You are on page 1of 7

Distinguished Author Series

Multiphase Flow in Pipes
by Peter Griffith, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology

Peter Griffith has been on the faculty of the Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT)
since 1956. His primary research interests have been in two-phase flow, boiling,
condensation, supercritical heat transfer, and various applications of nuclear reactor
safety. He holds degrees in mechanical engineering from New York u., the u. of
Michigan, and MIT.

Multiphase flow is found in many places. In the
petroleum industry it occurs in oil and gas wells ,
gathering systems, many piping systems, and key
pieces of equipment needed in refineries and
petrochemical industries, including boilers,
condensers, distillation towers, separators, and
associated piping. This article focuses on two-phase
flow in pipes. Though a lot has been learned about
two-phase flow in the past 25 years , much of that
knowledge has not been collected in a convenient
place . In particular, much work done for the nuclear
industry remains unknown to the petroleum industry.
The primary goal of this article is to describe the kinds
of problems we are now able to solve and to point out
where answers to these problems can be obtained.
When piping in which two phases are flowing is
designed , a number of questions can arise, depending
on the application:
I. What is the void fraction?
2. What is the pressure drop?
3 . What is the liquid level?
4. What is the flow at a break?
5. How can one separate the phases?
6. Where will corrosion occur?
7 . What is the wear rate caused by droplet
8. What is the vibration of the pipes as a result of
two-phase flow?
I shall begin by listing available books, then
recommend flow-regime maps and correlations for
void, pressure drop, and critical flow, and finally
touch on the problems of separation, corrosion, wear,
and vibration.
0149·2136/84/0031·2895$00 .25

MARCH 1984

Books on Two-Phase Flow
Various books on two-phase flow contain answers for
many of the problems that arise. Almost all of the
following books describe homogeneous and separated
flow models for calculating void fraction and pressure
drop, so I shall mention only those features unique to
each book.
Wallis I contains the most complete mechanistic
descriptions of void and pressure drop for the different
flow regimes.
Hestroni 2 has a unique section on flow instability
and also the best section on flow regimes.
Collier 3 is primarily a mUltiphase heat-transfer book
but has a unique section on two-phase pressure drop in
fittings .
Hewitt and Hall-Taylor4 collect and rep0l1 more
experimental observations on annular flow than any
other source.
Lahey and Moody 5 have a unique section on choked
flow. Their description of the drift-flux model is
excelle nt.
Govier and Aziz 6 consider both slurries and nonNewtonian fluid plus a wide variety of solid, liquid ,
and gas systems.
Moore and Sieverding 7 have design data on screen
and chevron separators that are not reported elsewhere.
Hsu and Graham 8 consider cryogens.
Szilas 9 has a design section on both pool and
cyclone separators.
Flow Regimes
The unique feature of two-phase flow is the presence
of flow regimes- descriptions of how the two phases
are distributed in the pipe. Flow regimes and flowregime maps for horizontal, vertical, and inclined

Often one can guess how a flow regime will change as it passes through a fitting.~~~~~ 0 '-' Q) INTERMITTENT (I) DISPERSED If) .1 ::J STRATIFIED SMOOTH (SS) ..1 Dispersed bubble flow Fig. Various methods exists for calculating this quantity.J l~~"~ ?~." It is hard to imagine how a two-phase flow will behave in an untested system without also imagining how the phases are arranged. The approach taken in these works reflects just about the right compromise between precision and simplicity. The next most complicated expression for void assumes that the liquid moves more slowly than the vapor. Our experiments indicate that these recommendations improve the map. LIQUID (AD) ///. Void is usually overestimated in horizontal and upflow and underestimated in downflow when this model is used. There are also regime maps for inclined pipes. liquid fraction. The simplest is the homogeneous model.. The tlow-regime maps recommended have a consistent designation for the flow regimes.. .8 fit into this category. Where pressure drop as such is the issue. this model is often satisfactory. 2 and 10). is the primary concern and the gravity contribution to the pressure drop is small (say 20% of the total). A recent work U extends the data base for flow regimes and recommends changing the location of the 362 SLUG BUBBLE 10 100 500 U6 (m/sec) Fig. If pressure drop. or Baroczy correlations mentioned in all the handbooks on two-phase flow 1-3. and a semitheoretical basis for determining flow-regime boundaries. Void Correlations One of the most basic quantities in two-phase flow is void fraction or its complement. they rarely do. At low velocity... such as: Is there a liquid level? Is there carryover? Is there entrainment? Is the flow steady? Will the top of the pipe be wet? They are also of great interest when one runs "thought experiments..10.. 1 through 3. Crosshatched bands represent the data of Mandhane. -__-=:. a broad data base. These are called "slip correlations. One of the most extensive sources of these is Ref. however.-.10 wavy stratified annular dispersed boundary farther to the right.5.01 Annular flow . The quantities of interest are continuous. for example. All angles are included. I through 4. Martinelli and Baroczy have a data base that includes a wide variety of fluid properties in the correlations. A recent compilation of the driftJOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY .54-cm]-ID pipe at room temperature and pressure. The most precise method for calculating the void fraction relies on the drift-flux model. 12. Rather. The most convenient description of this model is provided in Refs. while steps would occur at flow-regime boundaries if separate correlations were used for void or pressure drop for each regime.5.2. from vertical uptlow to vertical downtlow.3 E~_--~~~-:~~~ Stratified smooth flow ~-~--~~ Stratified wavy flow ~~~~o~:o9 Plug flow ~o~~~d Slug flow c:~. the utility of the flow-regime maps lies in their ability to help solve unconventional problems. it has not proved convenient to use these maps as part of the calculation scheme. However.1-Flow regimes for a horizontal pipe (adapted from Refs." The wellknown Martinelli.11 For quantities like void fraction or pressure drop. they can give poor answers because the gravity contribution to the vapor velocity is practically ignored in both of these correlations. [2. rather than void. Thom. each has its advantages and faults.. 2-Flow-regime map plotted in terms of superficial velocities of each phase for air and water in a 1-in. The arrangement of the phases is the flow regime and can be predicted with the maps.50 DISPERSED BUBBLE (DB) 10 :( ELONGATED. pipes are illustrated in Figs. -. which assumes that both phases move at the same velocity. these methods can be satisfactory. 2 .

t Slug Churn tlow flow '" -u \ .. This model also is unique because it properly predicts a liquid level for sufficiently small velocity levels. we cannot expect a good result. Properly used. • " ' \ J .. one such set of variables identifies the friction factor as a function of a Froude number. 3-Flow regimes distinguished by Taitel and Dukler for a vertical upflow pipe..- " . .1 10 U~ 100 1000 (ft /sec) Fig.0. : . 4-Flow-regime map for air and water in a vertical upflow at 75°F and 1 atm [24°C and 101. 2. When one looks at a large amount of two-phase pressure-drop data. For example.. the density ratio. ~ ~ IV······ . : ' . 0 t :". It also is unique because it can predict void in counterflow and gives an indeterminate form during a downflow when the void is sometimes indeterminate. If there are a number of differences between the data base and the proposed application. the slip model. down. The same three alternatives exist for computing the pressure drop as exist for the void fraction: the homogeneous model. (4) diameter.0 0 00 0 0 O~ 0 10 0 0 0 °00 00 00000 0°0 00 o°a o~c oGGa C'oD °0 " ~ °0 00& 00 °0 o gV 000 000 00°0 0 f:2 00 0 \ \0 ~o ~o 00 0 00 ~ 0 000 00 000 0 00 ~ : " ""':: :":" . the Reynolds number. t 0 0 0 °'0 0 00 0 0 Doo 0 0 0 o .11 Fig. the drift-flux model generally gives the best predictions of void fraction because it explicitly recognizes the two most important factors that cause slip: combined velocity-density distributions in the channel and the direction of the gravity vector. . If we try to correlate data and leave out some dimensionless groups. homogeneous void can be used only when the contribution of gravity to the total pressure drop is unimportant. Whenever one has several methods of calculating a given quantity. or bubbly flow regimes. 0 0'0 0 000° o DO 00 o ()0 0 0 00 o 0 Q a 0 0 BUBBLE 10 t Annular rtow . '. the friction factor is a function of a single dimensionless group. Ref. the pressure drop (which can be calculated with a friction factor) is a function of at least six variables. demonstrably important. one has a problem deciding what constitutes the most similar. and the drift-flux model. flow ANNULAR . at least at some conditions. or inclined). the important differences tum out to be caused by the different data bases underlying the correlations. 2 makes recommendations for calculating pressure drop in both horizontal and vertical pipes.1 B _ •. A . it can be used to help size devices such as separators or to tell whether some heated tubes will be wet when there is only a limited amount of liquid present. for a single-phase. In spite of this. When the application for a correlation is known. the Weber number. In any regime where gravity is a dominant force. The coordinates are the superficial velocity of each phase. flux model constants for various flow regimes 14 has a huge data base.. the viscosity ratio. 2 and 11). For exampk.. (3) geometry (up. the Reynolds number. our ability to predict it in truly new situations is not very good.' 7 " .- . I would rank order the similarities from most to least important: (1) quality and velocity level. the homogeneous model is the simplest to use. A number of comparisons between these models have been made in the literature.. so a drift-flux model should be used.'. ..3 MPa] (adapted from Refs. and the flow-rate ratio. (2) density ratio.. For example. dispersed. the best general advice is to use a correlation with a data base similar to the application. a slip model will fail to represent an important part of the physics.. 1 II "'::l. Slip models are most convenient for engineering calculations but give poor answers when the system operates outside of annular.100 A t--. guidance is needed in choosing which method to use. for a two-phase flow. Only one parameter is Pressure-Drop Correlations Pressure drop is probably the quantity that one deals with most often in two-phase flow.. Differences are primarily a result of the variety of flow regimes that one tries to bridge with a single correlation scheme. However.-c:::::: 00 Bubbl.01 . In general. Another problem is the large number of dimensionless variables that are MARCH 1984 363 . fully developed flow in a pipe. and (5) other properties such as viscosity and surface tension. Thus. Turning now to specific models.

there is no simple relationship between this velocity and the velocity of a pressure wave in the mixture. Ref. the homogeneous methods that rely on a weighted viscosity have practically no experimental justification and make no physical sense. Ref. Generally if the drift-flux model is appropriate. and Baroczy all are included in this category. There is no suitable friction pressure-drop calculation procedure. Average errors with these techniques are small. Recommendations for calculation are included. the void fraction in the upflowing portions must be calculated by use of the drift-flux model. There is little or no pressure recovery in downflow in stratified or annular flow. also apply. To calculate this pressure drop properly. The slip models generally have a larger data base than the homogeneous models. has a section on pressure drop in fittings. Surprisingly. This section explains the results of nuclear work to other parts of the technical community. The most extensive study of inclined-pipe pressure drop is Ref. The empirical friction pressure-drop multipliers they propose are easy to use and give sensible answers to overall pressure drop. the flow continues to increase to a certain point and then holds constant even though the discharge pressure is decreased. but errors possible for a single calculation sometimes are huge-as much as 60 %. Because of these complications. but the analytical details included allow calculations for fluids other than steam and water to be performed. 364 Critical Flow Two-phase critical flow is an important problem in several areas. in any case. At best they provide a smooth transition from a single. Use the liquid density and viscosity to calculate the Reynolds number and the Moody curves to determine the friction factor. 17 is a thoughtful review of the current theories on choked flow and compares data with a variety of theories. the most successful critical flow models have an extensive data base and rely only minimally on theory. primarily the departure from thermal equilibrium. One often changes from slug flow in the upflowing portions to stratified or annular flow in the downflowing portions. At low quality and pressure the homogeneous-equilibrium model has been shown to underestimate the break flow greatly. but other factors. a two-phase flow of both ends of the quality range.needed to predict pressure drop: the friction factor. what we call a critical flow is defined by the following experiment. Both the frequency of the pressure wave and the flow regime change the measured pressure-wave velocity. Overpressure relief valves for devices such as boilers and cryogenic storage tanks need to be sized so the tank is protected from bursting against all transients. Slip models for choked flow were developed to remedy some of these defects. Both models (as presented in this reference) are only for water. 32 and 33. Ref. 15. Fittings often are important components in piping systems. Several pressure-drop models for vertical upflow. and where there are fittings and perhaps several sources for the flow. though little information exists that can be used to calculate two-phase pressure drop in fittings. the overall errors are much less because they tend to average out. 12 is most appropriate. the step at high quality has some experimental justification. This is important because proportions of the two phases that go out the break are not necessarily the same as those in the pipe or those flowing. so more extrapolation is necessary. Naturally the data base for any particular angle inclination is skimpy. In this context. As the pressure in the lower-pressure reservoir is dropped. the friction contribution to the pressure drop is very small. Under the circumstances. Over the past decade much work has been done on break flow since this is an important factor in how a nuclear reactor system behaves after a break occurs. The most convenient source of information on choked flow of steam/water mixtures is contained in Ref. I recommend that the friction factor be chosen by use of the well-known Moody curves. For the stratified downflowing regions a theory presented in Ref. The important factor to keep in mind with inclined pipes is that there is often a flow-regime change as the pipe changes orientation from upflow to downflow. are compared and evaluated in Refs. 3. This procedure gives a smooth transition to the two-phase pressure drop in the lowquality region and a step at 100% quality. assuming that only liquid is flowing at the mixture mass velocity. This asymptotic flow is the critical flow and its velocity is called the critical velocity. A pipe connecting a fluid reservoir close to saturation conditions is allowed to discharge into a reservoir at a lower pressure. Martinelli. among other factors. Break flows must be calculated for pipelines that contain two phases. 18 examines data from a variety of sources and recommends calculations for the large pipes found in reactor systems. In a complex system where heat addition may cause a quality change. Subsurface safety valves contain choked flow and also must be sized. Unlike gases. 16 discusses what goes out the break when there is a hole in a pipe with a stratified flow. In any case. Thom. I recommend that the homogeneous model be used to calculate the friction pressure drop. Inclined pipes are a special case. The break quality and flow rate depend on the location of the break and its size. we know enough to make serviceable estimates of the JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY . Ref. including those mentioned in this section. The homogeneous model and separated flow models both can be used to calculate choked flow for twophase mixtures. Though break flow is still not entirely understood. The results of calculations using the homogeneous equilibrium model and the best slip model are included in a form that is uncommonly convenient for calculation. so the effect of replacing a section of horizontal pipe with an inclined pipe of the same overall length and net elevation changes is to increase the overall pressure drop substantially. Recently several useful reviews have been published in this area. which is needed to accompany the drift-flux model (used for density).

9. 2. Properties like gas and liquid density are considered explicitly. even though two-phase flow is an important factor. 4. To determine whether a MARCH 1984 system is prone to this kind of instability. Additional information on separators is provided in Ref. Both gravity and centrifugal separators are described in Ref. Vpflowing chilled tubes. highly heated tube. Downflowing heated tubes. This kind of separator can be designed with the information contained in Ref. The root of the difficulty is that we don't have a method of calculating how two phases split when they come to a junction. flow-rate curve over the entire operating region. in essence. 7 describes demisters of various kinds such as screens. If so. and corrugated plate separators. Ref. "Instability" in this context involves two separate manifestations: excursive instability (first described by Ledinegg) and oscillating instabilities. 2. These instabilities also can lead to oscillating flow rates. 9 gives a design procedure for separators of this kind. the quality flowing in the two branches is the same.22 The gravity term was destabilizing. The most common cause of a negativesloping pressure-droplflow-rate curve is gravity. Two-phase systems often behave in an unstable manner. I. how one should do this calculation is still somewhat in doubt. In fact. This practically guarantees that the flow out will have the same quality in each pipe. In principle. all the information needed to do this is in the pressure-drop correlations mentioned earlier. Scattered throughout the literature are papers and chapters in books that allow one to design separators and estimate their performance. Cyclone separators are also mentioned. 2. Gravity separators. One can arrange any number of outlet pipes in a circle around a plenum. Perhaps the simplest separator is a vertical downflowing pipe in which the deposited liquid is allowed simply to run out. 1. A wider range of separators is considered. The friction term was found to be destabilizing when boiling began. for example. 3. In general one stabilizes a system by putting sufficient orificing in the lines to ensure a positive pressure-drop vs. there are (1) parallel passages connecting common headers or plenums. constant quality or equal flow split unless the system is designed to ensure such a flow split. Most separators are built and tested by manufacturers with very little information provided to the purchasers about their operation or design. Many areas are affected by what we have learned about two-phase flow that are not usually regarded as two-phase flow concerns. 19. Heated tubes of any orientation with vigorous surface boiling. Gravity destabilizes. described in Ref. This deficiency must be regarded as one of the outstanding. The most likely such instability. Making a piping network predictable may well be a design requirement. N-shaped three-pass vertical boiler tube. inverted V-tubes (in a pendant superheater). Flooding limits also are presented so that one can predict at what vapor velocity level the separated liquid will have difficulty flowing back against the wind. All these instabilities appear when the pipe in question is part of a multiple-tube array connecting common headers. Many other examples in the literature duplicate the failures that already have been discovered. One cannot assume. and if one has to distribute two phases. Gravity destabilizes. The following are examples of specific excursive instabilities that have led to difficulties in various twophase systems. Other Topics The items touched on so far might be described as conventional two-phase flow topics. 23. 21 4. Yankee dryer condensate drain (a "vertical" upt10w pipe sucking condensate from the inside surface of a rotating drum and is discharging it into a horizontal axle). knitted wire mesh. 20 3. Heated. The gravity term was destabilizing. Ref. The gravity term has been found destabilizing. It is worthwhile to spend some time on these topics because it is unlikely that the more conventional fields will be the real problems in the future. for any reason. Another procedure is to split and resplit the flow in tee's in the horizontal plane. Friction is destabilizing. The first of these topics is gas/liquid separation. There are at least two ways to do this. This section attempts to draw this information together. are tanks in which the velocity level is low enough to allow phase separation. The calculation should be done where the proportion of the two phases distributed to the various parallel passages connecting the headers are allowed to vary as they will. is where a flow delivered to a heated pipe oscillates because of compressibility in the fluid 365 . unsolved problems in two-phase flow. Small. Stability. In general the following systems are particularly prone to twophase flow pressure-droplflow-rate instabilities. 2 is practically the only compilation of the information available for describing two-phase flow instabilities in general. Vpflowing two-phase pipes at low velocity (where gravity is dominant). They usually have demisters at the top to remove additional small drops that might be carried over. Separators. Unheated two-phase systems are prone to excursive instabilities if. perhaps the best way is to design the system to ensure symmetry.flow and the resulting set impact forces and critical pressure ratios. Both kinds of instabilities are found in two-phase piping systems. it is necessary to calculate the pressure-droplflow-rate curve and see whether there is a negative-sloping region in the operating range. though less information is given about their design. Gravity and momentum are both destabilizing. Ref. Information on separator efficiency is presented for all these kinds of separators in a form that is useful for design. the more liquid is held up and the greater the pressure drop. The slower the flow. For equal pressures in both branches. or (2) a negative-sloping pressure-droplflow-rate curve in one or more of the passages connecting the two headers. though some useful design information is lacking.

metal removal begins by the steel corroding to magnetite. In any case. This has been studied in a recent work and an unpublished thesis. They are found in systems of any orientation in which heat addition causes a density change. These vibrations are best described as random since there usually is not a single well-defined frequency that characterizes the flow. This means that a pipe excited by a two-phase flow will vibrate at its natural frequency with a variable amplitude. If the flow is above the stable limit for the existing heat flux. these oscillations usually are eliminated by throttling at the inlet to the heated section. The homogeneous model appears adequate for predicting the sand velocity and distribution in the pipe. will cause a reduction in the exit pressure drop. The wear pattern indicates that this is probably the case. The most peculiar facet of this wear is that it is sometimes found on the outside of the pipe bend and sometimes on the inside. while the effects of flow regime are much smaller than anticipated. where an inward-flowing stagnation point occurs. 26 reports an ingenious experiment in which pure water and air are used to simulate the steam/water system of interest. however.28 The wear theory of Finnie 29 can be adapted to the case of sand entrained in a liquid rather than a solid. especially slug flow. In annular flow the film is apparently thin enough that the sand sticks out of the film and may be largely entrained. The cycle of increase and decrease occurs at a period equal to twice the transit time in the test section. the methods for calculating the pressure drop in heated sections mentioned earlier are adequate for predicting this instability. The flow regime is annular-dispersed. but only after a delay. In principle. On the inside. These oscillations can occur in any flow regime. When the oscillations occur. 366 know what the mass-transfer coefficient is around the bend. Any soft delivery system can lead to an oscillating flow. The same kind of vibration would occur if a pipe were struck occasionally and allowed to vibrate between blows. This exposes new metal to the steam and accelerates the wastage. Ref. JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY . When these fluctuations hit a bend. where p=density and V=velocity) and the inlet flow decreases. When this is done. This stagnation point has a very high mass-transfer coefficient and the oxide is dissolved away as a result. Ref. Carbon-steel pipes passing wet steam from extraction points on the turbine to the feed water heaters have suffered from wastage rates so large that pipes have to be system. their period is about twice the transit time in the heated section. This causes the flow to decrease and the pV 2 to decrease. Fe 3 0 4 . The frequencies can be estimated from the information presented in Ref. a fluctuating force resulting from the momentum change in the plug or bubble as it proceeds around the bend is exerted on the bend. 30 or 31. One of the more peculiar twophase flow problems concerns corrosion-erosion in wet steam-extraction lines. The maximum amplitude of the fluctuating force can be estimated conservatively from the maximum density difference between the phases and the mixture velocity. the sand is probably in the liquid but the velocities are low enough so that the resulting wear is not very important. 30) follows. for example. This will tend to increase the flow. The secondary flows in the bends are important in determining how much of the sand hits the bend. The mechanism of these fluctuations (as described in Ref. The exciting frequencies are typically from 1 to 20 cycles/sec [1 to 20 Hz] while the natural frequencies of the piping systems typically range from 5 to 40 cycles/sec [5 to 40 Hz]. Wear. these correlations are generally too imprecise for this purpose. The system is run for a while using air and water and the erosion pattern is observed. When it gets there. for example. On the outside of the bend the secondary flow and centrifugal acceleration throw the drops out onto the magnetite. particularly in the vicinity of fittings. The "pipe" is cast in two pieces of plaster of Paris. Corrosion-Erosion. can exhibit wear from the impact of entrained sand. the shear stress caused by secondary flow in the bend draws the annular film from the bottom or sides of the pipe to the inside. A more common cause of an oscillating flow is a density wave instability. For bubbly and slug flow. This shows more clearly than any other method how the peculiar wear pattern observed in steam-extraction lines comes about. However. This force can cause the pipe to vibrate if the fluctuations are near a natural frequency for the system. it takes time for the resulting increase in density to propagate to the exit section. a large proportion of the pressure drop must be concentrated in the exit section of the tube. reasonable wear rates are predicted. This is because two separate mechanisms are responsible for the removal of material. 2 summarizes most of what is known about them. 24 -26 The location of the wastage is entirely a result of the peculiarities of the two-phase flow passing through these lines. a reduction in flow. one needs to Vibration Caused by Two-Phase Flow. In two-phase flow. Oil and gas pipelines and wellstrings. For these oscillations to occur. fatiguing it and causing it to erode away. since pressure derivatives as well as pressure-drop values are important and the correlations are not that good. To calculate the metal-removal rate. In fact. Again. the exit pressure drop increases (because of the increase in pV2. plugs of t1uid proceed down the pipe with the density fluctuating between that of almost pure liquid and that of almost pure gas. The metal loss peaks at a temperature of 300°F [149°C] and typically is found in pipes and fittings with flowing steam of 80 to 95 % quality. Very little information is available that can be used to predict the vibration amplitudes caused by fluctuations in a twophase flow. 27.

G. H.. 2.: "Erosion of Metal Pipe by Solid Particles Entrained in Water. 1980).K. Massachusetts Inst. References 1.. Beggs.E.: "Erosion and Erosion-Corrosion of Mctab. Y. This article cites references where the information can be found. D. Pet. Deane." MS thesis. La Grange Park. 8. The maximum amplitude of the exciting force occurs at the slug-annular boundary. 437-62. and Brill.. V. Conclusion Methods for calculating many of the quantities of interest in two-phase flows exist but are scattered in the literature." Report No.S. Yih. 1. R. New York City (1975). 29. and Agarwal.J. 26 (1980) 345-52.E. T..F.J. Taitel. G. S. Washington. (Sept. P.: "The Mechanism of Erosion of Ductile Metals..: "Flow Pattern Transition and Characterization in Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes. Conference on Erosion by Sol id and Liquid Impact (1979) 25. A. DC (1976).D. 17. Donner. 9. 527-32. 28.: "Hydraulic Study of ThreePass Panels with Bottom Inlet Headers for Once Through Boilers. and Graham." Technical Assn. Slug flow. Y.E. DC (1982)." AIChE 3rd IntI.E: "Effects of Two-Phase Flow on Wall-to-Fluid Mass Transfer in Bends and Straight Pipes. Zurich (1963). N.W." Inti.K. Multiphasl' Flo\\' (1977) 3. descriptive presentations that summarize the state of the art in an area of technology by describing recent developments for readers who are not specialists in the topics discussed.S. whereas annular flow becomes increasingly smooth as the velocity and quality increase. Abdollahiar. Massachusetts Inst.: "Modeling Flow Pattern Transitions for Steady Upward Gas-Liquid Flow in Vertical Tubes.. 6. 16.. Chicago (1968). Dept.: CO/J\'ectil'(! BoilinK and Condensation.J.: "An Assessment of Two-Phase Pressure Drop Correlations for Steam-Water Systems. is very rough. et al. Finnie. G. P. E. of Technology. Cambridge (1981).: Two-Phase Steam Flow in Turbines and Separators. Wallis. Wallis. 1976) 47-54. Inc.G.! April 1980) 6. Pergamon Press. which are the most generally available sources for this kind of information.T. of Technology. 15. 1-11." MS thesis. Hemisphere Publishing Corp. 1982). New York City (1981).: The Thermal-Hvdraulics ofa BoilinK Water Nuclear Reactor. Hsu.: "A Model for Slug Frequency During Gas-Liquid Flow in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Pipes. A. Purpose: To Inform the general readership of recent advances in various areas of petroleum englneenng 367 .: Handbook of Multiphase Systems. 5th IntI.T. 22 (Jan. (1974). Tech. Natl. P ." AIChE J.: "Problems in Modeling of Small Break LOCA. A.: "Unsteady Momentum Fluxes in TwoPhase Flows and the Vibration of Nuclear System Components. R. Collier. American Nuclear Soc. however. and Glusker. Liu. 8767-31. and Sieverding. and Moody.H. Hemisphere Publishing Corp . IL (1977). 12. and Duklcr." 11111.G. G. Massachusetts Inst. A. Y. of Technology. of the Paper and Pulp Industry (March 1959) 42. Hernandez. Moore. 3. Blanchard. 14. A." Pmc" 3rd U." Therlilal EnKineerinK (No. 31. P. Vu. and Dukler. (1982). Todreas. H. Inc." NUREG-0724 (Oct." AIChE 1.W. Idsinga. of Mechanical Engineering. Govier. R..: Annular Two-Phase Flow. 10.. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.E.. 1. Maulbetsch. 11. M. Griffith. 1.: "A Model for Predicting Flow Regime Transitions in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Gas Liquid Flow. TaiteL Y. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 27.. Hubbard. Lahey. 4. of Tulsa (1973). New York City (1972). C. 20. Conference. 18. A.. 1. 32. Y." 1111. 1964). J.048* m. and Coney." Pmc. G." J. Written by individuals recognized as experts In the areas.· "One-Dimensional Drift-Flux Model and Constitutive Equations for Relative Motion Between Phases in Various TwoPhase Flow Regimes. European Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting. Zuber. New York City (1969).H. W. G." ANL-77-47 (1977). Bcnchaita. 23. Van Nostrand Reinhold." 11111. New York City (1970). 97. U.T. J. Cambridge (1982). stressing the handbooks.: "Pressure Drop with Surface Boiling in Small-Diameter Tubes. Bubbly flow is very smooth. and Aziz.: Transport Process in BoilinK and Two-Phase Svstellls.: One-Dimensional Two-Phase Flow.: Production and Transport (~r Oil and Gas. 13. Weisman." Aerosol Science 5. L.: "Critical Two-Phase Flow.S. (May 1973) 607-17. Congress of Applied Mechanics (1958).: "A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes. I. Hemisphere Publishing Corp. B. Washington. 215-23.: "Effects of Fluid Properties and Pipe Diameter in Two-Phase Flow Patterns in Horizontal Lines." MS thesis. K.P. H. 5. 22.: "Experimental Observation of Aerosol Deposition in Turbulent Flow.: "A Experimental Study of Some Dryer Drainage Siphons.: "Comparison of Friction Factor Correlations for Gas-Liquid Flow in Horizontal Pipes. 33. 24. and Bergels.: "Critical Flow Data Review and Analysis.8 E-Ol ft x 3.: "A Study of Systems Induced Instabilities in Forced-Convection Flows with Sub-cooled Boiling. 1. M. Multiphase Flo\\' (Feb. 26.: "Erosion of Metallic Plate by Solid Particles Entrained in a Liquid Set.N.W. F. Coulon.A. Wilkin.l. Multiphase Flo II' (1979) 5. these articles provide key references to more definitive work and present specific details only to illustrate the technology. and Bowering." EPRI NP-2192 (Jan. SI Metric Conversion Factors atm x 1. M.: The Flow of Complex Mixtures in Pipes.Flow regime is of governing importance for this problem. 30. DC (1976). T. 21. N. N. and Dukler.P. 0. and Rabinowicz. Multiphase Flo\\' (1977) 3. P. and Hall-Taylor." PhD dissertation. Ishii.S. X 2. MARCH 1984 19.540* E+OO * Conversion factor is exact Pa °C m cm JPT Distinguished Author Series articles are general. M. M. 585-96. and Griffith. and Griffith.. Szilas. 401-13. J.8." Pmc. F. R.. Washington.: "Erosive-Corrosive Wear in Steam Extraction Lines of Power Plants." Trans" ASME (1983) 105. 7. and Thauvin. 1965).B.Y. Tel-Aviv U. Sprague. Krasykova. Shohann. Hestroni." ANL-7685 (May 1970). 1.013 250* E+05 OF (OF-32)/l. Hewitt..B. et al. McGrawHill Book Co. 25.