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Air traffic control

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Airport Traffic Control Tower atBordeaux–Mérignac Airport

Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) atSuvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand. (The world's tallest).

Traffic Control Tower at Oslo-Gardermoen Airport, Norway

Airport Traffic Control Tower at Juanda International Airport, Indonesia

disregard. organize and expedite the flow of traffic. or is operated by the military. ATC enforces traffic separation rules. and provide information and other support for pilots. ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions. and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace. ATC provides services to all private. or advisories (known as flight information in some countries) that pilots may. ATC plays a security or defensive role. deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft.New LaGuardia Airport (LGA) Control Tower in New York City Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who directaircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace. To prevent collisions. in an emergency. In many countries. Many aircraft also havecollision avoidance systems. Contents [hide]  1 Language . and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.[1] In some countries. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace. Generally the pilot in command is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may. at their discretion. which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close. which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. military.

2 Weather  6 Call signs  7 Technology  8 Air navigation service providers (ANSPs) and traffic service providers (ATSPs)  9 Proposed changes  10 ATC regulations in the United States  11 See also  12 References .1 Ground control o 3. center.1 Traffic o 5.3 Flight traffic mapping  5 Problems o 5.2 Radar coverage o 4.2 Local control or air control o 3. 2 History  3 Airport control o 3.4 Approach and terminal control  4 En-route. or area control o 4.3 Flight data / clearance delivery o 3.1 General characteristics o 4.

The primary method of controlling the immediate airport environment is visual observation from the aerodrome control tower (TWR). the position of various aircraft. windowed structure located on the airport grounds. may exist at extremely busy airports. Ground Control. and Flight Data/Clearance Delivery—other categories. The tower is a tall. London was the first airport in the world to introduce air traffic control. speed. In adverse weather conditions the tower controllers may also use Surface Movement Radar (SMR). These displays include a map of the area. Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS) or Advanced SMGCS to control traffic on the manoeuvring area (taxiways and runway). Latin America's busiest airport. Croydon Airport. altitude.[3] Airport control[edit] Inside the São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport's tower.[2] In practice. the native language for a region is normally used. and aircraft in the air near the airport. ATC operations are conducted either in the English language or the language used by the station on the ground. and data tags that include aircraft identification. Local Control or Air Control. Surveillance displays are also available to controllers at larger airports to assist with controlling air traffic. The areas of responsibility for TWR controllers fall into three general operational disciplines. generally 5 to 10 nautical miles (9 to 18 km) depending on the airport procedures. the English language must be used upon request. and other information described in local procedures. Aerodrome or Tower controllers are responsible for the separation and efficient movement of aircraft and vehicles operating on the taxiways and runways of the airport itself.[2] History[edit] In 1921. such as Apron Control or Ground Movement Planner. however. While each TWR may have unique airport- . 13 External links Language[edit] Pursuant to requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Controllers may use a radar system called Secondary Surveillance Radar for airborne traffic approaching and departing.

People working on the airport surface normally have a communications link through which they can communicate with Ground Control. Local Control must ensure that Ground Control is aware of any . having vacated the runway or departure gate. a landing aircraft may be told to "go-around" and be resequenced into the landing pattern by the approach or terminal area controller. data blocks.specific procedures. Local control or air control[edit] Local Control (known to pilots as "Tower" or "Tower Control") is responsible for the active runway surfaces. Exact areas and control responsibilities are clearly defined in local documents and agreements at each airport. such as multiple teams of controllers ('crews') at major or complex airports with multiple runways. This generally includes all taxiways. affecting the safety and efficiency of the airport's operation. radar target. There are a wide range of capabilities on these systems as they are being modernized. Displays for the Air Traffic Controllers may be either optical live video and/or synthetic images based on surveillance sensor data. and safety alerts. Any aircraft. designed to display aircraft and vehicles on the ground. Ground control[edit] Ground Control (sometimes known as Ground Movement Control) is responsible for the airport "movement" areas. ASDE-3. AMASS orASDE-X. the following provides a general concept of the delegation of responsibilities within the TWR environment. but there may be special cases where other procedures are used. If Local Control detects any unsafe condition. holding areas. Likewise. such as. Ground Control must request and gain approval from Local Control to cross any active runway with any aircraft or vehicle. as well as areas not released to the airlines or other users. Some busier airports have Surface Movement Radar (SMR). ensuring that prescribed runway separation will exist at all times. Within the TWR. These are used by Ground Control as an additional tool to control ground traffic. and to interface with other systems such as digital flight strips. Remote and Virtual Tower (RVT) is a system based on Air Traffic Controllers being located somewhere other than at the local airport tower and still able to provide Air Traffic Control services. This is normally done via VHF/UHF radio. Local Control clears aircraft for takeoff or landing. Ground Control is vital to the smooth operation of the airport. commonly either by handheld radio or even cell phone. vehicle. and some transitional aprons or intersections where aircraft arrive. or person walking or working in these areas is required to have clearance from Ground Control. a highly disciplined communications process between Local Control and Ground Control is an absolute necessity. particularly at night or in poor visibility. Aircraft or vehicles without radios must respond to ATC instructions via aviation light signals or else be led by vehicles with radios. because this position impacts the sequencing of departure aircraft. Newer systems include the capability to display higher quality mapping. Older systems will display a map of the airport and the target. inactive runways.

it is referred to as a TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). Warrenton. Clearance Delivery or. Virginia. Flight Data may inform the pilots using a recorded continuous loop on a specific frequency known as the Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS). coordinate with the en route center and national command center or flow control to obtain releases for aircraft. Approach and terminal control[edit] Potomac TRACON. although this is not as prevalent as CRM for pilots..S. the Traffic Management Coordinator (TMC) will. in which case it is known as the Ground Movement Planner (GMP): this position is particularly important at heavily congested airports to prevent taxiway and apron gridlock. at busy airports. In most countries. outages. While . runway closures. airport ground delays/ground stops.United States. This information is also coordinated with the en route center and Ground Control in order to ensure that the aircraft reaches the runway in time to meet the slot time provided by the command center. typically before they commence taxiing. Often. and work with the approach radar controllers to create "holes" or "gaps" in the arrival traffic to allow taxiing traffic to cross runways and to allow departing aircraft to take off. Many airports have a radar control facility that is associated with the airport. there may be ground "stops" (or "slot delays") or re-routes may be necessary to ensure the system does not get overloaded. These contain details of the route that the aircraft is expected to fly after departure. At some airports. Flight data / clearance delivery[edit] Clearance Delivery is the position that issues route clearances to aircraft. such releases are given automatically or are controlled by local agreements allowing "free-flow" departures. however. Crew Resource Management (CRM) procedures are often used to ensure this communication process is efficient and clear. if necessary. this is referred to as Terminal Control. Clearance Delivery also plans aircraft push-backs and engine starts. The primary responsibility of Clearance Delivery is to ensure that the aircraft have the proper route and slot time.operations that will impact the taxiways. When weather or extremely high demand for a certain airport or airspace becomes a factor. Flight Data (which is routinely combined with Clearance Delivery) is the position that is responsible for ensuring that both controllers and pilots have the most current information: pertinent weather changes. etc. in the U.

the tower may provide a non-radar procedural approach service to arriving aircraft handed over from a radar unit before they are visual to land. Across Europe. . Terminal control is responsible for ensuring that aircraft are at an appropriate altitude when they are handed off. center. in the US VFR pilots can request flight following. neighboring airports and terrain. The airspace boundaries and altitudes assigned to a Terminal Control Center. At some of these airports.100 m) and out to 100 nautical miles (190 km). or a bordering terminal or approach control). which vary widely from airport to airport. Virginia. or area control[edit] The training department at the Washington Air Route Traffic Control Center. Not all airports have a radar approach or terminal control available. the en-route center or a neighboring terminal or approach control may co-ordinate directly with the tower on the airport and vector inbound aircraft to a position from where they can land visually. A large and complex example is the London Terminal Control Centre which controls traffic for five main London airports up to 20. Main article: Area Control Center ATC provides services to aircraft in flight between airports as well. an en-route control facility. one consolidated Terminal Control Center may service all the airports.every airport varies. Air traffic controllers have different responsibilities to aircraft operating under the different sets of rules. Pilots fly under one of two sets of rules for separation: Visual Flight Rules (VFR) or Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). En-route. Traffic flow is broadly divided into departures. While IFR flights are under positive control. United States. Where there are many busy airports close together. they are handed off to the next appropriate control facility (a control tower. Some units also have a dedicated approach unit which can provide the procedural approach service either all the time or for any periods of radar outage for any reason. which provides traffic advisory services on a time permitting basis and may also provide assistance in avoiding areas of weather and flight restrictions. and overflights.000 feet (6. Terminal controllers are responsible for providing all ATC services within their airspace. terminal controllers usually handle traffic in a 30-to-50-nautical-mile (56 to 93 km) radius from the airport. are based on factors such as traffic flows. arrivals. and that aircraft arrive at a suitable rate for landing. In this case.Leesburg. As aircraft move in and out of the terminal airspace.

which is similar to flight following. the aircraft is given a frequency change and begins talking to the next controller. This effort is complicated by crossing traffic. and pilots are required to comply with these instructions. as controllers will position aircraft landing in the same destination so that when the aircraft are close to their destination they are sequenced. remain VFR until the Center provides a clearance. This process continues until the aircraft is handed off to a terminal controller ("approach"). including clearance off of the ground and clearance for approach to an airport. The United States uses the equivalent term Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). Additionally. Centers may also "pick up" VFR aircraft that are already airborne and integrate them into the IFR system. In some cases this "hand-off" process involves a transfer of identification and details between controllers so that air traffic control services can be provided in a seamless manner. These "flow restrictions" often begin in the middle of the route. Center controllers are responsible for climbing the aircraft to their requested altitude while. at the same time. and traffic density.pilots may request for a "Flight Information Service". the aircraft must be placed in a flow consistent with the aircraft's route of flight. General characteristics[edit] En-route air traffic controllers work in facilities called Air Traffic Control Centers. the center is responsible for meeting altitude restrictions by specific points. Centers control IFR aircraft from the time they depart from an airport or terminal area's airspace to the time they arrive at another airport or terminal area's airspace. in other cases local agreements may allow "silent handovers" such that the receiving center does not require any coordination if traffic is presented in an agreed manner. Each center is responsible for many thousands of square miles of airspace (known as a Flight Information Region) and for the airports within that airspace. however. These aircraft must. ensuring that the aircraft is properly separated from all other aircraft in the immediate area. special missions that require large airspace allocations. Radar coverage[edit] . which prohibits all of the arrivals being "bunched together". When the aircraft approaches its destination. En-route air traffic controllers issue clearances and instructions for airborne aircraft. severe weather. as well as providing many destination airports with a traffic flow. Controllers adhere to a set of separation standards that define the minimum distance allowed between aircraft. These distances vary depending on the equipment and procedures used in providing ATC services. En-route controllers also provide air traffic control services to many smaller airports around the country. As an aircraft reaches the boundary of a Center's control area it is "handed off" or "handed over" to the next Area Control Center. each of which is commonly referred to as a "Center". In the UK it is known as a "Traffic Service". After the hand-off.

and displaying the data in an effective format. to assist the Pilot in final phases of landing in places where Instrument Landing System and other sophisticated . The Federal Aviation Administration. However. based on a predetermined time interval.Since centers control a large airspace area. over water). This new technology reverses the radar concept. to see aircraft within 200 nautical miles (370 km) of the radar antenna. and speed to ensure separation.g. Some Air Navigation Service Providers (e. over 90% of the U. at higher altitudes. Because there are no radar systems available for oceanic control. ADS operates in the "contract" mode where the aircraft reports a position. distance. however. They may also use TRACON radar data to control when it provides a better "picture" of the traffic or when it can fill in a portion of the area not covered by the long range radar. To address this. Controllers record information on flight progress strips and in specially developed oceanic computer systems as aircraft report positions. These procedures use aircraft position reports. It is also possible for controllers to request more frequent reports to more quickly establish aircraft position for specific reasons. oceanic controllers provide ATC services using procedural control. etc. In the U. airspace is covered by radar and often by multiple radar systems. ADS is significant because it can be used where it is not possible to locate the infrastructure for a radar system (e. more frequent reports are not commonly requested except in emergency situations. system.g. Instead of radar "finding" a target by interrogating the transponder. at higher altitudes. altitude. This results in a large amount of data being available to the controller. Precision approach radars are commonly used by military controllers of airforces of several countries. which reduces the overall capacity for any given route. coverage may be inconsistent at lower altitudes used by unpressurized aircraft due to high terrain or distance from radar facilities. time. Centers also exercise control over traffic travelling over the world's ocean areas. This consolidation includes eliminating duplicate radar returns. A center may require numerous radar systems to cover the airspace assigned to them. This technology is currently used in portions of the North Atlantic and the Pacific by a variety of states who share responsibility for the control of this airspace. and may also rely on pilot position reports from aircraft flying below the floor of radar coverage. since the cost for each report is charged by the ADS service providers to the company operating the aircraft. See for example the North Atlantic Track system. Normally. automation systems have been designed that consolidate the radar data for the controller. they will typically use long range radar that has the capability.) have implemented Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) as part of their surveillance capability. the ADS-equipped aircraft sends a position report as determined by the navigation equipment on board the aircraft. ensuring the best radar for each geographical area is providing the data.S. These areas are also FIRs.S. Computerized radar displays are now being designed to accept ADS inputs as part of the display. NAV CANADA. automatically or initiated by the pilot. Airservices Australia. This process requires that aircraft be separated by greater distances.

Stand-alone programs are also available for displaying the geographic location of airborne IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) air traffic anywhere in the FAA air traffic system. see this crash report. satellite cloud and radar imagery. an area of high air traffic. A Radar Archive System (RAS) keeps an electronic record of all radar information.[4] RAS is also useful to technicians who are maintaining radar systems. Positions are reported for both commercial and general aviation traffic. The Aircraft Situational Display to Industry (ASDI) system now conveys up-to-date flight information to the airline industry and the public. For example. geo-political boundaries. The National Business Aviation Association (NBAA). preserving it for a few weeks. Intersecting contrails of aircraft overLondon. Flight traffic mapping[edit] The mapping of flights in real-time is based on the air traffic control system. high altitude jet routes. . In 1991. air traffic control center boundaries. Each company maintains a website that provides free updated information to the public on flight status. When an aircraft has 'disappeared' from radar screens. and FlyteComm. Problems[edit] Traffic[edit] For more information see Air traffic flow management. and the National Air Transportation Association petitioned the FAA to make ASDI information available on a "need-to-know" basis. a controller can review the last radar returns from the aircraft to determine its likely position. FlightView. The programs can overlay air traffic with a wide selection of maps such as. the Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association. Subsequently.air borne equipment are unavailable to assist the pilots in marginal or near zero visibility conditions. This procedure is also called Talkdowns. Some companies that distribute ASDI information are FlightExplorer. NBAAadvocated the broad-scale dissemination of air traffic data. the Helicopter Association International. data on the location of aircraft was made available by the Federal Aviation Administration to the airline industry. This information can be useful for search and rescue. the General Aviation Manufacturers Association.

increase airborne delay for holding aircraft.[5] Paradoxically. . Thus. Errors generally occur during periods following times of intense activity. Weather[edit] Beyond runway capacity issues. Air traffic control errors occur when the separation (either vertical or horizontal) between airborne aircraft falls below the minimum prescribed separation set (for the domestic United States) by the US Federal Aviation Administration. Up until the 1990s. Several factors dictate the amount of traffic that can land at an airport in a given amount of time. In Area Control Centers. in turn. Allowing for departures between arrivals. If more aircraft are scheduled than can be safely and efficiently held in the air. holding. Occasionally weather considerations cause delays to aircraft prior to their departure as routes are closed by thunderstorms. slow. and exit the runway before the next crosses the approach end of the runway. current high precision cruising altitude rules increase the risk of collision between 10 and 33 times over more sloppy alternatives when air traffic control errors occur. weather is a major factor in traffic capacity. or causing congestion as many aircraft try to move through a single hole in a line of thunderstorms. Advances in computers now allow the sequencing of planes hours in advance. reducing the capacity of the en-route system by requiring more space per aircraft. thus reducing the safe arrival rate and requiring more space between landing aircraft. Each landing aircraft must touch down. Rain. each runway can thus handle about 30 arrivals per hour. a major weather problem is thunderstorms. A large airport with two arrival runways can handle about 60 arrivals per hour in good weather. These. ice or snow on the runway cause landing aircraft to take longer to slow and exit. Problems begin when airlines schedule more arrivals into an airport than can be physically handled. This process requires at least one and up to four minutes for each aircraft. when controllers tend to relax and overlook the presence of traffic and conditions that lead to loss of minimum separation. or when delays elsewhere cause groups of aircraft that would otherwise be separated in time to arrive simultaneously. was a routine occurrence at many airports. Aircraft will deviate around storms. Separation minimums for terminal control areas (TCAs) around airports are lower than en-route standards. which has significant environmental and cost implications. or may reduce speed in flight and proceed more slowly thus significantly reducing the amount of holding.The day-to-day problems faced by the air traffic control system are primarily related to the volume of air traffic demand placed on the system and weather. a ground delay program may be established. delaying aircraft on the ground before departure due to conditions at the arrival airport. Aircraft must then be delayed in the air byholding over specified locations until they may be safely sequenced to the runway. planes may be delayed before they even take off (by being given a "slot"). Fog also requires a decrease in the landing rate. which present a variety of hazards to aircraft.

VY/VLG forVueling Airlines. For example.e. for example "N11842" could become "Cessna 842". By default. The short Radio-telephony callsigns for these tail numbers is the last 3 letters using the NATO phonetic alphabet (i. Due to the larger number of new airlines after deregulation ICAO established the 3-letter callsigns as mentioned above. In order to reduce the possibility of two callsigns on one frequency at any time sounding too similar.[6] This abbreviation is only allowed after communications has been established in each sector. An example of an audio callsign would be "Speedbird 832". The IATA callsigns are currently used in aerodromes on the announcement tables but never used any longer in Air Traffic Control. an identical call sign might well be used for the same scheduled journey each day it is operated. airline flight numbers are even if eastbound. like AAL872. air traffic controllers still record data for each flight on strips of paper and personally coordinate their paths. As such they appear on flight plans and ATC radar labels. DL/DAL for Delta Air Lines. VLG1011. at some ACCs. In newer sites. These are permanently allocated by ICAOon request usually to scheduled flights and some air forces for military flights. model or manufacturer in place of the first registration character. spoken as lufthansa-two-three-lima-golf. ABC spoken Alpha-Bravo-Charlie) for C-GABC or the last 3 numbers like 345 spoken as TREE-FORE-FIFE for N12345. These are not always identical to their written counterparts. There are also the audio or Radio-telephony callsigns used on the radio contact between pilots and Air Traffic Control. The call sign of the return flight often differs only by the final digit from the outbound flight. In this arrangement. . Generally. even if the departure time varies a little across different days of the week. such as "N12345". Call signs[edit] A prerequisite to safe air traffic separation is the assignment and use of distinctive call signs. In the United States. AA is the IATA callsign for American Airlines — ATC equivalent AAL. This is used to reduce the chance of confusion between ATC and the aircraft. Other examples include LY/ELY for El Al. They are written callsigns with 3-letter combination like KLM. and odd if westbound.Much money has been spent on creating software to streamline this process. the prefix may be an aircraft type. particularly in Europe. usually choosing the tail number instead. these flight progress strips have been replaced by electronic data presented on computer screens. the callsign for any other flight is the registration number (tail number) of the aircraft. more and more sites are upgrading away from paper flight strips. Before around 1980 International Air Transport Association (IATA) and ICAO were using the same 2-letter callsigns. The flight number part is decided by the aircraft operator. a number of airlines. BAW. Additionally it is the right of the air traffic controller to change the 'audio' callsign for the period the flight is in his sector if there is a risk of confusion. However. etc. have started using alphanumeric callsigns that are not based on flight numbers. As new equipment is brought in. "C-GABC" or "EC-IZD". VLG followed by the flight number. For example DLH23LG. instead of the written "BAW832".

but a fully automated system is still over the horizon. Certain types of weather may also register on the radar screen.Technology[edit] The air traffic control tower atHartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. All this information is distributed to modern operational display systems. Middlesex. Some basic processing occurs on the radar tracks. such as calculating ground speed and magnetic headings. the busiest airport in the world. The FAA has spent over US$3 billion on software. Primary and secondary radar are used to enhance a controller's situation awareness within his assigned airspace — all types of aircraft send back primary echoes of varying sizes to controllers' screens as radar energy is bounced off their skins. However. These inputs. and transponder-equipped aircraft reply to secondary radar interrogations by giving an ID (Mode A). the centre was initially troubled by software and communications problems causing delays and occasional shutdowns. Many technologies are used in air traffic control systems. a Flight Data Processing System manages all the flight plan related data. are correlated to build the air situation. Usually. In 2002 the UK brought a new area control centre into service at the London Area Control Centre. in Hampshire. relieving a busy suburban centre at West Drayton. Software from Lockheed-Martin predominates at the London Area Control Centre. Swanwick. Hampshire. north of London Heathrow Airport. an altitude (Mode C) and/or a unique callsign (Mode S).[7] . making it available to controllers. added to data from other radars. incorporating – in a low or high degree – the information of the track once the correlation between them (flight plan and track) is established.

.  passive Final Approach Spacing Tool (pFAST). The algorithms used may also provide in some systems a possible vectoring solution.e. or climb the aircraft in order to avoid infringing the minimum safety distance or altitude clearance.Some tools are available in different domains to help the controller further:  Flight Data Processing Systems: this is the system (usually one per Center) that processes all the information related to the Flight (the Flight Plan). that calculates a planned departure flow with the goal to maintain an optimal throughput at the runway.  The Arrival Manager (AMAN): A system aid for the ATC at airports.  Minimum Safe Altitude Warning (MSAW): a tool that alerts the controller if an aircraft appears to be flying too low to the ground or will impact terrain based on its current altitude and heading. reduce queuing at holding point and distribute the information to various stakeholders at the airport (i.  Area Penetration Warning (APW) to inform a controller that a flight will penetrate a restricted area.  The Departure Manager (DMAN): A system aid for the ATC at airports. typically in the time horizon from Gate to gate (airport departure/arrival gates). descend.  Short Term Conflict Alert (STCA) that checks possible conflicting trajectories in a time horizon of about 2 or 3 minutes (or even less in approach context – 35 seconds in the French Roissy & Orly approach centres[8]) and alerts the controller prior to the loss of separation. etc. MTCD). the airline. reduce arrival queuing and distribute the information to various stakeholders.  Arrival and Departure Manager to help sequence the takeoff and landing of aircraft.g. It uses such processed information to invoke other Flight Plan related tools (such as e. NASA research included an Active FAST capability that also provided vector and speed advisories to implement the runway and sequence advisories. the manner in which to turn.  System Coordination (SYSCO) to enable controller to negotiate the release of flights from one sector to another. and distributes such processed information to all the stakeholders (Air Traffic Controllers. collateral Centers. Airports. provides runway assignment and sequence number advisories to terminal controllers to improve the arrival rate at congested airports. pFAST was deployed and operational at five US TRACONs before being cancelled.). a CTAS tool. that is. ground handling and Air Traffic Control (ATC)). that calculates a planned Arrival flow with the goal to maintain an optimal throughput at the runway.

The software is running on Linux. TMA is operational at most en route air route traffic control centers (ARTCCs) and continues to be enhanced to address more complex traffic situations (e. Some of the CTAS tools are: Traffic Management Advisor (TMA).g. URET and MTCD provide conflict advisories up to 30 minutes in advance and have a suite of assistance tools that assist in evaluating resolution options and pilot requests. is an en route decision support tool that automates time based metering solutions to provide an upper limit of aircraft to a TRACON from the Center over a set period of time. This results in an overall reduction in en route delays and also moves the delays to more efficient airspace (higher altitudes) than occur if holding near the TRACON boundary is required to not overload the TRACON controllers.  Mode S: provides a data downlink of flight parameters via Secondary Surveillance Radars allowing radar processing systems and therefore controllers to see various data on a flight. including airframe unique id (24-bits encoded). Schedules are determined that will not exceed the specified arrival rate and controllers use the scheduled times to provide the appropriate delay to arrivals while in the en route domain.  In Europe. indicated airspeed and flight director selected level. Adjacent Center Metering (ACM) and En Route Departure Capability (EDC))  MTCD & URET  In the US. amongst others. Several of the CTAS tools have been field tested and transitioned to the FAA for operational evaluation and use.[9]  Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The SESAR[10]Programme should soon launch new MTCD concepts. passive Final Approach Spacing Tool (pFAST). a CTAS tool. several MTCD tools are available: iFACTS (NATS). Direct-To (D2). VAFORIT (DFS). Collaborative Arrival Planning (CAP). . User Request Evaluation Tool (URET) takes paper strips out of the equation for En Route controllers at ARTCCs by providing a display that shows all aircraft that are either in or currently routed into the sector. New FDPS (MASUAC). En Route Descent Advisor (EDA) and Multi Center TMA. Converging Runway Display Aid (CRDA) enables Approach controllers to run two final approaches that intersect and make sure that go arounds are minimized  Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) is a suite of human centered decision support tools developed by NASA Ames Research Center.

Canada and parts of the Pacific Ocean and Alaska. Raytheon. It is especially useful in areas where difficult-to-use HF radiotelephony was previously used for communication with aircraft. The most important is the aircraft's latitude.g. which is now being updated by its 2nd genreration system. SAAB etc. DFS. Avibit. MASUAC. oceans). This is currently in use in various parts of the world including the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The firsts electronic flight strips systems were independently and simultaneously invented and implemented by NAV CANADA and Saipher ATC in 1999. Saipher ATC. DECEA and being produced by several industries. reducing the need for manual functions. such as NAVCANatm. CPDLC: Controller Pilot Data Link Communications — allows digital messages to be sent between controllers and pilots. the TATIC TWR.  The Electronic Flight Strip system (e-strip): Electronic Flight Progress Strip System at São Paulo Intl. Thales Group. oceans. avoiding the need to use radiotelephony. Indra Sistemas. Frequentis.g. such as NAV CANADA. ranging from very small airports up to the busiest . longitude and level: such data can be utilized to create a radar-like display of aircraft for controllers and thus allows a form of pseudo-radar control to be done in areas where the installation of radar is either prohibitive on the grounds of low traffic levels. e. This is currently in use in Australia. creating new tools and reducing the ATCO's workload. The NAV CANADA system known as EXCDS[11] and rebranded in 2011 to NAVCANstrips and Saipher's first generation system known as SGTC. E-strips allows controllers to manage electronic flight data online without Paper Strips.  ADS-B: Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast — provides a data downlink of various flight parameters to air traffic control systems via the Transponder (1090 MHz) and reception of those data by other aircraft in the vicinity. DECEA in Brazil is the world's largest user of Tower e-strips system. or technically not feasible (e. Control Tower – Ground Control A system of electronic flight strips replacing the old paper strips is being used by several Service Providers.

Such recordings are used for a later replay together with audio recording for investigations and post event analysis. employing digital technologies.[12]  Communication Navigation Surveillance / Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems are communications. including satellite systems together with various levels of automation.[13] Air navigation service providers (ANSPs) and traffic service providers (ATSPs)[edit] Main article: Air Navigation Service Provider  Azerbaijan – AzərAeroNaviqasiya  Albania – Agjencia Nacionale e Trafikut Ajror  Armenia – Armenian Air Traffic Services (ARMATS)  Australia – Airservices Australia (State Owned Corporation) and Royal Australian Air Force  Austria – Austro Control  Belarus – Republican Unitary Enterprise "Белаэронавигация (Belarusian Air Navigation)"  Belgium – Belgocontrol  Brazil – Departamento de Controle do Espaço Aéreo (ATC/ATM Authority) and ANAC – Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil(Civil Aviation Authority)  Bulgaria – Air Traffic Services Authority  Canada – NAV CANADA – formerly provided by Transport Canada and Canadian Forces  Central America – Corporación Centroamericana de Servicios de Navegación Aérea . applied in support of a seamless global air traffic management system.  Screen Content Recording: Hardware or software based recording function which is part of most modern Automation System and that captures the screen content shown to of the ATCO. Billing and Statistics. and surveillance systems. navigation.ones. taking the advantage of real time information and data collection from each of more than 150 sites for use in ATFM.

 Guatemala – Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil (DGAC)  El Salvador  Honduras  Nicaragua  Costa Rica – Dirección General de Aviación Civil  Belize  Chile – Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil (DGAC)  Colombia – Aeronáutica Civil Colombiana (UAEAC)  Croatia – Hrvatska kontrola zračne plovidbe (Croatia Control Ltd.)  Cuba – Instituto de Aeronáutica Civil de Cuba (IACC)  Czech Republic – Řízení letového provozu ČR  Denmark – Naviair (Danish ATC)  Dominican Republic – Instituto Dominicano de Aviación Civil (IDAC) "Dominican Institute of Civil Aviation"  Estonia – Estonian Air Navigation Services  Europe – Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation)  Finland – Finavia  France – Direction Générale de l'Aviation Civile (DGAC) : Direction des Services de la Navigation Aérienne (DSNA)(Government body)  Georgia – SAKAERONAVIGATSIA. (Georgian Air Navigation)  Germany – Deutsche Flugsicherung (German ATC – State-owned company) . Ltd.

)  Iceland – ISAVIA  Indonesia – AirNav Indonesia  Ireland – Irish Aviation Authority (IAA)  India – Airports Authority of India (AAI) (under Ministry of Civil Aviation. Co. (HungaroControl Hungarian Air Navigation Services Pte. Ltd.Iraqi Air Navigation .ICAA  Israel – Israeli Airports Authority (IIA) [1]  Italy – Ente Nazionale Assistenza al Volo (ENAV) and Italian Air Force  Jamaica – JCAA (Jamaica Civil Aviation Authority)  Latvia – LGS (Latvian ATC)  Lithuania – ANS (Lithuanian ATC)  Luxembourg – Luxembourg ATC  Macedonia – DGCA (Macedonian ATC)  Malaysia – DCA-Department of Civil Aviation  Malta – Malta Air Traffic Services Ltd  Mexico – Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano  Nepal – Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal . Government Of India and Indian Air Force)  Iraq . Greece – Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority (HCAA)  Hong Kong – Civil Aviation Department (CAD)  Hungary – HungaroControl Magyar Légiforgalmi Szolgálat Zrt.

 Netherlands – Luchtverkeersleiding Nederland (LVNL) (Dutch ATC) http://www. (SMATSA)  Slovakia – Letové prevádzkové služby Slovenskej republiky  Slovenia – Slovenia Control  South Africa – Air Traffic and Navigation Services (ATNS)  Spain – AENA (Spanish ATC and Airports) .eurocontrol.Seychelles Civil Aviation Authority (SCAA)  Singapore – Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS)  Serbia – Serbia and Montenegro Air Traffic Services Agency Eurocontrol (European area control ATC)  New Zealand – Airways New Zealand (State Owned Enterprise)  Norway – Avinor (State-owned private company)  Oman – Directorate General of Meteorology & Air Navigation (Government of Oman)  Pakistan – Civil Aviation Authority (under Government of Pakistan)  Peru – Centro de Instrucción de Aviación Civil CIAC Civil Aviation Training Center  Philippines – Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP) (under the Philippine Government)  Poland – Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA)  Portugal – NAV (Portuguese ATC)  Romania – Romanian Air Traffic Services Administration (ROMATSA)  Russia – Federal State Unitary Enterprise "State ATM Corporation"  Saudi Arabia – General Authority of Civil Aviation (GACA)  Seychelles .

C. Instead. . and systems to accommodate future (2020 and beyond) air traffic needs. procedures. technologies.  Free flight is a developing air traffic control method that uses no centralized control (e.T. air traffic controllers). [14] In Europe. Sweden – LFV (Government Body)  Switzerland – Skyguide  Taiwan – ANWS (Civil Aeronautical Administration)  Thailand – AEROTHAI (Aeronautical Radio of Thailand)  Trinidad and Tobago – Trinidad and Tobago Civil Aviation Authority (TTCAA)  Turkey – DGCA (Turkish Directorate General of Civil Aviation)  United Arab Emirates – General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA)  United Kingdom – National Air Traffic Services (NATS) (49% State Owned Public-Private Partnership)  United States – Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) (Government Body)  Ukraine – Ukrainian State Air Traffic Service Enterprise (UkSATSE)  Venezuela – Instituto Nacional de Aviación Civil (INAC) Proposed changes[edit] In the United States. Many countries have also privatized or corporatized their air navigation service providers. the SESAR[10] (Single European Sky ATM Research) Programme plans to develop new methods. [15] Change in regulation in admittance for possible A.g.  The Next Generation Air Transportation System examines how to overhaul the United States national airspace system. some alterations to traffic control procedures are being examined.'s regarding their eye-refraction and correction thereof by technology has been proposed. parts of airspace are reserved dynamically and automatically in a distributed way using computer communication to ensure the required separation between aircraft.

For more information regarding Air Traffic Control rules and regulations.[16] See also[edit]  Book: Aviation  Air safety  Air traffic controller  Airspace  Area Control Center (ACC)  Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B)  Aviation light signals  Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937 & DHL Flight 611 mid-air collision  Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation  Flight level (FL)  Forward Air Controller  Flight Information Service Officer  Flight planning  Flight tracking  Flight progress strip  Flight traffic mapping .65 as the authority for all procedures regarding air traffic.ATC regulations in the United States[edit] FAA Control Tower Operators (CTO)/Air Traffic Controllers use FAA Order 7110. refer to the FAA's website.

Alan and Kirk. 2010 5. Jump up^ Breitler.South East . Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Kevin (September 1996). Jump up^ DGAC/Aviation Civile Magazine . ^ Jump up to:a b "IDAO FAQ". Jump up^ "crash report".Croydon Airport 4. Effects of Sector Complexity and Controller Experience on Probability of Operational Errors in Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Jump up^ "Air Traffic Control".ca. tsb. Global Air Traffic Management  IFATCA (International Federation of ATC Associations)  Navigation  Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization  Remote and Virtual Tower  Tenerife disaster. Center for Naval Analyses Document (IPR 95-0092) 6. 3. 2.65 2-1-1". (TFN)  Terminal Control Center  Tower en route control (TEC)  Virtual Air Traffic Simulation Network (VATSIM)  Zagreb mid-air collision References[edit] 1. 8.gc. Jump up^ "FAA 7110. Retrieved 2009-0303. retrieved on August 21.Surrey . Retrieved 4 December 2012. Jump up^ What is an Abbreviated Aircraft Call Sign? 7. Jump up^ Heritage Locations .

Retrieved 5 December FAA. 10. External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Air traffic control. Canadian Public Administration. No.Jump up^ McDougall.Commercializing Air Traffic Control: Have the Reforms Worked?. Jump up^ "Technical Sessions". 45– 69. Vol. 51. 16.Jump up^ Free Flight 15. 2009. Alasdair S (August 15. SSRN 1317450. Retrieved 5 December 2010.  up^ "Air Traffic Plans and Publications".pdf 14.Jump up^ http://www.navcanada.9. pp. 1. p. Jump up^ up^ Air Traffic Control Recording 13. Glen and Roberts. Centennial of Flight Commission – Air Traffic Control  The short film A TRAVELER MEETS AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (1963) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more] .^ Jump up to:a b SESAR 11. 2007).icao.x ml 12.asp? Language=en&Content=ContentDefinitionFiles\TechnologySolutions\products\IIDS\excds\default. usenix.