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APPROVED BY AICTE, NEW DELHI, AFFILIATED TO JNTU-HYDERABAD

IT WORKSHOP
LAB MASTER MANUAL
(I/IV B.Tech)

VIGNANA BHARATHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Aushapur, Ghatkesar, RR Dist
Aushapur, Ghatkesar, Andhra Pradesh
vbitweb@gmail.com,info@vbithyd.ac.in
PROFORMA FOR LABORATORY-BASED
COURSE DESCRIPTION

1

INDEX
1. COURSE CODE

: R09-51619

2. COURSE TITLE

: IT WORKSHOP

3. CORE/ELECTIVE

: CORE-LAB

4. COURSE OBJECTIVE

: ENCLOSED

5. PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEO)

: ENCLOSED

6 PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (PO)

: ENCLOSED

7. SYLLABUS

: ENCLOSED

8. YEAR /SEMESTER

: I/IV B.TECH

9. NO.OF HOURS PER WEEK

: THREE HOURS

10. COURSE OBJECTIVE

: ENCLOSED

12. LIST OF PRESCRIBED PROGRAMS

: ENCLOSED

13. LIST OF ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS

: ENCLOSED

14. LAB INTERNAL REFERENCE

: LAB MANUAL

15. VIVA QUESTIONS

: ENCLOSED

16. PRE-REQUISITE (IF ANY)

: ________

17. ADDITIONAL LAB PROGRAMS

: ENCLOSED

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COURSE OBJECTIVE

Objective:
The IT Workshop for engineers is a training lab course spread over 60 hours.
The modules include training on PC Hardware, Internet & World Wide Web and
Productivity tools including Word, Excel, Power Point and Publisher.
PC Hardware introduces the students to a personal computer and its basic
peripherals, the process of assembling a personal computer, installation of system
software like MS Windows , Linux and the required device drivers. In addition
hardware and software level troubleshooting process, tips and tricks would be
covered.
Internet & World Wide Web module introduces the different ways of hooking the PC
on to the internet from home and workplace and effectively usage of the internet.
Usage of web browsers, email, newsgroups and discussion forums would be
covered. In addition, awareness of cyber hygiene, i.e., protecting the personal
computer from getting infected with the viruses, worms and other cyber attacks would
be introduced.
Productivity tools module would enable the students in crafting professional word
documents, excel spread sheets, power point presentations and personal web sites
using the Microsoft suite of office tools and LaTeX.

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Tick ()mark on the LEFT column for the relevant PEO & PO of the subject

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEO)

P1

Domain Knowledge: Graduates of IT-VBIT, will be able to synthesize
mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals, laboratory and workbased experiences to formulate and solve engineering problems in
Informational Technology domains.

P2

Professional Employment: Graduates of IT-VBIT, will succeed in entrylevel engineering positions with in Software & Hardware industries in
regional, national, or international industries and with government
agencies.

Higher Degrees: Graduates of IT-VBIT, will succeed in the pursuit of
advanced degrees in engineering or other fields where a solid foundation in
mathematics, science, and engineering fundamentals is required.
P3

P4

Engineering Citizenship: Graduates of IT-VBIT, will be prepared to
communicate and work effectively on team-based engineering projects and
will practice the ethics of their Profession consistent with a sense of social
responsibility

Lifelong Learning: Graduates of IT-VBIT, will recognize the importance of,
and have the skills for, continued independent learning to become experts
in their chosen fields and to broaden their professional knowledge.
P5

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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (PO)

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a

An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and
engineering to information technology problems.

b

An ability to design and develop programs and to analyze and
interpret gathered data

c

An ability to develop and/or design projects to meet desired
specifications, performance, and capabilities.

d

An ability to function and develop leadership in multi-disciplinary
teams.

e

An ability to identify and solve information technology problems.

f

Understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.

g

Ability to communicate effectively.

h

An ability to understand and correctly interpret the impact of
engineering solutions in a social/global context.

i

An ability to engage in life-long learning to follow developments in
information technology.

j

Knowledge of contemporary issues.

k

An ability to skillfully use modern engineering tools and techniques
necessary for engineering design, analysis and applications.

SYLLABUS
Objectives:

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The IT Workshop for engineers is a 6 training lab course spread over 90 hours. The
modules include training on PC Hardware, Internet & World Wide Web and
Productivity tools including Word, Excel, Power Point and Publisher.
PC Hardware introduces the students to a personal computer and its basic
peripherals, the process of assembling a personal computer, installation of system
software like MS Windows , Linux and the required device drivers. In addition
hardware and software level troubleshooting process, tips and tricks would be
covered. Internet & World Wide Web module introduces the different ways of hooking
the PC on to the internet from home and workplace and effectively usage of the
internet. Usage of web browsers, email, newsgroups and discussion forums would be
covered.
In addition, awareness of cyber hygiene, i.e., protecting the personal
computer from getting infected with the viruses, worms and other cyber attacks would
be introduced. Productivity tools module would enable the students in crafting
professional word documents, excel spread sheets, power point presentations and
personal web sites using the Microsoft suite of office tools and Latex.
PCHardware
Week 1 – Task 1 : Identify the peripherals of a computer, components in a CPU and
its functions. Draw the block diagram of the CPU along with the configuration of each
peripheral
and
submit
to
your
instructor.
Week 2 – Task 2 : Every student should disassemble and assemble the PC back to
working condition. Lab instructors should verify the work and follow it up with a Viva.
Also students need to go through the video which shows the process of assembling a
PC. A video would be given as part of the course content.
Week 3 – Task 3 : Every student should individually install MS windows on the
personal computer. Lab instructor should verify the installation and follow it up with a
Viva.
Week 4 – Task 4 : Every student should install Linux on the computer. This computer
should have windows installed. The system should be configured as dual boot with
both windows and Linux. Lab instructors should verify the installation and follow it up
with
a
Viva
Week 5 – Task 5 : Several mini tasks would be that covers Basic commands in Linux
and Basic system administration in Linux which includes: Basic Linux commands in
bash, Create hard and symbolic links, Text processing, Using wildcards
Week 6 – Task 6 : Hardware Troubleshooting : Students have to be given a PC
which does not boot due to improper assembly or defective peripherals. They should
identify the problem and fix it to get the computer back to working condition. The
work done should be verified by the instructor and followed up with a Viva
Week 7 – Task 7 : Software Troubleshooting : Students have to be given a
malfunctioning CPU due to system software problems. They should identify the
problem and fix it to get the computer back to working condition. The work done
should be verified by the instructor and followed up with a Viva.
Week 8 – Task 8 : The test consists of various systems with Hardware / Software
related
troubles,
Formatted
disks
without
operating
systems.

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Internet
&
World
Wide
Web
Week 9 - Task 1 : Orientation & Connectivity Boot Camp : Students should get
connected to their Local Area Network and access the Internet. In the process they
configure the TCP/IP setting. Finally students should demonstrate, to the instructor,
how to access the websites and email. If there is no internet connectivity
preparations need to be made by the instructors to simulate the WWW on the LAN.
Week 10 - Task 2 : Web Browsers, Surfing the Web : Students customize their web
browsers with the LAN proxy settings, bookmarks, search toolbars and pop up
blockers. Also, plug-ins like Macromedia Flash and JRE for applets should be
configured.
Week 11 - Task 3 : Search Engines & Netiquette : Students should know what search
engines are and how to use the search engines. A few topics would be given to the
students for which they need to search on Google. This should be demonstrated to
the
instructors.
Week 12 - Task 4 : Cyber Hygiene : Students would be exposed to the various
threats on the internet and would be asked to configure their computer to be safe on
the internet. They need to first install an anti virus software, configure their personal
firewall and windows update on their computer. Then they need to customize their
browsers to block pop ups, block active x downloads to avoid viruses and/or worms.
Week 13 Module Test A test which simulates all of the above tasks would be crafted
and
given
to
the
students.
LaTeX
and
Word
Week 14 – Word Orientation : The mentor needs to give an overview of LaTeX and
Microsoft/ equivalent (FOSS) tool word : Importance of LaTeX and MS/ equivalent
(FOSS) tool Word as word Processors, Details of the four tasks and features that
would be covered in each, Using LaTeX and word – Accessing, overview of toolbars,
saving files, Using help and resources, rulers, format painter in word.
Task 1 : Using LaTeX and word to create project certificate. Features to be covered:Formatting Fonts in word, Drop Cap in word, Applying Text effects, Using Character
Spacing, Borders and Colors, Inserting Header and Footer, Using Date and Time
option
in
both
LaTeX
and
Word.
Week 15 - Task 2 : Creating project abstract Features to be covered:-Formatting
Styles, Inserting table, Bullets and Numbering, Changing Text Direction, Cell
alignment, Footnote, Hyperlink, Symbols, Spell Check , Track Changes.
Week 16 - Task 3 : Creating a Newsletter : Features to be covered:- Table of Content,
Newspaper columns, Images from files and clipart, Drawing toolbar and Word Art,
Formatting
Images,
Textboxes
and
Paragraphs
Week 17 - Task 4 : Creating a Feedback form - Features to be covered- Forms, Text
Fields,
Inserting
objects,
Mail
Merge
in
Word.
Week 18 - LaTeX and Word Module Test - Replicate the given document inclusive of
all
features
Excel
Week 19 - Excel Orientation: The mentor needs to tell the importance of MS/
equivalent (FOSS) tool Excel as a Spreadsheet tool, give the details of the four tasks

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and features that would be covered in each. Using Excel –
Accessing, overview of toolbars, saving excel files, Using help and resources
Task 1 : Creating a Scheduler - Features to be covered:- Gridlines, Format Cells,
Summation,
auto
fill,
Formatting
Text
Week 20 - Task 2 : Calculating GPA - .Features to be covered:- Cell Referencing,
Formulae in excel – average, std.deviation, Charts, Renaming and Inserting
worksheets,
Hyper
linking,
Count
function,
LOOKUP/VLOOKUP
Week 21 - Task 3 : Performance Analysis - Features to be covered:- Split cells,
freeze panes, group and outline, Sorting, Boolean and logical operators, Conditional
formatting
Week 22 - Task 4 : Cricket Score Card - Features to be covered:-Pivot Tables,
Interactive Buttons, Importing Data, Data Protection, Data Validation
Week 23 – Excel Module Test - Replicate the given document inclusive of all
features
LaTeX
and
MS/equivalent
(FOSS)
tool
Power
Point
Week 24 - Task1 : Students will be working on basic power point utilities and tools
which help them create basic power point presentation. Topic covered during this
week includes :- PPT Orientation, Slide Layouts, Inserting Text, Word Art, Formatting
Text, Bullets and Numbering, Auto Shapes, Lines and Arrows in both LaTeX and
Powerpoint.
Week 25 - Task 2 : Second week helps students in making their presentations
interactive.Topic covered during this week includes : Hyperlinks, Inserting –Images,
Clip
Art,
Audio,
Video,
Objects,
Tables
and
Charts
Week 26 - Task 3 : Concentrating on the in and out of Microsoft power point and
presentations in LaTeX. Helps them learn best practices in designing and preparing
power point presentation. Topic covered during this week includes :- Master Layouts
(slide, template, and notes), Types of views (basic, presentation, slide slotter, notes
etc), Inserting – Background, textures, Design Templates, Hidden slides.
Week 27 - Task 4 : Entire week concentrates on presentation part of LaTeX and
power point. Topic covered during this week includes -Using Auto content wizard,
Slide
Transition,
Custom
Animation,
Auto
Rehearsing
Week 28 - Task 5 : Power point test would be conducted. Students will be given
model power point presentation which needs to be replicated (exactly how it–s
asked).
Publisher
Week 29 : Help students in preparing their personal website using Microsoft/
equivalent (FOSS) tool publisher. Topic covered during this week includes - Publisher
Orientation, Using Templates, Layouts, Inserting text objects, Editing text objects,
Inserting Tables, Working with menu objects, Inserting pages, Hyper linking,
Renaming,
deleting,
modifying
pages,
Hosting
website.
LIST OF EXPERMENTS

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PC HARDWARE AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TASK1……………………………………………………………………………………….....10
TASK2……………………………………………………………………………………...…..25
MS-WINDOWS,LINUX INSTALLATIONS,LINUX COMMANDS
TASK3………………………………………………………………………………………….31
TASK4……………………………………………………………………………………….…45
TASK5……………………………………………………………………………………….…65
HARDWARE, SOFTWARE & CYBERHYGEN TROUBLESHOOTING
TASK6………………………………………………………………………………………….68
TASK7………………………………………………………………………………………….70
TASK8………………………………………………………………………………………….73
TASK9………………………………………………………………………………………….74
INTERNET & WORLD WIDE WEB
TASK10………………………………………………………………………………………..76
TASK11……………………………………………………………………………................81
TASK12………………………………………………………………………………………..83
TASK13………………………………………………………………………………………..85
MICROSOFT WORD
TASK14………………………………………………………………………………………..86
TASK15………………………………………………………………………………………..92
TASK16………………………………………………………………………………………..99
MICROSOFT POWERPOINT
TASK17……………………………………………………………………………………….106
TASK18……………………………………………………………………………………….110
MICROSOFT EXCEL
TASK19……………………………………………………………………………………….114
TASK20……………………………………………………………………………………….128
TASK21……………………………………………………………………………………….132
TASK22……………………………………………………………………………………….137
LATEX
TASK23……………………………………………………………………..………………..140
FOSS
TASK24……………………………………………………………………………….……...146
ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS
WINDOWS 8 OPERATING SYSTEM INSTLATION
TASK25……………………………………………………………………………………….151
UBUNTU OPERATING SYSTEM INSTLATION
TASK26……………………………………………………………………………………….168
TASK27……………………………………………………………………………………….176
LAN CREATION-ESTBLISMENT (USING STAR TOPOLOGY)
TASK28………………………………………………………………………………………..186
TASK29………………………………………………………………………………………..196
TASK30………………………………………………………………………………………..209

LIST OF PRESCRIBED PROGRAMS

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page no

TASK 1:
Identify the peripherals of a computer, components in a CPU and its functions. Draw the block
diagram of the CPU along with the configuration of each peripheral .
AIM: To identify the peripherals of a computer.
Block Diagram of Computer :

A computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly
complicated problems quickly and accurately.
InputUnit:
Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem.
Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. The input
unit consists of one or more input devices. Keyboard is the one of the most
commonly used input device. Other commonly used input devices are the mouse,
floppy disk drive, magnetic tape, etc. All the input devices perform the following
functions.
1. Accept the data and instructions from the outside world.
2. Convert it to a form that the computer can understand.
3. Supply the converted data to the computer system for further processing.

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StorageUnit:
The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through
the input unit, before they are processed. It preserves the intermediate and final
results before these are sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later
use. The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two
categories.
1. Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. This memory is generally used to
hold the program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received
from the input unit, the intermediate and final results of the program. The primary
memory is temporary in nature. The data is lost, when the computer is switched off.
In order to store the data permanently, the data has to be transferred to the
secondary

memory.

The cost of the primary storage is more compared to the secondary storage.
Therefore

most

computers

have

limited

primary

storage

capacity.

2. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used like an archive. It stores several
programs, documents, data bases etc. The programs that you run on the computer
are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. Whenever the
results are saved, again they get stored in the secondary memory. The secondary
memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory. Some of the commonly
used secondary memory devices are Hard disk, CD, etc.,
Memory Size:
All digital computers use the binary system, i.e. 0–s and 1–s. Each character or a
number is represented by an 8 bit code.
The set of 8 bits is called a byte. A character occupies 1 byte space.
A numeric occupies 2 byte space.
Byte is the space occupied in the memory.
The size of the primary storage is specified in KB (Kilobytes) or MB (Megabyte). One
KB is equal to 1024 bytes and one MB is equal to 1000KB. The size of the primary
storage in a typical PC usually starts at 16MB. PCs having 32 MB, 48MB, 128 MB,
256MB memory are quite common.
Output Unit:
The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation
to outside world. Printers, Visual Display Unit (VDU) are the commonly used output
devices. Other commonly used output devices are floppy disk drive, hard disk drive,
and magnetic tape drive.
Arithmetic Logical Unit:

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All calculations are performed in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of the computer. It
also does comparison and takes decision. The ALU can perform basic operations
such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc and does logic operations
viz, >, <, =, –etc. Whenever calculations are required, the control unit transfers the
data from storage unit to ALU once the computations are done, the results are
transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit
for displaying results.
Control Unit:
It controls all other units in the computer. The control unit instructs the input unit,
where to store the data after receiving it from the user. It controls the flow of data and
instructions from the storage unit to ALU. It also controls the flow of results from the
ALU to the storage unit. The control unit is generally referred as the central nervous
system of the computer that control and synchronizes its working.
Central Processing Unit:
The control unit and ALU of the computer are together known as the Central
Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU is like brain performs the following functions:
– It performs all calculations.
– It takes all decisions.
– It controls all units of the computer.
A PC may have CPU-IC such as Intel 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486, Celeron, Pentium,
Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV, Dual Core, and AMD etc.
Introduction to Computer Hardware:
Hardware is the physical appearance of the devices or tools. It is what which we can
touch and feel.
Computer Hardware consists of the Monitor, CPU, Keyboard, Mouse and all other
devices connected to the computer either externally or internally.
A typical computer (personal computer, PC) consists of a desktop or tower case
(chassis) and the following parts:
1. CPU The central processing unit contains the heart of any computer, the
processor. The processor is fitted on to a Mother Board. The Mother Board
contains various components, which support the functioning of a PC.

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2. System board/Motherboard which holds the Processor, Random Access
Memory and other parts, and has slots for expansion cards

3. RAM (Random Access Memory)- For program execution and short term datastorage, so the computer doesn't have to take the time to access the hard drive to
find something. More RAM can contribute to a faster PC.
The main memory of the computer is called as Random Access Memory
(RAM). The name derives from the fact that data can be stored in and retrieved at
random, from anywhere in the electronic main memory chips in approximately the
same

amount

of

time,

no

matter

where

the

data

is.

Main memory is in an electronic or volatile state. When the computer is off, main
memory is empty, when it is on it is capable of receiving and holding a copy of the
software

instructions,

and

data

necessary

for

processing.

Because the main memory is a volatile form of storage that depends on electric
power can go off during processing, users save their work frequently on to non
volatile secondary storage devices such as diskettes or hard disk.

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The main memory is used for the following purposes:
1. Storage of the copy of the main software program that controls the general
operation of the computer. This copy is loaded on to the main memory when
the computer is turned on, and it stays there as long as the computer is on.
2. Temporary storage of a copy of application program instruction, to be
received by CPU for interpretation and processing or execution.
3. Temporary storage of data that has been input from the key board, until
instructions call for the data to be transferred in to CPU for processing.
Temporary storage of data, which is required for further processing or transferred
as output to output devices such as screen, a printer, a disk storage device.
ROM (Read Only Memory)
Instructions which are critical to the operation of a computer are stored
permanently on Read only Memory. (ROM) chip installed by the manufacturer inside
the computer. This ROM chip is also called firm ware, retains instructions in a
permanently accessible nonvolatile form. When the power in the computer is turned
off,

the

instructions

stored

in

ROM

are

not

lost.

It is necessary and also convenient to have instructions stored in ROM. The more
instructions in ROM, the fewer diskettes you may have to handle. Until recently the
process of manufacturing ROM chips and recording data on them was more
expensive than the process of producing RAM chips. As a result the manufacturers
tended to record in ROM only those instructions that were crucial to the operation of
thecomputer.
Today, due to improvements in the manufacturing process of ROM chips have
lowered the cost to the point where manufacturers are beginning to include additional
software instructions.
In addition to ROM, three additional categories of non volatile memory are
used in some computer systems. They are PROMs, EPROMs, and EPROMs. PROM
stands

for

programmable

read

only

memory.

It works similar to that of ROM. PROM chips are custom made for the user by the
manufacturer. The user determines what data and instructions are to be recorded on
them.

The

data

on

PROM

is

permanent

and

cannot

be

erased.

Erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM), developed as an improvement
over PROM. The data on the EPROM can be read with the help of a special device

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that uses ultra violet light. The data or instructions on the EPROM are erasable and
new data can be entered in its place. EPROM functions exactly same as PROM.
Electronically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) avoids the
inconvenience of having to take chips out of the computer to change data and
instructions. Changes can be made electrically under software control. These are
used in point of sale terminals to records price related data for products. The prices
recorded on them can be easily updated as needed. The only disadvantage of
EEPROM is, the regular ROM chips.
Differences between ROM &RAM
ROM (Read only memory)
1. You can only read the data.
2. Data can–t be written every time, to write the data we need PROM, EPROM,
OR EEPROM.
3. ROM is non volatile in nature. The data stored in ROM is permanent in
nature.
4. Size of the ROM has nothing to do with processing.
RAM (Random access memory):
1. You can read and write data on the chip.
2. RAM has volatile memory. It looses its contents when the power is switched
off.
3. Size of the RAM makes difference in the processing i.e., bigger the size of the
RAM more is the speed of processing.
4. The data can be read and written at anytime.
Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

o

Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM)

16

o

Static RAM (SRAM)

4.Buses : PCI bus, PCI-E bus, ISA bus (outdated), USB, AGP

5. Power Supply - a case that holds a transformer, voltage control and fan

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INCLUDEPICTURE

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6. Storage controllers, of IDE, SCSI or other type, that control hard disk, floppy
disk, CD-ROM and other drives; the controllers sit directly on the motherboard
(on-board) or on expansion cards
7.

Video display controller that produces the output for the computer display

8.

computer bus controllers (parallel, serial, USB, Fire wire) to connect the
computer to external peripheral devices such as printers or scanners

9.

Some type of a removable media writer:

10. CD - the most common type of removable media, cheap but fragile.
CD-ROM, , CD-RW, CD-R, DVD, DVD-ROM., DVD-RW, DVD-R,

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11. Floppy disk

Floppy Disk Drive

12. Tape Drive - mainly for backup and long-term storage
13. Internal storage - keeps data inside the computer for later use.
14. Hard disk - for medium-term storage of data.

15. Disk array controller

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16. Sound card - translates signals from the system board into analog voltage
levels, and has terminals to plug in speakers.

17. Networking - to connect the computer to the Internet and/or other computers

18. Modem - for dial-up connections

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19. Network card - for DSL(Digital Subscriber Line)/Cable internet, and/or
connecting to other computers.

20.Other peripherals: In addition, hardware can include external components of a
computer system. The following are either standard or very common.

Standard input devices:

Keyboard

Mouse

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Alternate input devices:
Pens,Touch screens,Game controllers(joy stick),Touch pad,Trackball.
Optical input devices: Barcode reader, Image scanners.
Audio visual input devices: Microphones, Video input ,Digital cameras

21. Output : The output devices are:
Standard output devices: Monitor
Types of monitors
CRT(cathode ray tube) monitors

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LCD(liquid crystal display) monitors

23

Printer
Types of printers
Impact printers: An impact printer create an image by using pins or hammers to
press an inked ribbon against the paper.ex. Dot matrix printer.
Non impact printers: This type uses other means to create an image for example
in ink jet printers tiny nozzles are used to spray droplets of ink on the page.ex: Ink
jet printer

Laser
Printer

Dot- Matrix printer:

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Inkjet printer

Other output devices:
Speakers, LCD projectors, Networking, Network card
Speakers

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LCD Projectors:

Viva Questions:
1) Define a computer?
2) Define hardware and software?

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3) What are the functional units of a computer?
4) Define the following: RAM,ROM,BIOS,BUS,BIT,PROGRAM.
5) What is the use of a mother board?

TASK 2:
ASSEMBLING

AND

DISASSEMBLING

THE

PC

BACK

TO

WORKING

CONDITION.
AIM: To assemble and disassemble the system
Safety Precautions:
1. Beware of electrostatic discharge (ESO)
2. Build computer on a hard surface, away from concepts.
3. Wear shoes and the short sleeved cotton wear.
4. Use Phillips, head screw driver.
5. Keep the components away from moisture.
6. Avoid using pressure while installing.
Steps for Assembling

Fix the SMPS on the cabinet of PC using the screws provided.

Fix the motherboard on the cabinet of PC using the screws provided.

Connect the power cables from SMPS to motherboard.

Insert the preprocessor into the slot provided such that the corner with no pin
coincide with corner without pinhole on motherboard.

Apply the appropriate adhesive on the processor for fixing the processor fan.

Fix the processor fan on the processor and use clips on it to keep it firm.

Connect the power cable to the processor fan

Insert the RAM card into the slots provided on the motherboard.

Set the jumpers setting on the hard disc drive.

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Fix the hard disc drive in the space provided in the PC cabinet using screws
provided.

Fix the FDD in the space provided in the PC cabinet using screws provided.

Fix the CD-ROM in the space provided in the PC cabinet using screws
provided.

Connect the FDD,HDD, CD-ROM drive to motherboard using flat ribbon.

Connect power supply to the HDD, FDD, CD-ROM drive using the cables
from the SMPS.

Connect wires of speakers and lights of cabinet to the motherboard.

Connect the network interface and other cards to motherboard by inserting in
right slots and fix them in cabinet using the screws provided.

Place the cabinet in right position.

Fix the doors of the cabinet.

Connect the data cable of monitor to the CPU.

Connect the keyboard cable to the CPU.

Connect the mouse cable to the CPU.

Connect other devices to CPU.

Connect the LAN cable to NIC in CPU.

Connect the power supply to CPU.

Connect the power supply to Monitor.

Switch on the computer after giving the power supply.

Getting the Cabinet ready:1. Check how to open the cabinet and determine where to fix the
components.
2. Determine if the case has the appropriate risers installed.
Preparing to fit the Components:
1.

Network adapter drive.

2.

Floppy disk drive.

3.

Ribbon cables.

4.

Hard disk.

5.

CD-ROM Drive.

6.

RAM

7.

CPU

8.

Heat sink / cooler / fan.

28

9.

Mother board.

10. Screws.
Fitting the Mother board.
1. Line up the patch on the motherboard ( ps/l, USB, etc ) with the
appropriate holes in the block panel I/O shield of the case.
2. Check the points where you and to install
3. Install them and make the mother board sit on them and fix screws if
required.
Mother board parts:
1. ACR slot.
2. PCI Slot.
3. AGP Slot.
4. ATX Connectors.
5. CPU Fan.
6. Chipset North Bridge.
7.

CPU socket.

8. Floppy.
9. System memory.
10. Chipset south bridge.
11. Panel connector.
12. Power supply.
13. IDE connectors.
ATX Connectors:
1. PS, Mouse.
2. Key board.
3. USB.
4. Parallel ( Prints )
5. Serial COM1.
6. Serial COM 2.
7. Joystick.
8. Sound.
Fitting the processor:
1. Raise the small lever at the side of the socket.
2. Notice that there is a pin missing at one corner, determine the direction to
fit in the processor.

29

3. You should not force the CPU. When inserting it. All pins should slide
smoothly into the socket.
4. Lock the lever back down.
5. Install the heat sink over it (Different type for each processor). Heat sink /
CPU fan.
Fitting the RAM:
1. The RAM must be suitable for motherboard.
2. There are currently 3 types of RAM available.
a) SD RAM.
b) DDR SD RAM.
c) RD RAM.
3. The mother board–s chipset determines which type of RAM may be used.

Installing the PCI Cards:
1. Most of the cards are inbuilt these days.
2. NIL, Sound Cards etc. are fitted into PCI slots.
Fitting the hard disk and Floppy disk:
1. Place the floppy and hard disks in their slots.
2. Leave some space above HDD to prevent heat building.
3. Check the jumper configuration.
4. Fix the screws.
Installing the CD-ROM Drives:
1. CD-ROM drive is similar to installing a hard disk.
2. 1ST check that the jumper configuration is correct.
3. Fix the screw.
Connecting the ribbon Cables:1. Attach the long end of the cable to the IDEU connector on the
motherboard first.
2. The red stripe on the IDE cable should be facing the CD Power.
Powering the driver and motherboard:
Connecting the cables for the case front pane
1. SD, SPK or SPEAK: The loud speakers o/p. it has 4 pins.
2. RS, RE, RS or RESET: Connect the two pin Reset cable here.
3. PWR, PW, PWSW, PS or power SW: Power switch, the pc–s on (switch, the
plug is two pin ).

30

4. PWLED, PWRLED or Power LED: The light emitting diode on the front panel
of the case illuminates when the computer is switched on. It–s a 2-pin cable.
5. HD, HDD, and LED: These two pins connect to the cable for the hard disk
activity LED.
Final Check:1. Mother board jumper configurations are the settings for the processor
operator.
2. Drive jumper settings, master/ slave correct?
3. Are the processor, RAM modules and plug in cards finally seated in there
sockets?
4. Did you plug all the cables in? Do they all fit really?
5. Have you frightened all the screws in plug- in cards or fitted the clips?
6. Are the drive secure?
7. Have u connected the power cables to all driver?
Powering up for the first time:
1. Ensure that no wires are touching the CPU heat sink fan.
2. Plug your monitor, mouse and keyboard.
3. Plug in power card and switch the power supply.
4. If everything is connected as it should be

All system, fans should start spinning.

U should hear a single beep and after about 5-10 sec.

Amber light on monitor should go green.

You will see computer start to boot with a memory check.

Now check front LED–S to see if u plugged them in correctly.

Check all other buttons.

Power afford change any wrong settings.

Steps for Dissembling

Switch of the power supply

Disconnect the power supply cable from monitor.

Disconnect the power supply cable from CPU.

Disconnect the LAN cable to NIC in CPU.

Disconnect the other devices in CPU such as printers.

31

Disconnect the mouse cable from CPU.

Disconnect the keyboard cable from CPU.

Disconnect data cable of monitor from CPU.

Remove the doors of cabinet.

Place the cabinet such that motherboard faces the ceiling.

Disconnect the NIC and other cards from mother board by removing from
slots and unscrewing from cabinet.

Disconnect the wires of speakers from mother board.

Remove power supply cables from HDD, FDD, CD-ROM drive etc.

Disconnect the HDD, FDD, CD-ROM drive from mother board by removing
flat ribbon cable.

Remove CR-ROM from cabinet.

Remove the FDD from cabinet by unscrewing it.

Remove the HDD from cabinet by unscrewing it.

Removing RAM cards from slots on mother board.

Disconnect the power cables from processor fan.

Remove the processor fan by unlocking clips on it.

Disconnect the power cables from SMPS on power cabinet.

Remove mother board from cabinet by unscrewing it.

Remove the SMPS from cabinet of PC by unscrewing it.

Viva Questions:
1) Define assembling of a system?
2) Explain the steps involved in the installation of the mother board?
3) What is the use of pin 1 indicated on the processor?
4) What is the use of locking level at the processor slot?
5) Define a port?

32

TASK3:
Install MS windows on the personal computer.
INSTALLATION OF WINDOWS XP:
AIM: To install Windows XP

Windows XP (codename Whistler, also known as Windows NT 5.1) is the latest
desktop version of the Microsoft Windows operating system. It was made publicly
available on October 25, 2001. Two editions of Windows XP are most commonly
available: Windows XP Home Edition which is targeted at home users and Windows
XP Professional which has additional features such as dual-processor support and
the ability to join a domain, a grouping of centrally managed Windows computers.
The letters "XP" originate from the word "Experience".
Step 1 : Prepare The Boot Sequence
Insert the windows XP cd in your cdrom and than go to the BIOS by hitting –DEL– or
–F12″ when your system in powering on. Go to Boot order and make sure cdrom is
on

the

first

Save settings and restart your computer.

33

place.

Once you have successfully booted from the CD, you will see the Windows XP
“Welcome to Setup” screen. Press ENTER to begin the setup process.

34

Step 2: Accept the license agreement
When you see the Windows XP license agreement press F8 to accept it and
proceed.

Step 3: Searching for Previous Versions of Windows XP
Setup will search for existing Windows installations. You will see the next –repair or
install fresh copy– screen appear only if a Windows installation currently exists on
your machine. If you–re installing on a brand-new hard drive, skip to Step 5.

35

Step 4:Continue Installing a Fresh Copy
Press ESC. You will be given a list of partitions available on your hard drive.

Step 5: Partitions
If there are multiple partitions on your hard drive, or you have multiple hard drives in
the computer, use the UP or DOWN arrow keys to choose your install partition.
Please note that your system partition needs to be a primary partition (usually the
first

partition

that

shows

up

in

the

list),

not

a

logical

partition.

The partition should be at least 10 GB in size. Make sure that all the data you need
from this partition is copied elsewhere, because it will be deleted.

36

Once you have selected the right partition selected, press ENTER. You will see the
next –you already have a system installed– screen only if you already have
Windows installed on this partition. If you are installing on a brand-new hard drive,
skip to Step 7.

Step 6: Continue Installing On The Selected Drive
Press C to continue. You will be given a list of install options

Step 7: Format The Selected Partition
Select the option to –Format the partition using the NTFS file system (quick) and
press ENTER.You will receive a warning about formatting the drive unless the drive
is brand-new.

37

Step 8: Continue With The Format
Press F to continue formatting selected partition. If you still haven–t backed up, this
is the last change to backup your important data, after this step you will not to able to
go back and restore your data.

Step 9: Copying Files
After the format setup will automatically copy files and restart your computer. Go to
BIOS and remove cdrom from first boot device. Start your computer.

38

/

STEP 10: Setup will show a progress box and reboot when copying files is complete.
When you see the "Press any Key to Reboot" do not Press any Key. If CD boots
anyway, remove CD and reboot.

Step 11:From this point, you will follow the on screen prompts.

39

Step 12:If you live outside the US, you will probably need to modify the default
settings.

40

41

42

43

Step 13:If you live outside the US, you will probably need to modify the default
settings.

Step 14:Personalize your XP Enter your Name and Organization.

44

Step 15:Enter the Product Key. The Key is located on the back of the CD folder in the
Retail versions, and on a holographic label with the OEM versions purchased with a
piece of hardware. Write this key down and secure it in a safe place in case the
original

is

misplaced

or

destroyed

through

natural

causes

.

Step 16:Choose a name for the computer, this should be a unique name for the
computer, especially if it is to be connected to a network. In Pro, you are given the
option of creating a password or leaving it blank.

45

Step 17:Set your Time Zone and Time and Date.

Step 18: If detected you will have the choice to choose a typical configuration or
custom. Choose typical if you are unsure.

46

Step 19: For home you will choose your workgroup, if a network is already
established and you intend to connect to it, use the existing workgroup name,
otherwise, I suggest using the default.

47

Step 20:For Pro, the same goes for Pro as suggested for Home, but you will have the
choice to join a Domain, if you do not have a Domain or do not know leave blank.
Setup will continue and reboot when completed ignore the "Press Any Key".
The XP loading window will now display after reboot.

Viva Questions:
1) NTFS stands for---------?
2) What is the use of product key in the installation process of a software?
3) How many characters does a product key contain fro windows XP?
4) Describe different kinds of Microsoft Operating systems?
5) What are the pre-arrangements for installing the windows OS?

TASK-4
FEDORA Linux Installation Process:
1. LINUX BOOT OPTIONS
Actually Linux can be installed in two different modes, based on the requirement of
the user.
Graphical Mode.
Text Mode.
Graphical Mode - In this you can work with Graphical Interface (i.e., it supports
mouse and Icons ). By clicking the icon with the mouse, you can perform related
action.
To install Linux in Graphical Mode Press Enter.

48

Text Mode - In this mode you have to interact with character based interface ( i.e.,
Command prompt ).
To install Linux in Text Mode Type : Linux text and Press Enter.
After selecting the mode of installation, it goes on detecting the basic input output
devices and file systems. And at last it displays a screen asking whether to test the
CD inserted to install or to Skip the test process. Otherwise we can test total
installation CD–s.

On completion of testing the CD–s, it goes on loading an installation program
–ANACONDA– which helps us in the installation of the remaining part.

2 WELCOME TO INSTALLATION PROCESS

49

It starts with the display of the welcome screen containing the online help ,
and four buttons to help us in the different activities in the installation process.
Hide Help/Show Help - Which helps you in guiding the installation process,
which can be activated or hidden.
Release Notes - Which contain the Basic Hardware Requirements that are necessary
for the installation of the Red Linux 9.0 and some other post-installation issues.
Next - This button allows you to go to next step of the installation process by the
current step.
Back - This button allows you to move back of the installation process to make any
changes that previously mentioned.
Action: click –Next– to move to next screen.
3. SELECTING A LANGUAGE
It displays a screen containing various languages, to select a language you would
like to use during this installation process.

50

4. CONFIGURING KEYBOARD AND MOUSE
Here we need to select our own keyboard and mouse layouts which will help you to
interactively proceed in the installation process.
At this point of time it displays you the different types of keyboard layouts. So that
you can select your desired one that you would like to use for the system.
And also choose the appropriate Mouse for the system, based on the following:
Do you have a PS/2, USB, Bus or Serial mouse?
Hint:- If the connector your mouse plugs into is Round - It is a PS/2
If the connector your mouse plugs into is Rectangular - It is a USB mouse
If the connector your mouse plugs into is Trapezoidal - It is a Serial mouse
Select the exact mouse type among the available.

51

5. TYPE OF INSTALLATION:
There are different installation types that are available which will enable you to select
that will best meet your needs.
There are four different types of installations are there –
Personal Desktop
- You select it for personal computers or laptops, select this installation type to install
a graphical desktop environment and create a system ideal for home or desktop use.
Work Station

52

- This option installs a graphical desktop environment with tools for software
development and system administration.
Server
- If you would like to set up file sharing, print sharing, and web services and
additional services.
Custom
- Select this installation type to gain complete control over the installation process,
Including software package selection and authentication preferences.:

6. PARTITIONING THE DISK
Partitioning the disk can be done either automatically or manually.
AUTOMATIC PARTITIONING
– By selecting automatic portioning, you will not have to use partitioning tools to
assign mount points, create partitions, or allocate space for your installation.
Automatic partitioning allows you to have some control concerning what data is
removed from your system.
To remove only Linux partitions remove all Linux partitions on this system.

53

To remove all partitions on your hard drive, select remove all partitions on this
system.
To retain your current data and partitions, assuming you have enough free
space available on your hard disk, select Keep all partitions and use existing free
space.
You can review the partitions that are automatically created using the check box
Review (and modify if needed) the partitions created.

MANUAL PARTITIONING
– To partition manually, choose the Disk Druid partitioning Tool. For the manual
partitioning of Linux installation you need assign disk space for the three compulsory
file systems, they are /boot, /(root), swap
/boot
- This type of partition should of ext3 file system type. For this /boot partition a
minimum of about 150MB is necessary.
Swap
The swap partition should of swap file system type having a minimum of the double
the RAM available on your system. (i.e., if, RAM is of 512MB, your swap should be a
minimum of 1024MB.)
/(root) –
The symbol –/– stands for the root. This root partition should be a minimum of 5GB.
And you can also increase it based on your availability to increase your system
performance.
To add a new partition Just click on the NEW button and select your mount point (i.e.,
directory of partition ex: /, /boot, /user, etc., ), select your file system type among the
available i.e. Ext3, ext2, swap, vfat, etc., ), and you have different additional size
options like Fixed Size, Fill all space up to(MB), Fill to maximum allowable size. And
also you can make a partition to be primary partition and check for the bad blocks on
each partition.
Now we have to partition our hard disk. You can choose to let the Fedora installer do
the partitioning, or you can do it yourself. I want to create a small /boot partition (less
than 100 MB) with the file system ext3, a swap partition and a huge / partition (again
with ext3):

54

55

56

Now the boot loader GRUB will be installed. You can leave the default settings
unchanged and click on Next:

7. BOOT LOADER CONFIGURATION
The GRUB boot loader will allow you to boot other operating systems. It will
allow you to select an operating system to boot from the list. To add another
operating system. You can also add other operating systems that are not detected
automatically.
For greater system security, you can set your password for the boot loader. To avoid
unauthorized changes to the system.
You can also change the type of boot loader other than GRUB, among the available
like LILO. And also you can avoid to install boot loader.

57

8. NETWORK CONFIGURATION
With this option you can set your Network devices manually or using DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) which will automatically takes default IP
address, and Net mask addresses. The DHCP also set your Hostname.

9. FIREWALL CONFIGURATION
A firewall configuration is set between yours computer and network. And decides
which resources of your computer are accessible by the remote users on the
network. On proper configuration of firewall we can set different security levels for the
system.

58

By using firewalls we can avoid any entrusted passage of data and also we can set
our own protocol supports.

10 . ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE SUPPORT
This screen shows different additional languages for installation. These additional
languages can be used to switch after installation process.

11. SELECTING A TIME ZONE
To set our time zone we can do it either by selecting computers physical location or
by your time zone–s offset from Universal Time, Coordinated. This screen shows two

59

tabs namely location and UTC Offset. First tab offers you the ability to configure by
location. Second tab allows to set UTC Offset.

12. ROOT PASSWORD SETTINGS
The Root password is for avoiding any unauthorized access to Administration
settings .

60

13. PERSONAL DESKTOP DEFAULTS
With this screen we can accept the default package list or we can customize the set
of packages to be installed.

14. SELECTION OF PACKAGES TO INSTALL
On selecting the customized set of packages we can select our own selection of
desktops, applications, servers, development tools and system tools to be installed
among the available.
And also we have an option to select a minimal set of packages and all the packages
that are available which will install complete set of packages(about 1400) which will
require about 4850 MB of space.

15. ABOUT TO INSTALL
This is the final step to make any modifications to the installation process. Once you
click the next button you cannot do any modifications.

61

16. INSTALLING THE PACKAGES
First it formats the file systems and copies the files to our hard disk to continue
installation. Then there starts the installing of packages which may take up to several
minutes of time during which we need to insert next two CD ROMs to complete the
installation process.

62

17. CREATING A BOOT DISK
Here the prompts you to create a Linux boot disk on your choice for your further
requirement.

18. CONFIGURING YOUR DISPLAY
At this stage you need to select your video card type and monitor configuration and
also you restore to the original values.

63

19. END OF INSTALLATION PROCESS At the end of the installation process it will
remove all the media that is used by the installation. And reboots your system again.

After the Installation:
After the installation your computer will reboot and you will go through a simple
configuration procedure to get your computer ready for use. It includes such things
as setting the time, setting the password for the "root" user, and creating other user
accounts.

Click Next:

64

Click Next:

Click Next:

65

Click Next:

Click Next:

Click Next:

66

Out-Of-The-Box Experience:

Note: All of the following assumes that you used the defaults during installation of
Fedora Core. If you picked different defaults then you might not have pieces like
XMMS (an audio player like Win Amp) already installed and you'll need to add those
as you go along. It doesn't really hurt anything; it will just add a few extra steps here
and there.
Many of the tools you are likely to need for everyday use come with Fedora Core but
you might not recognize them if you are more familiar with Windows tools. For
example, Mozilla is the most commonly used browser under Linux. It takes the place
of Microsoft's Internet Explorer (IE) and in my opinion does a much better job than IE
does. Here's a quick table listing some common equivalences:
Internet Explorer
Adobe Photoshop
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Win Amp
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Word
Microsoft PowerPoint
WinZip
Notepad
ICQ/AIM/MSN
Messenger/Trillian
Audio grabber

Mozilla
The GIMP
GPDF
XMMS
Ximian Evolution
Open Office Writer
Open
Office
Impress
File Roller
gedit
Gaim
Sound Juicer

As time goes by I hope to talk about all of these applications and provide screenshots
and some basic information for each one, in the meantime though I've singled out

67

just a few for further attention. Click on the links to see more information on each
one.
Filling In the Gaps:
As a long time Windows user there are certain pieces of software and certain
capabilities that I really expect to have. For example, I expect to be able to view and
interact with the same multimedia elements as my Windows counterparts. Music files
(.MP3, .WAV, and .OGG), video files in various formats (.WMV, .MPG, .MOV, .RM,
.AVI), video discs (VCD, SVCD, DVD), etc. are all things you can hardly go three
clicks on the Internet without stumbling across. I need to be able to view/listen to all
of

them.

The following software addresses many of those needs and installation of it is really
really simple. In fact it is easier than installing similar software on Windows usually is.
To get to that level of ease does take a couple of steps though so you will want to
read the sections below entitled
A Word about Permissions and Software Installation Made Easy eventually to add
the Apt and Synaptic software to your machine. In the meantime, first read about
some of the software that Apt and Synaptic can get for you.

Viva Questions:
1) Give the advantages of Linux over other OS?
2) What do you mean by open source OS?
3) What are the commands used to make disk partitioning manually in Linux
OS?
4) What do you mean by dual boot systems?
5) Which type of file systems are required to install hard disk at the time of
installation of Linux OS?

68

TASK 5:
Several mini tasks would be that covers Basic commands in Linux and Basic syatem
administration in Linux which includes: Basic Linux commands in Bash, create hard
and symbolic links, text processing, using wild cards.
AIM: To learn basic Linux commands.
/
/bin
/boot
/dev
/etc
/home
/lib
/mnt

Root directory
Essential commands
Boot loader files , Linux kernel
Device files
System configuration files
User home directories
Shared libraries , kernel modules
Usual mount files for local , remote file

/opt
/proc
/root
/sbin
/tmp
/usr
/var

system
Ad- on software packages
Kernel information, process control
Superuser directory
System commands directory
Temporary files
Secondary software file directory
Variable data directory

To edit a file-$vi
i-for insert mode, character you type will show up as text
x-for deleting a character
3x-for deleting 3 consecutive characters
a-for appending characters
[esc}-to get into command mode
u-to undo the most recent change
U-to undo all the changes made to the line
p-to put the contents of the recent buffer back to where the cursor is
press [esc]-wq to write the file to disk and quit
press [esc]-q! to quit without writing the file to disk
1 or space bar or right arrow – To move right one character
h or crtl+h or left arrow-To move left one character
j or ctrl+j or ctrl+n or down arrow –To move down one line
k or ctrl+p or up arrow- To move up one line
0-To move to the top of the line
$- To move to the end of the current line
+ or RETURN – To move to the beginning of the next line
. – To move to the beginning of the previous line

69

CTRL+f – move forward one full screen
Ctrl+d – move forward one half screen
Ctrl+b – move back one full screen
Ctrl+u – move back one half screen
G-move to the end of the file
R b – replace the current character with b
3rd-replace 3 characters with b
/look-search forward for the first occurrence of look
//-repeat search
n-repeat search
N-reverse search direction
?look-search backward for the first occurrence of look
Wild cards:
Wild cards are a shell feature that makes the command line much more powerful
than any GUI file managers.
Wild card
*
?
[abcde]
[a-e]
[!abcde]
[!a-e]
{debian,linux}
s.no
1

Command name
Date

2

Ls

3

Tree

4

Man

5

Cat

6

Mv

7

Cp

8
9

Rm
Grep

Matches
0 or more characters
Exactly one character
Exactly one character listed
Exactly one character in the given range
Any character that is not listed
Any character that is not in the given
range
Exactly one entire word in the options
given
description
Example
Display or set the $date
he linux system
time
Viewing linux file $ls
system
Show the root or $tree
base directory lay
out,along
sub
directories
Display the manual $man
pages
Outputs contents of $cat
file name to display
Moves
specific $mv
file(s)/dir(s)
files/directories to files(s)?dir(s)
specific
files/directories
Copies one file and $cp file 1 file 2
creates another file
Deletes file
$rm file
Searching through $grey string files(s)

70

10

Mkdir

11

Rmdir

12

Ps

13

Pwd

14

Clear

15

Head

16

Tail

17

Wc

18

Who

file and displays
lines
containing
matching string
Creates an empty
directory
Deletes directory(if
empty)
Displays quick list
of process
Displays the path of
current directory
Clears all textand
leave you with the
and promt at the
top of the window
Display the first few
Lines of a file
Display the last few
lines of a file
Count number of
lines/words
/characters in a file
List users currently
loggedin

$mkdir dirname
$rm dir dirname
$ps
$pwd
$clear

$head-line
count
file name
$tail-line count file
name
$wc file name
$who

Viva Questions:
1) What are the default directories in the Linux operating systems?
2) Is command used for?
3) What are the various directory commands in Linux?
4) How can you search a file for key words in Linux?
5) What is the function of –cat– and –clear– command?

TASK 6:
Identify the problem in PC which does not boot due to improper assembly or
defective peripherals, fix it to get the computer back to working condition.
AIM: Hardware troubleshooting
Troubleshoot:1. If you hit the power button & nothing happened.

Check all power connections.

71

Check for power on mother board.

2. If the system turns on but does not beep or begin to boot up.

Remove all components except motherboard/ cpu / mother
check by giving power to them

Computer error beeps codes:
No beep: short, no power, bad CPU/ MD, loose peripherals.
One beep: everything is normal & computer posted tax.
Two beeps: post / CMOS error.
One long beep One short beep: Motherboard problem.
One long beep two short beep: video problem.
One long beep 3 short beeps: video problem.
3 long beeps: keyboard error.
Repeated long beep: memory error.
Continuous high- low beeps: CPU overheating Experiment no: 1

Basic troubleshooting:
Sometimes things do not work exactly as planned at this point. Sometimes the
system will not power on at all. Sometimes it will power on, but you get no video.
Sometimes you will get beep codes. Sometimes you hear the fans, but the rest of the
PC just sits there and does nothing. If things didn't go according to plan, troubleshoot
the system. Walk mentally through the boot process and check all hardware as it
goes. Think like the computer thinks, if you know what I mean. Here is a list of some
of the more common problems.
1. The power does not even turn on. This sometimes happens on ATX machines
and it usually tracks down to the fact that the power switch is not properly
connected to the motherboard or it is not connected at all. Find the power
switch lead and make sure it is connected to the motherboard. It–s a
possibility that simply reversing the lead will do the trick. If this is the not the
case, then make sure the motherboard is not grounded somehow. Make sure
that the board is not touching the case (this is what the spacers are for). Make
sure that none of the screws that hold the board in place is touching anything
metal or any of the electrical pathways on the motherboard. If you have any
doubt on this, you can remove each screw one at a time and place a washer
on them. You do not need to remove the motherboard to do this.

72

2. The PC boots, but it is giving beep codes. This is actually better than having
to track everything down on your own, because at least the PC is giving you a
hint as to what is wrong. You can also use the PC Mechanic Beep Codes Ebook available on the PC Mechanic CD to track it down for other BIOS
versions. Often, these beep codes will not tell you exactly what the problem
is, but will point you at the trouble device. This information will then get you
pointed in the correct direction.
3. The fans come on, but you get no video or beeps. Sometimes, this is because
some key component may not be plugged in well or may not be operational.
Check the memory modules and the processor to be sure they are firmly
installed. You might want to make sure the processor is actually working. One
way that I have used to see if a processor is working is to remove or unplug
the CPU fan and place your fingers on the CPU to see if it heats up real fast.
If it does, its OK and don–t let it run this way for long. If it remains at room
temperature for awhile, then there is no juice going through the processor and
it may need replacing. The keyboard doesn–t seem to work. This one
doesn–t happen too often, but if it does, your two trouble sources will be the
keyboard itself or the keyboard controller on the motherboard. Hope it isn–t
the second one.

Viva Questions:
1) Define trouble shooting?
2) Mention a few problems associated with Modem.
3) What is the function of a modem?
4) What are the different key board problems?
5) Give the preventive measures for better computer utilization?

TASK 7:
Identify the malfunctioning CPU due to system software problems. Fix the problem to
get the computer back to working condition.
AIM: Software troubleshooting

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PROCEDURE:
Error messages encountered during boot before Windows loads
Ensure that your computer BIOS settings are correctly configured to the hardware
that is installed in your computer
Error messages while windows loading
1.If you have recently installed or changed something that could have caused normal
windows to stop loading , try loading the last known good configuration
2.If you are unable to get into Normal windows and believe that removing or
uninstalling a program or changing a setting may help enable you to get into windows
, boot the computer into windows XP safe mode
3.If your computer has worked fine in the past but recently

has been experiencing

the issue you are encountering run the system restore option to restore the computer
to an earlier date
Other error messages that occur while windows is loading or after windows is loaded
1.If error occur but windows still loads , verify no issues or conflict exits in device
manager
2.Ensure that if programs are loading automatically that these errors are not
associated with these programs
3.Make sure Windows XP is up to date by checking Microsoft windows update page
4.If your computer has virus protection installed make sure that it is up to date and
that no virus are being detected
5. If your computer has worked fine in the past but recently has been experiencing
the issue you are encountering run the system restore option to restore the computer
to an earlier date

Software Troubleshooting:
BIOS SETUP & DISK FORMATTING
What Is BIOS?
BIOS is an acronym for Basic Input Output System.
Why BIOS?

74

To run any system, there must be default settings so that the system can load those
settings when it is started or restarted. For a computer system the basic I/O settings
and boot process details are necessary to start a system.
All these default, predefined settings will be loaded in the BIOS and whenever we
start the system, these settings will be loaded.
How to view BIOS?
Whenever we start the system, we can enter into the BIOS Setup Utility by pressing
Del Key. Sometimes an F1 or F8 key has to be instead of DEL key, depending on the
type of BIOS.
When we enter in to this utility we get these following menus/services, depending
upon our mother board.
In main Menu, we can view the details such as BIOS Version, Processor Type, and
Speed, RAM Size and the system bus speed and memory speed.
We can change the settings like language system time and date. We can even
change the hyper threading facility if the processor supports this technology.
We must be very careful when we change these settings otherwise it may cause our
system to malfunction.
Here, we can change the settings of PCI devices, Floppy Drives configuration and
chipset, USB peripheral devices and even monitoring the Hardware.
Security
We can set the supervisor password, to restrict unauthorized users to enter the BIOS
setup utility.
User password can also be set to restrict the unauthorized persons to boot or use the
system.
How to type a Password?
We can even set the Chassis Intrusion to protect the system devices from removing
the components of the system.

Power
The power settings protect the system from power failures by configuring the ACPI.

75

For example, after power failure we can stay off the system or Power on the system
or else we can even make the system to restore its previous state by selecting the
appropriate options.
Boot
Silent boot : If this option is enabled it displays only the OEM logo and in the
background POST(Power on Self Test) completes. If this is disabled, instead of
LOGO, we can view POST messages
Rapid BIOS Boot: By enabling this option it will decrease the time needed to boot the
by skipping some unnecessary tests.
Here, we can also set the boot sequence from the available devices by selecting
Boot Device Priority.
We can even view the Hard Drives and any removable devices and attached to the
system.
Exit
By selecting the appropriate options we can exit from the BIOS setup like exiting the
setup by saving or discarding the changes or even by loading optimal or default
values.
Viva questions:
1) Define a software
2) What are the general software problems we encounter?
3) Define virus
4) What is the minimum free space required?
5) What are the reasons for slow running ?

TASK 8:
DISK FORMATTING:
What is Disk Formatting?
Disk formatting is nothing but creating new tracks and sectors on a
magnetic storage device. Why Disk Formatting?

76

Every disk must be formatted before the first usage. Because then only we can
address each and every memory unit.
How to Disk Format?
To format the disks we have the following methods.
Fdisk
FDisk is a windows command, throw which we can create partitions on a hard drive
so that we can format each drive and use the same.
Format
Format is an external command which will create the actual tracks and sectors on a
magnetic drive.
To format a partition we need to use format command.

Disk Manager
Disk Manager is a tool to manage a magnetic drive, through which we can create the
partitions as well as formatting the particular partitions at a time.
TASK 9:
Orientation & Connectivity Boot Camp: Students should get connected to their Local
Area Network and access the Internet. In the process they configure the TCP/IP
setting. Finally students should demonstrate, to the instructor, how to access the
websites and email. If there is no internet connectivity preparations need to be made
by the instructors to simulate the WWW on the LAN

77

PURPOSE: To learn Local Area Network and access the Internet. In the process they
configure the TCP/IP setting. Finally students should demonstrate, to the instructor,
how to access the websites and email
THEORY:
The internet is a world wide, publicly network of interconnected computer networks
LOCAL AREA NETWORK:
LANs are privately owned networks with in a single building or campus of up to few
kilometers in size.
WIDE AREA NETWORK:
A WAN is a network that connects computers across a large geographic area such
as a city or country
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol):
Collection of methods used to connect servers on the internet and to exchange data.
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language):
The coding used to control the look of documents on the web
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol):
Part of a URL that identifies the location as one that uses HTML
IP(Internet Protocol):
A format for contents and addresses of packets of information sent over the internet
IP ADDRESS:
An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network
SEARCH ENGINE:
A program that searches documents located on the Internet for keywords or phrases
entered by a person browsing the net.
Internet Connection requirements:

TCP/IP protocol

Client Software

ISP Account

Means of communication to the net

telephone Modem

Ethernet

ISDN(Integrated Services Digital Network)

DSL(Digital Subscriber Line)

Satellite.

PROCEDURE:
1. Go to startcontrol Panel

78

2. open Network Connections
3. Click create a new connection and then click next
4. The new connection wizard window opens , click
next to continue
5. Choose one of the options in the next dialog box
6. Choose one of the three options in the next dialog
box

If you do not have an internet account click
choose from a list of ISPs and then click
next

If you have an account click

Set up my

connection manually

If you have a CD from the ISP click use the
CD I got from an ISP and then click next

7. Follow the next steps ad per the option you
selected.

Viva Questions:
1) Define internet
2) What do you mean by network?
3) Define a web browser
4) What are the different types of web browsers?
5) What are the advantages and disadvantages of an email?

TASK 10:
Web Browsers, Surfing the Web: Students customize their web browsers with the
LAN proxy settings, bookmarks, search toolbars and pop up blockers. Also, plug-ins
like Macromedia Flash and JRE for applets should be configured
PURPOSE: To learn to surf the web
THEORY:

79

Web browser provides the means to the searching and also helps to
download the web content.

Web browsers support most of the famous Internet Protocols like HTTP, FTP.

Common file formats a browser accepts are HTML

Well known browsers natively support a variety of other formats in addition to
HTML such as JPEG,PNG,GIF image formats

Different web browsers available in the market are:
 Silversmith
 Mosaic
 Netscape
 Mozilla
 Opera
 Lynx
 Safari

Bookmark:
Each web browser is built-in with the support of Internet Bookmarks which serve as a
named anchor – primarily to URLs. The primary Purpose of this book mark is to
easily catalog and access web pages that the web browser user has visited or plans
to visit, without having to navigate the web to get there.
Pop-up Blockers:
Pop-ups are a form of online advertising on the WWW intended to attract the
attention of the users. These pop ups are hosted on the web sites which are
frequently visited by the netizens. These pop ups are activated when these web sites
open a new web browser window and there by displaying the advertisements.
Plug-ins:
A plug-in is a software component program that interacts with a main application to
provide a better integration of the media. The basic difference between application
programs and plug-ins is that multimedia files are launched in a separate window
where as in plug-ins multimedia play in the browser window.
Few famous plug-INS are:

Apple Quick Time

Macromedia flash

Microsoft Media Player

Adobe Shockwave

Sun Microsystems Java Applet

80


PROCEDURE:
LAN Proxy Settings:

Select tools menu in Internet Explorer

Select Internet Options

Select Connections

You end up in two options

81

Dial-up and virtual network settings

LAN setting

The LAN connection Settings are as follows:

Select the properties button. The properties of the ipaddress, default
Gateway and the DNS server details are reflected in the dialog box.

82

The selection at this step is dependent on the kind of connection you are

trying to
configure. They are:

Dial-up modem connection

LAN connection

DSL or Cable modem

Viva Questions:
1) Define surfing
2)

Abbreviate HTML,WWW

3) What is a bookmark?
4) Define a plug-in
5) What are pop-up ads?
6) What are pop-up blockers?

83

TASK 11:
Search Engines & Netiquette: Students should know what search engines are and
how to use the search engines. A few topics would be given to the students for which
they need to search on Google. This should be demonstrated to the instructors
PURPOSE: To know what search engines are and how to use the search engines.
THEORY:
Search engine:
A search engine can be defined as a web site with tools which help you to find
information on the internet
Function of a search engine:
You can find anything from a schedule of White house tours to instructions for
removing stains from clothes.
Limitations:

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Search engines visit web sites only several weeks. Search engines cannot see
information in other data bases later on.
On the internet a search engine is a coordinated set of programs that includes: A
spider (crawler or bot) that goes to every page or representative pages on every web
site that wants to be searchable and reads it, using hypertext links on each page to
discover and read site–s other pages.
Pros:

You can select the search terms

You can use the same search terms with multiple search engines

You can change search terms as much as you wish

You will normally receive numerous links

Its fast

There are so many different search engines it may be difficult to

Cons:
choose

You will normally receive too many links often making it difficult to
identify the most relevant sites.

The vast majority of links may be only marginally relevant or
altogether irrelevant.

EX:

Alta Vista

Ask Jeeves

Google

Lycos etc.,

Meta Search Engines:
Meta search engines or –met crawlers– don–t crawl the web themselves. Instead
they search the resources of multiple search engines by sending a search to several
search engines at once aggregating the result.
Pros:

You only need to use one search tool which is time- efficient

You only need to learn how to use one search engine reducing
learning curve

85

You benefit from the difference among several search tools at once

Meta search services may not be able to leverage each individual

Cons:
search engines full range of query tools resulting in less refined
searches

You can not personally select the search engines queried by Meta
search services.

Viva Questions:
1) Define search engine
2) What is a spider?
3) What are popular search engines?
4) What is a meta search engine
5) Give the main Purpose of WWW

TASK 12:
Cyber Hygiene: Students would be exposed to the various threats on the internet and
would be asked to configure their computer to be safe on the internet. They need to
first install an anti virus software, configure their personal firewall and windows
update on their computer. Then they need to customize their browsers to block pop
ups, block active x downloads to avoid viruses and/or worms
PURPOSE: To learn various threats on the internet and configure the computer to be
safe on the internet.
THEORY:
Antivirus:
Antivirus software is a program that either comes installed on your computer or that
you purchase and install yourself. It protects your computer against most viruses,
worms, Trojan horses and other unwanted invaders that can make your computer
sick.

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Firewall:
A firewall is a special software or hardware designed to protect a private computer
network from unauthorized access. A firewall is a set of related programs located at a
network gateway server which protects the resources of the private network from
users from other networks.
PROCEDURE:
Installing Symantec antivirus for Windows:

Insert Symantec antivirus CD into your CD drive

Double click on the Symantec-setup.exe

The installer will open

Click next to proceed

License agreement will open. Click I accept the terms of the license
agreement and then click next.

Follow the instruction on the screen to complete the installation.

Get Computer Updates:

Click start settingscontrol panel

Click Automatic Updates icon to open Automatic Updates dialog box

Check the box Keep my computer up to date

Choose a setting

Click OK

Block Pop ups:

In the Internet explorer open toolspop-up blocker

Click on Turn on Pop- up blocker

Windows Firewall:

Go

to

Startcontrol

panelNetwork

and

Internet

Connectionswindows firewall

In the general tab check the On(recommended) box

If you don–t want any exceptions check on Don–t allow exceptions
box

87

Viva Questions:
1) What is antivirus software?
2) Define virus
3) Define worm
4) What are the advantages of antivirus software?
5) What are the types of antivirus software–s available?

TASK 13:
A test which simulates all of the above tasks would be crafted and given to the
students.
PURPOSE: Test to simulate all the tasks related to Internet Security
THEORY:
 Identify and explain the components required to establish a network
 Establish internet connection and create a new email id , send mail and
attachment file to other mail account
 Define search engine. List the various search engines. Navigate through any
of the search engine like Google and explore its features.

88

 Download a file from the internet. Write the various steps involved in
downloading
 What is Antivirus software? List a few popular anti virus kits available.
 Explain the functionality of the firewall quoting a few examples

TASK 14:
To create project certificate, Features to be covered:-Formatting Fonts in word, Drop
Cap in word, Applying Text effects, Using Character Spacing, Borders and Colors,
Inserting Header and Footer, Using Date and Time option in both MS-WORD .
PURPOSE:
To create a document applying the above mentioned techniques.
THEORY:
Header and Footer:
1. To create a header, enter text or graphics in the header area or click
button on the header and footer tool bar.

89

2. To create footer, click switch between header and footer.
3. Then click exit.
Date and Time:
Insert a date field that automatically updates so that the current date is
displayed when you open or print the file.
Insert a time field that automatically updates so that the current time is
displayed when you open or print the file.
Border:

On the format menu, click borders and shadings.
To specify that the border appears on a particular side of a page, such as only
at the top, click custom under setting.
To specify a particular page or section for the borders to appear, click the
option you want to apply.
To specify the exact position of the border on the page.
Finally, click OK.
Color:

90

Select the text you want to make a different color.
To apply the color most recently applied to text, click font color.
To apply different colors, click the arrow on the right of the font color button,
select the color you want and then click the button.
Procedure:

First click start button on the status bar.
Then select program and again select Microsoft word. On the menu bar click
the file option.
Then again click new. Then enter the text not less than 100 words.
A header appears at the top and the footer appears at the bottom of each
page.
On the view menu, click header and footer option. From dialogue box, make
the required changes and then click OK.

91

On the format menu, click borders and shading s make required changes and
the click OK.
Select the text you want and make the different color. Click on right of the font
color button,
Then select the color you want and then click on the button.
fficials at SUN MICROSYSTEMS INC... introduced a slew of
products to boost delivery of network
O
services, including a new file system for the Solaris operating
system, a second release of an identity management solution and a
subscription-based model that assigns a single price to more than
100
services.

2

Sun's new Dynamic
File System provides "16 billion times more
capacity" than4 current file systems, said Sun's chief executive officer
Scott McNealy, making it infinitely scalable.
5
The file system, which is included as a part of S o l a r i s 1 0 automates many of the tasks that
systems administrators now have to do by hand. Creating and growing file
systems has been cut from 28 to
Just
tasks, for example, while adding mirrored file systems and storage space for users will
take as little as 10 seconds.
6
7
The second release of the identity-management solution has
products based on the
software acquired by Sun with its recent purchase of Waveset Technologies Inc. The Sun Java
System Identity Manager combines user provisioning with metadirectory capabilities, which Sun
claims is an industry first, enabling administrators to manage
identity permissions and profiles and simultaneously synchronize
services for those directories across the enterprise.
other products include an access manager to help manage access
to internal and external Web-based and an enterprise version
of the Sun Java System Directory Server that includes

9

, load balancing, security and integration with Microsoft Corp.'s Active
Directory.
8
Sun's Preventive Services is aimed at the data center and is an
attempt at what McNealy called a
more simplified way of pricing services than through complex
outsourcing contracts. It includes a portfolio of more than 100
services that managers can use to find issues that might affect
network performance and for which they pay one price.
general, many of the new announcements also included references to
other kinds of subscription-based which Sun officials see as a
trend among users who increasingly don't want to own the
technology
themselves.

92

Top items
Other GIET 11
introduced June 1 included an array of low-cost storage products, software to
collect and 10
data produced by radio-frequency identity systems and a
pricing system aimed specifically at Third and developing markets through which
Sun's Java Enterprise System would be sold on a per -citizen basis using the
United Nation's ranking for a country's development status.
Robinson is a freelance journalist based in Portland, Ore. He can be
reached at hullite@mindspring.com.

Top
GIET 11
Set font to:
10
a. Heading 1 + 16 pt, Bold, Black
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu open, click Styles and
Formatting and select Heading1.
iii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the
Font tab and modify the Font
Size, Style and Color.
b. Normal + Verdana, 9.5 pt, Bold, Italic, Dark Blue
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu open, click Styles and
Formatting and select Normal.
iii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the
Font tab and modify the Font,
Size, Style and Color.
c. "nd" as superscript

i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and
select the Effect.
2. Drop cap
a. Click the paragraph that you want to begin with a "drop cap," a large
dropped initial capital letter.
b. On the Format menu, click Drop Cap.
c. Click Dropped.
3. Set font to:
a. Emboss and Text Color white
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab
and select the Effect and Font Color.
b. Grey text shading

93

i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click
the Shading tab.
iii. Select Color and click OK.
iv. Alternatively, use the shading button in the toolbar. Select the
text and click on the toolbar.
4. Set font to:
a. Normal + Verdana, Bold, Italic, Black
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu open, click Styles and Formatting and
select Normal.
iii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and
modify the Font,
Size, Style and Color.
5.Set font to:
b. Raised and Expanded character spacing
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Character
Spacing tab and Click Expanded in the Spacing box, and then
specify how much space you want in the By box.
c. Border the given text
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click
the Borders tab.
iii. Click Text under Apply to.
6Strikethrough Font effect
d. Select the text you want to change.
e. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab
and select the Effect. 7Underline styling
f. Select the text you want to change.
g. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and select
the Underline

Viva Questions:
1) What are the benefits of MS-Office?
2) What is a word processor?
3) Explain the basic features of Ms-word
4) How can you save a document?
5) What is the function of tile bar, menu bar, and status bar, tool bar?

94

TASK 15:
Formatting Styles, Inserting table, Bullets and Numbering, Changing Text Direction,
Cell alignment, Footnote, Hyperlink, Symbols, Spell Check and Track Changes in
the MS-WORD.
PURPOSE:
To create a document applying the above mentioned techniques.
THEORY:
Table:

95

A table consists of rows and columns.
Cell Alignment:

Aligns contents written in a table in the top left corner or top right
corner or in the center etc...
Foot Note:
Foot notes are used to comments on, or provide references for text in
a document.

Formatting Styles:

A style is a set of rules to be followed for the effective document. Style
can be applied to text, paragraph, table or a list.
Changing text direction:

96

You can change the text orientation in drawing objects, such as text
boxes, shapes, and callouts, or in table cells so that the text is displayed
vertically or horizontally.
Track changes:
Track changes are an excellent feature of Microsoft word as it enables
a user or reviewer to keep track of the changes that have taken a period. Changes
like insertion, deletion or formatting changes can be kept track of.
Procedure:
Changing Text direction:
1. Click the drawing object or table cell that contains the text you want to
change.
2. On the Format menu, click Text Direction.
3. Click the orientation you want.
Table:

1. Click where you want to create a table.
2. On the Table menu, point to Insert, and then click Table.

97

3. Under Table size, select the number of columns and rows.
4. Under AutoFit behavior, choose options to adjust table size.
5. To use a built-in table format, click AutoFormat.
Select the options you want
Cell Alignment:

1. Click the cell that contains text you want to align.
2. On the Tables and Borders toolbar, select the option for the horizontal and
vertical alignment you want– for example, Align Bottom Center or Align Top
Right.
Foot Note:
1. In print layout view, click where you want to insert the note reference mark.
2. On the Insert menu, point to Reference, and then click Footnote.
3. Click Footnotes or Endnotes.
By default, Word places footnotes at the end of each page and endnotes at
the end of the document. You can change the placement of footnotes and
endnotes by making a selection in the Footnotes or Endnotes box.
4. In the Number format box, click the format you want.
5. Click Insert.
Word inserts the note number and places the insertion point next to the note
number.
6. Type the note text.
7. Scroll to your place in the document and continue typing.
As you insert additional footnotes or endnotes in the document, Word
automatically applies the correct number format.
Hyper link:

98

Select the text or picture you want to display as the hyperlink, and then click Insert
Hyperlink on the Standard toolbar
Do one of the following:
1. Link to an existing file or web page:
1. Under Link to, click Existing File or Web Page.
2. In the Address box, type the address you want to link to or, in the Look
in box, click the down arrow, and navigate to and select the file.
2. Link to a file you haven–t created yet
Under Link to, click Create New Document.
3. In the Name of new document box, type the name of the new file.
4. Under When to edit, click either Edit the new document later or Edit
the new document now
An e-mail address:
1. Select the text or picture you want to display as the hyperlink, and then click
Insert Hyperlink on the Standard toolbar
2. Under Link to, click E-mail Address.
3. Either type the e-mail address you want in the E-mail address box, or select
an e-mail address in the recently used e-mail addresses box.
4. In the Subject box, type the subject of the e-mail message
A specific location in another document
1. Insert a bookmark in the destination file or Web page.
2. Open the file that you want to link from, and select the text or object you want
to display as the hyperlink. On the Standard toolbar, click Insert Hyperlink.
3. Under Link to, click Existing File or Web Page.

99

4. In the Look in box, click the down arrow, and navigate to and select the file
that you want to link to.
5. Click Bookmark, select the bookmark you want, and then click OK.
Symbol:

1. Click where you want to insert the symbol.
2. On the Insert menu, click Symbol, and then click the Symbols tab.
3. In the Font box, click the font that you want.
4. Double-click the symbol that you want to insert.
5. Click Close
Spell check:

100

1. On the Standard toolbar, click Spelling and Grammar

.

2. When Word finds a possible spelling or grammatical problem, make your
changes in the Spelling and Grammar dialog box.
Bullets and Numbering:

1. Type 1. to start a numbered list or * (asterisk) to start a bulleted list, and then
press SPACEBAR or TAB.
2. Type any text you want.
3. Press ENTER to add the next list item.
Word automatically inserts the next number or bullet.
4. To finish the list, press ENTER twice, or press BACKSPACE to delete the last
bullet or number in the list
Formatting Styles:

1. Select the words, paragraph, list, or table you want to change.
2. If the Styles and Formatting task pane

is not open, click Styles and

Formatting on the Formatting toolbar
3. Click the style you want in the Styles and Formatting task pane.
If the style you want is not listed, click All Styles in the Show box
Track Changes:
1. Open the document you want to revise.
2. On the Tools menu, click Track Changes

101

Viva questions:
1) What is the function of spell check?
2) How can you insert a table?
3) Define header, footer
4) Explain about clipart
5) How can you create a hyper link?

TASK 16:
Create a Newsletter. Features to be covered:-Table of content. Newspaper columns,
Images from files and clipart, Drawing toolbar and Word Art, Formatting Images,
Textboxes and Paragraphs.
PURPOSE:
To create a news Letter
THEORY:
Table of contents:
Table of contents displays a list of headings in a created document. It
basically provides an outline of the entire document created
Newspaper columns:

102

One can create a newspaper columns document by specifying the
number of new letter-style column required and then adjust their width, and add
vertical lines between columns.
Images from files and clipart:

Inserting a picture (graphic) from a file and clipart may be required for
a document. This picture could be a scanned photograph or any other digitally
produced one. These pictures can be modified, resized, cropped and enhanced.
Drawing toolbar and Word Art:

103

One can create his/her own drawings in Microsoft word.Ms word
provides a full fledged drawing tool bar.
Word Art in Microsoft word enables you to create special and
decorative text.
Formatting Images, Textboxes and Paragraphs:

Formatting an image includes selecting appropriate color, size, layout
and cropping.
Generally the text in a document follows a standard orientation (line
after line). A text box provides a different orientation to the text with in a document. It

104

can arrange the text in any where and can be resized and moreover moved to any
section of the document or even outside.
When you are formatting a paragraph, you do not need to highlight the
entire paragraph. Placing the cursor any where in the paragraph enables you to
format it. After you set a paragraph format, subsequent paragraphs will have the
same format unless you change the format.
PROCEDURE:
Table of contents:
1. Click where you want to insert the table of contents.
2. On the Insert menu, point to Reference, and click Index and Tables.
3. Click the Table of Contents tab.
4. To use one of the available designs, click a design in the Formats box.
5. Select any other table of contents options you want.
Newspaper columns:
1. Select the entire or part of document to be converted into a newsletter-style
2. Click on format menu, select columns
3. Any desired number of columns are presets-one or two or three or left or right
b\can be selected.
4. Width and spacing can be fixed and equal columns width can be checked for
uniformity
5. If newspaper columns are to be separated by a line, then check line between
6. Under apply to will be whole document if entire document is selected else we have
to select a selected text.
7. Click ok
Inserting images from files and clip art:
1. Click where you want to insert the picture.
2. On the Insert menu, point to Picture, and then click From File.
3. Locate the picture you want to insert.
4. Double-click the picture you want to insert.
CLIP ART:
1. On the Insert menu, point to Picture, and then click Clip Art.
2. In the Clip Art task pane, in the Search for box, type a word or phrase
that describes the clip you want or type in all or some of the file name
of the clip.
3. To narrow your search, do one or both of the following:

105

To limit search results to a specific collection of clips, in the
Search in box, click the arrow and select the collections you
want to search.

To limit search results to a specific type of media file, in the
Results should be box, click the arrow and select the check
box next to the types of clips you want to find.

4. Click Go.
5. If you don't know the exact file name, you can substitute wildcard
characters for one or more real characters. Use the asterisk (*) as a substitute
for zero or more characters in a file name. Use the question mark (?) as a
substitute for a single character in a file name.
6. In the Results box, click the clip to insert it.
Drawing Toolbar and Word Art:
1. Click in your document where you want to create the drawing.
2. On the Insert menu, point to Picture, and then click New Drawing.
A drawing canvas is inserted into your document.
3. Use the Drawing toolbar to add any shapes or pictures that you want.
WORD ART:

1. On the Drawing toolbar, click Insert WordArt

.

2. Click the WordArt effect you want, and then click OK.
3. In the Edit WordArt Text dialog box, type the text you want.
4. Do any of the following:

To change the font type, in the Font list, select a font.

To change the font size, in the Size list, select a size.

To make text bold, click the Bold button.

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To make text italic, click the Italic button.

Formatting Images:
1. Formatting of the images can be achieved by selecting the image and double click
on the picture, format picture dialog box appears.
2. The same can be achieved by selecting the tools menu  customizetool bars
tabpicture and click close.
Basic formatting features of an image
Resize a drawing
1. Select the drawing canvas
2. On the Drawing Canvas toolbar, do one of the following:
o To make the drawing canvas boundary larger without changing the size of

the objects on the canvas, click Expand.
o To make the drawing canvas boundary fit tightly around the drawing

objects or pictures, click Fit.
o To scale the drawing and make the objects and canvas proportionately

smaller or larger, click Scale Drawing, and then drag the edges of the
canvas.
Resize a picture or shape
1. Position the mouse pointer over one of the sizing handles
2. Drag the sizing handle until the object is the shape and size you want.
To increase or decrease the size in one or more directions, drag the mouse
away from or toward the center, while doing one of the following:
o

To keep the center of an object in the same place, hold down CTRL
while dragging the mouse.

o

To maintain the object's proportions, drag one of the corner sizing
handles.

o

To maintain the proportions while keeping the center in the same
place, hold down CTRL while dragging one of the corner sizing
handles.

Crop a picture

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1. Select the picture you want to crop.
2. On the Picture toolbar, click Crop.
3. Position the cropping tool over a cropping handle and then do one of the
following:
o

To crop one side, drag the center handle on that side inward.

o

To crop equally on two sides at once, hold down CTRL as you drag
the center handle on either side inward.

o

To crop equally on all four sides at once, hold down CTRL as you drag
a corner handle inward.

4. On the Picture toolbar, click Crop to turn off the Crop command.
Text Box:
1. On the Drawing toolbar, click Text Box

.

2. Click or drag in your document where you want to insert the text box
3. You can use the options on the Drawing toolbar to enhance a text box– for
example, to change the fill color– just as you can with any other drawing
object
Paragraphs:

Change line spacing

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Select the text you want to change.
1. On the Formatting toolbar, point to Line Spacing, and then do one of the
following:
o

To apply a new setting, click the arrow, and then select the number
that you want.

o

To apply the most recently used setting, click the button.

o

To set more precise measurements, click the arrow, click More, and
then select the options you want under Line Spacing.

Change spacing before or after paragraphs
1. Select the paragraphs in which you want to change spacing.
2. On the Format menu, click Paragraph, and then click the Indents and Spacing
tab.
3. Under Spacing, enter the spacing you want in the Before or After box.
Change paragraph direction
1. Place the insertion point in the paragraph that you want to change, or select
several paragraphs.
2. Do one of the following:
o

To have text begin from the left, click Left-to-Right on the Formatting
toolbar.

o

To have text begin from the right, click Right-to-Left on the Formatting
toolbar.

When you change the paragraph direction, Microsoft Word leaves justified and
centered text as it is. In the case of left-aligned or right-aligned text, Word flips the
alignment to its opposite. For example, if you have a left-to-right paragraph that is
right aligned, such as the date at the top of a letter, clicking Right-to-Left results in a
right-to-left paragraph that is left aligned.

Viva questions:
1) Define undo, redo
2) What is the main Purpose of a drop cap?
3) What are footnotes and end notes?
4) How can you print a document ?
5) How can you make alignment of text in a table?
TASK 17:

109

PPT Orientation, Slide Layouts, Inserting Text, Word Art, Formatting Text, Bullets and
Numbering, Auto Shapes, Lines and Arrows .
TITLE:
Create a power point presentation consists of slide layouts inserting text,
formatting text, bullets and numbering of five slides with following information–s.
Slide 1 – contents
Slide 2 – Name
Slide 3 – Address
Slide 4 – Hobbies
Slide 5 – Friends
PURPOSE:
To maintain a PowerPoint presentation with some specifications
THEORY:
SLIDE LAYOUT:

1. On the format menu, click slide layout.

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2. On the slides tab in normal view, select the slides; you want to apply a
layout too.
3. In the slide layout task pane, point to layout you and then click it.
4. A new slide can also be inserted within the task pane. Point the layout you
want the slide to have, click the arrow and then click the insert new slide.
INSERT TEXT:

1. Text can be added to layout.
2. Align text in the top, middle or bottom of a cell.
3. Align text on the right or left, or in the center of a cell.
4. Change cell margins.
5. Insert a tab in a table.
6. To make the symbol command available, in normal view, place the
insertion point on the outbox tab or in a text place holders on the slide.
7. On the insert menu, click symbol.
8. To change fonts, click a name in the font box.
FORMATTING TEXT:

1. Select the text you want to format as superscript or subscript.
2. On the format menu, click font.
3. To show or hide text formatting, on the standard toolbar, click show
formatting.

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BULLETS AND NUMBERINGS:

1. Select the lines of text that you want to add bullets or numbering to.
2. Click bullets or numbering.
AUTOSHAPES:

1. Select the auto shape that has the text you want to position.
2. Double-click the selection rectangle of the auto shape or text box and
then click the text box tab in the format dialog box.
3. In the text anchor point box, click the position you want the text to start in.
LINES AND ARROWS:

1. In Microsoft power point, double click the chart.
2. Double click the chart item you want to change.
3. On the patterns tab, do one or both of the following.

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4. To change the colors, patterns or lines, select the options you want.
5. To specify a fill effect, click fill effect and then select the options you want
on the gradient, text patterns or picture tabs.
To return to the slide, click outside the about.
PROCEDURE:
First click on start button at the button of the screen on status bar. Click on
programs and then Microsoft PowerPoint. Go to file and new. Then you find different
pattern of slides on right side of your screen. Then select which is completely empty.
Then enter the contents in the first slide as per given information, name in the second
slide, Address in the third slide, Hobbies in the fourth slide and friends in the fifth
slide. Except first slide, all the second, third, fourth, fifth slides should be inserted.
When you select pattern of slide from a new slide, on slide which you selected you
will find an arrow towards its right side, click that arrow and then again click insert
slide. Then save it. Then adjust the layout. Then format the text then give bullets or
numbering to the text if required. Go to auto shapes. Select more auto shapes and
insert wherever required. Then again go to insert option and select new slides. And
select chart and a chart with datasheet appear. Give the name, roll no, marks in three
subjects and calculate the total. Then save the file

Viva Questions:
1) Explain about power point
2) What is word art?
3) Explain about slide transition
4) How can you rotate the picture in power point?
5) What are the different auto shapes available in power point?

TASK 18:

113

Hyperlinks, Inserting –Images, Clip Art, Audio, Video, Objects, Tables and Charts
TITLE:
Create a power point presentation consisting of hyperlinks, inserting images,
clip art, audio, video objects of 4 slides with the following information.
Slide 1:- Name of your college in bold letters.
Slide 2:- Address of your college in bold letters.
Slide 3:- List of all available courses.
Slide 4:- Extra co-curricular activities.
And apply the transaction effects and set the time three seconds for each
slide and view it in slide show.
PURPOSE:
To maintain a PowerPoint presentation using some specifications
THEORY:
HYPERLINK:

1. Select the text or object that you want to represent the hyperlink.
2. Click insert hyperlink.
3. Under link to, click place in this document.

INSERT IMAGES:

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1. Click where you want to insert the picture.
2. On the drawing tool bar, click insert picture.
3. Locate the folder that contains the picture that you want to insert, and
then click the picture file.
CLIP ART:

1. On the insert menu, point to structure and then click clipart.

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2. in the clipart task pane, in the search for box, type a word or phrase that
describes the clip, you want to type in all or same of the file menus of the
clip.
3. in the results box, click the clip to insert it.
AUDIO VIDEO OBJECTS:

1. On the slide show menu, click setup show. Under performance check box.
If your computer has their capability, office PowerPoint will attempt to use
it.
2. Animation performance will be much better with a video card that has
Microsoft direct 3D.
TABLE:

1. On the standard tool bar, click insert table.
2. Print to select the numbers of rows and columns you want and then click.

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CHART:

1. Click the slide where you want to place the embedded object.
2. On the insert menu, click chart.
3. Click a cell on the data sheet and then type the information you want.
To return to the slide, click outside the chart
PROCEDURE:
First click on start button at the bottom of the screen on status bar. Click on
programs and then Microsoft power point go to file menu. Then you find different
pattern of slides on right side of your screen. Then select which is completely empty.
Then enter the name of your college in bold letters. Address of your college in bold
letters in the second slide. List of all the available courses in the third slide, extra cocurricular activities in the fourth slide except first slide, all the second, third, fourth
slide should be inserted. When you select pattern of slide from a new slide, on slide
which you selected, you will find an arrow towards it right side click that arrow and
then again click insert slide. Then save it the select the slide show and then select
the view show option. Then review the presentation in slide show by selecting next
and after completing the slide show then click end show. Click on start button at the
button of the screen on status bar, click on programs and then Microsoft power point.
Go to file menu. On insert menu and select table option and give no. of rows and no.
of columns and give the name, Roll no and marks in three subjects and find the total
Viva Questions:
1) Define hyper link
2) Define slide show
3) Define slide transition
4) What is animation
5) How can you insert a table in power point?
TASK19:

117

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program. It features an intuitive interface,
calculation and graphing tools. These tools could be used for business financial
analysis and other administrative tasks. These features have made Excel one of the
most popular microcomputer applications to date. In this module you will master
Microsoft Excel.

Merge cells
When you merge two or more adjacent cells, the cells become one merged cell,
and the contents of the upper-left cell are displayed in the center of the merged cell,
as shown in the following example.

Text spread and centered over multiple cells
Important Only the data in the upper-left cell of a range (range: Two or more cells
on a sheet. The cells in a range can be adjacent or nonadjacent.) of selected cells
will remain in the merged cell. Data in other cells of the selected range will be
deleted.
1. If the data that you want to display in the merged cell is not in the upper-left
cell, do the following:
1. Select the data that you want to display in the merged cell, and then click
2.
2.

Copy
on the Standard toolbar.
Select the upper-left cell of the range of adjacent cells that you want to

merge, and then click Paste
on the Standard toolbar.
Select the cells that you want to merge.
Note The cells that you select must be adjacent.

3. On the Formatting toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you can
use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, point to Toolbars on the View
menu. If you don't see the button you want, click the arrows at the right
end of the toolbar.), click Merge and Center .
The cells will be merged in a row or column, and the cell contents will
be centered in the merged cell.
Note If the Merge and Center button is unavailable, the selected cell may be in
editing mode. To cancel editing mode, press ENTER.
5. To change the text alignment in the merged cell, select the cell, and then click
Align Left

or Align Right

on the Formatting toolbar.

Enabling Border options
Using predefined border styles, you can quickly add a border around cells or ranges
(range: Two or more cells on a sheet. The cells in a range can be adjacent or
nonadjacent.) of cells.
1. To apply a new or different border style, click the arrow next to Borders
Formatting toolbar, and then choose a border style from the palette.

on the

Tip To apply a custom border style or a diagonal border, click Cells on the Format
menu. On the Border tab, click the line style and color that you want, and then
click one or more buttons to indicate the border placement. Two

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diagonal border buttons

are available under Border.

2. To remove cell borders, click the arrow next to Borders
toolbar, and then click No Border

on the Formatting

on the palette.

AutoFill Data
Automatically repeat items already entered in the column
If the first few characters that you type in a cell match an existing entry in that
column, Microsoft Excel automatically enters the remaining characters for you.
Excel automatically completes only those entries that contain text or a combination
of text and numbers. Entries that contain only numbers, dates, or times are not
completed.
Do one of the following:
1. To accept the proposed entry, press ENTER.
2. The completed entry exactly matches the pattern of uppercase and
lowercase letters of the existing entry.
3. To replace the automatically entered characters, continue typing.
4. To delete the automatically entered characters, press BACKSPACE.
Use the fill handle to fill data
You can use the Series command (point to Fill on the Edit menu, and then click
Series) to fill data into worksheet cells. You can also have Excel automatically
continue a series of numbers, number and text combinations, dates, or time periods,
based on a pattern that you establish. However, to quickly fill in several types of data
series, you can select cells and drag the fill handle (fill handle: The small black
square in the lower-right corner of the selection. When you point to the fill handle,
the pointer changes to a black cross.)
.
The fill handle is displayed by default, but you can hide it.
1.
2.

On the Tools menu, click Options.
On the Edit tab, do one of the following:
To hide the fill handle, clear the Allow cell drag and drop check box.
To display the fill handle, select the Allow cell drag and drop check
box.
To avoid replacing existing data when you drag the fill handle, make sure that the
Alert before overwriting cells check box is selected. If you don't want to get a
message about overwriting nonblank cells, you can clear this check box.

Fill data into adjacent cells
Enabling Border options
Using predefined border styles, you can quickly add a border around cells or ranges
(range: Two or more cells on a sheet. The cells in a range can be adjacent or
nonadjacent.) of cells.
1. To apply a new or different border style, click the arrow next to Borders
Formatting toolbar, and then choose a border style from the palette.

on the

Tip To apply a custom border style or a diagonal border, click Cells on the Format
menu. On the Border tab, click the line style and color that you want, and then
click one or more buttons to indicate the border placement. Two

119

diagonal border buttons

are available under Border.

2. To remove cell borders, click the arrow next to Borders
toolbar, and then click No Border

on the Formatting

on the palette.

AutoFill Data
Automatically repeat items already entered in the column
If the first few characters that you type in a cell match an existing entry in that
column, Microsoft Excel automatically enters the remaining characters for you.
Excel automatically completes only those entries that contain text or a combination
of text and numbers. Entries that contain only numbers, dates, or times are not
completed.
Do one of the following:
5. To accept the proposed entry, press ENTER.
6. The completed entry exactly matches the pattern of uppercase and
lowercase letters of the existing entry.
7. To replace the automatically entered characters, continue typing.
8. To delete the automatically entered characters, press BACKSPACE.
Use the fill handle to fill data
You can use the Series command (point to Fill on the Edit menu, and then click
Series) to fill data into worksheet cells. You can also have Excel automatically
continue a series of numbers, number and text combinations, dates, or time periods,
based on a pattern that you establish. However, to quickly fill in several types of data
series, you can select cells and drag the fill handle (fill handle: The small black
square in the lower-right corner of the selection. When you point to the fill handle,
the pointer changes to a black cross.)
.
The fill handle is displayed by default, but you can hide it.
3.
4.

On the Tools menu, click Options.
On the Edit tab, do one of the following:
To hide the fill handle, clear the Allow cell drag and drop check box.
To display the fill handle, select the Allow cell drag and drop check
box.
To avoid replacing existing data when you drag the fill handle, make sure that the
Alert before overwriting cells check box is selected. If you don't want to get a
message about overwriting nonblank cells, you can clear this check box.

Fill data into adjacent cells
1. Select the cells that contain the data that you want to fill into adjacent cells.
2. Drag the fill handle (fill handle: The small black square in the lower-right corner of
the selection. When you point to the fill handle, the pointer changes to a black
cross.)
across the cells that you want to fill.
3. You can use the Auto Fill Options button
, which appears after you drag the fill
handle, to choose how to fill the selection. For example, you can choose Fill
Formatting Only or Fill Without Formatting.
Fill formulas into adjacent cells
1. Select the cell that contains the formula that you want to fill into adjacent cells.
2. Drag the fill handle (fill handle: The small black square in the lower-right corner of
the selection. When you point to the fill handle, the pointer changes to a black

120

cross.)

across the cells that you want to fill.

3. You can use the Auto Fill Options button
, which appears after you drag the fill
handle, to choose how to fill the selection. For example, you can choose Fill
Formatting Only or Fill Without Formatting.
Fill in a series of numbers, dates, or other built-in series items
Using the fill handle (fill handle: The small black square in the lower-right corner of
the selection. When you point to the fill handle, the pointer changes to a black
cross.), you can quickly fill cells in a range with a series of numbers or dates or with
a built-in series for days, weekdays, months, or years.
1. Select the first cell in the range that you want to fill.
2. Type the starting value for the series.
3. Type a value in the next cell to establish a pattern.
For example, if you want the series 1, 2, 3, 4, 5..., type 1 and 2 in the first two
cells. If you want the series 2, 4, 6, 8..., type 2 and 4. If you want the series 2, 2,
2, 2..., you can leave the second cell blank.
More examples of series that you can fill
When you fill a series, the selections are extended as shown in the following
table. Items separated by commas are in placed in individual adjacent cells.
Initial selection Extended series
1, 2, 3
4.
5.

4, 5, 6,...

Select the cell or cells that contain the starting values.
Drag the fill handle
across the range that you want to fill.
To fill in increasing order, drag down or to the right. To fill in decreasing order,
drag up or to the left.

Fill data by using a custom fill series
To make entering a particular sequence of data (such as a list of names or sales
regions) easier, you can create a custom fill series. A custom fill series can be based
on a list of existing items on a worksheet, or you can type the list from scratch.
Use a custom fill series based on an existing list of items
1. On the worksheet, select the list of items that you want to use in the fill series.
2. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Custom Lists tab.
3. Verify that the list of items that you selected is displayed in the Import list
from cells box, and then click Import.
The items in the list that you selected are added to the Custom lists box.
4. On the worksheet, click a cell, and then type the item in the custom fill series
that you want to use to start the list.
5. Drag the fill handle (fill handle: The small black square in the lower-right corner of
the selection. When you point to the fill handle, the pointer changes to a black
cross.)
across the cells that you want to fill.
Use a custom fill series based on a new list of items
1. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Custom Lists tab.
2. In the Custom lists box, click New list, and then type the entries in the List
entries box, beginning with the first entry.
Press ENTER after each entry.
3. When the list is complete, click Add.
4. On the worksheet, click a cell, and then type the item in the custom fill series
that you want to use to start the list.

121

5.

Drag the fill handle

across the cells that you want to fill.

Add, change, or remove conditional formats
1. Select the cells for which you want to add, change, or remove conditional
formatting (conditional format: A format, such as cell shading or font color, that
Excel automatically applies to cells if a specified condition is true.).
2. On the Format menu, click Conditional Formatting.
3. Do one of the following:
Add a conditional format
1. Do one of the following:
To use values in the selected cells as the formatting criteria, click Cell Value
Is, select the comparison phrase, and then type a constant (constant: A value
that is not calculated and, therefore, does not change. For example, the
number 210, and the text "Quarterly Earnings" are constants. An expression,
or a value resulting from an expression, is not a constant.) value or a formula.
If you enter a formula, start it with an equal sign (=).
To use a formula as the formatting criteria (to evaluate data or a condition
other than the values in selected cells), click Formula Is and then enter the
formula that evaluates to a logical value of TRUE or FALSE.
2. Click Format.
3. Select the formatting you want to apply when the cell value meets the
condition or the formula returns the value TRUE.
4. To add another condition, click Add, and then repeat steps 1 through 3.
You can specify up to three conditions. If none of the specified conditions are
true, the cells keep their existing formats.
Note Using multiple conditions If more than one specified condition is true,
Microsoft Excel applies only the formats of the first true condition, even if more
than one condition is true.
Copy formats to other cells
1.

Select the cells that have the conditional formats you want to copy.

2. On the Formatting toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you
use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, click Customize on the
Tools menu, and then click the Toolbars tab.), click Format Painter
,
and then select the cells you want to
format.
Change or remove a conditional
format
Do one or more of the following:
1. To change formats, click Format for the condition you want to change.
2. To reselect formats on the current tab of the Format Cells dialog box, click
Clear and select new formats.
3. To remove one or more conditions, click Delete, and then select the check
box for the conditions you want to delete.
Tip
To remove all conditional formats as well as all other cell formats for selected
cells, point to Clear on the Edit menu, and then click Formats.
Display numbers as dates or times
1. Select the cell or range (range: Two or more cells on a sheet. The cells in a
range can be adjacent or nonadjacent.) or cells that you want to format.
2. On the Format menu, click Cells.
3. On the Number tab, in the Category list, click Date or Time.
4. In the Type list, click the format that you want to use.

122

Dates or times that you type into formatted cells will be displayed in the format
that you selected.
Custom date and time codes
Days, months, and years If you use "m" immediately after the "h" or "hh" code or
immediately before the "ss" code, Microsoft Excel displays minutes instead of the
month.
To display
Use this code
Months as 1–12 m

Hours, minutes, and seconds
To display

Use this code

Hours as 0–23 H

1.AM and PM If the format contains an AM or PM, the hour is based on the 12hour clock, where "AM" or "A" indicates times from midnight until noon and "PM"
or "P" indicates times from noon until midnight. Otherwise, the hour is based on
the 24-hour clock. The "m" or "mm" code must appear immediately after the "h"
or "hh" code or immediately before the "ss" code; otherwise, Microsoft Excel
displays the month instead of minutes.
2.When you try to undo a date or time format by selecting General in the
Category list, Excel displays a number code. When you enter a date or time
again, Excel displays the default date or time format. To enter a specific date or
time format, such as January 2005, you may want to format it as text by
selecting Text in the Category list.

Apply or remove cell shading:
You can add shading to cells by filling them with solid colors or specific patterns.
1. Select the cells or ranges (range: Two or more cells on a sheet. The cells in a
range can be adjacent or nonadjacent.) of cells that you want to apply shading to
or remove shading from.
2. Do one of the following:
To fill cells with a solid color, click the arrow next to Fill Color
on the
Formatting toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you can use
to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, point to Toolbars on the View
menu. If you don't see the button you want, click the arrows at the right end
of the toolbar.), and then click the color that you want on the palette.
To apply the most recently selected color, click Fill Color
.
To fill cells with a pattern, click Cells on the Format menu. On the Patterns
tab, under Cell shading, click the background color that you want to use for
the pattern. Then click the arrow next to the Pattern box, and click the pattern
style and pattern color.
To remove a fill color or fill pattern from selected cells or cell ranges, click the
arrow next to Fill Color
, and then click No Fill.
To calculate the Sum

123

Add numbers in a cell
You can add numbers as you type them into a cell. For example, type =5+10 in a
cell to display the result 15.
Add all contiguous numbers in a row or
column You can use AutoSum
to do this
task.
1. Click a cell below the column of numbers or to the right of the row of numbers.
2. Click AutoSum
on the Standard toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and
options that you use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, click
Customize on the Tools menu, and then click the Toolbars tab.), and then
press ENTER.

Performance Analysis-Features to be covered:-split cells, freeze panes, group
and outline, sorting, Boolean and logical operators, Conditional formatting
PURPOSE:
To create Excel with split cells, freeze panes, group and outline, sorting, Boolean
and logical operators, conditional formatting
THEORY:
Split Cells:

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Excel allows you to split the workbook window into two horizontal or vertical panes
and also to split cells or data across many cells.
Sort:
1. Click a cell in the list you want to sort.
2. On the Data menu click sort.
3.

Under first key sort click the custom sort order you want and then click ok.

Click any other sorting option you want
Freeze Panes:
You can freeze a pane from a split window or just freeze rows or columns
without splitting the window.

PROCEDURE:
Sort:

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First click on start button at the bottom of the screen on status bar. Click on
programs and then Ms-excel. Then enter the data as given. Enter the student–s
names, Subjective wise marks, total and avg. Then calculate the total and avg by
using formula. Then go to Data menu and click sort. Under first key sort, click custom
sort order needed i.e. ascending order or alphabetical order and then click o.k. Then
the required worksheet is prepared
Split cells:

Spread the content of one cell over many cells
1. Copy the data you want into the upper-leftmost cell within the range.
2. Select the cells you want to merge.
3. To merge cells in a row or column and center the cell contents, click Merge
and Center on the Formatting toolbar.
Split merged cells

1. Select the merged cell When cells have been combined, Merge and Center
on the Formatting toolbar is selected
2. Click Merge and Center on the Formatting toolbar.

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Divide text across cells

1. Select the range of cells that contains the text values. The range can be any
number of rows tall, but no more than one columns wide.
2. On the Data menu, click Text to Columns.
3. Follow the instructions in the Convert Text to Columns Wizard to specify how
you want to divide the text into columns.
Split Windows:
1. At the top of the vertical scroll bar or at the right end of the horizontal scroll
bar, point to the split box.
2. When the pointer changes to a split pointer, drag the split box down or to the
left to the position you want.
Freeze Panes:
1. To freeze a pane, do one of the following:
The top horizontal pane

Select the row below where you want the split to

appear.
The left vertical pane

Select the column to the right of where you want the

split to appear.
Both the upper and left panes

Click the cell below and to the right of where

you want the split to appear.
2. On the Window menu, click Freeze Panes.
Outline:

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1. Outline the data automatically
1. Select the range of cells you want to outline. To outline the entire
worksheet, click any cell on the worksheet.
2. On the Data menu, point to Group and Outline, and then click Auto
Outline.

Outline the data manually

3. Select the rows or columns that contain detail data.
4. On the Data menu, point to Group and Outline, and then click Group.
The outline symbols appear beside the group on the screen.
5. Continue selecting and grouping detail rows or columns until you have
created all of the levels you want in the outline.
Group:
Group objects
1. Select the objects you want to group.
To select multiple objects, hold down SHIFT while you select each object.
2. On the Drawing toolbar, click Draw, and then click Group.
Ungroup objects
1. Select the group you want to ungroup.
2. On the Drawing toolbar, click Draw, and then click Ungroup.

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To continue ungrouping, click Yes when the message box appears.
To change an individual object, continue to select and ungroup objects until
the one you want becomes available.
3. Use the tools on the Drawing toolbar to change the object
Conditional Formatting:

1. Select the cells for which you want to add, change, or remove conditional
formatting
2. On the Format menu, click Conditional Formatting.
3. Do one of the following:
Add a conditional format
1. Do one of the following:
To use values in the selected cells as the formatting criteria, click Cell
Value Is, select the comparison phrase, and then type a constant
value or a formula. If you enter a formula, start it with an equal sign
(=).
To use a formula as the formatting criteria (to evaluate data or a
condition other than the values in selected cells), click Formula Is and
then enter the formula that evaluates to a logical value of TRUE or
FALSE.
2. Click Format.
3. Select the formatting you want to apply when the cell value meets the
condition or the formula returns the value TRUE.
4. To add another condition, click Add, and then repeat steps 1 through
3.
You can specify up to three conditions. If none of the specified
conditions are true, the cells keep their existing formats
Change or remove a conditional format

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Do one or more of the following:
o

To change formats, click Format for the condition you want to change.

o

To reselect formats on the current tab of the Format Cells dialog box,
click clear and select new formats.

o

To remove one or more conditions, click Delete, and then select the
check box for the conditions you want to delete

Viva Questions:
1) List a few important features of excel
2) Define split cell
3) How can you split a window into a horizontal pane?
4) How can you make a freezing pane?
5) How to perform grouping and ungrouping?

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TASK 20:
Cricket Score card-Features to be covered:-pivot tables, Interactive Buttons,
Importing data, Data Protection, Data validation
PURPOSE: To learn about pivot tables, Interactive Buttons, Importing data, Data
Protection, Data validation.
THEORY:
Pivot Tables:
A PivotTable report is an interactive table that quickly combines and compares large
amounts of data. You can rotate its rows and columns to see different summaries of
the source data, and you can display the details for areas of interest.
Interactive Buttons:
MS- Excel allows you to create Interactive Buttons
Data Protection:
Ms excel allows you to protect your work sheet from being added or renamed or
deleted or copied by providing password protection to your worksheets.
Data Validation:
Data validation is a tool that helps you to control the kind of information that is
entered in your worksheet. With data validation you can:

Provide users with a list of choices

Restrict entries to a specific type or size

Create custom settings

PROCEDURE:
Pivot Tables:
1. Open the workbook where you want to create the PivotTable report.
o

If you are basing the report on a Web query, parameter query, report
template, Office Data Connection file, or query file, retrieve the data
into the workbook, and then click a cell in the Microsoft Excel list
containing the retrieved data.
If the retrieved data is from an OLAP database, or the Office Data
Connection returns the data as a blank PivotTable report, continue
with step 6 below.

o

If you are basing the report on an Excel list or database, click a cell in
the list or database.

2. On the Data menu, click PivotTable and PivotChart Report.
3. In step 1 of the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard, follow the instructions, and
click PivotTable under What kind of report do you want to create?

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4. Follow the instructions in step 2 of the wizard.
5. Follow the instructions in step 3 of the wizard, and then decide whether to lay
out the report onscreen or in the wizard.
Button:

Select the commands tab

Scroll to the bottom of the categories list

Select the custom button

Drag this button to your new toolbar in the location where you want it
to be.

You can obtain a description of the command button by selecting the
command and pressing the Description button

Data Protection:
Protect worksheet elements from all users
1. Switch to the worksheet you want to protect.
2. Unlock any cells you want users to be able to change: select each cell or
range, click Cells on the Format menu, click the Protection tab, and then clear
the Locked check box.
3. Hide any formulas that you don't want to be visible: select the cells with the
formulas, click Cells on the Format menu, click the Protection tab, and then
select the Hidden check box.
4. Unlock any graphic objects you want users to be able to change.
You don't need to unlock buttons or controls for users to be able to click and use
them. You can unlock embedded charts, text boxes, and other objects created with
the drawing tools that you want users to be able to modify. To see which elements on
a worksheet are graphic objects, click Go To on the Edit menu, click Special, and
then click Objects.
1. Hold down CTRL and click each object that you want to unlock.
2. On the Format menu, click the command for the object you selected:
AutoShape, Object, Text Box, Picture, Control, or WordArt.
3. Click the Protection tab.
4. Clear the Locked check box, and if present, clear the Lock text check
box.
5. On the Tools menu, point to Protection, and then click Protect Sheet.
6. Type a password for the sheet.

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7. In the Allow all users of this worksheet to list, select the elements that you
want users to be able to change.
8. Click OK, and if prompted retype the password.
Protect a shared workbook
1. If the workbook is already shared, and you want to assign a password to
protect the sharing, unshare the workbook.
1. Have all other users save and close the shared workbook. If other
users are editing, they will lose any unsaved work.
2. Unsharing the workbook deletes the change history. If you want to
keep a copy of this information, print out the History worksheet or copy
it to another workbook.
1. On the Tools menu, point to Track Changes, and then click
Highlight Changes.
2. In the When box, click All.
3. Clear the Who and Where check boxes.
4. Select the List changes on a new sheet check box, and then
click OK.
5. Do one or more of the following:

To print the History worksheet, click Print

.

To copy the history to another workbook, select the
cells you want to copy, click Copy, switch to another
workbook, click where you want the copy to go, and
click Paste

.

3. On the Tools menu, click Share Workbook, and then click the Editing
tab.
4. Make sure that you are the only person listed in the Who has this
workbook open now box.
5. Clear the Allow changes by more than one user at the same time
check box.
If this check box is not available, you must unprotect the workbook
before clearing the check box.
1. Click OK, point to Protection on the Tools menu, and then click
Unprotect Shared Workbook.
2. Enter the password if prompted, and then click OK.

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3. On the Tools menu, click Share Workbook, and then click the
Editing tab.
6. When prompted about the effects on other users, click Yes.
2. Set other types of protection if you want: Give specific users access to
ranges, protect worksheets, protect workbook elements, and set passwords
for viewing and editing.
3. On the Tools menu, point to Protection, and then click Protect Shared
Workbook or Protect and Share Workbook.
4. Select the Sharing with track changes check box.
5. If you want to require other users to supply a password to turn off the change
history or remove the workbook from shared use, type the password in the
Password box, and then retype the password when prompted.
6. If prompted, save the workbook
Protect a workbook file from viewing or editing
1. On the File menu, click Save As.
2. On the Tools menu, click General Options.
3. Do either or both of the following:
o

If you want users to enter a password before they can view the
workbook, type a password in the Password to open box, and then
click OK.

o

If you want users to enter a password before they can save changes
to the workbook, type a password in the Password to modify box, and
then click OK.

4. When prompted, retype your passwords to confirm them.
5. Click Save.
6. If prompted, click Yes to replace the existing workbook.
Data Validation:

Select the cells in which you want to apply data validation

From the Data menu, choose Validation

From the Allow drop-down list choose List

In the source box type an equal to sign and list the name

Click ok

Viva questions:
1) Explain about pivot table reports

134

2) Define macro
3) Define template
4) How can you open protection tool in excel?
5) How can you check errors in excel?
TASK 21:
Excel module test-replicate the given document inclusive of all features
PURPOSE: Module Test
PROCEDURE:

Move the open toolbar button from its current position to the end of the
standard toolbar

Create a new worksheet containing three columns

Add comments and do data validation that is appropriate for each field

Add informative headers and footers

Create an invoice purchase order ,expense sheet, employee list and
other worksheets necessary for a small business

Format the text so that it has a professional look and is aesthetically
pleasing

To make use of the Group and Outline option
Create an Outline

This outline lets you show and hide the detail rows for monthly sales.
1. If your summary rows are above the detail rows, or your summary columns
are to the left of the detail columns, change the direction setting.
How?
1. On the Data menu, point to Group and Outline, and then click
Settings.
2. Clear the Summary rows below detail check box, the Summary
columns to right of detail check box, or both check boxes.
2. If you want to set outline styles (style: A combination of formatting
characteristics, such as font, font size, and indentation, that you name and
store as a set. When you apply a style, all of the formatting instructions in

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that style are applied at one time.) that will be applied automatically when
the outline is created, set the Automatic styles option.
How?
1. On the Data menu, point to Group and Outline, and then click
Settings.
2. Select the Automatic styles check box.
Note If you don't want to apply automatic styles before you begin, you can
apply them after you create the outline.
3. Decide whether to outline the worksheet automatically or manually.
o You can outline any worksheet manually.
o You can outline worksheets automatically if they have summary
formulas that reference cells in the detail data (detail data: For
automatic subtotals and worksheet outlines, the subtotal rows or
columns that are totaled by summary data. Detail data is typically
adjacent to and either above or to the left of the summary data.). All
columns containing summary formulas must be either to the right or to
the left of the detail data, or rows containing summary formulas must
be either below or above the detail data.
If you aren't sure whether your worksheet meets these requirements,
try outlining automatically, and if the results aren't as you expect,
undo the operation and outline manually instead.
4. Do one of the following:
Outline
the
data
automatically
1. Select the range of cells you want to outline.
To outline the entire worksheet, click any cell on the worksheet.
1. On the Data menu, point to Group and Outline, and then click Auto
Outline.
Outline the data manually
2. Select the rows or columns that contain detail data.
Detail rows or columns are usually adjacent to the row or column that
contains the summary formula or a heading. For example, if row 6
contains totals for rows 3 through 5, select rows 3 through 5. If row 8
contains a heading that describes rows 9 through 12, select rows 9
through 12.
3. On the Data menu, point to Group and Outline, and then click
Group.
The outline symbols (outline symbols: Symbols that you use to change
the view of an outlined worksheet. You can show or hide detailed data
by pressing the plus sign, minus sign, and the numbers 1, 2, 3, or 4,
indicating the outline level.) appear beside the group on the screen.
4. Continue selecting and grouping detail rows or columns until you
have created all of the levels you want in the outline.
5. If you didn't select automatic styles, you can apply styles now.
How?
1. Select the cells that you want to apply outline styles to.
2. On the Data menu, point to Group and Outline, and then click
Settings.
3. Select the Automatic styles check box.
4. Click Apply Styles.
Remove an Outline
No data is deleted when you remove an outline.
1. Click the worksheet.
2. On the Data menu, point to Group and Outline, and then click Clear
Outline.
3. If rows or columns are still hidden, drag across the visible row or column

136

headings on both sides of the hidden rows and columns, point to Row or
Column on the Format menu, and then click Unhide.
To calculate subtotals and totals using grouping and outline
You can have Excel calculate subtotals or totals for portions of your worksheet data.
For example, in a worksheet with sales data for three different product categories,
you can first sort the products by category, and then select all the cells that contain
data and open the Subtotal dialog box (Data menu, Subtotals command).

In the Subtotal dialog box, you can choose the column on which to base your
subtotals (such as every change of value in the Week column), the summary
calculation that you want to perform, and the column or columns with values to be
summarized. For example (as shown in the previous picture), you could calculate
subtotals for the number of units sold in each category. After you define your
subtotals, they appear in your worksheet.

As the previous picture shows, when you add subtotals to a worksheet, Excel also
defines groups based on the rows used to calculate the subtotals. The groupings
form an outline of your worksheet based on the criteria that you used to create the
subtotals. All the rows with furniture products are in one group, rows with tools are
in another, and so on. The outline section at the left of the worksheet holds controls
that you can use to hide or display groups of rows.

137

There are three types of controls in the outline section:
Hide detail buttons When the rows in a group are visible, a hide detail
button appears next to the group.
Show detail buttons When you hide a group of rows, the button next to the
group changes to a show detail button . Clicking a show detail button
restores the rows in that group to the worksheet.
Level buttons Each of the numbered level buttons
represents a level of
organization in a worksheet; clicking a level button hides all levels of detail
below that of the button you clicked.
The following table identifies the three levels of organization in the previous graphic.
Level
Description
1
The grand total
2
Subtotals for each group
3
Individual rows in the worksheet
In the worksheet shown in the previous picture, clicking the level 2 button would
hide the rows with data on the sales of individual products, but would leave the row
with the grand total (level 1) and all rows with the subtotals for each product (level
2) visible in the worksheet.

138

For additional flexibility, you can add levels of detail to the outline that Excel creates,
which enables you to hide specific details from time to time. For instance, you might
want to hide the sales of bamboo barrier, bamboo chimes, and bamboo stakes
(which you know sell well) to see how the other products sell in comparison with each
other.
Create a new outline group within an existing group
1. Select the rows you want to group.
2. Point to Group and Outline on the Data menu, and then click Group.
Excel will create a new group on a new level (level 4), as shown in
the following picture.
Remove a group
1. Select the rows in a group.
2. Point to Group and Outline on the Data menu, and then click Ungroup.
Tip If you want to remove all subtotals from a worksheet, click Subtotal on the
Data menu, and then click Remove All.
To make use of the Split panes
You can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by
splitting or freezing panes (pane: A portion of the document window bounded by and
separated from other portions by vertical or horizontal bars.). When you split panes,
you'll be able to scroll in both areas of the worksheet, while rows or columns in the
non-scrolled area remain visible.
When you freeze panes, you select specific rows or columns that remain visible
when scrolling in the worksheet. For example, you would freeze panes to keep row
and column labels visible as you scroll, as shown in the following picture.
Lock rows and columns by splitting panes
1. To lock rows, select the row below where you want the split to appear.
To lock columns, select the column to the right of where you want the split to
appear.
To lock both rows and columns, click the cell below and to the right of where
you want the split to appear.
2. On the Window menu, click Split.
3. To remove the split, click Remove Split on the Window menu.
Tip
For a quick way to split panes, point to the split box at the top of the vertical scroll
bar or at the right end of the horizontal scroll bar.

When the pointer changes to a split pointer or , drag the split box down or to the
left to the position you want.
Lock rows and columns by freezing panes
1. To lock rows, select the row below where you want the split to appear.
To lock columns, select the column to the right of where you want the split to
appear.
To lock both rows and columns, click the cell below and to the right of where
you want the split to appear.
2. On the Window menu, click Freeze Panes.
3. To unlock rows, click Unfreeze Panes on the Window menu.

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TASK 22:
Creating a Scheduler:-Features to be covered: - Gridlines, Format Cells, Summation,
auto fill, Formatting Text
PURPOSE:
To maintain a shift schedule with specifications
THEORY:
Grid lines:

1. Click the worksheet.
2. On the file menu, click page setup and the click the sheet tab.
3. Click gridlines.
4. Select the sheets on which you want to change the gridlines color.
5. On the Tools menu click options click the color you want in the color box.
6. To use the default gridlines color click automatic.
7. Lines you can add to a chart that make it easier to view and evaluate data.
Gridlines extend from the tick marks on an axis across a plot area.
Format Cell:

140

1. Change the font and font size.
2. Change the text color.
3. Make selected text or numbers bold, italic or underlined.
4. Create a new style.
Auto fit:

1. Combine cells horizontally or vertically to make one large cell.
2. Add borders to cells.
3. Shade cells with colors.
4. Change the column width and row height
5. Change the font, font size or colors of text.
6. Align text vertically at the top, center and bottom of cell.
Formatting the text:

141

1. Select the text you want to format.
2. On the format menu click cells and then click number tab.
3. In the catalog box click text.
4. Enter the numbers in the formatted cells.
5. Click ok.
6. Then press enter and reenter the data.
PROCEDURE:
First click start button of the screen on status bar. Click on programs and then
Microsoft excel. To get a new blank work sheet go to programs and then click on
excel sheet. On the file menu click page setup and then click sheet tab click gridlines.
In this way do the required changes using format cell, make the required changes
using formatting text also make the required changes. Enter the data in the data in
the worksheet consisting of week name person name and timings 7 a.m. to 3 p.m.
Make all the above changes to the text.

Viva Questions:
1) What do you mean by a spread sheet?
2) What are the contents of a spread sheet?
3) Describe different types of toolbars available in ms-excel
How can you calculate simple formulas in excel

142

TASK 23:
Define the Latex, compare and contrast between Latex and MS-word .The students
in a position to understand the importance of Latex tool, create latex pages.
LaTeX
What is LaTeX?

A typesetting program written by Leslie Lamport of MIT.
Pronounced ―Lah-tek, or Lay-tek‖
Uses TeX engine written by Donald E. Knuth
Designed for producing beautiful books, thesises, papers, articles...

De facto standard for writing academic papers Current
version LaTeX2e


Why LaTeX, not MS Word?

FAST professional output – highest quality Platform,
version
independent (Unix, Win)

Device independent output (.dvi)

Pre-set standard formats for all types of documents Freely
available

Secure – never lose your files, both old and new! Concentrate
on content, leave the style to LaTeX. Source code for large docs
comparatively small.
Disadvantages

Need other software for extensibility.
Need to access CTAN for modules.

Complex tables are not easy JNot WYSIWYG but WYSIWYM ! Rather steep
learning curve - need to remember
commands Encourages structured writing –
counter-intuitive for lay users! Not integrated with other MS Office products

Where
to get LaTeX?

Linux:

Almost all distributions bundle LaTeX. Windows

packages
and
frontends.
MikTeX

WinShell/TeXnicCenter/LEd/Texmaker LyX (for win

143

and Lin as well)

Where to get  help? newsgroup
comp.text.tex 
LaTeX
package
documentation Google for LaTeX tutorials

LaTeX package structure
A collection of defined commands

Classes and packages.AMS-TeX – a collection of extensions to TeX with
more
advanced mathematical typesetting features.

Markup
language

Similar to ―tagging‖ and ―Markup‖ (think HTML!)

Create (tex) > Compile (tex) > Run/view (dvi/pdf/ps)

LaTeX Skeleton
%
my
first
LaTeX
file
\documentclas
s[options]
{class}
\begin{docume
nt}
H
ello,
world!
\end{doc
ument}
How To Run LaTeX

TeXnicCenter myfile.texCompile -->

xdvi myfile.dvi (UNIX)
yap myfile.dvi (Windows)
dvips myfile
gv myfile (UNIX)
gsview (Windows)

Compose/Edit -->
LaTeX myfile.tex

View -->
Dvi --> PostScript
View PostScript

Use

144

All LaTeX commands start with ‗\‘

Ex - \author{R.Raghuram}
• \title{how to learn latex}
• \section{section name}

All environments begin with ―\begin{env name}‖

Special Characters - #$%^&_{}~\

145

Anything that begins with ‗%‘ is a comment.
% Anything after this symbol is ignored

File formats encountered in Latex

.tex - LaTeX input file. Can be compiled with latex.
.sty - LaTeX Macro package.

.cls - Class files define what your document looks like. They
\documentclass cmd

.dvi - Device Independent File.

.log - Gives a detailed account of what happened during the

.toc - Stores all your section headers. It gets read in for the
produce the table ofcontent.

Important ―layout‖ commands in Latex

\documentclass[options]{class}

\title
\maketitle
% commit title info to paper.

\begin{document}; \end{document}

\begin{abstract}; \end{abstract}

\include{filename}
% call another file here.

\begin{equation}; \end{equation}

\usepackage{packagename}

\section{sectionname}

Important formatting commands

\underline{text}

\emph{text}
\textbf{text}

\bfseries


% set text to italics
% set text to bold
% switches to bold from here.

Some exemplary examples

146

are selected with the

last compiler run.
next compiler run and is used to

147

Viva Questions:
1. What is LaTeX
2. Why LaTeX, not MS Word?
3. LaTeX package structure?
4. File formats encountered in Latex?

148

TASK 24:
Help students in preparing their personal website using Microsoft/ equivalent (FOSS)
tool publisher. Topic covered during this week includes - Publisher Orientation, Using
Templates, Layouts, Inserting text objects, Editing text objects, Inserting Tables,
Working with menu objects, Inserting pages, Hyper linking, Renaming, deleting,
modifying pages, Hosting website.
PURPOSE:
To learn Using Templates, Layouts, Inserting text objects, Editing text objects,
Inserting Tables, Working with menu objects, Inserting pages, Hyper linking,
Renaming, deleting, modifying pages, and Hosting website
THEORY:
Layouts:
Layout guides comprise margin, column, row, and baseline guides. They are used to
create a grid on a master page. This grid appears on every page in your publication
where that master page is used. Use layout guides to organize text, pictures, and
other objects into columns and rows so that your publication will have an ordered,
consistent look. Set layout guides in the Layout Guides dialog box (Arrange menu).
Margin guides, column guides, and row guides are represented by blue dotted lines;
baseline guides are represented by gold dotted guides; and ruler guides are
represented by green dotted lines
Hyper Link:
hyperlink is a link from a document that, when clicked, opens another page or file.
The destination is frequently another Web page, but it can also be a picture, an email address, or a program. The hyperlink itself can be text or a picture.
PROCEDURE:
Template:
1. Create the publication you want to use as a template.
2. On the File menu, click Save As.
3. In the File name box, type a name for the template.
4. In the Save as type box, click Publisher Template.
The destination folder changes to Templates. You need to save your template
in this folder if you want it to appear in the Preview Gallery of the New
Publication task pane later.
5. Click Save.
Layouts:

On the View menu, click Boundaries and Guides.

149

Note If the Snap to Guides command is on (On the Arrange menu, point to Snap,
and then click To Guides), objects will continue to snap to the guides even when the
guides are hidden
Inserting

Text

Objects:

In your publication, select an AutoShape
1. Type the text you want
Editing Text objects:
1. Double-click the WordArt object you want to change.
2. In the Edit WordArt Text dialog box, change the text, and then click OK.
Inserting Tables:
1. On the Objects toolbar, click the Insert Table.
2. Click inside your publication.
The Create Table dialog box will appear.
3. Select the options you want, and then click OK.
4. Size your table.
Select the table, position the mouse pointer over a selection handle until you
see the Resizer icon, and then drag to resize the table.
5. In the table, click the cell where you want to add text, and then start typing.
To add text to another cell, click inside that cell.
Each cell expands to fit your text, unless you lock the table size by clearing
the check mark next to Grow to Fit Text on the Table menu.
Hyperlink:

Create a hyperlink to a file or page

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1.
2.
3.
4.

Select either text or a picture.
Click Insert Hyperlink.
Under Link to, click Existing File or Web Page.
Do one of the following:
o

To select a file from your My Documents folder, click Current Folder.

o

To select a file that was recently viewed in your Web browser, click
Browsed Pages.

o

To select a file that you were recently working in, click Recent Files.

5. Navigate to the file or page you want.
Create a hyperlink to an e-mail address
1. Select either text or a picture.
2. Click Insert Hyperlink.
3. Under Link to, click E-mail Address.
4. Either type the e-mail address you want in the E-mail address box, or select
an e-mail address from the recently used e-mail addresses box.
5. In the Subject box, type the subject of the e-mail message.
Create a hyperlink to another place in your document
1. Select either text or a picture.
2. Click Insert Hyperlink.
3. Under Link to, click Place in This Document.
4. Select the page you want
Create a hyperlink to a new page
1. Select either text or a picture.
2. Click Insert Hyperlink.
3. Under Link to, click Create New Document.
4. Either type the path and name of the new file, or click Change to navigate to a
location.
5. Select either Edit the new document later or Edit the new document now.

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Pages:

Create a master page
1. On the View menu, click Master Page.
2. In the Edit Master Pages task pane, click New Master Page.
3. In the New Master Page dialog box, do any of the following:
o

In the Page ID (1 character) box, type a single-character identifier for
your new master page. This can be any single Unicode character.

o

In the Description box, type a brief description of your new master
page.

o

If you want your new master page to be a two-page spread, select
Two-page master.

4. Click OK.
Edit a master page
1. On the View menu, click Master Page.
2. In the Edit Master Pages task pane, click the arrow next to the master page
you want to edit, and then click Edit.
3. Edit the page as desired.
4. To see the updated publication pages, click View publication pages, and then
navigate to a page to which the master page is applied

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Delete a master page

1. On the View menu, click Master Page.
2. In the Edit Master Pages task pane, click the arrow next to the master page
you want to delete, and then click Delete.
3. In the alert box, click Yes

Viva Questions:
1) What are the features provided by Ms Publisher?
2) How can we create accessible web site?
3) Define meta tag
4) What is absolute and relative URL?
5) What is a master page?

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ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS
TASK 25:
Step-by-step procedure to installing WINDOWS-2008 operating system version:

Step 1:
The first thing you should do is head to http://www.techspot.com/downloads/5330windows-8-release-preview.html and download the installation image for your chosen
architecture. The image used in the creation of this guide is the 64-bit (x64) ISO.
Step 2:
Using your disc burning software, burn the .iso you downloaded to a DVD.
Step 3:
Before you go any further, ensure all important data is backed up in case of data loss
on your drives. This guide assumes you have media backups of your hard drives and
you are safe to proceed.
Warning: Installing another operating system without first ensuring you have backups
of your current files and operating system is a big risk. If you have no data to lose or
you–ve backed up important data, you–re ready to proceed. YOU are responsible if
you lose data.
Disclaimer: It goes without saying, that neither me or TechSpot accept any liability or
responsibility for any errors or damages made to your computer during, or after
installing this operating system. It is up to the user to ensure proper backups are
made of important documents and files.
Step 4:
Ensure you have a network cable connected, restart your computer, and boot from
the DVD drive.
Step 5:
The DVD will begin to load up, and you'll be presented by the following screen as the
installer starts.

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155

Step 6:
Once loaded you will see the following screen.

Select your location, keyboard and regional language settings as required and click
"next" to continue and you'll see the following box:

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157

Step 8:
Before you can proceed with the setup any further you're required to accept
Microsoft's license terms, as below.

158

Read the terms, and once you're happy, tick the "I accept the license terms" box, and
click "next" to continue to the next step.
Step 9:
You will be greeted with the following screen.

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For the purposes of this guide, we'll assume you are performing a fresh installation of
Windows 8 Release Preview. Therefore, this tutorial covers the "Custom" option
which will install a fresh copy of Windows 8 Release Preview onto a clean hard drive,
without backing up and restoring any existing files or settings.
The first option, "upgrade" will allow those running previous versions of Windows to
upgrade to Windows 8 whilst keeping all files, settings and applications during the
setup of the new operating system.

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Step 10:
The setup will then continue and start the disk manager as below.

Select the correct drive to use for the installation of Windows 8 Release Preview, and
click "next" to continue. For those trying this in a Virtual Machine, 20-25GB of hard
drive space is more than adequate.
Note: This step is the last point in which you can abort the installation without
permanent data loss to drives. Please ensure you have working backups before
proceeding further.
Step 11:
Windows setup will then begin to install Windows 8 Release Preview to the hard
drive, and will work through several stages as detailed below.

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The installer may restart during the installation stage as it configures the computer to
run the new operating system.
Step 12:
Once complete, it will reboot again and setup the computers devices and finalize the
installation, as below.

162

Once this stage has finished, you will be greeted with the following screen.

163

Select your preferred color scheme for Metro, and then name your computer. The PC
name is used to identify the computer on local networks and ideally should be named
so that other users your network can identify who the computer belongs to. Then
click "next" to proceed.

164

Step 13:
You will then be greeted with the following window.

At this point you can specify the final settings required in the configuration of your
new Windows installation. You can either choose "use express settings" or click
"customize" to change the express settings.
If you are unsure, it is best to choose the first option. The installer will then configure
the final settings and move onto the next step.

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Step 14:
The next step asks you if you wish to sign into your PC using a Windows Live
account.

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Microsoft's new operating system heavily
integrates the Redmond-based firms Windows Live features, including messenger,
contacts, calendar and mail.
Signing in using your Windows Live account also offers Windows 8 users additional
benefits like the ability to download additional apps from the Windows Store and
automatic synchronization of all your Windows 8 computers so they look and feel the
same regardless of which one you're using.
Note: Your Windows Live ID also becomes your username for Windows 8 Release
Preview, and uses your Windows Live ID password to log in.
Enter your Windows Live ID, and click "next" to continue.

166

You will then be asked for your password for your Windows Live account. Click "next"
to continue.

167

The final step of integrating your Windows Live account with your new installation of
Windows 8 Release Preview requires you to provide additional verification
information. For those that have previously set this up, the fields will be completed
already. Verify they are correct, or add the required information and click "next" to
continue.

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Step 15:
Windows 8 Release Preview will then complete its final configuration.

Once complete, it will then boot into Windows for the first time, as below.

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Installation is now complete, and you can enjoy your new OS and begin exploring its
features.
Feedback and comments are welcome. If you feel something is missing or you would
like to see something in particular covered in future tutorials let us know in the
comments section, or contact me directly.

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TASK 26:
Step-by-step procedure to installing UBUNTU 11.10 operating system version:
In this guide I will cover the installation of Ubuntu Linux 11.10, 32-bit version from a
LiveCD. The installation of other 'buntu versions including 64-bit will be very similar to
this guide. I will try to explain certain options and provide helpful hints along the way,
so rather than just following the guide, you can understand the reasoning behind the
decisions.
This guide is drawn from my experience. As some of you are aware, I'm passionate
about open-source software and OS', in particular Linux. I'm no professional though,
just a person that enjoys spending his spare time using Linux and open-source
software in-between dissecting others' computers, and somehow managing to turn
my own systems into fireballs of destruction!
If there are any mistakes please draw my attention to them and I will correct as
needed. I have tried to make this as simple as possible, whilst covering the vast
majority of scenarios users will come across whilst installing this operating system.
Step 1:
The first thing you should do is head to
http://www.ubuntu.com/download/ubuntu/download and download Ubuntu 11.10
LiveCD. Just click the big orange Start download box.
Step 2:
Using your disc burning software, burn the .iso you downloaded to a CD.
Step 3:
Before you go any further, ensure all important data is backed up in case of data loss
on your drives. This guide assumes you have media backups of your Windows
partitioned hard drive and you are safe to proceed.
***Warning: Installing another operating system without first ensuring you have
backups of your current files and operating system is a big risk. If you have no data
to lose or you–ve backed up important data, you–re ready to proceed. YOU are
responsible if you lose data.For those of you using Windows, and installing Linux for

171

the first time I recommend you either use a separate hard disk that does not contain
the Windows OS, or create a partition big enough for Linux within Windows using
Disk Management in the Administrative Tools menu of the control panel. 30GB of
hard disk space is absolutely plenty of space for you to begin exploring Ubuntu whilst
at the same time having room to grow.

172

I recommend you select "Install third-party software" as I have done in the
screenshot above. I prefer to do system updates once up and running, but if you
have the extra time you can also select "download updates while installing" as well.
Then click continue.
Step 7:
The next screen you will see is "installation type," what you see will be dependent on
whether you have an existing Windows installation or not.
I'm going to split this into three different sub-steps, to make it as simple as possible.
Step 7-A:
For those installing in a virtual machine or to hard disks without an OS you will see
the following screen:

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You have two choices:
1. Erase the entire disk and use all of it for installation -- Ubuntu will automatically
partition your disk and proceed with installation.
2. Select "something else" and manually create your partitions (which is covered in
detail in step 7-C).
If you are choosing the first option, select the radio button and then click continue,
proceeding to step 8.
Step 7-B:
Those of you that have current Windows installations or are going to dual-boot with
another existing OS will be presented with a screen similar to below:

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You have three options available:
1. You can choose the first option and install Ubuntu alongside your existing OS.
2. You can opt to replace your Windows installation with Ubuntu, allowing the installer
to format your current partitions and automatically create new ones for Linux.
3. You can choose "something else" and create your own partition scheme and sizing
(covered in detail in step 7-C).
Once you have selected which route you wish to proceed with click continue and
proceed to step 8.
Step 7-C:
Having selected the "something else" option you will be presented with the following
window:

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Linux recognizes and assigns IDs to drive in a different manner to Windows. In the
above image, you can clearly see my hard disk in the list. It is identified by
"/dev/sda." Linux recognizes drives in the following way:
– Sda = 1st drive
– Sdb = 2nd drive
– Sdc = 3rd drive and so on
Partitions are also shown after the drive letters. So if I had 2 partitions on my first
disk, they would be identified as:
– Sda1 – 1st drive, 1st partition
– Sda2 – 1st drive, 2nd partition
You will not see the common Windows C: label in the disk menu in the above list. You
do, however, have key things to help you recognize your Windows C: drive. Both of
these can be used to identify which is your Windows disk.
– The size of the disk is shown
– The name of the drive is shown
This is your current partition layout for your hard disks. If you have more than one
disk, they will show up as /dev/sda, /dev/sdb etc.
Firstly, identify your Windows installation. In my case, it's sda1 (which is my first hard

176

disk, first partition). What you see depends on how you created the extra space. I just
resized the Windows partition from within Windows, and left the free space ready to
install Linux. I recommend using Windows or a free utility from within Windows to
resize your partition as most beginners will understand it more.
Therefore, we now need create a minimum of two partitions:
Click "Add" and the following box will appear:

You will notice I have already filled out the example above to create a 10GB root
partition.

You can have a maximum of 4 primary partitions, or 3 primary partitions and 1 logical

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(which allows for another 64 partitions)
The size above is 10.00GB. e.g 1,000 = 1GB 10,000 = 10GB (Remember to leave
enough free remaining space to create your SWAP partition!)
Location for new partition: e.g. do you want it at the start or end of the free space.
Select beginning.
Use as: Ext4 is the recommended file system for Ubuntu, much the same as NTFS is
Windows. SWAP is for SWAP space.
Mount point: This is where you want the partition to mount. E.g. we need a root
partition, which in Linux is denoted by a "/".
Click OK once you have finished setting the partition information and you will return
to your partition screen, now showing the root partition you just created. Using the
same methods as before, create a SWAP partition.
I recommend you set the size of your SWAP partition to at least the size of your
available RAM. If you have plenty of hard disk capacity I would suggest you use
double the size. So if you have 2GB of RAM, set it to either 2GB or 4GB. For best
performance it is recommended you have your SWAP partition at the beginning or
end of your drive.

TASK27:

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HOW TO INSTALL AVAST PRO ANTIVIRUS
STEP1 : Click on the link below or copy & paste it in to your internet broswer's
address bar.
http://download.cnet.com/Avast-Pro-Antivirus/3000-2239_4-10181058.html?
tag=mncol;2
STEP2: Click on Download Now button.

STEP 3: Wait for the yellow bar to appear and then right click and choose download
the file.

179

STEP4 : Click on Run & wait the program to be downloaded and run.

180

STEP 5: Once download is finished this screen wil come up, click on Next.

181

STEP6 : Uncheck participation and check custom installation & click Next to continue

182

STEP 6.1 Click on Nex

STEP 7 : Choose Install in trial mode and click on Next

183

STEP 8 : Choose Custom setting and uncheck Network Shield

Click on Next to continue

184

Program will install itself

Avast will do a quick scan

185

Setup will finish

This window will appear, close it.

186

Double click on the license file that is in the attachment " License.avastlic ".

Say yes at this window

Your installation has been completed, click OK to close.

187

Configuring File and Printer Sharing on Windows 7, Vista and XP
Article ID: 5560
File and Printer Sharing is a Windows feature wherein all the computers in your
network would be able to send communications to a computer or send print jobs to a
printer. All your computers should be part of the main network and the same
Workgroup for File and Printer Sharing to work properly.
What you can do with this feature:
–

File Sharing – This allows easy access and share files and folders on

computers that belong to the same Workgroup or Homegroup.
–

Printer Sharing – Allows your computers that are part of the main network

and same Workgroup or Homegroup to send print jobs to a printer connected wired
or wirelessly to your computer.
NOTE: The information on this article is provided as reference. For proper File and
Printer Sharing configuration instructions, contact Microsoft or refer to the Microsoft
support site.

188

TASK 28:
SETTING UP AND CREATING A LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)-WINDOWS XP:
Step 1:Open the start menu, navigate to control panel, and select your network card:

189

Step 2:Click the network card, to open this options box:

Click Properties to open this screen:
Scroll the bar until –Internet protocol (TCP/IP)– can be shown (This is located
usually at the bottom of the list:

190

Double click the –internet Protocol (TCP/IP)– item to bring up this menu:

Static IP- Good for a computer behind a router or firewall that uses Network Address
Translation (NAT), Port Translation (PAT) or in any circumstance where you need to
forward ports.

Dynamic IP – Good for single computer or in a LAN where each box does not need
to have ports forwarded to it (if it is not acting as a server)
To use dynamic IP–s just select –obtain an IP address automatically– and the
other options will grey out.

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The DNS server setup allows you to use www.google.com instead of
http:// 66.102.9.104, which is harder to remember, most ISPs tell you which two to
use, there are however many free ones out there, all you have to do is Google for
DNS servers.
Alternatively, the ISP may ask you to tick –Obtain DNS Server address
automatically– which means upon connecting to the ISP it will tell you which DNS
servers to use without you having to set it up.
After setting this page up, click the –OK– button to save the settings you have
entered.
To improve your network performance, open this window once more:

192

And click –Configure––
Find the option for –link Speed– (will change depending on what network card you
have)

193

Set the option to –Full Duplex– for what ever speed your network card can handle,
usually 10/100mbit so set it to 100mbps/Full Duplex. This will increase the speed of
file transfers over your network.
For sharing files across a network I recommend using an FTP Server, such as the
free one from www.guildftpd.com or using the windows shares.
For using shares first disable …use simple file sharing… to do this, open
my computer, go to the –Tools– option and select –Folder Options––

Navigate to the view tab and scroll the bar to the very bottom where you should see:

194

Make sure the –Use simple file sharing (Recommended) option is unchecked (as it is
here)
Now to view files on a different computer on your network, open the –Run– bar
either by Start -> Run, or holding the Windows key and then holding the R key (while
keeping the Windows key held down.

195

Tips to check your network is working:
Firstly if the network is not functioning turn of the windows XP Firewall

Into this box enter
\\IP_ADDRESS\C$

If it is disabled (which is good) make sure your other firewall (which you
should have) is allowing the network to function, if you are unsure, set it to
allow all until you have tested other reasons

Where IP_ADDRESS is the IP of another computer in your network such
as 10.10.10.2
\\10.10.10.2\C$
You will then be prompted with a login box, where you can enter the details for the
administrator account on the other computer, and you will then have a normal
window showing you the C Drive of the other computer.
NB: if you name your computers (e.g. –kitchen–) you can use \\kitchen\C$ as
an alternate way to gain access to the computer.

196

Tips to check your network is working:
Firstly if the network is not functioning turn of the windows XP Firewall

Now, once more open the run box (Windows+r) and type –cmd– (without the ––)
and you should get

Into this type
Ping IP_ADDRESS

197

Where IP_ADDRESS is the IP address of the computer or gateway you are trying to
reach, and then hit enter

This shows that from THIS computer can communicate with computer 10.10.10.1
(the gateway). Thus it should all be working.

198

TASK 29:
CONFIGURING FOLDER-FILE AND PRINTER SHARING

Sharing files or folders in Windows 7
Step1:Right-click any folder you would like to share, and select Properties from the
menu.

199

Step 2: On the next window, go to the Sharing tab and click on the Share– button.

200

Step 3: On the dropdown menu, type a name and click Add. Alternatively, you can
select to find someone and click Share.

Step 4: Click Done.

201

Your folder and files should now be accessible to the users or groups you specified.
Sharing files or folders in Windows Vista
Step 1:
Right-click a folder you would like to share, and select Share– from the menu.
Step 2:
On the dropdown menu, type a name and click Add. Alternatively, you can select to
find someone and click Share.
Step 3: Click Done.

202

Your folder and files should now be accessible to the users or groups you specified.

Sharing files or folders in Windows XP
Step 1:
Right-click on a folder you would like to share, and select Sharing and Security–
from the menu.

203

Step 2:
Go to the Sharing tab and select Share this folder.
Step 3:
Enter a Share name: for your folder and click OK.

204

You should now be able browse and access your shared folder from other computers
within your network.
Troubleshooting Tips:
Windows XP, Windows 7 and Windows Vista have built-in firewall that is enabled by
default. For example, a Windows XP computer has the Internet Connection Firewall
(ICF) which may interfere when you are trying to configure File and Printer sharing.
For computers on the network that need to participate in file sharing, it is best to
lower the level of the firewall security or temporarily disable it.

Sharing a Printer in Windows 7
Step 1:
Go to the Start menu and select Devices and Printers.

205

Step 2: Locate and double-click on the icon of the printer you would like to share.

Step 3:Double-click Customize your printer.

Step 4: Go to the Sharing tab and check the Share this printer option.
Step 5: Enter a Share name: for your printer and click OK.

206

You should now be able to browse and add your printer on the other computers
within your network.

Sharing a printer in Windows Vista
Step 1: Go to the Start menu and select Control Panel.

207

Step 2: In the Control Panel window, select Printer under the Hardware and Sound
category.

Step 3: Locate and right-click on the icon of the printer that you would like to share
then select Open from the menu.

208

Step 4: In the window that appears, click Printer and select the Sharing... option.

Step 5: Go to the Sharing tab and check the Share this printer option.
Step 6:Enter a Share name: for your printer and click OK.

209

You should now be able to browse and add your printer on the other computers
within your network.

Sharing a printer in Windows XP
Step 1: Go to the Start menu, and select Printers and Faxes.

210

Step 2:
In the Printer and Faxes window, locate and double-click the icon of the
printer you would like to share.

Step 3:
A new window will then appear. Click Printer and select the Sharing… option
from the menu.

211

Step 4: Go to the Sharing tab and check Share this printer option.
Step 5:Enter a Share name: for your printer and click OK.

You should now be able to browse and add your printer on the other computers
within your network.
Task 30:

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A categorized list of Windows CMD commands
Active Directory
ADmodcmd Active Directory Bulk Modify
CSVDE

Import or Export Active Directory data

DSACLs Active Directory ACLs
DSAdd

Add items to active directory (user group computer)

DSGet

View items in active directory (user group computer)

DSQuery Search for items in active directory (user group computer)
DSMod

Modify items in active directory (user group computer)

DSMove Move an Active directory Object
DSRM

Remove items from Active Directory

Batch Files
CALL

Call one batch program from another–

CHOICE Accept keyboard input to a batch file
CLIP

Copy STDIN to the Windows clipboard

CLS

Clear the screen–

CMD

Start a new CMD shell

COLOR

Change colors of the CMD window–

DOSKEY Edit command line, recall commands, and create macros
ECHO

Display message on screen–

ENDLOCAL End localisation of environment changes in a batch file–
EVENTCREATE Add a message to the Windows event log
EXIT

Quit the current script/routine and set an errorlevel–

FOR /F Loop command: against a set of files–
FOR /F Loop command: against the results of another command–
FOR

Loop command: all options Files, Directory, List–

GOTO
IF

Direct a batch program to jump to a labelled line–

Conditionally perform a command–

IFMEMBER Is the current user a member of a Workgroup
LOGEVENT Write text to the event viewer
LOGTIME Log the date and time in a file
MAPISEND Send email from the command line
MORE

Display output, one screen at a time

PAUSE

Suspend processing of a batch file and display a message–

213

PROMPT Change the command prompt–
REM

Record comments (remarks) in a batch file–

RUN

Start | RUN commands

RUNAS
SET

Execute a program under a different user account
Display, set, or remove session environment variables–

SETLOCAL Control the visibility of environment variables–
SETX

Set environment variables

SORT

Sort input

SHIFT

Shift the position of batch file parameters–

SLEEP

Wait for x seconds

START

Start a program, command or batch file–

TIMEOUT Delay processing of a batch file
TITLE

Set the window title for a CMD.EXE session–

WAITFOR Wait for or send a signal
WMIC
::

WMI Commands

Comment / Remark–

Disk Management
BOOTCFG Edit Windows boot settings
BCDBOOT Create or repair a system partition
BCDEDIT Manage Boot Configuration Data
CONVERT Convert a FAT drive to NTFS
CHKDSK Check Disk - check and repair disk problems
CHKNTFS Check the NTFS file system
DEFRAG Defragment hard drive
DISKPART Disk Administration
DISKSHADOW Volume Shadow Copy Service
DriverQuery Display installed device drivers
FORMAT Format a disk
FREEDISK Check free disk space (in bytes)
LABEL

Edit a disk label

MOUNTVOL Manage a volume mount point
NTBACKUP Backup folders to tape
SFC

System File Checker

VOL

Display a disk label–

214

Files and Folders
ASSOC

Change file extension associations–

ASSOCIAT One step file association
ATTRIB Change file attributes
BITSADMIN Background Intelligent Transfer Service
CACLS
CD

Change file permissions
Change Directory - move to a specific Folder–

CIPHER Encrypt or Decrypt files/folders
COMP

Compare the contents of two files or sets of files

COMPACT Compress files or folders on an NTFS partition
COMPRESS Compress individual files on an NTFS partition
COPY

Copy one or more files to another location–

CSCcmd Client-side caching (Offline Files)
DEL

Delete one or more files–

DELTREE Delete a folder and all subfolders
DIR

Display a list of files and folders–

ERASE

Delete one or more files–

EXPAND Uncompress files
EXTRACT Uncompress CAB files
FC

Compare two files

FIND

Search for a text string in a file

FINDSTR Search for strings in files
FORFILES Batch process multiple files
FSUTIL File and Volume utilities
FTP

File Transfer Protocol

FTYPE

File extension file type associations–

iCACLS Change file and folder permissions
MD

Create new folders–

MOVE

Move files from one folder to another–

MKLINK Create a symbolic link (linkd)
OPENFILES Query or display open files
POPD

Return to a previous directory saved by PUSHD–

PsFile Show files opened remotely
PUSHD

Save and then change the current directory–

QGREP

Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern

RECOVER Recover a damaged file from a defective disk
REN

Rename a file or files–

215

REPLACE Replace or update one file with another
RD

Delete folder(s)–

RMTSHARE Share a folder or a printer
ROBOCOPY Robust File and Folder Copy
SHARE

List or edit a file share or print share

SHORTCUT Create a windows shortcut (.LNK file)
SUBINACL Edit file and folder Permissions, Ownership and Domain
TAKEOWN Take ownership of a file
TOUCH

Change file timestamps

TREE

Graphical display of folder structure

TYPE

Display the contents of a text file–

WHERE

Locate and display files in a directory tree

WINDIFF Compare the contents of two files or sets of files
XCACLS Change file and folder permissions
XCOPY

Copy files and folders

Group Policy/Windows Installer
DevCon Device Manager Command Line Utility
GPRESULT Display Resultant Set of Policy information
GPUPDATE Update Group Policy settings
MSIEXEC Microsoft Windows Installer
PsInfo List information about a system
PsShutdown Shutdown or reboot a computer
REGSVR32 Register or unregister a DLL
SHUTDOWN Shutdown the computer
SLMGR

Software Licensing Management (Vista/2008)

WUAUCLT Windows Update
Networking
ARP

Address Resolution Protocol

BROWSTAT Get domain, browser and PDC info
DNSSTAT DNS Statistics
GETMAC Display the Media Access Control (MAC) address
IPCONFIG Configure IP
NET

Manage network resources

NETDOM Domain Manager
NETSH

Configure Network Interfaces, Windows Firewall & Remote access

216

NBTSTAT Display networking statistics (NetBIOS over TCP/IP)
NETSTAT Display networking statistics (TCP/IP)
NSLOOKUP Name server lookup
PATHPING Trace route plus network latency and packet loss
PsPing Measure network performance
PING

Test a network connection

ROUTE

Manipulate network routing tables

TRACERT Trace route to a remote host
Processes
KILL
PATH

Remove a program from memory
Display or set a search path for executable files–

PsExec Execute process remotely
PsKill Kill processes by name or process ID
PsList List detailed information about processes
PsGetSid Display the SID of a computer or a user
PsSuspend Suspend processes
SCHTASKS Schedule a command to run at a specific time
SOON

Schedule a command to run in the near future

TASKLIST List running applications and services
TASKKILL Remove a running process from memory
TLIST

Task list with full path

Printing
CON2PRT Connect or disconnect a Printer
MODE

Configure a system device

PRINT

Print a text file

PRINTBRM Print queue Backup/Recovery
PRNCNFG Display, configure or rename a printer
PRNMNGR Add, delete, list printers set the default printer
RUNDLL32 Run a DLL command (add/remove print connections)
Registry
REG

Registry: Read, Set, Export, Delete keys and values

REGEDIT Import or export registry settings
REGINI Change Registry Permissions

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Remote Desktop
CHANGE Change Terminal Server Session properties
Query Process

Display processes (TS/Remote Desktop)

Query Session

Display all sessions (TS/Remote Desktop)

Query TermServer List all servers (TS/Remote Desktop)
Query User
MSTSC

Display user sessions (TS/Remote Desktop)

Terminal Server Connection (Remote Desktop Protocol)

RASDIAL Manage RAS connections
RASPHONE Manage RAS connections
Reset Session - Delete a Remote Desktop Session
TSSHUTDN Remotely shut down or reboot a terminal server
WINRM

Windows Remote Management

WINRS

Windows Remote Shell

Services
CASPOL Code Access Security Policy Tool.
NETSVC Command-line Service Controller
PORTQRY Display the status of ports and services
PsService View and control services
SC

Service Control

SCLIST Display Services
System Information
NOW

Display the current Date and Time

DATE

Display or set the date–

HELP

Online Help

LOGMAN Manage Performance Monitor
MBSAcli Baseline Security Analyzer
MEM

Display memory usage

MSINFO32 System Information
NTRIGHTS Edit user account rights
PERFMON Performance Monitor
PsLogList Event log records
SYSTEMINFO List system configuration
TIME

Display or set the system time–

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TypePerf Write performance data to a log file
VER

Display version information–

VERIFY Verify that files have been saved–
WINMSDP Windows system report
WHOAMI Output the current UserName and domain
User Administration
ADDUSERS Add or list users to/from a CSV file
CERTREQ Request certificate from a certification authority
CleanMgr Automated cleanup of Temp files, recycle bin
CON2PRT Connect or disconnect a Printer
CMDKEY Manage stored usernames/passwords
DELPROF Delete user profiles
DIRUSE Display disk usage
GLOBAL Display membership of global groups
LOCAL

Display membership of local groups

LOGOFF Log a user off
MOVEUSER Move a user from one domain to another
MSG
PERMS

Send a message
Show permissions for a user

POWERCFG Configure power settings
PsLoggedOn Who's logged on (locally or via resource sharing)
PsPasswd Change account password
SHOWGRPS List the Workgroups a user has joined
SHOWMBRS List the Users who are members of a Workgroup
SUBST

Associate a path with a drive letter

USRSTAT List domain usernames and last login

TROUBLESHOOTING TECHINQUES

219

System has no power at all. Power light does not illuminate, fan inside the
power supply does not turn on, and indicator light on keyboard does not turn
on.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION
Power cable is unplugged.

Visually inspect power
cable.

Make sure power cable is
securely plugged in.

Defective power cable.

Visual inspection, try
another cable.

Replace cable.

Power supply failure.

Power cable and wall
socket are OK, but system Contact technical support
is still dead.

Faulty wall outlet;circuit
breaker or fuse blown.

Plug device into socket
know to work and test.

Use different socket, repair
outlet, reset circuit breaker or
replace fuse.

System inoperative. Keyboard lights are on, power indicator lights are lit, and
hard drive is spinning.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION
Expansion card is partially
dislodged from expansion
slot on the motherboard.

Turn off computer. Take
cover off system unit.
Check all expansion cards
to ensure they are securely
seated in slots.

Defective floppy disk drive
or tape drive.

Turn system off.
Disconnect the cables from
one of the floppy drives.
Turn on the system, check
Contact Technical Support.
to see if the keyboard
operates normally. Repeat
until you have located
defective unit.

Defective expansion card.

Turn computer off.
Make sure expansion card is
Remove an expansion card. secure in expansion socket.

220

Using even pressure on both
ends of the expansion card,
press down firmly on
expansion card.

System does not boot from hard disk drive, can be booted from floppy disk
drive.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION

Connector between hard
drive and system board
unplugged.

When attempting to run the
FDISK utility described in
the HARD DISK section of
the manual you get a
message, INVALID DRIVE
SPECIFICATION.

Check cable running form
disk to disk controller on the
board. Make sure both ends
are securely plugged in;
check the drive type in the
Standard CMOS Setup (in
your motherboard manual).

Format hard disk; if unable
Damaged Hard Disk or Disk
to do so, the hard disk may Contact Technical Support.
Controller.
be defective.
Run the FDISK program,
format the hard drive(See
Hard Disk directory or FAT
HARD DRIVE section of
is scrambled.
manual). Copy your backup
data back onto hard drive.

Backing up the hard drive is
extremely important. All Hard
Disks are capable of
breaking down at any time.

System only boots from Floppy Disk. Hard Disk can be read and applications
can be used, but booting from Hard Disk is impossible.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION

Hard Disk boot program has A number of causes could
been destroyed.
be behind this.

Back up data and
applications files.
Reformat the Hard Drive as
described in the Hard Drive
section of the manual. Reinstall applications and data
using backup disks.

Error message reading "SECTOR NOT FOUND" or other error messages
indication certain data is not allowed to be retrieved.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION

A number of causes could
be behind this.

Back up any salvageable
data. Then do a low level
format, partition, and high
Use a file by file backup
level format of the hard
instead of an image backup
drive( see Hard Disk section
to backup the Hard Disk.
of your manual for
instructions). Re-install all
saved data when completed.

Disk formatted on IBM PS/2 will not operate with this system.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION

221

The IBM PS/2 uses a
different format than other
computers.

IBM PS/2 disk format will
not work in an AT type
computer.

Format disk in the AT type
computer insert disk into the
IBM PS/2 and copy the files
you wish.

After install an expansion card (network card, tape drive card, etc.) the system
no longer works properly.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION

No power to monitor.

All or part of the system
may be inoperable. The
new card may work but a
mouse or COM port may
not work.

Change the interrupt or RAM
address on the new
expansion card. See the
documentation that came
with the new card in order to
change pin settings. many
expansion devices come
with proprietary software that
will assist you in doing this.

Screen message says "Invalid Configuration" or "CMOS Failure."
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION
Incorrect information
entered into the
configuration (setup)
program.

Screen is blank.
PROBABLE CAUSE

No power to monitor.

Check the configuration
program. Replace any
incorrect information.

DIAGNOSIS

Power connectors may be
loose or not plugged in.

Review system's equipment.
Make sure correct
information is in setup.

SOLUTION
Check the power connectors
to monitor and to system.
Make sure monitor is
connected to display card,
change I/O address on
network card if applicable.

Monitor not connected to
computer.

See instructions above.

Network card I/O address
conflict.

See instructions above.

System does not boot from hard disk drive, can be booted from floppy disk
drive.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
SOLUTION
Connector between hard
drive and system board
unplugged.

When attempting to run the Check cable running form
FDISK utility described in disk to disk controller on the
the HARD DISK section of board. Make sure both ends

222

are securely plugged in;
the manual you get a
check the drive type in the
message, INVALID DRIVE
Standard CMOS Setup (in
SPECIFICATION.
your

Problem
PROBABLE CAUSE

DIAGNOSIS

SOLUTION

Memory problem, display
card jumpers not set
correctly.

Reboot computer. Re-install
memory, make sure that all
memory modules are
installed in correct sockets.
Check jumper and switch
settings on display card. See
display card section for
information of settings.

Computer virus.

Use anti-virus programs
(McAfee/PC-cillin, E-port,
etc) to detect and clean
viruses.

Screen goes blank periodically.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
Screen saver is enabled.

Keyboard failure.
PROBABLE CAUSE

Disable screen saver.

DIAGNOSIS

SOLUTION
Reconnect keyboard. Check
keys again, if no
improvement, replace
keyboard.

Keyboard is disconnected.

No color on screen.
PROBABLE CAUSE

SOLUTION

DIAGNOSIS

SOLUTION

Faulty Monitor.

If possible, connect monitor
to another system. If no
color, replace monitor.

CMOS incorrectly set up.

Call technical support.

Floppy drive lights stays on.
PROBABLE CAUSE

DIAGNOSIS

Floppy Drive cable not
connected correctly.

SOLUTION
Reconnect floppy cable
making sure PIN1 on the
Floppy Drive corresponds
with PIN1 on floppy cable

223

connector.

Error reading drive A:
PROBABLE CAUSE

DIAGNOSIS

SOLUTION

Bad floppy disk.

Try new floppy disk.

Floppy disk not formatted

Format floppy disk(type
ENTER)

C: drive failure.
PROBABLE CAUSE

DIAGNOSIS

SOLUTION

SETUP program does not
have correct information.

Boot from drive A: using
DOS system disk. Input
correct information to
SETUP program.

Hard Drive cable not
connected properly.

Check Hard drive cable.

Cannot boot system after installing second hard drive.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS

SOLUTION

Master/Slave jumpers not
set correctly.

Set master /Slave jumpers
correctly.

Hard Drives not
compatible / different
manufacturers.

Run SETUP program and
select correct drive types.
Call drive manufactures for
compatibility with other
drives.

Missing operating system on hard drive.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
CMOS setup has been
changed.

Certain keys do not function.
PROBABLE CAUSE

SOLUTION
Run setup and select correct
drive type.

DIAGNOSIS

Keys jammed or defective.

SOLUTION
Replace keyboard.

Keyboard is locked, no keys function.
PROBABLE CAUSE
DIAGNOSIS
Keyboard is locked.

SOLUTION
Unlock keyboard

224

TEXT BOOKS & REFERENCE BOOKS:
TEXT BOOK
1. Comdex Information Technology Course tool kit –Vikas Gupta, WILEY
Dreamtech

225

2. Introduction to Computers- Peter Norton–s.
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Complete computer upgrade and Rep-air book, 3rd edition Cheryl A
Schmidt, Wiley Dreamtech
2. Introduction to Information Technology, ITL Education Solutions limited,
Pearson Education.
3. PC Hardware and A +Handbook –Kate J. Chase PHI (Microsoft)
4. Latex Companion –Leslie Lamport, PHI/Pearson
5. –Introduction to Computers with MS-Office 2000–, Alexis Leon and
Mathews Leon, Leon Tech world.

If we really understand the problem, the answer will come out of
it, because the answer is not separate from the problem.
- J. Krishnamurti

226