,
V o l c a n i c l a st u
i cr b i d i t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rignifiLrn.e.........

..................111
. . . . . . . . . . . . I. .I .I. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2I
. . . . . . . I. 1. .2

Colr.ri.'. debrisflorvs,volcaniclastic
debrisflorvsand their deposits
...............

..........1 l2

V r l c a n i c l a s rgi cr a i n - f l o w
deposirs..............
...................................114
V o l c a n i sc l i d e sv,o l c a n i d
c e b r i sa v a l a n c haens d t h e i rd e p o s r t.s. . . . . . . . . . . . .
.....................114
Massivesulfideclasr,bearing
submarinevolcaniclasric
mass-flow
deposits
.............................................
116
T i a c t i o nr r a n s p o rat n d v o l c a n i c l a sttri ca c t i o nc u r r e n dt e p o s i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............,..................117
Tiacrion:rlsedimentary
srructures
..............I
17
C h a r a c t e r i s t.i.c. s. .
......,,,,117
Significancc.........
. . . . . . . .1. .1 8
P y r o c l a s tsi cu r g eas n d t h e i rd e p o s i t s . . . . . . .
..........11g
C h a r a c t e r i s t.i.c. .s.
. . . . . . . .1. .1 8
Dimcnsionsof pvroclastic
surgedeposits......
......................... 1I 9
S i g n i f i c a n .c.e. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .1. .1 9
Suspension
transporrand volcaniclasric
suspension
deposits...............
........120
P y r o c l a s tfiac l l d e p o s i t s . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
. .2. .0. . .
C h a r a c t e r i s t.i.c. .s.
. . . . . . . .1. .2 0
l f f a t e r - s e t r lpeydr o c l a s t li ac l l d e p o s i t s . . . . . . . . . .
..................................121
Suspension
sedimentation
associared
with subaqueous
volcaniclastic
massflows....,......................,,......121

Part5. Alteration:
an integralpartof texturalevolution
A l t e r a t i o ne v e n r isn t h e M o u n t R c a dV o l c a n i c. .s. . . . . . . . . . .
Alteration
o f l a v a ss, h a l l o wi n r r u s i o nasn d r e l a t e d
a u t o c l a s tbi cr e c c i a.s. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

M i x e dg l a s say n d s p h e r u l i t i c a d
l le
y v i t r i f i ezdo n e s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S p h e r u l i t iocr m i c r o l i t i cc o r e so f l a v a sa n ds h a l l o wi n t r u s i o n s
G e n e r atlr e n d sa n d i r n p l i c a r i o n s . .
O r i g i n a l l yg l a s say n dp e r m e a b ldee p o s i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P h y l l o s i l i c aat let e r a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two-phascGldsparand phvllosilicate
alteration
G e n e r atlr e n d sa n d i m p l i c a t i o n s . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .1. .6.5
.....................166

..................................1(t7
..................................167
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .6. .8.
.......................168
........................163
...........................
l(r8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l.(. r. 9
..

References
tnoex

vii

r
Listof Plates
Plate1

Evenlyporphyriricand volcaniclastic
textures...............

Plate4-Micropoikilitic texturein rhyolite...........


P l a t e6 - P u m i c e , s c o r i ab, o m b sa n d j u v e n i l e
b l o c k s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-P l e t c S h a r d sl i.r h i cf r a g m c n tJ.n d . r l l r e r i o n r r lvr p i l l i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
"tiny
P l a t e9 - C o l u m n a r . j o i n t s ,
n o r m a lj o i n t s "a n d t o r t o i s e
s h e l jl o i n t s . . . . . . . . . . .
P l a t el 0 - A u t o c l a s t i cb r e c c i a n dt a l u s

y a r i e t i easn d f e e d edl y k e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P l a t el 3 - H y a l o c l a s t i t e
(intrusive
Plare 14 Peperite
P l a r e1 5 P i l l o w e dl a v al ' l o w sa n dp i l l o w s . . . . . . . . . .
P l a t e1 6 R i n d sa n d c r u s t so n p i l l o wl o b e s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.................34

...........40
...................44
...........-ltr
......................50
............................72

.....................78
..............82
..............................84

P l a t e1 8 P r o d u c tos f s i l i c i cl i r v ad o m ee r u p r i o nisn s h a l l o ww a t e r :B u n g aB e d sN
, S\X/.......................................88
P l a t e1 9 - S u b a e r i al la v af l o w sa n dd o n e s . . . . . . . . . . .
.............90
I t l a t e2 0 - T e x t u r e si n g l a s s ys ,u b a e r i ar hl y o l i t i c1 a v a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
................92
P l a t e2 1 - T h r e e r y p e so f p v r o c l a s tfi lco r vd e p o s i t.s. . .
.................................124
P l a t e2 2 * G e o m e t r ya n d c o m p o n e n rosf p v r o c l a s tfi lco w d e p o s i t s . . . . . . .
..................................126
Plare23 Vapour-phase
crystallised
and slighdyweldedignimbrites
..........128
Plate24 \Weldingand granophyriccrysrallisation
rexruresin ignimbrite
..............................
l30
Plate25-Lithophysaeand spherulites
in weldedignirnbrire
............
..........132
Plate26-Heat retentionin pyroclastic
flow depositsand high-gradeignimbrite...........
........134
Plate27 \Veldedignimbritein the Mount ReadVolcanics.....
..................136
Plate28 Subaqueously
emplacedpyroclastic
florvdeposits:
norrhern\flales,UK..............................................
l38
Plate30 Syn-eruptive
subrrarinevolcaniclastic
megarulbidite
......
............142
P l a t e3 1 - V o l c a n i c l a s tm
i ce g a t u r b i d i t .e.s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...............................I44
P l a t e3 2 - S u b m a r i n eI,i t h i c - n c hv, o l c a n i c l a sm
t i ca s s - f l odwe p o s i r.s. . . . . . . . . . . . .
..........................146
Plate33-Coniponents in subaqueous,
volcaniclastic
rnass-flolv
deposits...............
................
148
I)late34-Deposirs from subaqueous
volcaniclastic
debrisf1ows.........
........150
Plate35-Deposits from subaerial
laharsand volcaniclastic
debrisflows
................................152
Plarc36-Subaelial grain-flowand volcanicdebris-avalanche
deposits...............
....................154
P l a t e3 7 M a s s i v sc u l f i d ec l a s t isn s u b m a r i nveo l c a n i c l a sm
t i ca s s - f l o dwe p o s i t.s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. i.6. . . . . . . . . .
Plate38-Traction currentstructures
in volcanogenic
sediments
and pyroclastic
surgedeposits.........................158
Plate39-Subaerialpyroclastic
f,rll deposits
...................160
Plate40-Texturcs and structures
in volcaniclastic
depositsfiom suspension,
flotationand traction..................162
Plate41-Syn-eruptivevolcaniclastic
depositsfrom shallowsubmarineexplosive
acrivity...................................164
P l a t e4 2 - A l t e r c d c o h e r e nl ta v aa n d r e l a t e d
b r e c c i .a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...................170
P l a t e4 3 P s e u d o b r e c a
c inad a l t e r e d
volcanib
c reccia.................
................172
P l a t e4 4 A l t e r e dd e v i t r i f e ds i l i c i cl a v a
.........................174
P l a t e4 5 A l t e r e dp u m i c e o uvso l c a n i c l a s dt iccp o s i r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....................176
P l a t e4 6 - A l t e r e d a n d d e l o r m e dp u m i c e o uvso l c a n i c l a sdt iecp o s i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.........................178

Acknowledgements

l)roducrior.rofthis bool< hasdcpcncleclon generousfinltrcial


support flom sponsorsof the Kev Centtc fbr Orc Dcposit
and Exploration Studies, in particuJar, the Ihsmanian
Dcpartment of l\lines, Abcrfbl.lc Resources,BHP
F.xploration,CRA. Explorarion. Cicopcko, l):rncontinental,
Pasminco, RGC f-xploration and Vestern Mining
Corporation.
Although the m:rterialpresentcdcornesprincipallv from
of .fMclt and RLA, rve made use of some
ttre collectior.rs
thin-sections,hand spccinrensand photographscontributcd
bv colleagues:Stcphcn Abbott, (luillermo Alvaraclo,D:rvid
Cooke, Keith Corbctr, Bruce (lemmell, Btucc Houghton,
'Whitc and Colin Wilson. Wt ale
John Waters, M:rttherv
further ir.rclebtedto Abcrfirl'lc Resoutcesancl Pasrninco lbr

ProicssorRossl-argciniriirtcdthc projcctand plor-iclecl


mu.chappreciated
encoulagefirent
througihorrtits re:rlis:rtion.
Tl.re first drafi u':rs substantirlh revisedafier rer.iqvs by
Stu:rrtBull and RossLargc (CODES), FcrsusIrirzgcralcl
( P a s m i n c oE x p l o r a r i o n ) ,M i r l c o l m H o r v e l l s ( B r i t i s h
GcologicalSrirvcl-),Nocl Vhite (13Hl') ancl Hiromitsu
(Geolosical
Yamagishi
Survevof Hokhrido).
'fhe
(dcsiqnand
procluction
tearnincludedJuncPongrarz
desktoppublishing),JcirnctrcH:rnkin and Kirsn Whalev
(rvping),Dcbbic Harding (drauehtins),Sirron Stephens
(thin-section
Frecl
:rndN:romiL)cards
andslabplepalation),
(tcchnical
Koolhof
adr-iceanclsomephotographv)ancl,{lisot.r
(final
editing).
Jones

use of m:rny samplesfirrm drillcore storcs at Hcllvcr rnd


RoseLrerr'.

IX

Part1. Interpreting
and
textures:
terminology
techniques

The important caskof exploring for bxe metal ore deposia


in ancient submarine volcanic sequencesbegins with
geological mapping, which in turn depends on correct
cextand
identificationofoutcropsand handspecimens.The
illusrarions that follow are designed to help meet this
significant challenge, by providing a guide to the interpretation of common textures and structures in volcanic
d,eposlts.Volmnit depositsincludeconsolidaredvolcaniclastic
and coherenr volcanic rocks, and unconsolidated
volcaniclastic aggregates.
The examplesusedare principally
Volcanics
in western Tasmania, a
ftom the Mount Read
deformed, Cambrian, largely submarine volcanic sequeoce
that hosts major massive sulfide deposia (Large 1992).
\qe havealsoincluded, for comparison,eramplesfrom other
well-exposed and younget submarine volcarric sequences,
and fiom subaerialvolcanic sequences.

Theimpintoi geneticprocesses
in
on textures
volcanicdeposits
The development of rexruresin volcanic deposits can be
consideredin terms ofthree main stages,
(1) creation of original textures by eruption and emplacemenr Processes;
(2) modiiication of original textures by syn-volcanic
(oxidation, degassing,hydration, vapour-phase
processes
alteration, high-temperature devitrificarion, hydrothermal alteration);
(3) modification by post-volcanicprocesses(hydrarion,
devitrification, hydrothermal alteration, diagenesis,meamorphism, deformation,weathering).
Ofoveriding importance in the crearionoforiginal taxtures
in primary volcaric deposis is the eruption style,in particular
whetherexplosiveor effixive (Fig. 1). Explosiveeruptions
ptoduce a wide varieq, of procla:tic deposis. Effusive
eruptiorc prodttce laaa
float ard kra domest\,at comprise
coherentand autoclasdc6cies. A drird categoryof' volcanic"
' , . .

deposits is created by the syn-volonic emplacemenr of


oypndona, @kesand.sill:, and also includes coherenr and
auoclasticfacies.In activevolcanicteranes,whe*rer subaerial
or subaqueous,diversevolcaniclasticdeposirsare generated
by non-volcanic processes,specifically by resedimentation
coevalwirh or independentoferuptionsand by weachering,
erosion and reworking of pre-existing volcanic deposits.
These are sometimes referred co as xcondary volcaniclxric
deposirs,whereas undisturbed plrodastic and autodxdc
deposts arepimary Mechanismsof particle transporc and
deposition areofgreat importance in the creation oforiginal
txrures and structures in pltoclastic, resedimented ald
volcanogenicsedimenrarydeposirs.Lavas, syn-volcanic
intrusions and many rypes of primary pyroclasdc deposis
are hot at the time of emplacement or deposirion. Then
original textures are almost invariably modified by
processes
relatedro cooJing.AII gpes ofvolcanic and volcadclasticdeposis, pdticularly thos that initially contained
volcanic glass,carr be subject to post-volcanictexrural
modification.

Emphasis
and organisation
Thisguideemphxr,es
rheprinciprlgeneric
proce\e.
for the creationof originaltertures,and lhe
responsible
most common syn-volcanicmodifications. The organisarion
olthe pLatesand cextrellectsa process-orienrcdclassiicarion
(Fig. 1) that atsoincludesvolonidastic depositsgenerated
by resedimentarion and by purely sedimencaryprocexes.
The clasi0cation showsthe main trarsport and deposition
mechanismsinvolved in the formation of pyroclastic,
resedirnentedvolcaniclastic and volcanogenic sedimentary
deposits. It is very important to appreciate that similar
arrd,hence,
mechanisms
operatein eachofthesecategories
similar textures ard structures may result.
Componena, texturesand srrucures (Part 2) are inherenr
propertiesof volcanic deposirsznd provide rhe basisfor
1

VOLCANICERUPTION

EFFUSIVE

EXPLOSIVE
suspension

lava flows
(syn-volcani c intrusions)

lastic
flow deposits

pyroclastic
fall deposits

cohercntlava
(or intrusion)

RESEDII\4ENTATION
suspension

resedimented (syn-eruptive) volcan iclastic deposits

WEATHERING,
EROSION,
REWORKING
AND(POST-ERUPTIVE)
RESEDIIVENTATION
mass-llow

suspension

voIcan ogenic sedi mentary de posits


Encircled
numbers:
relevant
partof guide
Boxes:processes
Italics:deposjts
Fig 1 Gefetic classfcaton oj vocafic deposits

d e * r i p r i , en o n - e r c l a r u S
r eo.m eg i ' e r i g h r . o . r s , " i n ro.1
geneLiinrerorerarion.
Lur mmy nerely"ugge.r" nunber
ol e9uaJJ1
valid,lrerna.,'e..T-e setecrion
ot , omponenr.
texturesand structuresin Part 2 is nor comprehensive
but
rnstead conceruares on features chat help distinguish
voledclastic lrom coherentvolcanicdeposits,that survive
'r an\,enr\equen.es
and.rr be re(ogni..din our.ropor
handspecimenwith a hand lens.Pa_rt
3 ofthe guidedescribes
,.' 2

strucruresand ficies associarions


in the productsofefftrsive
erupdons (tara nows and tava domes)and syn-volcanic,
high levelintrusions(sills,dyhes,cryptodomes).Theseare
qpically associated
wifi aurodasricdepositsthat aregenerated
by non explosivefragmenration (quenching, auto,
brecciarion). Part 4 deals with volcaniclasricdepos;rs
qrodlced !y explo,iveerupron, 'pr;rar, oyro.t: Li.
deDorrr\r.
rheir.rr errprirere.edimenred
equivalenr..
and

volcaniclasricdepositsresulringfrom surfaceproccsses
operatingon pre-existingvolcanicsequences
(volcanogcnic
(lorrectinterpretationofthesedeposits
sedimentarvdcposits).
lelies on recognition of (1) structuresancl lithofacics
characreristics
that inclicaterranspon and clepositional
(2) texrurcsand structuresthar indic:rtewhether
processes;
or not the particlesrverchot when deposited;(3) rexturesof
constituentparticlesthar indicate clast-forrningprocesses.
Finalll',in Part5, the alterirtiontexrulesin volcanicsequences
rhathostn.r:r-ssive
sulfidcdepositsarerevierved,
usingexamples
lion.r the Mount RcadVolcanics.An irnporrantaim of this
part is to shorv that unravellingthe conrplexweb of
interrelatcd processesinvolvcd in alteration of volcanic
depositsis criticallydependenton hrowledgeofthe original
texturesand horv thel' ftrrm.
T l r r e . ' e n r i aLl r r r r r . .o f r h el o r r rr n . r i nB ( r e r i cc d r e g o l i e \
consideredhere- lavasand syn-volcanicinrrusions,pyroclastic dcposits,reseclimentcdvolcaniclasticdepositsand
volcanogcnic
sedimentary
deposits- are sumrrariscdin
Figures
2,3,4, 5. Explanations
ofall thetermsusedon rhese
figuresfbr tcxturesicomponentsand processes
are givcn in
the corrcspondingpart of rhe tcxr.

An approachto the geneticnterpretation


of
texturesin vo canrcdeposits
Identificationand inrerpretationofvolcanictexturesinvolvcs
a bler.rdof proccss-oriented
volcanologvand sedimentologl',
and prinarily dependson careful obsenationsm:rde at a
rangcof sc:rles.Proficiencvimprovesdramaticallyu'ith an
awarencss
of geneticplocesses
and b1.adoptinga sr,stemaric
approachto description.!(c rhereforeemphasisc:
(1) the useofappropriateterminologylor the accuratefield
dcscriptionof volcanicdeposits;
(2) recordingoutcrop and drillcore sectionsby meansof
graphiclogs;
(3) identificationoforiginal volcanictexrlrres,and discrin.rination of these from tcxtures aftributable ro alteration,
defbrmationand/or mctirmorphism;
(4) recognition of rexturcs and structules diagnostic of
emplacement
processes,
in particul:u,coherentfacies(lavas,
intrusions)
versusvolcaniclastic
hcics(auroclastic,
pyroclastic,
resedimented,
volcanogenicsedimenrary)
;
(5) recognitionof outcrop fcaruresdiagnosticof panicular
depositionalsettir.rgs,in particular, subaerialversussubaqueousenvironments,and relativelydeepversusrclativelv
shallowsubaqueoussettings.

Twotexturalcategories:
coherentvolcanc and
volcaniclastic
The diversegcneticprocesses
involvcd in the formation of
volcanic depositsrcsulr in original rexruresthar can bc
classifiedinto cither of nvo categorics:uolcartit'lastic
or
'
coberent.l''he
rcrnt volcaniclastic"is descriptiveand applics

to depositscomposedprcdominantly of volcanicpanicles
(Fisher1961).The particlcsmav be any shapeand size.No
specific clasr-formingprocesscs,
tnnsporr and dcposirional
processes,
or settingsare implied. Texruresin volcaniclastic
depositscncompassenorrlous variationbut, in general,are
ch:rracterised
by the presenceof separateparticlesor fiagments, of mixrures of a ferv or manv different particle
shapes,sizesand wpes, or, in many cases,of bedding or
othersedinentarystructuresindicatingp:rrticulatetransport
and deposition.The fcrur rnain genetic categoricsof
volcaniclastic
dcposirs(autoclastic,
pvroclastic,resedimenred
volcanogenic
and
scdimentary)
eachhavesetsof disting,
uishingfeatures
and numerousfurthersubdivisions
(Parrs3
and 4J.

Coherentvolcanictexruresform from coolinganclsolidification of molten lava or magma. The most ubiquitous


hallmark is porphyritic texture, espcci:rllvrhe presenceof
evenJydistributed,euhcdr:rlcrl.stalsrhar have narrow size
ranges.Aphyric, aphaniticand rotally glassyrcxturesarealso
coherenr.Vesicles,
florvloliarions,spherulitcsandlithophysac
ale common in depositswirh coherenttextures,though not
indepcndentlycliagnostic,and also occur in volcaniclasric
deposirs.Coherer.rttexturcsoccul plincipally in lava florvs
and in intrusions.
There arc rwo additional textural categoricsthar can be
useftrl,parricularlyin ancienrsequences
in thc earlvstages
ofnapping or loggingand in stronglyalteredrocks.Apparent
uolcanichstic
texttres areverv common in alreredcoherent
lavas and intrusions, as a result of patchy or domainal
alterationor fiacture-andjoint-controlledalteration(PartJ).
The apparenttcxruresin man)rcasessuperficiallvresemble
rvcldedignimbrirc or co:rrselithic breccia.Sonreunaltered
microspheruliricor micropoikiliric lavasand intrusionsalso
displavapparcntvolcaniclasticrextures,and rcscrr-rble
wellsorted, massivesandstor.re.
Appnrent coherenttextures are
best developedin sorne very densclywelded primary
pyroclasricdeposits,espcciallvrheomorphic and lavalike
igninbrircs (Part 4). Li these,the glassypyroclastshavc
completelvcoalescedand are no longcr separatelydistinguishable,and crystal piuticles are dominantly complete
euhedra.Finc-grained,rnassive
or planarIaminatedvolcaniclasticdeposits,
suchas shard-richmudsrone,may display
app:rrentcoberent texturesas a result of recrystallisation
t l u r i n gd i a g c n c . i. .r n da l r e r a r i o r r .
In order for rhe field gcologist to procced further to
appropriatedcscriprive
terminologyand,thereafter,
to genetic
interpretation,it is necessary'first
to makea decisionregarding
the textural categorl', that is, rvhether volcaniclasticor
cohcrent. As more information becornesavailablc from
rnappingor thin-scctionstudies,andundent:urdingincreases,
rhat initial decisionshould be reviervedand evaluated.

LAVASANDSYN-VOLCANIC
INTRUSIONS
coherentfacies

autoclasticfacies

. porphyritic
texture(evenlydistributed
euhedral
crystals)or aphanitic
' highT devilrification
lexturescommonin
groundmass
(spherulites,
lithophysae,
micropoikilitic
texture)
. internally
massiveor flowfoliated
PUmiceous
. non-vesicular
- vesicular{t
I' s c o n a c e o u s

ffi

coherenl
facies

monomict
clastswithporphyritic
textureor aphanitic
texture
jigsawJittexture
abundant

autobreccia
slabby,flowfoliatedclastswithjaggedends;ragged
or blocky,massiveclasts
clastmarginsnotquenched
pumiceous
or scoriaceous
clastscommon
low proportion
of clastsfinerthan2 mm
separatecrystalfragmentsuncommon

autoclastic
facies:
@

jigsawJittexture

jissawjittextJre.sedirnent
matrix

hyaloclastitebreccia
blockyclastswithcurviplanar
surfaces
clastmarginshave(or had)glassygroundmass;
clastinteriors
glassyor crystallised
'tiny normaljoints
alongclastmargins
verycoarsesandto granulesize(1-4 mm) matrix
maybe abundant
separatecrystalfragmentscan be abundant
pumiceous
or scoriaceous
clastsmaybe present

resedimented

silicic:
subaerial
or subaqueous
lava

basalticautobreccia@
pillowlava
pillowfragmentbreccia

ffiffi

enclosrng
sequences

silicic or basaltic:
subaqueous
feederdyke

subaqueous
lavas

F g 2 characterist
cs of cohereftand autocastc laciesof avasand syn-vorcanic
intrusofs (part3)

\-

PYROCLASTIC
DEPOSITS
deposits from explosive magmatic and
phreatomagmatic eruptions:
. composedof crystals.pumiceor scoriaclasts,
juvenileclasts,lithicfragments
otherlessvesicular
. pumiceor scoriaandotherjuvenileclastsshow
porphyritjc
texture,or are aphanitic
. abundantcrystalfragmentsin matrix
. lithicclastssparseto abundant

deposits from phreatic eruptions:


composedof lithicpyroclasts;
hydrothermally-altered
clastscommon
accretionary
lapillicommon
smallvolumes(<< 1 km 3),limitedextent(<2 km from
source)
mainlyfallandsurgedeposits
non-welded

explosive magmatic
pyroclastic flow deposits:
blockandashflowdeposit,
or
scoria
andashflowdeposit

. abundantbubble-wall
glassshardsin matrix
. pumiceor scoriaclastsusuallyhavewispyor
raggedmargins,and lenticular,
platyor blockyshapes
. accretionary
lapillioccur
' weldedor non-welded

phreatomagmatic
. abundantblockyandsplinteryglassshards
. pumiceor scoriaandotherjuvenileclastsare
typicallyblocky;curviplanar
surfacescommon
. accretlonary
lapillicommon
. usuallynon-welded
. dominantly
ash andfine lapilli
lapili: pumice
or scoria FEl
poorly
juveniie
vesicutar
lE-l

rithic Fll

ffi

r
pyroclastic surge deposits:

phreatic or phreatomagmaticfall:

non-welded
ignimbrite

enclosrng
sequences

pumice or scoria fall deposits:


non-weldedfall

welded ignimbrite

weldedfall

lava-like
ignimbrite

ffi
F g 3 Character
st cs of deposltsfromexplosve eruptons (prmarypyroclast
c deposts) (part4).

r
RESEDIMENTE,D S\N-ERUPTIVE,VOLCANI CLASTIC DEPOSIT
juvenileclasts
dominatedby texturally
unmodified
narrowrangeof clasttypesandcomposition
sedimentation
unitsandsuccessions
of unitsare compositionally
uniformor show
systematic
changes
(massJlow
bedformsindicaterapiddeposition
depositscommon)

resedimented autoclastic depos its:

resedimentedpyroclastic de posits:
. composedof pyroclasts

shallowsubaqueous:
. mixtureof autoclastic
particles
and pyroclastic
. combination
of massjlowandtractioncurrent
bedforms
. dominatedby clastscoarserthan-2 mm

subaerialand shallowsubaqueous:
. combination
of mass-flow,
hyperconcentrated
flow
andtractioncurrentbedforms
. depletedin fineash

oeep suoaqueous:

deep subaqueous:

. poorlyvesicular,
quenchedlavaclastsdominant
. mainlymass-flow
bedforms
. mayhaveprimarydipsup to -25"
. granule- cobblesizeclastsdominant
. associated
within situhyaloclastite
andcoherent
lava

. verythickmass-flow
sedimentation
unitsthatconsistof a
massive,crystal-and lithicclast-rich
baseand a
normallygradedor stratified,
pumice-and shard-rich
top
. intraclasts
presentnearbaseof mass-flow
units
. laminated,
shard-rich
units(settledfromsuspension)

resedimentedautoclaslic deposits
shallow
subaqueous

resedimentedpyroclastic deposils
subaerial
andshailow
subaqueous

clasttypes:
L9l

oeepsuoaqueous

pumrce

l;lt

lithic

poorlyvesicular,
quenched
juvenile

sandandfiner,juvenile

enclosing
seguences
ff

F g 4 Character
st cs of resedimented
syn-erupt
ve volcaniclastic
deposits(part4)

ffi
oeepsuoaqueous

V O LCA NO G EIC
NS ED IM EN T ARDYE POS IT S
.
.
.
'

mixtureof volcanicand non-volcanic


clasts
volcanicclastscomprisedifferent
compositions
andtypes
volcanicclastsrounded
moderateto goodsorting(according
to clastdensity)

subaerialand shallowsubaqueousdeposits:

deep subaqueousdeposits:

' dominated
by tractioncurrentbedforms

. dominated
by mass-flow
bedforms
. medium-very
thicktabularbeds

non-volcantc
ciasts:

IZ-] pebbes boulders

volcanrc
clasts:

El

non-to poorly-vesicular,
>2 mm

pumiceor scoria,>2 mm
@]
l== shard-rch mud
l:-_--l
mixedvolcanicand non-vocanic
sand

E1;>"-'-

Fig.5 Character
st cs of vo canogefc sedrnentary
oeposts (,-pc astc vo canc deposts) (paft,1).

Descrptivenomenclature
for coherent
volcanic
andvolcaniclast
c deposits

to suit the aims irnd scaleof the rexturalanalvsis,the range


ofcompositionaJvariation prescnt,irnd the stateofpresen.
ation of the volcanic scquence.

Isolated
outcropsand hand spccimens
of ancientvolcanic
rocksrarelyexhibitclealand unanbiguouse'vidence
oftheir'
origins.Because
uncertainrv
is p:ut ofthe practicalrealiq'of
workingon volc:rnicsequences,
ir is aclvisable
to bcginwith
Iithological
andlithofaciesterninoloqy,Lrntilthereisadequate
justificationfor applvingrelmsthat havcgeneticimplications.
L i t b o l o g i c a tl e r m i n o l o g l ' p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n o n
composition,com;ronentsand glain sizc.LithoJ)riesterron,
ologyprovidesinformarionon facicscharacteristics
evident
at outcropscalein thc fleld, such as stmctures,internal
organisarionand geornetrv.Ceriearterminolow provides
information on eruption and emplacernentprocessesfor'
primarvvolcanicand volcaniclasric
deposits,and on subsequentrcdeposition,
elosion,rransporrand deposirional
processes
for reseclimented
aod r''olcanogcnicscdimenrarv
deposits.lt also rakesinto account faciesgeomcrry and
facies
associarions
ar a rangeofscales,fron singlecruprive
or sedimentationunits to entire volcaniccenrres.
Existingdcscriptivelithologicalcl:rssifications
actually.
involveinplicir disrinctionsbcnvcendepositsrvith coherent
and volcaniclastictextures and, in rhis respect,irre also
genetic.Having decidcdl,hether the rcxruleis cohercnror
volcaniclasticor, in diflicult cases,apparenrcoherenror
volcaniclastic,
apparent
it is rhenpossibleto build descriptivc
namesusing conbinations of lithological and lithof-acics
terms(Tabies1, 2). The namingschernc
shouldbe adapted

ln naming cohercnr volcanic dcposirs,the emphasisir.r


ar'ailable classifications is orr cheurical cor.nposition rvhich.
ofcourse, can onlv be roughlv gucssecl
ir.rthe ficld. In most
cascs,ir is possibleto distinguishrnappableunits, so long as
the terminologT-is used consistentlr',reqardlessof rhe absolute
accurac). of the tcrms. If necessarr',rhe composition
'lhbie
subdivisionsshol n in
1 can be nadc more plcciscbv
:rdding pcrcentagelimirs lbr the phenocrr-stabundanccs.
Adjusrnrentscan be made ro horv tcrms are used, if and
rvhen:rccuratcmoclalor chcmicalanall sesbccomeavailablc.
For depositsrvirh coherentand apparentcohcrcnt terrurcs,
gcnetic interprctation rvill scck to cliscrirninirrebetrvcen
lavas,s1'n-volcanic
intrusior.rs,
posr-l.olcanicintrusions and
vcry denselvrvclded pyroclasticdeposits,and rvill clepend
on atlditior.ralderailed inlblrration on texturcs in thirr,
section,contact relationshipsand qconetrr:
T l r c p r o h l c m, , i i l - b r r i l rg c n . r i . i n r c r ; r c r , i L i oi \n n r , , r . '
selious tor nanring tleposits rvith volcmiclastic retllres.
l-hcrc is no telrrrinologythat applicsgeneralli ro all volcanicJasric
deposirswirho Lrtgeneticimplicarions.Relativellnongcnctic telns havc been borror,ved fronr scdimentologv
'lablc
(Fisher 1961)(
2) and, ftrl rhat reason,are fir fiom
satisfactory..In other contexts, thcsc terms are used for
epiciasticdcposits,arrd in volcanic terrirnes,or.rivsome of
the volcanicl:rstic
depositshave th:rt origin. Further.rrore,if
these terms :rle used in a general descriprile sense,thcv ar.e
7

r
no longer efGctive as terms specificallylor volcanogenic
sedimentarydeposits.Nevertheless,
the borrowedtermsare
the best currently availableand will remain so, unril the
nomenclatureproblem is solvedby agreementamong
volcanologistsand sedimcntologists.Out of nccessirythe
borrowed terms are used in the schemefor building
descriptivenamesfor volcaniclasticdeposits(Table2). For
thesedeposits,geneticinterpretationseeksto discriminate
betweenfour main categories
that arebasedon fragmentation
autoclastic, pyroclastic,
and transport processes
resedimented
syn-eruptivevolcaniclastic,and volcanogetric
sedimentary(epiclasticvolcanic). In each case,there are
finer scalegeneticinterpretationsthat imply eruptionsryles,
transport and deposition mech:rnisms,and depositional
envilonments(PartsJ and 4). Lithological terms usedfor
primary pyroclastic deposits (Fig. 6; Table 3) are well
established,but their use presupposes
that interpretation.
"tuff"
Note, in particular,that
is resen'edlor primarv pylo"Tuffaceous"
clastic deposits.
implies the presenceof
pyroclastsand is commonly applied to reworked and
resedimentedpyroclast-richdeposits.There is, at present,
no adequateterminology for autocl:rsticdeposits,nor for'
resedimentedsyn-eruptivepyroclasticand autoclastic
deposits.The terms given in Table 3 arc mcrcly thoscrhat
arefrequentlyused,rvith somcmodificationsaddedherefor
consistenrywith establishedgrain size classificationsof
pvroclasticand volcanogenicsedimentarydcposits.
. r 1 c o n r a i nn o n - p r i m a r y
A n c i e r r rLo l c a n i c\ e 9 u e n c em
as
a
result
of
hydlothermal alteration
mineral assemblages,
or metamorphism.The distinction berweentheseoriginsis
criticallyimportantin mineralcxploratiotr.Forboth coherent

blocks

volcanicandvolcaniclastic
deposits,descriptiveterminologl'
can includc alteration mineralogy and distribution
( lables 1, 2). Omission of the alter:rtionterm implies that
the deposit is essentiallyunaltered. Alteration minerals
frequentlyencounteredin volcanichostsequences
to rnassive
sulfidedepositsare listcd bclow:
Ch/orite- a particularlycommon metamorphicphasein
andesiricand basalticvolcanics,but also an important
hydrothermalalterationphascin silicic (rhyolitic or dacitic)
volcanicsin the foonvall of volcanic-hostedmassivesulfide
(VHMS) deposits;
Sericita- rcsultsfrom met:rmorphismof silicic volcanics,
volcaniclasticdcposits;it is alsoa major,regionally
especially
extensivehydrothermalaltcrirtionphasein the foorwall of
\rFlMS depositsand relatedchcmicalsediments;
Silicd- generallytvpical of hydrothern.ralalterationof all
compositionsbut not a common trretan-torphic
phase;
Plrite
an important hydrothermalalterationphasethat
is cxtensivelydevelopedin the footwall of many VHMS
deposrtsi
(iarbonate fi'equentlvassociated
with metan.rorphism
of
dacitic, andesiticand basalticvolcanics,and also results
fiom hydrothermalaltelarionofvolcanicsin closeproximity
to VLIMS deposits;
Epidox
uncommon asa hydrothermalalterationphase,
but typicalofmetamorphosed
andesiticandbasahicvolcanics.
Othel, lesscommon alterationphasesthat may be associated
with VHMS depositsarealbite, K-feldspar,hematiteand a
varietyof clay minerals.

lhd bombs
>64mm

pyroclastic
breccla

64 2mm
lapilli

<2mm
asn

Fig 6 Grainsizetermsusedlor primarypyroolastic


rocks(Fsher1966b).

Descriptive
namesfor coherentlavasandintrusions
@

ldealcombination:

alteration
e.g.

lvlinimum:

texture

lithofaciesterm

composition

highlyquartz-phyric,
sericitic,
coarse,
flow-banded
rhyolite
jointedbasalt
poorlyolivine-phyric,
moderately
vesicular,
fine,columnar

e.g. blockyjointedrhyolite;
massivebasalt

e.g. hornblende-phyric
andesite;
aphanitic
dacite(?)

e.g. sericite-silicarhyolite(?);chlorite-epidoteandesite(?)

@ coueosrrron
a. estimatebasedon phenocryst
assemblage:
. thyolitet

Kjeldspar r quartz(r Ca-poorplagioclasel ferromagnesian


phase;biotite,
amphibole,pyroxene,fayalite)
'dacite:
plagioclase* ferromagnesian
phase:biotite.amphibole.pyroxene quartz {r KJe.dspar)
. andesitet plagioclase+ ferromagnesian
phase:biotite,amphibole,pyroxene( r olivine)
. basalt:
pyroxene+ Ca-richplagioclaser olivine

b. for aphanitic
samples,estimatebasedon colour:
. rhyolite(?),
dacite(?) :
, andesite(?),
basalt(?).

palegrey,pink,cream,palegreen
darkgrey,darkblue,darkgreen,darkpurple

@ lrrHorRcres
. massiveor flow-foliated,
flow-banded,flowlaminated
. jointing:columnar,radialcolumnar,concentric,tortoiseshell,blocky,prismatic,platy
. pillowsor pseudo-pillows

@ rexrune
. porphyritic: a. phenocrysts

Iype (quarlz-phyric..., pyroxene-phyric..., etc.)


--.abundance(poorly..., moderately..., highly...)
- size (fine <1 mm, medium 1 5 mm, coarse >5 mm)
b. groundmass - glassy,cryptocrystalline.
microcrystalline,
very fine grained
.aphanitic: uniformlymicrocrystalline
. aphyric:
no phenocrystspresent
. glassy:
composedof volcanicglass
. non-vesicular
or vesicular(or amygdaloidal):
Sparsely.. ., moderately..., highly..., pumiceous...,
s c c n a c e o u.s. .
. spherulitic,microspherulitic,
lithophysae-bearing

@ nlrrnnrroru
. mineralogy:chlorite,sericite,silica,pyrite,carbonate,feldspar,hematite...
. d istribution:
disseminated,nodular,spotted,pervasive,patchy...

Tabe 1 Descript
ve namesfor coherentavasand lntrusions

Descriptive
namesforvolcaniclastic
deposits

ldealcombination:

alteration
e.g.

lithofaciesterm

components

chloritic-pyritic,
very thicklybedded,volcaniclithicbreccia
thinlyinterbedded,
shard-richmudstoneand crystal-rich
sandstone

l\.4inimum: @

e.g. crystal-rich
pumicegranutebreccia
sandstone;

e.g. laminated
mudstone;poorly
sorted,massivebreccia

e.g. pyriticsandstone;
chtoritic
breccia

/i\

^-

^,^, ^,--

\.r/ \.:hAI\ DtZtr

grain size

mudhudstone
sand/sandstone
gravel/conglomerate
or breccia:

granule
pebbte
cobbte
boulder

< 1 / 1 6m m
t h6-2 mm
2 4 mm
4-64 mm
64-256 mm
>256 mm

@ coveoruerurs

@ urHorncrrs
. massive(non-bedded)or stratified(bedded)
. bedding:laminated
. equal or unequalthickness
< 1 cm
. laterallyeven or uneventhickness
very thinlybedded
1-3 cm
.
thinlybedded
3-10 cm
laterallycontinuousor discontinuous
. cross-bedded,
mediumbedded
10-30 cm
cross-laminated
thicklybedded
30-100 cm
very thicklybedded > 100 cm
. massive(non-graded)
or graded:
normal 1, reverse ,1,
normal-reversei, reverse-normal$
. fabric: clast-supportedormatrix-supported
poorlysorted,moderatelysorted,well soded
. jo_inting:blocky,prismatic,columnar,platy

@ nrrcnnrror
. mineralogy:chlorite,sericite,silica,pyrite,carbonate,feldspar,hematite
...
. distribution:
disseminated,
nodular,spotted,pervasive,patchy...

Tabe 2 Descrlptlve
namesfor volcaniclastlc
deposits.

.10

GRAIN VOLCANICLASTIC
AUTOCLASTIC
DEPOSITS
SIZE
DEPOSITS
IN
GENERAL
and
VOLCANOGENIC Hyaloclast
te
Autobreccia [,4ixture
or
SEDIIVENTARY
uncertain
origin
DEPOSITS
< 1/16mrn

voican
c mu0stonef nehyaloclastite

1116-2
nm

volcanic
sandstonehyaloclastite
sandstone

24nm

granurar
hyaoclastiie

,)

RESEDII\IENTED
AUTOCLASTIC
DEPOSITS

autoclastic
mudstone

resedlmented
finehyaloclastite,
resedimented
auloclastic
rnudstone

autoclastrc
sandstone

resedimented
hyaloclastlte
sandstone,
resedlmented
autoclast
c sandstone

granu
granular
af
granular
resedimented
hyaloclastite.
aul0Drecc
a autoclastic
brecciaresedimented
granular
autobrecc
a,

resedimented
granular
autoclastic
breccia

ffi4 mm

v0lcanrc
hyaloclastite
brecc
a autobrecc
a auloclastic
brecciaresedimented
hyaloclastite
breccla,
c0nglomerate.
resedimented
autobreccia,
volcanic
breccia
resed
mented
autoclast
c breccia

>64mm

GBAIN
SIZE

coarse
hyaoclaslite c0arse
coarseauloclasticresedrmented
coarse
hyaloclaslite
breccla,
breccra
aul00recc
a Dreccta
resedimented
coarse
autobreccla,
resedimented
coarse
autoclast
c breccia

PYROCLASTIC
DEPOSITS

PYROCLAST-RICH
DEPOSITS

Unconsolidated Consolidated RESEDIIVENTED


SYN.ERUPTIVE Posferuptlve
resedimented
or
pyroc
tephra
astcrock
reworked,
orunceriain
origin
< 1/16mm

fineash

fineluff

resedimented
ash-rich
mudstone tuffaceous
mudstone

1/16-2
mm coarse
ash

coarse
tufi

resedimenled
ash-rich
sandslone tuffaceous
sandstone

2-64nn

lapllilephra

(orlapilli resedimented
lapillistone
pyroclast-rich
tuffaceous
conglomerate,
tulfor tulf-breccia) lapillistone,
tulfaceous
breccia
resedlmenled
pumice
lapillistone,
resedimenled
pumice
andliihic
apillstone

>64mm

bomb(fluidal
shape)tephra,
block(angula4
repnra

(bombsresedimented
aggomerate
pyroclaslrich
breccia,
presenu,
resedimenied
pumice
breccia.

Tabe3
(1981
).

pyr0clastic
breccta resedimented
pumice
andlthic
Drecc
a

Gra n s ze based genetic nomencature Jorcommon types of vo caniclastc depos is N4odf red irom F shef (igtjt)and
Schridt

11

Graphic logging technique


Graphicloggingis pictorialrepresentation
ofsectionsthrough
he aim is to record
sedimcntirry
and/orvolcanicsequences.'l
the variationsin tcxturcs,structuresJbedforrns,grain size
simplified,
pictorial
andcontactlelationships
by a schenatic,
surrrrary. Graphic logging is an especiallyefTective
way of
representir.rg
this information for dlillcore sections.The log
shouldremind the observer,ar a glance,ofthe acrualdeposir
appearance
and, therefore,requiresdisciplinedobservations,
focussingon internal variatior.rs,
the natureud position of
contacts,ancl relationshipsbetrveensuccessive
parts of thc
sequence.
This swleoflogging is ror onJva thoroughsystem
for documentingsedimentaryand volcanicsecluences,
but
also steersobservationstoward those featulesthat aid
interpretationof emplacementprocesscs
and depositional
environments.Most standardexplorirtiondrill log lorms
and darashectsarc designedfor cornputerapplicationsand
arc not suirable for textural analysisand volcanological
interpretation.
The format fbr graphic logs is sirrple: the vertical a,<is
indicatesrhe depth or thicknessand the horizontal aris
shows rhe averagcgrain size. Adjacent spaceis used for
recordingl.ounging direction indicators,measurements
of
structures,maximum particle size, sampling information
and a succinctlithologicaldescription.Ordinary field
noteboohsand standardloggingforms can both be adapted
to this format (Figs7, 8). Syrnbols(Fig. 9) are usedon
graphiclogsto convcynvo sortsof informarion:composition
and texture. Composition symbols representinterpreted
chemicalcomposition,phenocrystsizeand abundance,and
are usedfor both coherentfaciesand juvenile, essentiallv
monomictclasticfacies.
Texruresymbolsrepresent
rheappearence of the volcanicunits, including different sorts of
components,their distribution and approximaterelative
abundance.Massivecoherentlavasand inrrusionscan be
portrayedjust by compositionsvmbols.Juvenileclast-rich
volcaniclasticdeposits and lava- or intrusion-related
in situ brecciacan be shorvnby combinationsof composition and texturesvmbols.Many texturesymbolsalsoimply
grain size,asrhey do in sedimcntologicallogs.1'he symbols
fol sedimentarystructurcsand for non-volcanicsedimentary rocks are rhosccomnronly usedir.rsedimentology.
The top or bascof a sectionis the most obviousbut not
the easiest
placeto beginlogging.A lar betterapproach
alrvays
is to reviewquickly the entirc section,in order to find the
leastcomplicatedparts, and to start there. Having logged
theseparts, it is usually possibleto progressto adjacent,
more difficult intervalsuntil the log is complete.Complex
contactsor rel:rtionshipscan be decipheredbv constructing
supplementarvlogs at largcr scales.The accompanving
descriptionconsistso1'lithologicaland lithofaciestermsthat
sumnarise essentialfiarures and complementthe graphic
log with additional information; for example,percentage
abundances
of important componentssuchasphenocrvsts,
or wpesof lithic clastspresent.In general,eachdepositional
ol emplacementunir is loggedthen describedmore or lcss
12

in turn, soit is imperativeto devoterine to locatingcontacts.


For altcrcd rocks,thc descriptionalso includesa summary
of alterationmineralogyand textures.Graphic logging is
very vcrsatilcand can be adaptedto cater lor any special
featuresand relationships.Horvcvet ir is important to be
conststent.

rhqo{ifLc
".lgsawbx-6f monomict,
, f'spt +qtz

volconicloshc
ss17 mudsl
+muds{
rYlxedtop' docil
FPe'ile'

mos6ivet'shGbhyric
ooclTe _

tnTTUston

greylo#-massive,nudd.
f fo r-ftyni:docrte-irtnrim
polmidlithic+Pum
bx,rL-tc,"
,brnkofhjnc lrnrie bx

""ge.1S.+l',.p"1
Thydrte

lntruslon

Jll'th;e
3t.3 q2

l i g . l l " ' r p " o a d r , l o ' " g ' a p ' r ;l o g o d ^ T o o . r l , ' l d r a d


notebook J [,4cPhie(unpub data)

project

RoSzllrv-..",f Yi"<
Location f4 i",p-sactrb"o l50coords

DIAMONDDRILLLOG
grarnsrze
m

$rucrure

tos E

-md

.? . 1 . T .T m m

RL
Samples
TS results

hore
no 114l<D,
pase I or 2

INCL

S c a l e[

2oo

rosseo
uv R" f Allr-

description

date

1/ z/az_

l25(

E-,w"-

Massi,,", -"I+ie/
crcq.',--.,r1^tt ,

X1-

\g-2n"1" \-2^-

I.lJ - g)^.'.;. tubr b"-r". L^


U _ . - - - - - - ' ] _ -

- Jiff-""
Llamclt;sh:c ^tlLy ri-r-e.q
d-ili.if'-d
or ep; Ll"f.L.s "4"..
x

p--,i. e-.

Not i^|e"se.!
No

tzl3.z3^

..*^.178'-

9a
.

.\t

'l.'<',-t

,^.\.5--

a-a f-t;.

4rever3<-

f."u

cz
4

).1

;-

*!-

=aAul.-f,l

k^;J

hh

, . \t

lilhi"'

Fook

I-2
r-rF:1!I -l -.p..1*'o-r5%,
"

z < h

-".1^.d6.1
t5--4.-,

"l<-o'r -d

Massiv., q-clzd {>q


"Lt-.,.r.
volc so.d"'1. ^*s- 4d- u,nits ,,,,1h
'll^i. "na{.,x-s"fprfal
Lx -{ L,.it
bs.s.
C\asls'.@ zo-zsZ, l-3 n -

78

\\'

-f,,b.
f"-. |e-x{"."

t;^t

G^^.^

+ig

PhJ'i'

-ttrrr

Motl-ix: xia\s 5C7o,1'l'%.

"1"^'5 .-.{l--LL

tza2. cs^

DI"t..-", l5Z t-t^^ {e\a-F..PhJ;*,.


r\ro\..tq

lu.{alo.lo.5fit<

blo"k

'; Fql?

\\..\

Fqb
\ - ^

M"a;"--{t",ao, f.rd- 5.,": [_.,-;.-shrcel. ,ro.-o1

q,odeA

v"oL =i"dn

t"d.

\ ] :

{tt

f '

$ r
tT,

\ t

Fg. 8 Exampleof a graphicog thatusesa modifledstandardloggingsheet.R. A en (unpub.data).


l\t

SYMBOLSFOR COHERENTTEXTURES
singlelinesymbolsfor lowto moderate
phenocryst
abundance
doublelinesymbolsfor abundantphenocrysts
smallersymbolsfor finegrainedphenocrysts
largersymbolsfor coarsegrainedphenocrysts
"+"symbolfor coarse,phenocryst-rich
additional
granitoid
texture

l\"l
N-il

porphyritic
basalt,poorlyto moderately
basalt
phenocryst-rich
basalt

poorlyto moderately
andesite,
RI
,
.
|
I porphyritic
andesite
f-;----t

andesite
l ^ A lphenocryst-rich

l-r
l

-Fl
r

porphyritic
dacite,poorlyto moderately
dacite

dacite
l . o lphenocryst-rich

f'l-l

porphyritic
fine,poorlyto moderately
rhyolite
porphyritic
coarse,poorlyto moderately

fi,,l
l / - \ l rhyolite

l*e

coarse,phenocryst-rich
rhyolite

NT_l
/.'l

porphyry
coarserhyolitic

i r l

l :

I Il

. closerspacedsymbolsfor dominantgrainsize
andgraintype

ax:71

pumiceor relictpumice

lr"oI

juvenile
angular,
lavaclasts
IBZ1
t a l

W7l
lr" El

fiamme/
vitriclast
or relictvitriclast

lapilli
l o @ l accretionary

tr=t

angular,polymictlithicclasts

t . l

rounded,polymictlithicclasts

l--

l . . l

sl
lvll
l..l

mudstoneintraclast
particles,
granulartexture
sand-size
mrrri-cizo nerrinloc

distinctplanarstratif
ication

F--l

diffuseplanarstratif
ication

N
F

crossbedding
micro-cross
lamination

e.g.

l==-:; l
t
I

flowfoliation

lithophysae,
alteration
spots,
l-;%1 spherulites,
nodulardevitrif
icationtexture
II vz:r"
v

TEXTURES
SYIVBOLSFOR VOLCANICLASTIC

l
a':-. I

l-'T:.ll

l : ,e l

pumiceclastsin sandmatrix
angularpolymictlithicclastsand mudstone
intraclasts
in sandmatrix

FORJUVENILE-CLAST-RICH
DEPOSITS
SYMBOLS

ffi
ffi

w
i 'nz>a
Fg I

14

jigsawjittextureof fine,moderately
porphyritic
rhyolite

t=,
I
deposit.coarse.modertl \ - /' -- l l pumice-clast-rich
|

jigsawjittextureof coarse,moderately
porphyritic
rhyolite
jigsaw{ittextureof coarsephenocrystrichandesite

rhyolitic
atelyporphyritic
composition

l= \\- //l
T----------:----

t "

pumice-clast-rich
deposit,coarse,

| phenocrysfrich
rhyolitic
composition

| -----

--1
pumice-clast-rich
deposit,coarse,modertdaciticcomposition
l r ^ l atelyporphyritic

Recomrnendedcompos t on and texturesymbo s fof graph c logg ng of vo can c depos ts

texturesand structures
lmportant

A smallnumber of texturcsanclstructures:rreparticularly
and/or settingot
importantin decipheringgeneticprocesses
featuresthus
of
these
volcanicdeposits.L,arlvidentification
grcatly accelcratesprogresstorv:rrd volcanologic:rlintcr:
pretations;for example
ir.ttt'usions,
Porphyitictexnu'e lbund ir.rlavas,svr.r-volcanic
lavalike ignimbritesand clastsdcriveclfiom thesedeposit
r y p e (s1 . 1 ,1 . 2 ) ;
lithopfusaeand micropoiLi litic texture- indicaring
Spherulixs,
devitrificationof coherentvolcanicglass
high-temperaturc

(3,4,25.r-2);
hydration (or quenching?)of cohercnt
Perlite- ];rtdicatine
(5,27.2,
42.6-7);
glass
volcanic
kpilli-formcd bv subaerial explosivccruptions
Arcretionary
but may be redepositedand reu'orhcd(7.6-8, 22.6, 38.1'

39.6,4o.r);
Flnwfoliations found in l:rvas,s1'n-volcanicintrusions,
andrheomorphicand lava-likeignimbrires(8, 26.3-5):
Columxarjoints - found in l:rv:rs,svn-volcrnicintrusions
deposirs(mainlypvroclastic)that
andprimaryvolcanicl:rsric
(
9
.
a r ee m p l . r c el rdu L l - J . 2 6 . 1- 2 ) r
found in lavas emplaceclsubaqueouslyand
Pillows
cmplacedinto rvetsedinent(15, 16, 17);
intrusions
indicating sedinrentationflom nrass
Gradedbedding
( 1n8 . 1 ,3 0 , 3 1 . 1 , 3 2 . I , 3 4 . 2 - 3 ) ;
f l o w so r s u s p c r t s i o
l l a n a rt h i n b c f u t i r y i n d i . r t i n g\ r r \ P L n \ i ( )or r t r . t c t i r r t t
currentdeposition(38.I, 38.8, 39.2, 39.5, 40.5-7) ;
stratifcation- indicatingtraction current depositiou
Cross
( 3 8 ,4 0 . 8 ,4 I . 3 ) .
at.rdtexturesalenor stronglvdiagnostic
Manycon.rponents
'fhe
most frequendy misinterpretecl
origins.
particular
of
are;
-Fornd
WsicLes

in lavas,inrrusions and non-r.veldcdor


deposits(2.1-5, 20,17.2):
weldedpvroclastic
verydenselv
-ploduced
in abuntlancebv DarDcffusive
andscorir
Pumice
(6.1-7,
20):
eruptions
andexplosive
Gkssshards found in hvaloclastite,primary pyroclastic
deposits,syn-eruptivcresedimcntedvoIcaniclasticirnd
sedimentarvdeposirs(7 1-3 ' 12'4'23'30'LB);
volcanoserric
compacted,non-rvcldecl,
Fiamme- fottndin diagenetically
deposits,anclin rvelded
pumiceous
primaryand secondary
primirrypyroclasticdeposirs(both fallout and florvdeposits)

(24.r-3,26.5,45.7,46.2):
- found in a rvidevalieryof cleformcdand
Pseudo-J)amme
alteredvolcanicdcposits(44.5).

'eatures lhe seaoI


A s - m ' r a ' y o ' t h e e s s e n ta l
f o o r m a s s v e s u l f i d ee n v i r o n m e n t
As presenrlyur.rderstood,r,olcanic-hostedmassivesullide
"rel:rtively
deep"scarvater:rnd is at
mineralisationforms in
Althoug}r
rvith volcanicscquences.
leastspatially'associated
appropriare
absolurcrvaterdepthsarenot casilvconstrainecl,
are here
wave
base
and
storm
are
well
belorv
environments

"deep".
at.tdvolcanic
The seclimentarv
simpl1'referredto a.s
th:rt operatein dcep marine scttingsdiffcr from
proccsses
thosethat operatein shallorvrnarineand subaerialsettil.tgs.
conraindepositsfrom
sequences
Decp subm:rrincvolcat.ric
(subaelial)or basin-margin
rnd cxtrabasinal
both intraba^sinal
(shallorvrnarine)cruptivecentres,and :rrenormallvrnixtures
'l
of volcanic and non-volcanicdeposirs. he1,include the
products of botl.r effusive anc{ explosivceluprions. Synyolcanicsills,dykesandcn'ptodomesmaybejust ascommon
rvith
:rslava flolvs. lntrusions ud lava florvsare associ:rtcd
pillorved
and
clevclop
pepelite,
and
can
hyaloclastiteand
lobateforms. Most clasticdeposits,both volcrniclasticand
are emplaceclbv lvarcr-supportedrnassflor,vs
nor.r-volcanic,
in the rvatercolumn. Waterand bv hllout from suspension
supportedmassflorvsarea particularlvimportant neans bv
u'hich subaeriallyand shallorv subaqueouslverupted
pyrocl:rstsare transportedto deep submarinedepositional
is resedihv:rloclastite
settings,and bv v{ich intrabasinal
volcaniclastic
and post-eruptive
menred.Both svn-eruptive
mass-florvdepositscan occut and arc rtsuallv associated
muc{stone
and siltstoncformedbv settling
rvith volcanicl:rstic
rhat,
suggest
Studiesofancientsequences
from suspension.
are
pvroclastic
deposits
pumiccous
in general,rveldecl
environrnentsand restricted
uncon-rnonin belorv-rvavc-base
hearretentionandprimary
rhatallor,v
circutnstances
ro speci:rl
setttng.
transportin a deepsubaqueous
Non-volqrnjc facies:rre wpically intcrbedcledrvith the
r o l c a r r il.r , i e . .. r n J. l r ee . p e c i . r lilnl t p o r t ' r t itnt . o n s r r l i n i r r g
rhe depositionalenvironment in casesr,vherethe volcanic
lavas,intrusions
licics aredominatedb1'very rhick n.rassivc
irnd/or volcaniclasticdeposits.Non-r'olcanic sedimentary
flciesm:rinlvcompliserurbiditesandhemi-pelagicmudstone,
together\vith rninor biogcnic,biochenicaland chernical
scdimentarl.deposits.Fossilsin intercalatedsedimcntary
faciesmlr. also providc independenrconstraintson the
the nonsetting.ln general,
rvaterdeprhof tl.redepositional
or largetraction
volcanicscdimentan'lncieslack irbLLndalrr
su'ucturcs,such as crossbedding,scouls,or channels.

to the l\lountReadVocanics
lntroduction
Tl.reN4ount ReadVolcanics,u'estctnTasnania, cottsistof
compositionallr':rnd texturallydiverse,Middlc to Late
Cambrian lavas :urd volcanicl:rsticrocks (Corbctt 1992).
The volcanicshavebcen affectedby regionaldeformation
and meramorphism,and locally hvdrorherm:rlaltcratiot.ris
'l
intensc. hesevolcanics ale famous r,vorldwidefor the
sulfidesthat
ofdepositsof massivc
and ricbness
abundance
ther- contain (e.g. Mount L,vell,Hercules,Roseberl',Que
Solorron 1989,I-arge1992)(Fig. l0).
River,Hellver
Thel. presenta considerablebut tvpical challengefor
analysis.
andvolcanicfacies
mapping,texturalinterplet:rtion
thc
lollowing
Volcanics
cornprise
Mounr
Read
Thc
Iithostratigraphicunits: the CcnrralVolcanicConplex, the
rheEasternquartzimentarvsequences,
V'estcrnvolcano-scd
andtheTvndallGroup(Corbett1992)
porphvliticsequencc
t5

lfig. 10). Lavasand svn volcanicinmrsionsoi rhe Mounr


Thescvolcanicfacicsare inrerbedded
sirh sediment,
Read \.olcanicsare prcdoninandl rhlolires ano oac(es,
rry frcicsconprisinglaminaredor massivc,blacxmuosrone
rith locallrabund.rnt
andesites
aDdbasaks.
rhrr conformi{)
and eraded beddcd sandstoncturbidires of mixed
crlc-alk ine trendson eeochclrlical
vrrirtion diegrams volc,nicand nerasdiment!ryPrecanhrianbascmcnt
i(lrtrwhrdci !1. 1992).
provenancc.Iliddie tiambrian rrilobircsand other m.rrnre
The princip.rlvo)caniclaclesin rhei\4ountReadVolcanics loss;lsarc sparselvdisrributed in the se<limcntarlfacics
lrc (\J.Phiernd rulcn 1992)l
(Corben199-l).
h . . !. x d . ' J i . t .
t - r " r ' - . o . r m . , n. ,
Circn this selecrion
of facics*ith *hich to rvork,an
the CenrralVolcanicComplexand occur at rlrnv localiries attempr hes b,cenrnadc to reconstLucr
the Cambrian
h dre \I'estcrnvolcano-sedimcnr:rry
scqucnces;
facicsarchitecmrc
of dre Mount Rerd \blcanics(Fig.1t).
S1neruptn,r trhatrcLutit tbpostr:- n*t manr npcs of
The bcst conelarionfiamcr.oLk fbr reconstr.ucting
ficics
juvrniJccl:rst,rich,
subaqucous.
volcanicla*icmassflorv
.rrchirecnrrc
is pr<,videdby volcanic facics drar aLe
depositsoccurl
oneis dominaredby poor.ll or non-rcsicul.rr, e r u p t e di n l : r r q c v c , l u m c s ,d e p o r i t c d r . r p i d l y ,a n d
bloc\ larrchstsandrclatedt<,rhcsubrqueous
cmphccncnt
ridcsprcad.Mass-flo*en9laced puniccous roLcanicla-stic
oi lavr flo*s .rnd lavadomes:thc odrer conrainsabundanr
i . , . - ; . r r - " r e JL . | , r g rr n, g n i. r J ce , r l , . ; , . ( r L f , ; o n J. e
,ilicic pumice clasrsproducedbv sLrbaerirl
or shallorv the obviousfirst choicc.Someexamplesin the \founr Rerd
subrqucou\cxplosi!een,prionsand redcposired
inro deeper \blcania havebcen uacedfbr over 12 km alongxrike and
\rtr seftingsi
relcal rhe presenccof svn volcanlc laulrs drat crcarcd
S.)'t)lot ni. ittr"s;tm
Iargclv contunnablc,enlnrccd
importan. scdimenrtrapsand cnv;ronrnentsfa\ourablert)
inti, and loellv mired uirh qct, unconsolidarcd
hosr
sutfldcmnrer.rlnarion.
sedimenr:,,f<,rmingpeperireand silLconplcxcs.

F g l 0 D s l r b J l o n o l r h - .F rr c p a r f o s l r a t g . a p h c , c ' m a i o r s a n d r a l o r
T 3 : s! - a 1 i j . c e p . rlss n r h e C a r b ' a . L t o L r r F e a C V o . a n c s c l w e s l 4 t r l
- a s m a ns !
a U.J ld I on C.r|elt (i9921

TheRoscbendepositis.r25rnilLion
tonnenassivesulride
ro o"o tu*ivcsulndc rleposiLs
The volc.rnic hosrsc,lucnces
le.rd,
ll.E(,,
zinc, 0.6r1'i,
ort bodi, grading4.2on
copper.
in tlLeNlount ReadVolcrnics,Hclhcr end Rosebetl
t " p p . . . l \ c ' , dr 4 r . 1 , 9r . . J .t L c J . t . . i ., , . , n ' i . , . ,
in uranl ofthc plrtes(ligs 12, l3).
arc l'carurciL
Hcrcules,
numl'er of sheetlikc orc lcnscshostcd in ",.^s,'. ",
fhe I Iellverdepositisa n picalmoundsnlc {Kurokot'pe),
and siLrsronc,
rr 'rrrn:
hn;nrrcd, puniceous,rhlolitic s,rndstone
; - J . r .' . l l i . . ' l l o o " n , i , . r r r ' l ' d < p oi
lcrd. 13onzinc,0.49; coPPer, abovcr li,onell ofverv thick, rnassflos cmplrccd pum,cc
I6 millrcn tonnesgr.rding711'i)
(AllenrndCas 1e90,NIcPhic.rndAllcn
L992l.Thc
Lreccia
I60 ppn silverand 2.-]ppm gold (\{cA.rdu rnd Dronscikl
liom Jl
liontrll sequcnccis,rlrtrcdend localivstronglvdelirn,ed to
1990).The m:sivc srltilc lndr is loc.rtedbenveen.r
nlnor
quartzsc,icitcrnd chloriteschistcont:iningdiseminrrcd
hv.ts.
\'rrh
scquenccof feldspar-phlrit :rndcsnic
scquentcis donrnraredby '.rri.rblv
ol pillow
p.r'ritc.'lhc hangnrgrvall
volcaniclasticunia, and r hrngnrgrvrllscclucnce
voLcrnicl.rstic
sandstonc,and in
crysr.rl-richor pLrmiceous
brsahrnd bL,rckmudsrone(Fig. l2). lnmedi.rtelvJone
(lig. l3).
ntLtdstone
inclLrdes
rhin
rltervals
ofblack
placcs
bv co.rrrc,polvmict,
strikc, rhc ore posnion is rcprcscnLed
Both $cse deposns.rndorhen in thc N{ount llcrd
rolcanic lirhic rich, m.rss-flo*emplaccdbrecci.rand
(V'rtcrs
bl Largc(19921and in rehted
Volcanics
*ere dcscribed
lamrnrtcd volcrnicl.rsticmLrdsroncrrd s.rndstonc
1,1 p:rpcrsin rhc t:lonnnt Geolog SpecirLIsue (19921 on
stLllide
bodvisunderlain
The m.rssive
ancl\ihllece19j)2).
''iustrrlirn
andth cil
volcanic'hosred
m:rsivcsulfidedeposirs
s r ' . 1 -J . n ' " . . r e r i t o l ' : , r " r r ' t .
, r ' ' l - r , r r o. 1 r , ' e
(Gcmmell:ld Lrge 19921. volcanicenvironmcnr.
stringcrminerJis.rtion
ard rel.rrecl

VOLCANICFACIES:

f;.,1

lavas,
sillsand
silicic
in
situ
autoclaslic
malic
I
-intermedialer
breccia

ru
F=l

hyaloclastite
resedimented

pumiceousvolcaniclastic
sandstone/breccia

NON.VOLCANICFACIES:
mudslone
lurbidites
contacl

'l
Fr
S . h e n r a i . l a . . s a c l r l e c t J r ec l s l D n a r n e ! . t a n . s . q l e n . e s s ! . f a s t h e \ . 1 . ! . t F l e a dV . c i . . s
! o c a i . a s l c n i i s s I . r d e t . s l s r c ! c . r . s e a n - e . r - . d h l a o c r s l : . 1 ' o r . . r a ! a s .-ah e r e a t : i l o r .
tre.rerniarn:ra
are.ons.e'
i t r r l. . m ! s a r d l h . k . i a b . , a r L . l : o ' p - n . ! D r e . . E l h a t c r o t i l t ! l ! . r l n a ' ( e r s 1 0 ' c . r c : 1 . .
as:. !.ls a.l
! : r . , - E ! . n a \ r a . a r i ]r s n r e : 1 r e l r . o c n . r s 0 1 a ! 3 l i ( s s s a r . l ! . . . : .
!.....
t a . e : 1 , 1 ! df . . r l r . n r V . P i r e a . c A . r r i 1 9 9 2 )

17

Plates

log
Graphic

Hellyer
:
slraligraphy

S o l t h w e l l S u bg r o u p
v e r y l h c km
, a s sv e l o g r a d e d

35
3 3 . 3 , 3 34
337334
452

rhyo tetvolcanr lth c breccra


b ack pyrt c
and congromerate
and greym.caceous
mudstone

)
Q u e R i v e rS h a l e

124
1 45 - 1 44
428
291
335
375
427

H e l y e rB a s a l l
m a s s v ea n dp o w b a s al ,
nyaoclasttebrecca, peperte

massvedacte aulocaslrcbrcca potymct votcanic


brecoa,graddvolcanicsandstonemassvesu tide

' f e l d s p a rp h y r i c
sequence'
rnassve,ledspa
p rh y n c
a n d e se i a l t o c l a s t cb r e c ca i
m r n opr o y m n v oc a nc

4 3 4 , 4 35

p l o w b a s at , b a s aI c h y ao c a s l l e

1/16 2

64mm

Anima Creek Greylvacke


gradd,m caceoLrs
sandstone

,
s e q ! . n . e . 1 n . 1 F c ! ' j n a 3 s ! e s ! ' d e o r ! b . . 1 , / w e s t e r nT a s n - a n a h e l . r i a
J o
l f . ( . . ! i s 0 1i h . s e . : . n . , s t r a r ehde r e s , r r 0 l - B a 5 e do r i l i a ' . r s a n C t l a a . - . l j 9 r 2 ) a r d C . , t r e a f d K o m , , s h a .
lt98g)

Plales:

Graphicog

Hercules-Rosebery
stratigraphy
:
MountBlackVolcancs
massrerriyorieanddacte.
altocastc brecca

ti

101
422 424
431

fi=

/ (

''hangingwallpyroc
asrtcs
verythrckiybeddec.crysta.
a . d / o rp u mc e r c h s a n d s t o n e

451
463.464

I
334
467

63.64

465,466

I
$

t
l
I

fLvl
1/16 2

hosl rock
massve to d fi!se y bedded
pumiceaus
sa.dstoneand bfeccra

lootwallpyroc ast cs"


verylh cky bdded,massve to
weakrygraded feldspa'bearng
p u m c eb r c c am
: a s s v ed a o t e
andautoclastcbrecca

__R"\
-

64mm

-3
F!
S n p f e d ! , : p h . , ! ! ' l . e i , i i : ,"oca. c saai!araa r0 :na _ 1 . r ' ] !c s l l s e b e r r ' r n a s : ! e s L f . e . r . - . r a s ! r , . . T l r ei l i a
:hc{ncss cl1re..ct.^
! ! l r a t . . l . . . s - 2 ! r ! ! 1 r B a s ! . o n 3 E - - . 1. l - 3 a l ) . _ d l , ' l . f ' . - . a . . A e . 1 1 9 - . 2 )

19