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This copy shall be placed in/at

TRAINING MANUAL
on life-saving appliances

Name of ship ___


Port of registry

________

Type of ship _
Call sign

___

Official number
Year of build _
Main particulars
Length

____
DWT _

Breadth

Main engine power

GRT/GT

Service speed _

ISBN 87-87895-93-5
Printed by JBK Offset ApS, Ishoj.
Printed in Denmark 1991

Guidance for the shipping


company/safety officer
This training manual will form a complete guide to the use of
life-saving appliances on board ships when the supplements/removals mentioned below have been made. It will thus fulfil the
requirements laid down in SOLAS 74, Chapter III, Regulation 51.
In order to comply fully with the directions contained in regulation
51 it is necessary - as mentioned - to make individual supplements/removals applicable to the individual ship so that the training manual comprises the life-saving appliances on board that
ship. This applies here to arrangements of launching appliances,
lifeboats and liferafts, lifejackets etc.
Instructions for several brands of life-saving appliances are included in this manual. For other brands of life-saving appliances
carried on board the ship the safety officer must procure or prepare the relevant material and insert it in the manual.
The instructions in the manual must be replaced by updated
material whenever life-saving appliances carried on board are
changed or replaced by another type or model.
The items which have to be adjusted are as follows:
0
2.2
2.3
3.2

The front page to be filled in.


The muster lists to be inserted.
Scheme of alarm signals to be filled in.
Lifejackets and immersion suits:
Instructions to be inserted.
3.3 This section to be extended with relevant instructions/
drawings for the ship.
3.4 Signals for launching of survival craft to be entered,
(ref. 2.3).
3.4.2 Relevant instructions to be inserted.
3.4.3 Relevant instructions to be inserted,
(slip-hooks, hydrostatic release gear).
4.1 Liferaft-book of instructions to be inserted in the plastic
pocket at the back of the manual.
4.2 Instructions for pyrotechnics and radio to be inserted.
4.3 Instructions for EPIRBs to be inserted.
4.4 Instructions for lifeboat engine to be inserted.
5.3 Instructions for line-throwing appliance to be inserted.
5.4.1 Alarm signal to be entered, (ref. 2.3).
Instructions regarding rescue boat to be inserted.
5.4.3 Number of lifebuoys on board to be entered.
Instructions for MOB-buoy to be inserted.
6.
The intention of this section is to cover special equipment
found on specialized vessels such as passenger ships, gas
and chemical tankers, diving ships etc.
7.
Under this item instructions and comments are inserted
regarding procedures especially valid for the shipping company. For instance questionnaires etc. to be used in connection with the safety training might be inserted here.

Introduction
This training manual has been written and collected by a project
group representing the Danish Maritime Authority (S0fartsstyrelsen), shipping companies, and the seafarers' organizations, who
- under the Danish Shipowners' Association - have been working
for a general and uniform training manual on the use of life-saving
appliances on board vessels in connection with the introduction of
the revised chapter III on life-saving appliances in the International
Convention on Safety of Life at Sea, SOLAS 74 *). The revised
chapter III came into force on July 1st 1986.
The training manual is intended as a reference book containing
answers to questions arising from the use of all life-saving appliances on board, and according to SOLAS 74, chapter III, regulation 18, a manual shall be provided in each crew mess room
and recreation room or in each crew cabin to be accessible to all
members of the crew.
The manual has been prepared as a loose-leaf binder into which
amendments can be inserted. Furthermore supplementary sections dealing with special ships, special equipment, policy of shipping companies regarding procedures etc., can be inserted for
the individual user.
On the condition that this training manual has been completed for
the vessel which is identified on the front page of the book, the
present edition fulfils the requirements laid down in regulation 51
of SOLAS 74, chapter III, 1983-amendments.
The abbreviation SM B refers to a Danish set of regulations
equal to the SOLAS 74.
The project group would like to express their thanks to the IMO
for permission to reproduce "A Pocket Guide to Cold Water Survival", as well as to all companies and persons who have cooperated in the production of the manual.
This second edition of the Training Manual has been brought up
to date and a few parts have been rewritten. Important amendments are issued as loose-leafs to the first edition.
This edition closed for contributions in April 1988.
') SOLAS is an abbreviation of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea prepared by
the United Nations' shipping organization IMO (International Maritime Organization).

Contents
Part 1 - Common safety.............................................
Lifeboat and fire muster lists ....................
Man-Over-Board muster list .......................
Drills and instructions ................................
Safety notices and signs ............................
Escape ........................................................
Know the location and use of safety
equipment.....................................................

Page
1.0
1.1.01
1.2.01
1.3.01
1.4.01
1.5.01
1.6.01

Part 2- When the accident occurs ...........................2.0


Types of accidents ................................... 2.1.01
Muster lists ...................................................2.2.01
Alarm signals ..............................................2.3.01
Part 3 - Abandoning the ship ....................................3.0
Hazards of cold exposure
(survival technique) .................................... 3.1.01
Personal life-saving appliances .................. 3.2.01
Precautions when launching the survival
crafts.............................................................3.3.07
Survival craft.................................................3.4.01
boarding ..................................................3.4.1.01
launching...................................................3.4.2.01
release ......................................................3.4.3.01
Part 4-In the survival craft .......................................4.0
Use of the survival craft facilities ................ 4.1.01
Use of the survival craft detection equipment
-pyrotechnics and radio .......................... 4.2.01
Use of Emergency Position Indicating Radio
Beacons (EPIRB) ....................................... 4.3.01
Use of engine and accessories ................. 4.4.01
Emergency repair of life-saving appliances . 4.5.01
Parts- Various rescue situations .............................5.0
Rescue by helicopter ................................ 5.1.01
Shore rescue ................................................5.2.01
Line-throwing appliance ...............................5.3.07
Man-Over-Board situation ......................... 5.4.1.01
Use of rescue boat ................................. 5.4.1.01
Recovering of the rescue boat
and lifeboat ...............................................5.4.2.01
Lifebuoys...................................................5.4.3.01
Part 6 - Special rescue equipment for specialized
ships.............................................................6.0

Part?-

Index
Pag.
Alarm signals ..................................... 2.3.01
Basketlift ............................................ 5.1.02
Boarding lifeboats and -rafts ............. 3.4.01
Boat alarm.......................................... 2.3.01, 3.4.01
Cold injury.......................................... 3.1.A. 10
Cold injury, treatment........................ 3.1.04, 3.1.A.07
Common safety.................................. 1.0
Doublelift ........................................... 5.1.01
Drills ................................................... 1.1.01, 1.3.01

Embarkation area..............................
Emergency lighting in the embarkation
area ..................................................
Emergency Position Indicating Radio
Beacon (EPIRB)................................
Emergency repair of life-saving
appliances ..........................................
Emergency signals ............................
Engine in lifeboat ..............................
EPIRB ................................................
Escape routes ....................................

3.3.01
3.3.07

4.3.01
4.5.01
4.2.03
4.4.01
4.3.01
1.5.01

Fire alarm ......................................... 2.3.01


Fire muster lists .............................. 1.1.01, 2.2.01

Freezing cold injury (frostbite) ........... 3.1.A. 10


General alarm .................................... 2.3.01

Hazard of cold exposure ................... 3.1.01


Hydrostatic release gear ................... 3.4.3.02
Hypothermia ..................................... 3.1.A.05

Immersion suits................................. 3.2.01


Jumping wearing a lifejacket ............. 3.4.1.02
Launching of boats from ships making
headway.............................................
Launching of lifeboat .........................
Launching of liferaft ...........................
Launching of rescue boat ..................
Lifeboat, boarding, launching and
release................................................
Lifeboat drills.....................................
Lifeboat equipment............................
Lifeboat muster list............................
Lifeboat, recovery..............................
Lifebuoys ............................................
Lifejackets ..........................................

3.4.2.03
3.4.1.03, 3.4.2.01
3.4.1.04
5.4.1.02
3.4.01
3.4.3.01
4.1.05
1.1.01, 2.2.01
5.4.2.01
5.4.3.01
3.2.01

Pag.

Liferaft, boarding, launching and


release ................................................
Liferaft equipment ...............................
Life-saving signals ............................
Line-throwing appliance.......................

3.4.01
4.1.05
5.2.03
5.3.01

Man-over-board muster list.................


MOB-alarm..........................................
MOB-boat ...........................................
MOB-buoy...........................................
Muster lists __ '. ................................

1.2.01, 2.2.01, 5.4.1.01


2.3.01
1.2.01, 5.4.1.01
5.4.3.02
2.2.01

Non-freezing cold injury ...................... 3.1.A. 10


Personal life-saving appliances........... 3.2.01
"A Pocket Guide to Cold Water
Survival".............................................. 3.1.A.01
Pyrotechnics ...................................... 4.2.01
Radio ..................................................
Recovering of the rescue boat and
lifeboat ................................................
Release of lifeboat or -raft .................
Rescue by helicopter..........................
Rescue from the shore .....................
Rocket apparatus ................................
Safest position for unconscious
person ...............................................
Safety notices .....................................
Sea anchor .........................................
Ship abandonment..............................
Shore rescue ......................................
Signals when launching ......................
Signs .................................................
Singlelift ..............................................
Special rescue equipment for
specialized ships.................................
Stretcherlift..........................................
Survival technique...............................

4.2.02
5.4.2.01
3.4.3.01
5.1.01
5.2.01
5.2.01
3.1.A.08
1.4.01
4.1.01
3.1.A.06
5.2.01
3.4.02
1.4.01
5.1.01
6.0
5.1.02
3.1.01

Temperature regulation of the body .. 3.1.02, 3.1.A.02


Treatment for hypothermia ................ 3.1.04, 3.1.A.07
Types of accidents.............................. 2.1.01

Regulation 51
SOLAS, Chapter III, Regulation 51 describes a series of detailed
items and procedures which are to be included in training manuals on life-saving appliances, prepared according to the above
regulation.
The table below indicates where the individual items described in
Regulation 51 are dealt with in this training manual.
SOLAS, Chapter III, Regulation 51

. 1 donning of lifejackets and immersion suits .


.2 muster at the assigned stations

Training manual

3.2

................................................

.3 boarding, launching, and clearing the survival craft and rescue boats .........................

3.4, 5.4.1

.4 method of launching from within the survival


craft ...........................................................

3.4

.5 release from launching appliances ............

3.4

2.2

.6 methods and use of devices for protection


in launching areas, where appropriate . . . .

3.3

.7 illumination in launching areas ...................

3.3

.8 use of all survival equipment .......................

4.1

.9 use of all detection equipment .....................

4.2

. 10 with the assistance of illustrations, the use


of radio life-saving appliances ....................

4.3

. 11 use of sea anchors ....................................

4.1

. 12 use of engine and accessories ..................

4.4

. 13 recovery of survival craft and rescue boats


including stowage and securing ................

5.4.1,5.4.2

. 14 hazards of exposure and the need for warm


clothing...........................................................

3.1

. 15 best use of the survival craft facilities in


order to survive ...........................................

4.1

. 16 methods of retrieval, including the use of


helicopter rescue gear (slings, baskets,
stretchers) breeches-buoy and shore lifesaving apparatus and ship's line-throwing
apparatus ....................................................

5.1, 5.2, 5.3

.17 all other functions contained in the muster


list and emergency instructions ...................

1.1-1.6, 2.3

. 18 instructions for emergency repair of the lifesaving appliances ......................................

4.5

1.1

Lifeboat and
fire muster lists
In accordance with SOLAS,
notices known as muster
lists, which tell each crew
member what to do in an
emergency, are to be placed
on all ships. Among these
notices are "LIFEBOAT AND
FIRE MUSTER LISTS". They
can differ from ship to ship
depending on the company.
The lifeboat and fire muster
lists will also vary according to
the type of ship and the size of
its crew.
Certain general requirements
apply to the contents of these
lifeboat and fire muster lists,
among other things that they
are to contain information
about when the various alarm
signals are to be used and
what
they
sound
like.
It is vital that all those on
board fully understand their
tasks in the event of an emergency. For this reason it is the
duty of every crew member
carefully to study the lifeboat
and fire muster lists as soon
as they sign on.
To ensure that all on board always know their duties in the
event of an emergency, drills
shall be performed. It is during drills that things possibly
not functioning quite according to the purpose shall be
found and it is during drills
you ask the questions you
want to have answered.
Remember! Ask - while there
is time to answer! During an
emergency there is no time to
answer questions.
Remember! It is Your duty to
participate in the lifeboat
(Abandon Ship) and fire drills

1.6

Know the
location and
use of safety
equipment
The location of the safety
equipment is carefully planned
and already before the ship
was built the distribution of the
safety equipment was approved by the administration.
No matter where you are in the
ship there is always some
safety equipment nearby - but
remember it might be difficult
to locate if for instance the
rooms are filled with smoke,
so it is wise to note the location of the equipment before
you have to use it.

2.1

Types of
accidents

The ship and the seafarer can


encounter many different
types
of
emergencies.
Many of these can be avoided
with care and by knowledge
of the potential dangers. For
this reason it is important, not
to expose yourself or others
to dangers because ofsloppiness.
- Know your duties in an
emergency!
- Be prepared - an emergency can arise any time!
- Knowledge and training
gives you the best chances
to cope with an emergency.
Emergencies can arise for a
variety of reasons, for instance:
Fire/Explosion can arise due
to failure or faulty operation of
equipment, to self-ignition
caused by carelessness with
open fire or smoking in the
bunk.
Collision can be caused by
failure of machinery or rudder,
inadequate watchkeeping or
by navigational errors.
Grounding or stranding, like
collision, can be caused by
navigational errors, failure of
machinery or rudder, bad
weather or by the ship dragging its anchor.
Leakage occurs if the ship's
hull, deck or hatches are
damaged.
Icing can be dangerous especially to smaller vessels. It
reduces the stability of the
vessel, which may result in

Muster lists
In order to cope with an emergency situation in the best
way planning ahead is necessary. The plans are called the
muster lists, and comprise the
boat muster lists and the fire
muster lists respectively, and
in certain ships there may
also be a Man-Over-Board
muster list.
Out of consideration for your
shipmates and yourself it is
your duty to acquaint yourself
thoroughly with the muster
lists - consider in particular:
- What is my task, do I understand what to do?
- Where do I have to appear?
- Where is the equipment to
be used?
- Who gives the orders?
- To whom shall I report?
- What are the ship's alarm
signals?
It is your duty to attend all
musterings and drills. Your
place on the muster list is
given either by your profession, name, crew number or
room number.

If the heat loss is too great to


be compensated for by the
shiver and increasing insulation the body temperature will
fall; first at a slow rate, later on
faster until death occurs.
The possibility of the body to
compensate for the heat loss
by shivering and increased insulation by narrowing the
blood-vessels are very limited
compared to the amount of
heat being lost by lowering a
body into the water. Even at
temperatures of 30C a substantiel cooling will take place,
and only in few places in the
world is the sea water temperature so high.
When a person falls into cold
water, it will immediately penetrate the clothes. The insulating layer of air in the clothes
will be displaced by water and
the skin will be strongly
cooled.
The blood-vessels of the skin
will narrow, but if the water
temperature is below the
above mentioned 30C, this alone will not prevent heat loss.
The body will try to produce
more heat by tightening the

If you are in cold water and


can't swim to anything near
by, keep your clothes on, avoid
movements and await rescue.
In cold water don't overestimate your ability to swim.

If you are wearing a lifejacket,


which keeps your head and
neck out of the water, the cooling of the body will be slower,
as the main artery to the head
is less exposed to cooling at
the place where it runs close
to the skin.
As you see, wearing a lifejacket is not only a question of
avoiding drowning, but also a
question of surviving for a prolonged period.
An extra help to reduce cooling can be achieved by pressing the lifejacket against the
breast, keep the arms close to
your body, bend the thighes up
against the lifejacket and keep

The purpose of this guide is to


examine the hazards of cold
exposure that may endanger
your life.
It provides you with advice on
how to prevent or minimize
those dangers.
A thorough understanding of
the information contained in
this guide may some day save
your life.
During the second world war
the Royal Navy of the United
Kingdom alone lost about
45,000 men at sea, of whom it
is estimated 30,000 died from
drowning and hypothermia.
Many of those who drowned
did so because of incapacitation due to cold. Even today
the pattern is similar.
It is important to realize that
you are not helpless to effect
your own survival in cold
water. Body heat loss is a
gradual process, and research shows that in calm
water at 5 C a normally dressed person has only a 50 per
cent chance of surviving one
hour. Simple, self-help techniques can extend this time,
particulary if the person is
wearing a lifejacket.
You can make the difference;
this guide is intended to show

Hypothermia
The loss of body heat is one of
the greatest hazards to the
survival of a person at sea.
The rate of body heat loss depends on water temperature,
the protective clothing worn,
and the manner in which the
survivor conducts himself. An
abnormally low body core
temperature can be recognized by a variety of symptoms. Very early during exposure, the body tries to combat the excessive heat loss
both by narrowing its surface
blood vessels (to reduce heat
transfer by blood to surface)
and by shivering (to produce
more body heat). However, if
the exposure is severe, the
body is unable to conserve or
produce enough heat. Body
core temperature begins to
fall. When body core temperature is below 35C the person
is suffering from "hypothermia".

Ship
abandonment
Records show that many
ships sink in less than 15 minutes. This affords little time to
formulate a plan of action, so
careful preplanning is essential to be ready in an emergency. Here are some sound
pointers for you to remember
when abandoning ship:
1 Put on as much warm
clothing as possible, making sure to cover head,
neck, hands and feet.
2 If an immersion suit is
available put it on over the
warm clothing.
3 If the immersion suit does
not have inherent flotation,
put on a lifejacket and be
sure to secure it correctly.
4 All persons who know that
they are likely to be affected by seasickness
should, before or immediately after boarding the
survival craft, take some
recommended preventive
tablets or medicine in a
dose recommended by the
manufacturer. The incapacitation caused by seasickness interferes with
your survival chances; the
vomiting removes precious body fluid, while seasickness in general makes
you more prone to hypothermia.
5 Avoid entering the water if
possible, e.g. board davitlaunched survival craft on
the embarkation deck. If
davit-launched
survival
crafts are not available,
use over-side ladders, or if
necessary lower yourself
by means of a rope or fire

6 Unless it is unavoidable do
not jump from higher than
5 metres into the water. Try
to minimize the shock of
sudden cold immersion. A
sudden plunge into the
cold water can cause rapid
death or an uncontrollable
rise in breathing rate may
result in an intake of water
into the lungs. On occasions it may be necessary
to jump into the water; if
so, you should keep your
elbows to your side, cover
your nose and mouth with
one hand while holding the
wrist or elbow firmly with
the other hand. One
should not jump into the
water astern of the liferaft
in case there is any remaining headway on the
ship.
7 Once in the water, whether
accidentally or by ship
abandonment, orientate
yourself and try to locate
the ship, lifeboats, liferafts, other survivors or
other floating objects. If
you were unable to prepare yourself before entering the water, button up
clothing now. In cold water
you may experience violent shivering and great
pain. These are natural
body reflexes that are not
dangerous.
You
do,
however, need to take action as quickly as possible
before you lose full use of
your hands; button up
clothing, turn on signal
lights, locate whistle, etc.

Part:

Title:

.,

.,

. .

Abandoning the ship


In more serious cases, where
the survivor is not shivering
and is semi-conscious, unconscious, or apparently dead,
immediate first aid measures
will be necessary to preserve
life while awaiting medical advice on more detailed management procedures. The recommended first aid measures for
such an immersion survivor
are as follows:
1 On rescue always check the
survivor's breathing;
2 If the survivor is not
breathing, ensure the airway is clear and start artificial respiration immediately
(mouth to mouth or mouth
to nose);
3 Attempts at resuscitation
should be continued for at
least 30 minutes if medical
advice is not available.
4 If the survivor is breathing
but unconscious, lay him in
the unconscious position as
illustrated.

Pa e:

O -4

o. I. A.08
5 Avoid all unnecessary manhandling; do not even remove wet clothes; do not
massage.
6 Prevent further heat loss
through evaporation and
from exposure to the wind.
Wrap the patient in blankets
and transfer him immediately below decks to a
compartment at between
15C and 20C, preferably
keeping him horizontal,
slightly head down.
7 Seek advice by radio on further treatment; advice on
rewarming and decisions
with regard to further treatment should then be given
by a doctor.
The above basic guidelines on
first aid treatment are illustrated diagrammatically:

Cold injury
Another problem confronting
a survivor in cold environments is the threat of acquiring a cold injury. Such injuries
usually result from prolonged
exposure to low ambient temperatures, especially when
wind speeds are high. Cold injuries may be of a freezing or
nonfreezing variety.
1

Freezing cold
injury (frostbite)
Frostbite is the term given to
the condition when tissue fluids freeze in localized areas of
the body; the hands, face and
feet are particularly susceptible.
Cause
Exposure, particularly of bare
skin to subzero temperatures
especially when combined
with air movement. Look-outs
in liferafts or survivors in open
boats are particularly prone to
this injury. Accordingly, consideration should be given to
the length of watch period.
Diagnosis
The signs are:
1 extreme waxy pallor of the
skin;
2 initial local tingling and stiffness when it is difficult to
wrinkle the face or wriggle
affected toes or fingers;
3 complete absence of sensation in the area affected;
and
4 local hardness due to freezing of the flesh.
Be watchful for the early signs
of frostbite in yourself and in
others.

Prevention
If bare skin has to be exposed
to the elements, the periods of
exposure should be kept to a
minimum and freezing winds
particularly avoided. Moderate
exercise and massage at an
early stage will help to prevent
the onset of cold injury. DO
NOT smoke; smoking reduces
the blood supply to the hands
and feet.
Treatment
On detection of the above
signs, immediate steps should
be taken to re-warm the frozen
part before permanent
damage occurs. Get out of the
wind. Re-warm the frozen
areas by applying them to a
warmer part of the body e.g.
hands under armpjts, cupped
hand over cheek, nose, ear,
etc. Once freezing has occurred DO NOT rub or massage affected areas.

Non-freezing
cold injury
(immersion
foot)

This is a term given to the condition when the temperature of


local tissues in the limbs (usually the feet) remains sub-normal but above freezing for a
prolonged period. It is commonly encountered by shipwreck survivors who have
been adrift and cold for several days. Usually the feet have
been wet and immobile, but
this injury can occur in dry
conditions. Other contributory
factors are tight footwear and
sitting still with the feet down,
as when sitting in a chair for
prolonged periods.

Diagnosis

Feet become white, numb,


cold and frequently are slightly
swollen. When returned to the
warmth the feet become hot,
red, swollen and usually painful.
Prevention

Every effort should be made


by survivors to keep their feet
warm and dry. Shoe laces
should be loosened; the feet
should be raised and toe and
ankle exercises encouraged
several times a day. When
possible, shoes should be removed and feet kept warm by
placing them under the
armpits, but outside the
clothing, of an adjacent occupant. Alternatively, unwanted
spare clothing may be wrapped round the feet to keep
them warm. Smoking should
be discouraged.
Treatment

After rescue every effort


should be made to avoid rapid
rewarming of the affected
limbs. Care should be taken to
avoid damaging the skin or
breaking blisters. DO NOT
massage affected limbs.

Summing up
We have briefly explained how
your body responds to cold,
what you can do to help ward
off the harmful effects of cold,
and finally, how to administer
aid to an immersion survivor.
We will now sum up the story
with a number of important reminders. Follow them, for your
life may depend on them!

1 Plan
your
emergency
moves in advance! Ask
yourself what you would do
if an emergency arose.
Where is your nearest exit to
the deck for escape ? Where
is the nearest available immersion suit, lifejacket, or
raft? How would you quickly
get to your foul weather
gear, insulated clothing,
insulated gloves, distress
signal, etc. ?
2 Know how your survival
equipment works. The time
of the emergency is not the
time to learn.
3 Even in the tropics, before
abandoning ship, wear
many layers of clothing to
offset the effects of cold.
Wear an immersion suit if
available.
4 Put on a lifejacket as soon
as possible in an emergency situation.
5 When abandoning ship, try
and board the lifeboat or
raft dry if you can.
6 If immersion in water is necessary, try to enter the
water gradually.
7 Swimming increases body
heat loss. Swim only to a
safe refuge nearby.
8 To reduce your body heat
loss, float in the water with
your legs together, elbows
to your side and arms
across your chest.
9 In a survival situation, you
must force yourself to have
the will to survive. This will
very often make the difference between life and
death.
In conclusion, advance planning, preparation, and thought
on your part can be the most
significant factors in your
struggle with cold water immersion and in your survival.
Familiarize yourself with the
contents of this guide.

3.3

Precautions
when
launching
survival craft
Depending on the individual
vessel, there may be certain
precautions to which particular attention should be paid
before launching the survival
craft.
The following information
may be relevant.
- Emergency lighting in the
embarkation area:
position
operation
- Special hazards when
launching:
stabilizer finns
overboard discharge
- Sprinkling of embarkation
area on tankers where the
survival craft are positioned in the tank area.
Embarkation area is the deck
area from which survival craft
are boarded.

Launching
when the
vessel is
underway
SOLAS stipulates that all rescue boats and in addition lifeboats on cargo ships of
20,000 GRT and above must
be launchable while the ship
is making up to 5 knots headway through calm water.
In connection with this stipulation it is important to note
that:
- The requirement applies to
the construction of the
launching appliances i.e.
the design and strength of
davits, painters, etc.
- No demands are made on
training or exercises in the
launch of boats when the
ship is underway.
- When launching takes place
when the ship is underway it
should be carried out in accordance with the below instructions prepared by the
IMO, and the exercise
should be carried out only if
the boat is approved for this
purpose by the Danish Maritime Authority.
- Even for an experienced
crew, a certain element of
risk is involved in the
launching of boats from a
ship which is underway.

Guidelines for
training crews
for the purpose
of launching
lifeboats and
rescue boats
from ships
making
headway
through the
water
(Annex to IMO
Resolution A.624(15))
1. Chapter III of the 1974
SOLAS Convention, as
modified by the 1983
amendments, contains no
mandatory training requirements for launching lifeboats and rescue boats
from ships making headway through the water.
However, if such training is
undertaken, the Guidelines
should be followed.
2. These Guidelines apply to
the launching drills referred
to in regulation 111/18.3.9 of
the 1983 SOLAS amendments, undertaken with
lifeboats and rescue boats
capable of being safely
launched with the ship
making headway at speeds
of up to 5 knots in calm
water, as prescribed in regulations 111/16.3 and III/
28.2, and therefore apply to
new cargo ships of 20,000
tons gross tonnage and upwards, other new ships fitted with rescue boats, and
any other ship fitted with
lifeboats or rescue boats
having on-load release

gear adequately protected


against accidental or premature use.
3. These Guidelines supplement the procedures to be
followed for the particular
equipment provided on
board a ship as described
in the instructions and information found in the
ship's training manual required by regulation 111/18.2
(i.e. this training manual).
This will include instructions on launching and recovery, the use of the release gear, clearing the
boat from the ship and,
where applicable, the use
of a painter. The boat's
crew should be instructed
in the procedures to be followed before the drill commences.
4. Drills should be carried out
either on board a ship at
anchor or alongside where
there is a suitable relative
movement between ship
and water, or at a suitable
shore establishment where
similar conditions prevail.
Alternatively, at the master's discretion, drills may
be carried out on board a
ship when making headway in sheltered waters.
For safety purposes, it is
not necessary when training to exercise at the maximum design 5 knots headway launching capability of
the equipment. Drills
should be carried out with a
low relative water speed
particularly where inexperienced personnel are involved. When planning the
drill, consideration should
be given to ensuring that,
as far as practicable, the reletive water speed will beat
a minimum when recovering the boat.

5. None of the provisions in


these Guidelines are intended to inhibit launching
drills carried out on ships
where such drills are carried out on a frequent and
regular basis with fully
trained and experienced
boat crews.
6. When planning for and carrying out the launching
drills referred to in regulation 111/18.3.9, the following
precautions should be
taken:
1. Drills should only be
carried out under the
supervision of an officer experienced in
such drills and under
calm and clear conditions.
2. Provisions should be
made for rendering assistance to the boat to
be used in the drill in the
event of unforeseen circumstances;
for example, where
practicable a second
boat should be made
ready for launching.
3. When practicable, the
drill should be carried
out when the ship has
minimal freeboard.
4. Instructions as to procedures should be
given to the boat's crew
by the officer in charge
before the drill commences.
5. The number of crew
members in the boat
should be the minimum
compatible with the
training to be carried
out.
6. Lifejackets and, where
appropriate, immersion
suits should be worn.
7. Except in the case of
totally enclosed boats,
head protection should
be worn.

8. For the purposes of the


drill, skates, where fitted, should be removed
unless they are designed to be retained
under all launch conditions.
9. In the case of totally enclosed boats, all openings should be closed
except for the helmsman's hatch which may
be open to provide a
better view for launching.
10. Two-way radiotelephone communications
should be established
between the officer in
charge of lowering, the
navigating bridge and
the boat before lowering commences, and
be maintained throughout the exercise.
11. During lowering and recovery and while the
boat is close to the
ship, steps should be
taken to ensure that the
ship's propeller is not
turning, if practicable.
12. The boat's engine
should be running before the boat enters the
water.
13. The launching and recovery should be followed by a de-briefing
session to consolidate
the lessons learned.

screwed on. If the survivors


have become wet, their
clothes should be taken off at
once, first down to the waist.
Wring it thoroughly - wet
clothes are better than none
at all.
Drogue and line

The drogue and line, which is


secured to the lower buoyancy tube should be set immediately (the release cord/
painter being cut first). The
drogue stabilizes the raft,
thus reducing the risk of capsizing. It also reduces drifting
from the position which may
have been stated over the radio. The emergency pack
contains a spare drogue and
line.
Closing Entrances and
Checking Top Lights

Close the entrances (see instructions mounted to the canopy at the entrances inside the
raft).
A light (top light) has been
mounted outside at the top of
the life raft, another has been
placed inside the raft. Both
lights switch on automatically
when the raft is inflated and
comes into contact with water.
If one or both lights are out of
operation, try to locate the
fault if possible. Inside the raft,
close by the light, there is an
on/off switch so you may put
out the light and save power
by daylight.

Lifemft
equipment

Lifeboat
equipment

Operational Instructions
2 Sea anchors and cord
2 Paddles
Rescue quoit with line
Bellows
Repair kit
2 bouyant safety knives
4 rocket parachute flares
6 hand flares
2 bouyant smoke signals
Electric torch with spare
bulb and batteries
Whistle
Signalling mirror
Scissors
Instruction for survival
Illustrated table of life
saving signals
1 bailer, 2 in rafts for more
than 12 persons
2 sponges
Emergency ration, 10,000
kJ per person
Drinking water, 1.5 litre per
person
1 drinking vessel
3 tin openers
Fishing tackle
Medicine box
Anti-seasickness medicine,
6 doses per person
Seasickness bag, 1 per
person

1 set of oars
1 set of crutches
2 boat-hooks
1 bailer
2 buckets
1 survival manual
1 compass in binnacle
1 sea-anchor
2 painters
2 hatchets
3 litres of fresh water per
person
- 1 rustproof dipper with
lanyard
- 1 rustproof, graduated cup
- 1 ration of provision with at
least 10.000 kJ for each
person
- 4 parachute flares
- 6 hand flares
- 2 smoke signals
- 1 flashlight (Morse) with
spare batteries and bulb
- 1 signal mirror
- 1 copy of rescue signals
- 1 whistle
- 1 medicine chest 4
- 6 doses of anti-seasickness medicine for each
person
- 1 seasickness bag for each
person
- 1 pocket knife with lanyard
- 3 can openers
- 2 rescue quoits with line
- 1 manual pump
- 1 set of fishing tackle
- 1 fire-extinguisher
- 1 searchlight
- Thermal protection aid
- 1 efficient radar reflector
- 1 set of tools for minor
adjustments of the engine,
(SM "B" Chapter III Reg.
41.8.27.)
The above applies to ships
built after July 1st, 1986.

Distress signals

1. The following signals, used


or exhibited either together or
separately, indicate distress
and need of assistance:
a) a gun or other explosive
signal fired at intervals of
about a minute;
b) a continuous sounding
with any fog-signalling apparatus;
c) rockets or shells, throwing
red stars fired one at a time
at short intervals;
d) a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting
of the group ---------(SOS) in the Morse Code;

e) a signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of


the spoken word Mayday;
f) the International Code Signal of distress indicated by
N.C.;
g) a signal consisting of a
square flag having above
or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball;
h) flames on the vessel (as
from a burning tar barrel,
oil barrel, etc.);
i) a rocket parachute flare or
a hand flare showing a red
light;
j) a smoke signal giving off
orange-coloured smoke;
k) slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms outstretched to each side;
I) the radiotelegraph alarm
signal;
m) the radiotelephone alarm
signal;
n) signals transmitted by
emergency positioning indicating radio beacons.

2. The use or exhibition of any


of the foregoing signals except for the purpose of indicating distress and need of assistance and the use of other signals which may be confused
with any of the above signals
is prohibited.
3. Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the International Code of Signals, the
Merchant Ship Search and
Rescue Manual and the following signals:
a) a piece of orange-coloured
canvas with either a black
square and circle or other
appropriate symbol (for
identification from the air);
b) a dye marker.

Start
1. Activate the decompression.'
2. Turn the engine rapidly
about 20 revolutions.
3. Release the decompression and note where the
starting handle is placed in
the compression stroke. If
the handle is on its way
down, turn it half a turn in
the daw so that you operate against the compression.
4. Now activate the decompression again and
turn the engine up to as
many revolutions as possible.
5. Release the decompression handle at the same
time as you operate the
starting handle vigorously.
6. The engine starts.

After start
1. Check the lube oil pressure
on the oil pressure gauge in
the instrument panel. The
lube oil pressure must be
between 2 and 4 kg/cm2
(must never be lower than 1
kg/cm2).
2. Engage the gear in ahead
or reverse when idling.
3. Adjust the revolutions at
the number wanted.
4. A fter some minutes of navigation check that the cooling water temperature is
normal 75-85C (in case of
keel cooling the boat must
move through the water at
higher load).

5.

Various rescue
situations
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Rescue by helicopter
Shore rescue
Line-throwing appliance
Man overboard situation
.1 Use of rescue boat
.2 Recovery of rescue/
lifeboat
.3 Lifebuoys

Introduction
There are several types of final rescue, dependent on the situation at hand.
This part of the training manual describes methods and equipment you should make yourself familiar with in the context of
various rescue operations.

5.4.3
Lifebuoys
A certain number of lifebuoys
must be carried in every ship.
The number is dependent on
length and purpose of the ship
(cargo or passenger ship).
This ship carries
_ _ lifebuoys!

The lifebuoys are placed in


such a way that they are easily
accessible on both sides of
the ship. The lifebuoys must
be ready for being rapidly cast
off. They must by no means be
permanently fastened.
Be aware of the placing of the
lifebuoys!

The lifebuoys have to be


equipped with reflection tapes
and the name and port of registry of the ship shall be marked on each lifebuoy in legible
block letters.

6. Special rescue equipment for


specialized ships
On specialized ships there may be a need for special rescue
equipment due to the nature of the cargo or the operation of
the ship. One example is the use of escape breathing apparatus in gascarriers.
Instructions on the use of this equipment if available is inserted
here.