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EEC 560

Engineering Electromagnetics
Term Paper

Presented By:

Guided By:

Rohan Patel (2619632)

Dr. Eugenio Villaseca

Then determined at what ratings the resonant reactive shield will work for maximum efficiency by experimental method. The other option is to reduce the distance that is it should be very close to the magnetic field source. The author has presented the different experimental data with the simulation. The author have discussed different shielding methods 1) Conductive shield 2) Magnetic Shield 3) Active Shield 4) Resonant Reactive shield with the explanation and also discussed the merits and demerits of each method. Which results in the large space between the coil and eventually it leads to the significant leakage magnetic field. There is a serious demerit of conductive shielding. the leakage field will be reduced. that is the load coil and the source coil should be separated physically. By adjusting the position of the magnetic material and controlling the path of magnetic field.Design and Analysis of a Resonant Reactive Shield for a Wireless Power Electric Vehicle Introduction The purpose of the paper to design a resonant shield for the reduction of magnetic field leakage from a wireless power transfer systems.  Magnetic Shield Ferromagnetic material is used and it provides the path for magnetic field. The main advantage of this shield is it will not require any additional power to run the circuit. Summary  Conductive shield The main function of the conductive shield is to block a time varying magnetic field by generating eddy currents at the surface of the conductor and which results in cancelation of the incident magnetic field. The conductive magnetic shielding is effective above the frequency range of 10kHz. . Although it will increases the cost because it deals with use of magnetic material. Also the design procedure and experimental implementation of the resonant reactive shield is shown. waveforms and graph to analyze the working condition in various situations. This method will be used with the other shielding methods to get desired magnetic field cancelation. Then the author has discussed the effectiveness and efficiency of resonant reactive shield. In this situation the shielding coil is placed too close to the source coil which results in serious heat generation by magnetic field due to eddy current loss.

a magnetic field is induced and the induced magnetic field cancels the incident magnetic field. Active Shield This method reduces the leakage magnetic field in wireless power transfer system by generating a canceling magnetic field. . Active shield method can also be used magnetic shield method but it will not be able to cancel magnetic field with the same magnitude and a 180 degree phase offset. this current produces an opposite magnetic field which will cancels the incident magnetic field. When an incident magnetic field from wireless power transfer coil passes through a shield coil. Figure 1 Basic Concept of Resonant Reactive Shield From the above image it can be understood that the magnetic field which is generated from the wireless power transfer system is applied to the resonant reactive shield coil which results in the induced voltage in the coil. The magnitude and the phase of the induced cancelling magnetic field can be change by adjusting the coil impedance. In addition an external AC power source is required to generate current that creates the cancelling field which results in decrement of power efficiency. The basic concept of resonant reactive field is shown below. The current can be determined by the induced voltage and coil impedance.  Resonant Reactive Shield The resonant reactive shield works on the principle of Lenz’s law. The induced voltage will results in induced currents in the coil.

 Design of Resonant Reactive Shield The equivalent circuit model of load coil. the shield resistance Rsh and the shield capacitance Csh. Structure of Resonant Reactive Shield The basic structure of wireless power transfer is shown below in the figure. shield inductance Lsh. source coil and the resonant reactive shield coil is shown in the figure. The load coil is installed onto the bottom surface of the vehicle. The resonant reactive shield is perpendicular to the sourse coil as shown in figure. . Figure 2 Structure of Wireless Power Transfer System. The source coil is placed on the surface of the road or below the surface of the road. The source and the load coil is relatively tightly coupled. The equivalent circuit model is shown in below figure. The power is transferred from sourse to the load wirelessly. The resonant reactive shield contains the elements.

Figure 5 Operating Frequency Range The phase of the impedance is dependent on frequency and changes with the operating frequency. the impedance can be controlled hence the cancelling magnetic field controlled. When the operating frequency is lower than the resonance frequency of the shield coil. The cancelling magnetic field will be maximum when the impedance of the coil is low. the phase of the impedance is around 90 degree. when the operating frequency is higher than the resonance frequency. In addition. Figure 4 shows the operating region for the operating range.Figure 3 Equivalent Circuit model of Resonant Reactive Shield The most important factor while designing the resonant shield is the impedance of the shield coil. the phase of the impedance is around 90 where the shield coil behaves . and the shield coil behaves capacitive. By adjusting the capacitance of the resonant shield coil.

In the circuit the magnetic field sensor detects and measures the total magnetic field generated by the wireless power transfer system and according to that the control circuit adjust the value of capacitance for maximum power transfer. resulting in higher loss at the shield coil. This is shown in the figure 4. From the equation it is noted that the power transfer efficiency is proportional to the shield impedance. So the shield coil is placed away from the wireless power transfer system to maintain the efficiency. the shield current is increased. When the impedance of the shield coil is decreased.  Automatic Tuning Circuit for Resonant Reactive Shield In real time application the distance between the shield and source coil changes. the efficiency of the shield coil is decreased. . The impedance is depends and can be change by adjusting the value of capacitance. This results in requirement of high voltage and thick capacitors. The schemetic diagram is shown in the figure 6 below. Therefore.inductive. Therefore the impedance should be change for maximum power transfer. the automatic tuning circuit is proposed. The induced current can be determined by the determining whether it is working in the inductive region or in the capacitive region. To change the capacitance in real time electric vehicle application. but inversely proportional to the mutual inductance between the shield coil and the load coil.  Position of Resonant Reactive Shield Coil The shield coil is placed on the side of the bottom of the vehicle. Near the wireless power transfer system coil the shield current is increases because the magnetic field is very strong near source coil.

Then author point out the main advantage of the Resonant Reactive shield method with the proper derivation and explanation.  Advantages of Reactive shield method    No external power source is required Cost is low comparative to other Efficiency is also high.  On the other hand the author has not discussed the following point. First the author has explained the different shieling techniques with the advantages and disadvantages of each.Figure 6 Schematic diagram of control circuit  A critical assessment of the paper The author has presented the paper very clearly with the simulation and experimental data.     Enhancement of power transfer efficiency with distance Reduce the battery weight and size Electromagnetic interference with other devices Electromagnetic biological effect to human bodies .

Maximize the wireless power transfer with increased distance. Open questions and ideas for future work     The author has discussed the wireless charging for steady object but it can be implemented for moving vehicles also. 3 coil system is more efficient than 2 coin system. A paper for the same is on IEEE xplore. the ground clearance is increases. For example a magnetic track on the road for wirelesses charging of moving vehicle while the vehicles are driven. Improved efficiency and lower the cost of the design Improve the coil design for efficient power transfer. For small vehicles the smaller distance will work but for the larger vehicles like trucks and buses. Therefore we should work on power transfer efficiency with distance .