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2

4 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 5 6 raemf[&D

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3

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 7 8 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 9

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q&mru ta&;xJ ]om"k}ac:aeao;onf/ aEGUtwGufawmh ]EG,fuawmh tJvdk ajymtm; r&Sdbl; odvm;} ]jrwfpGmbk&m;…bmudpöeJY qlrSmvJ…}
'Davmuf vkyf&wmu vkyf½dk;vkyfpOfyif/ tdrfrSmvnf; udk,fwdkifvkyf ][if…eifu bmjzpf&jyefwmvJ…} aEG bk&m;wrd\/ EG,f ausmif;rSm tqifhwufwm uswmudk
&wwfonhftcg vkyfwwfatmif tm;vHk;udk araru oifay;NyD; ]ig…ocsFmwpfyk'frSm;xm;w,fav…} olrtdrfu odyfBuD; ta&;w,l &SdMuwmrS r[kwfwm…/
om;…/ wjcm;vlawGESifh ,SOfvsifawmh ocsFmwpfyk'frSm;jcif;onf ty&d ]eifwdkY rodygbl;…tJ'D cdkifjrJu…}
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4

10 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 11 12 raemf[&D
tJ'D cdkifjrJu [kqdkum EG,fpum;rqufawmh/ pm;vufp wpftkyfudk xkwfzwfae\/ ausmif;wufacgif;avmif;oH Mum;awmh q&mru xyfowday;rS aEGac:jzpf\/
xrif;udkvnf; qufrpm;awmh/ bmrS em;rvnfEdkifwmu &JaoG;ESifh EG,f qwfceJ jzpfoGm;onfudk aEG owdjyKvdkufrd\/ cdkifjrJudk wpfcsuf ]cdik jf r…
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]eifhtdrfu…eifhudk ausmif;pmeJY ywfouf&if pdwfcsxm;wmyJ… bufrSm/ aEGuawmh cdkifjrJudk Munhfum at;r,hfyHkyg/ oleJYaygif;&vdkY Mu\/ cdkifjrJuawmh at;at;aq;aq;yif…/ xdkif&mrS xvmum
qlwwfvdkYvm;} taESmifht,Sufrjzpfavmuf[k awG;vdkufrdonf/ olYu'fudk vm,loGm;\/ EG,fhudk Munhfawmh EG,f pmtkyfrS rsufESmudk
]tck…taru…qlrmS …} acgif;avmif;xdk;NyD;onfxd q&mr 0ifrvmao;/ rcGmwrf;MunhfaeqJ…/ pmawGudkaum jrifao;vdkYvm; EG,f&,f[k
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wu,fat;onhfol…/ aEGwdkYararvdkyif qlqlylyl r&Sd…/ aEGU arar &JaoG;u tysif;qefYum rJhjy\/ rS r[kwfyJ…/
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&JaoG;u &,f&,farmarmESifh EG,hfxrif;csdKifhudk aumufudkif EG,fu avoHaysmhav;ESifh wdkufwGef;awmh &JaoG; xxGuf ]ae…ig,loGm;r,f…}[k qdkojzifh EG,f jyefxdkifcGifh&oGm;\/
vdkufaomfvnf; EG,fu rvIyf…/wpfckck rSm;aewmawmh aocsm oGm;onf/ cPaeusawmh q&mrESifh &JaoG; jyef0ifvmonf/ aemufxyf vlav;q,fausmfcefYudk ac:NyD;rS aEGUwm0efNyD;oGm;onf/
onf/ raocsmwmu bmrSm;rSef;rodwmyif…/ xdkYxufydkNyD; aocsm wpfwef;vHk; bmoHrS rMum;&aawmhatmif NidrfoufoGm;\/ q&mr aEGUae&maEG jyefxdkifawmh aEGUvufxJrS card udk &JaoG;u ,lMunhf
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rnf…[k aEG awG;vdkufrdonf/ wGefYqkwfaerd\/ ]r[kwfygbl;…acsm½lyg tqifhwufvmwmudk aysmfaewm…}
EG,fuawmh cyfwnfwnf jzpfatmif BudK;pm;um pmtkyf ]orD;…ac:vdu k f…vm,lygap…} &JaoG;u toHudk ESdrfhum em;em;uyfajymvdkufjcif; jzpfaomf

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5

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 13 14 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 15
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rem wpfyk'fESifh oufqdkifaom ykpämwcsdKUudk wGufcdkif;xm;onf/ wmu vJ G v Qif bmud k r S tav;teuf r xm;…/ ol Y t qif h a wG
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6

16 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 17 18 raemf[&D
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]&JaoG;uvnf; EG,fhudk raemufygeJY…olbmajymrvJ… em; ]jrwfpmG bk&m;…} ]bmusefao;vJ…}
axmif&atmif…} ]wu,f…} ]usefw,f…t"duu…wpfcsdefvHk; qlylaeawmhrSm…}
]bmrS rajymcsifygbl;…} ]wu,fyg…'gayr,hf arareJY vHk;0rwnhfwJh…ararhtpfudkeJY ]eifhtaru…}
]a[m…vkyfNyD} a,mif;ru arG;wm ighxuf (6)vyJ BuD;w,f} ]tif;…}
EG,f avQmcs&ef BudK;pm;ojzifh aEG &JaoG;udk tjypfwifovdk ]a&mf…tefwDEkvdkvlrSmawmif rwnhfwJhol &Sdao;wmudk;…} ]rjzpfEikd wf m…}
Munhfrdonf/ odkYaomf EG,f rajymcsifvQifawmh twif;ar;&ef aEGUrSm aEG…wtHhwMo rSwfcsufcsrd\/ ]jzpfEdkifw,f…cdkifjrJa&mufuwnf;u olpmMunhfae&if igqlcH
tpDtpOfr&Sd? aEGUyifudk,fpdwfudku olwpfyg;udk bmrS twif;tusyf ]vlBuD;awGudpöawmh igvnf; aocsmrodygbl;/ 'gayr,hf &NyDyJ/ igwkdYvnf; pmMunhfygw,f/ olus vdr®mvGef;w,f/ tjyifudk
rcdkif;vdkwwf/ OD;av;eJY araruawmh pum;rajymwm ighwpfoufawmif ausmfNyD rxGufwm…}
aEGvnf; bmrSqufrar;? &JaoG;vnf; rpawmhojzifh tawmf wJh azazajymwmyJ…} rkefYzdk;udpöu ajz&Sif;vdkY &onf/ T.V oDcsif;ESifh pmtkyfuvnf;
av; NidrfoufoGm;\/ twefMumrS EG,fu pum;p\/ ]olu ckrS bmvdkY eif&SdwJh 'Dausmif;udk ajymif;vmwmvJ…} odyu f pd rö &Sd…/ udp&ö wdS mu cdik jf reJ YJ ,SONf y;D qlc&H jcif;yif…/ 'gudak wmh
]rdaEG…} ]olu igwdkYjcHxJu olwdkYtarG&xm;wJh tdrfudk ajymif;vmMu EG,f cHEdkif&nf &SdrSmr[kwf…/ EG,fu e*dkurS pdwfcyfaysmhaysmh&,f…/
]bmvJ…EG,f…} NyDav? 'Dawmh 'Dausmif;udk a&mufvmwmaygh…} pdwf½IyfcHEdkifolr[kwf…/ cdkifjrJu qdk;oGrf;awavaevnf; taumif;
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]vdktyf&ifajymaygh…rcifeYJ ajymwm…} ]t&ifu araru ighudk rMuyfygbl;? ck…oleJY wpfwef;wnf; ]bmvJ…}
]bmvdkYvJ…EG,f&JU…} jzpfvmawmh t&rf;Muyfvmw,f/ pmMunhfcsdef wdk;vmw,f… tqifh aEGUpum;aMumifh EG,fa&m &JaoG;yg acgif;awG csmceJ vnf
]bmvdkYvJ…qdkawmh…} us&if cdkifjrJxuf edrfh&if 'Pfay;rSm…} vmMuonf/
eifwdkY rodygbl;…tJ'DcdkifjrJu…qdkaompum;\ tqufESifh ]b,fvdk'PfvJ…} ]cdkifjrJudk tjyifxGufNyD; uJcdkif;rS jzpfawmhr,f…}
bmvdkYvJqdkawmh [laom pum;\ tquf…wlEdkifovm;/ aEG… ]'Dv rkefYzdk;r&awmhbl;…} EG,fu [uf[ufyufyuf &,f\/
rodyg/ ]'grsm; igwdkY &SdwmyJ…} ]at;…[kwfw,f…}
]ig…eifwdkYudk ajymp&m&Sdw,f…} aEGaum &JaoG;yg NydKifwlajymrdMu\/ ]'gudk wm0ef,l&rSmu &JaoG;…}
]ajymav…} ]rNyD;ao;bl;…} ]tm…rjzpfygbl;…igu bmrS rvkyfwwfbl;}
]rajymbJ xm;&ifvnf; aevdkY&rSm r[kwfbl;ighrSm ajymp&m… ]bmusefao;vJ…} bmrSef;rodao;bJ &JaoG;u taMumuftuefjiif;\/
eifwkdYyJ &Sdwm…} ]T.V rMunh&f ? oDcsi;f em;raxmif&? pmtkyrf zwf&wdYk vmOD; rSm…} ]eifhudk bmvkyfcdkif;aevdkY eifu rvkyfwwfbl; jiif;&wmvJ…}
]]ajymygqdk} ]pmtkyfrzwf& qdkaumif;wmaygh/ ausmif;pmyg…rusufeJYawmh} ]eifyJ cdkifjrJudk tjyifxGufuJcdkif;r,f…igwm0ef,lqdk…}
&JaoG;u pdwfr&Snfovdk qdk\/ &JaoG;u 0iftMuHay;\/ ]'gu oabmajymwm…}

aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


7

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 19 20 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 21
]wu,hfwu,fu bmvJ…} ]olYemrnfudk Munhfajymwm? cdkifjrJ…wJh}
]t&rf;BuD; tdrfxJrSm raeatmif tjyifav;bmav; ac: &JaoG;pum;aMumifh 0dkif;&,frdMuonf/ wpfae&mwnf;rSm cdkifjrJ
xkwf… vufzuf&nfqdkif ac:xdkif/ ½kyf&Sifac:Munhf…} qdkonhftwdkif; cdkifjrJaevdkYuawmh aemufpmar;yJGawGrSmvnf; &JaoG;
]tm…iguac:&if igu wdkufaejyae&rSmaygh…} ESihf EG,tf wGuf tvm;tvmraumif;Edik /f tif;…aEGUtwGuu f awmh
]ta&;xJ…uyfap;enf;aejyefNyD…} aumif ; ygonf / ol b,f a omtcgrS aEG U ud k ausmf r wuf E d k i f
]pum;qdkwm rusefatmif ajymxm;&w,f} awmhbl;aygh/ NyD;awmh aEGUab;em;u cHkrSmvnf; tjrJwrf; &SdaeEdkif
]igwkdY ay;r,f} onf/ 'Dwpfckudkawmh aEG odyfb0ifrusEdkifyg/ cdkifjrJudk rcifcsifwm
&JaoG; jyHK;pdpdESifh acgif;cg\/ r[kwfaomfvnf; pdwfxJ b0ifruswmuawmh aocsmvSonf/
]bmacgif;cgwmvJ…} aerif;ü ½dk;om;aom 0wf½Hkwpfxnfom &Sd\/
]rjzpfEdkifwm rajymeJY} wdrfwdkufrsm;um; qef;jym;aom ta&mifrsdK;pHk
]bmvdkY rjzpfEdkif&rSmvJ}
][…EG,fu 'Dv rkefYzdk;r&awmhbl;? ESpfa,mufpmudk oHk; 0wf½Hkudk 0wfxm;Muavonf/
a,mufco GJ ;kH &rSm…'DMum;xJurS igu cdik jf ru
J kd vufzuf&nfac:wdu
k ?f
½kyf&Sifac:jyeJYqdk&if ESpfa,mufpmudk av;ig;a,muf cJGoHk;&ovdkjzpf ½dk;om;rI0wf½Hkwpfxnfwnf;eJY
aerSmaygh…vH;k 0rjzpfEikd b f ;l …} igwkdYvHkavmufrSm aocsmvdkYvm;?
&JaoG;pum;aMumifh EG,fESifhaEG &,frdMuonf/ [kwfvnf; [kwf
aewmudk;/ bmrS odyfav;av;eufeuf rawG;wwfolu 'grsdK;us
awG;ovm;…[kyif ar;csifp&m…/
]uJyg…pOf;pm;Muao;wmaygh}
aEGu olYpum;udk ½kwfodrf;vdkufaomfvnf; &JaoG;u rNyD;ao;/
vufumjyum qufajym\/
]rNyD;ao;bl;…}
]bmusefvJ…}
]usefw,f…eifwdkYu odyfydkufqHwwfEdkifawmifrS cdkifjrJqdkwJh
aumifu ac:xkwfvdkY &OD;rS…rvG,fbl;…eifwkdY xifovdk vG,fr,hf
ykHpHrS r[kwfwm…}
]eifu bmudk MunhfNyD; ajymwmvJ}
aEG rsufarSmifMuKwfum jyefar;rd\/

aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


8

22 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 23 24 raemf[&D
][if…[kwv f m;…bmvdkYv… J }
]bmvkdYvJawmh rodbl;…reufwnf;u rawGUwm…}
cdkifjrJu vdk&if;ajymum txJ 0ifoGm;ojzifh aEG pOf;pm;um
usef c J h & \/ ol r euf u wnf ; u rawG U wmeJ Y y J EG , f u ausmif ;
rwuf&awmhbl;vm;[k awG;um 0&efwmwGif rkefYpm;&if; apmifhae
vkduf\/ odkYaaomf yxr acgif;avmif; wD;oH Mum;&onfxd EG,f
(*) a&mufrvm? 'gqdk cdkifjrJajymwm [kwfrSm[k awG;um twef;xJ
aemufwpfaeYreuf ausmif;a&mufawmh &JaoG;u t&ifa&muf 0ifvmcJhvdkuf\/
aeonf/ acsm½lygESifh wpfcHkomjcm;NyD; xdkifae&ojzifh &JaoG;rtm; ]EG,faum…}
vyfawmh? b,fuwnf;u pkxm;rSef;rodaom pum;awGudk w& pyf ckrS tm½Hk&[efwlaom &JaoG;u aEGUudk ar;\/
ajymae&ojzifh aEGUudkawmif EIwfrqufEdkif/ aEGuawmh cdkifjrJ ]rvmbl;…}
a&mufvmrnhf cHkudk wpfcsufMunhfum EG,fhudk apmifh&ef twef;jyif ]rvmbl;…[kwfvm;}
xGufvmcJhvdkufonf/ ]eifrjrifbl;vm;…}
]aEG…} ]rjrifvdkY ar;wmaygh}
xdktcgrS &JaoG; vSrf;ac:\/ aEGESifh &JaoG; pum;wpfvHk;wnf;ESifh uyfjidaewmudk cdkifjrJu
]bmvJ…} jyHK;\/
]rkefYygw,f…a&mh…eifu rkefYzdk;ygawmh wpfck…EG,fu ESpfck…} ]eifu…bmjyHK;wmvJ}
aEG rsuaf pmif;xd;k ypfvu kd o
f nf/ acsm½lyg xrif;bl;ay:rSm vnf; pdwfwdkvufp &Sdaeaom aEGu bvdkif;BuD; vSnhfa[mufrd\/
rkefYu ESpfck…/ &JaoG;u tm;emoGm;[efjzifh 0ifwm;\/
rkefYu aEGBudKufaom yJrkefYxlxlrsm; jzpfonf/ 'DrkefYrsdK;udk aEGwdkY ]rdaEG…eifuvnf; bmrS rqdkifwJhvludk 0ifa[mufaejyefNyD}
oHk;a,mufvHk; BudKufMuonf/ ]ol…bmvdkY jyHK;vJ…}
rkexYf yk u
f kd ,lNy;D xGuv
f mawmh 0ifvmaom cdik jf rEJ iS hf wd;k \/ 'gqdk ]cifAsm;wkdY ajymyHku &,f&vdkYyg}
EG,fvmNyD[k awG;um cdkifjrJ aemufudk ausmfMunhfvdkufonf/ ]bmrS &,fp&mrygbl;}
]EG,fOD;rGefudk Munhfwmvm;} ]aMomf…rygbl;vm;…[kwfuJh aemuf rjyHK;awmhygbl;}
]tif;…} ajymyHkuawmh wu,hfudk yuwd MunfMunfvifvifyif…/
olYnDrudk ac:yHku ]EG,fOD;rGef}wJh…/ tif;av…EG,fuvnf; odkYaomf cHvdkuf&aom aEGUtwGufuawmh wpfpufav;rS roufom/
]tJ'D…cdkifjrJ}[k ac:wmyJ ausygw,f[k awG;vdkufrd\/ wrifwum &GJUwmESifhyif wlawmhonf/ q&mr 0ifvmojzifh aEG
]ol ausmif;rwufbl;xifw,f…} atmifhoufoufESifh ausat;vdkuf&\/ 'gaMumifh EG,fu taygif;

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9

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 25 26 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 27
toif; rvkyf&bl;vdkY wm;wmaerSm…[kyg wpfqufwnf; awG; ]tJ'g w&m;cHu eif…} aEGUudk pyfjzJjzJMunhfum cdkifjrJudk ]aus;Zl;}[k ajymvdkufao;onf/
vdkufrd\/ ]jzpf&jyefNy…D } ydkqdk;wmu olYtdwfxJrSm 0Sufxm;aom yJrkefYwpfxkyfudk xkwfNyD;
t*Fvdyfpm tcsdefjzpfí q&mru Essay wpfyk'fa&;cdkif;onf/ ]at;av…eifu…igyJrkefYBudKufrSef;odvsufeJY ighuswpfckwnf; jyefay;vdkufjcif;yif…/
acgif;pOfu ‘‘ On my very first day’’ wJh/ aEGu odyfNyD; awG;aep&m ay;NyD; 'DaeYrS avay;ajzmifhwJh acsm½lygus ESpfck…} aEG…rsufvHk;jyL;Munhfawmh &JaoG;u rodcsifa,mifaqmifae
rvdkwmrdkY cyfoGufoGufyif csa&;vdkufonf/ aEGNyD;oGm;NyD; ab;udk &JaoG;u &,f\/ onf/
vSnhfMunhfawmh &JaoG;uvnf; NyD;NyD…/ aEG auseyfoGm;\/ q&mr ]oluvnf; tJ'DrkefY BudKufw,f/ ESpfckay;ygqdkvdkY eifhESpfckxJu cdkifjrJu aEGa&SUvm&yfum aEGUudkvnf; tmvl;aMumfwpfxkyfESifh
u wjcm;aom olrsm;udk apmifhum Essay pm&Gufrsm;udk odrf;oGm; cJGay;vdkufwm? 'gawmif eifpdwfwdkrSmpdk;vdkY nmvdkufao;w,f} prlqmwpfckay;onf/ aEGacgif;cgjyvdkufawmh…
onf/ csufcsif; bm result rS xkwfroGm;ojzifh aEG odyfrauseyfcsif/ ajymyHkudk Munhfyg/ ckusawmha&m…aEGu odoGm;NyD; pdwf rwdk ]'g rBudKufbl;vm;? aeMumaphpm;rvm;…}
aEGU&ifxJrSm aEGESifh cdkifjrJ b,folu grade ydkjrifhrvJ odcsifaerdonf/ &rSmusvdkY…/ aEGudk,füu tEdkifrvdkcsifyg/ odkYaomf tjrJwrf; ½HI; aeMumaphwpfxkyf xyfay;jyefonf/ aEGacgif;cgjyef\/
aeYv,fusawmh xrif;pm;csdefwGif &JaoG;u cdkifjrJudk ac:\/ aewmrsdK;udkvnf; rMudKuf…/ aEG…xrif;udk pdwfrygvufryg pm; ]bmpm;rvJ…}
cdkifjrJu xrif;csdKifhryg/ rkefYpm;wef;odkY xGufoGm;csdefusrS &JaoG;udk aerdonf/ &JaoG;udkvnf; bmrS xnhfray;rdawmh/ &JaoG; xnhfay; cdkifjrJavoHu wu,hfudk u½kPmygaom tpfudkwpfa,muf\
&efawGU&\/ vmaom ][if;}udkyif pdwf0ifwpm; rpm;rd…[k xifonf/ avoHrsdK;…/ aEG…wpfpHkwpfck ajymrnfMuHNyD;rS tm;emoGm;um
]eifu bmudpöac:&wmvJ} ]aEG…} rajymjzpfawmh…/
][if…raeYuyJ…eifwdkYu cdkifjrJudk ac:&r,fq… dk } ]bmvJ…} ]tJ'D yJrkefYyJ pm;r,f…}
]raeYu eifjiif;xm;w,fr[kwfvm;} ]bmjzpfaewmvJ…} &JaoG;ay;xm;aom yJrkefYudk vufn§dK;xdk;um awmif;awmh
]ydkufqHukefr,hfudpöudkjiif;wm…'geJYaeygOD;…} ]bmrS rjzpfbl;} &JaoG;u rsufvHk;jyL;jyum vSrf;[efY\/
&JaoG;u aEGUudk rsufarSmifMuKwfum Munhf\/ aEGrmqwfqwf ]trSefudk od&vdkY ydkpdwfwdkoGm;wmvm;} ]eifq h rD mS …EG,t d ,fav… pm;vdu
fh wGuf ay;xm;wm ESpcf k &Sw k f
jyefar;vdkufonf/ ]eifnmwkef;ua&m rwdk&bl;vm;} aygh…}
]bmvJ…} ]'gayr,hf…'Dvkdawmh eifNidrfroGm;bl;av…} ]olrsm;twGuf vsmxm;wmudk rpm;csifygbl;…}
]raeYu…EG,fajymawmh eifyJ ab;csif;uyfxdkifwm pum;awmh ]ck…Nidrfawmh bmjzpfvJ} ]'gvnf;…cdkifjrJtwGufav…}
ajymrSmqdk…} aEG…cyfpGmpGm jyefjzpfoGm;um avoHu jyefrmcsifoGm;&onf/ ]ig…Mum;xJu vkpm;aewm r[kwfbl;…um,uH&SifqDu
aEG…bmjyefajym&rSef;rod jzpfoGm;\/ ]pum;wpfckudk oGm;owd&vdkYyg} awmif;pm;aewm…? olauseyfvdkY ay;&if &wmyJ…NyD;awmh cdkifjrJu
jzpfcsifawmh ausmif;a&mufuwnf;u &JaoG;u acsm½lygESifh ]bmvJ…rkom;rygvuFmracsmvm;} ighukd bmpm;rvJar;wm…aemh…cdik jf rJ…}
avay;ajzmifhaeNyD; apmifhaeaom EG,fu ausmif;rvm…/ EG,f ]eifudku tvum;ae awmfvGef;aew,f rdaEG} ]tif;…[kwfw,f…a&mhav…a&mh}
ausmif;rwufwmu nu tqlcH&vdkY jzpfEdkifNyD; xdkodkY tqlcH&wmu ]tvum;yg…rkom;ygvdkYu vuFmyJacsmr,f… t"dyÜm,fu cdkifjrJu &JaoG;\ cGifhjyKcsufudkyif r,lbJ aEGUudk yJrkefYxkyf vSrf;
cdkifjrJaMumifh[k pdwfwdkaeqJ…olrpum;udk cdkifjrJu 0ifjyHK;NyD; &JGU awmh ajymif;oGm;rSmrS r[kwfyJ/ nmwmeJY rnmwmyJ uJGr,f} ay;\/ aEG,lxm;vdkufonf/ xrif;awmif renf;pm;&wm rkefYudk
wmvdkvdk oabmxm;BuD;wmvdkvdkESifh pdwfaumif;&SdjyoGm;wmudk xdkpOf cdkifjrJjyef0ifvm\/ vufxJrSm rkefYxkyfrsm; ygvmonf/ b,fvdkrS rpm;Edkif/ wrif,lxm;vdkufjcif; jzpfonf/ b,fvdkyJ ajym
tcH&cufum rac:csifawmhjcif; jzpfonf/ &JaoG;udk tmvl;aMumfwpfxkyfvSrf;ay;awmh &JaoG;u ,l\/ NyD; ajym ½H;I &wmxuf pmvQiaf wmh Edik v f u kd o
f nfu t&om &Sw d myif…[k

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10

28 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 29 30 raemf[&D
aEG rSwfcsufcsvdkufrd\/ vdkrS 'Dae&mu qif;ray;Edkifyg/ 'D q,fwef;(u)\ xdyfqHk;cHkeHygwf
ausmif;jyefwufawmh cdkifjrJu aEGUudk ar;\/ (1)onf aEGuEÅmOD;\ cHkjzpf&rnf[k aEG ESpfpwnf;u qHk;jzwfxm;cJh
]eifhemrnfudk b,folay;wmvJ…} onf/ cgwdkif;ESpfawGuawmh 'D oHk;a,mufb,fol&&[k oabmxm;
]azaz} cJhao;onf/ 'DESpfawmh aocsm&nf&G,fxm;umrS rxifrSwfaom NydKif
]eifhtazu wuúodkvfbkef;EdkifBudKufvm;} bufu 0ifvmonf/
]rodbl;…} cdkifjrJuawmh aEGUudk ½dk;om;w,fwJh/ aEG ½dk;½dk;om;om;yJ tEdkif
]eifhudk bmvdkY aEGuEÅmOD;vdkY rSnhfwmvJ…} ,lrmS yg[k pdwx f u
J ajymvdu k rf od nf/ cdik jf ru J awmh bmrSoyd rkH ay:…/
(C)
]azazhemrnfu OD;aEGOD;…wJh…} q&mr\ oifcef;pmrsm;udk NidrfoufpGm em;axmifaeonf/
aemufaeYusawmh EG,fausmif;jyefwufonf/ tefwDEkudkvnf;
]aMomf…} &JaoG;\ tm½Hkuvnf; pmxJrSm…/ xdkYaMumifh aEGvnf; pmxJ pdwf
odyfrql&ef…aEGESifh &JaoG;u oGm;ajymcJhMuonfudk;/ tefwDEkudk
]eifhnDremrnfudkaum…bmvdkY EG,fOD;rGefvdkY rSnhfwmvJ…} ESpfvdkuf&onf/
Munhf&wm ,cifuvdk at;aq;qJjzpfaomfvnf; rsufESmwGif t&dyf
]rodb;l … oleYJ armifErS awmfreS ;f awmif odwm rMumao; bl;…} ausmif;qif;awmh EG,fhudk owd&onf/ ckae EG,fhqDoGm;vQif
ta&mifwcsdKU ,Sufoef;aeovdk…/
jzpf&av[k aEG&ifxrJ S a&&Gwu f m yg;pyfukd ydwx f m;vdu
k f onf/ cdkifjrJESifhygoGm;&OD;rnfpdk;ojzifh naerS oGm;&ef &JaoG;udk csdef;vdkuf
]tefwDhtwåtwGuf EG,fhudk jzpfapcsifwma&m EG,fhudk wu,f
q&mrvnf; 0ifvmojzifh pum;qufrajymawmh[k qHk;jzwf vdkufqJ onf/
xl;cRefapcsifwma&maMumifhyg…}
cdkifjrJu pum;wpfcGef;udk ajym\/ EG,fwpfa,muf bmawG jzpfaervJrod…/
…[laom pum;wpfcGef;u wmoGm;vSonf/ aEG ÓPf rrD
]igu…eifhvdk nDrrsdK; vdkcsifwm…} aocsmwmuawmh tdyf&mxJ acGaerSmyif/ EG,fu pdwfaysmhum
aomfvnf; &ifxJrSmawmh wpfpHkwpf&mudk em;vnfovdkvdk &Sdonf/
aEG…rsufvHk;jyL;oGm;&onf/ EG,fomMum;vQifawmh rcHcsd rcH pdwu f sv, G of nf/ ]rmef}r&S?d ]tm;}r&SEd iS hf Munh&f wm b,fvrkd S tm;r&
&JaoG;uawmh tav;teuf r&So d yl yD D bmrS rajym…/ aEGwu
Ykd awmh
om jzpfOD;rnf/ csipf &m/
wm0ef&Sdoli,fcsif;aumif;yDyD EG,fhudkyJ wJGac:&awmhonf/ ajymom
]bmvdkYvJ…EG,fu bmjzpfvdkYvJ} wpfcgwpfcgawmh cspfp&maumif;vGef;vSonf/ odkYaomf… cdkifjrJ
ajym&onf/ EG,fhpmMunhfcsdefu aEGUxufyif ydkOD;rnf xifonf/
]EG,fu bmrSrjzpfygbl;? eifu awmfwm… NyD;awmh xufw,f? u olYvdknDrrsdK;om vdkcsifonfqdkawmh…aEG…&,frdwm rqef;…/
]aEG…}
½dk;om;w,f} qef;wmu avmuBuD;wGif aoG;awmfom;pyfygvsuf olpdrf;avmuf
]bmvJ…}
aEG &,fvdkufrdonf/ ab;uMum;aom &JaoG;uvnf; &,f\/ yif vufcí H r&aom olrsm;jzpfonf/ rSm;wmawmh rSm;aewm aocsm
]eif…igeJY pmvmMunhfygvm;…}
&,foHwcsdKUaMumifh q&mr vSrf;Munhfojzifh olwkdYyg;pyfydwfum onf/ aEG ÓPfrrDao;í rodwmvm;/ ÓPfrcD v hJ Qiaf um odvmrSm
aEG pOf;pm;&awmhonf/ vdktyfwmxuf ydkMumaeaom tajz
pmtkyfzGifhvdkufMu&onf/ vm;…/ rodao;yg/
aMumifh EG,fu aEGUudk rsufapmif;xdk;\/
aEGvnf; wu,fawmh wpfO;D wnf;aom orD;rdv Yk m;rod/ tpfukd
]bmpOf;pm;aewmvJ}
vdck siw f m trSeyf if/ odaYk omf cdik jf rv
J kd b,favmufrS rBu;D aom tpfukd
]ig…eifah vmuf pmMunhEf ikd yf ghrvm;…pOf;pm;aewm…}
rsdK;r[kwf…/ cdkifjrJu at;aq;wm? awmfwm? wnfNidrfwm? rSefaomf
EG,fu rcsdjyHK; jyHK;\/ aEGuyJ quf&Sif;&awmh\/
vnf; aocsmwmuawmh avmavmq,f cdkifjrJonf aEGUjydKifbuf
]eifhqDig pmvmMunhf&if ig…oDcsif;vnf; xzGifhvdkY &rSm r[kwf
jzpfonf/ b,fvdkrS tvpfray;Edkifaom jydKifbufjzpfonf/ aEG b,f
bl;? T.V vnf; xMunhfvdkY &rSm r[kwfbl;…NyD;awmh igpmtkyfawG
aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf
11

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 31 32 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 33
vnf; zwf&awmhrSm r[kwfbl;…} vnf; pdwf0ifpm;wmyJ…} ]igajymcsifwmu eifhrdbawGudk wHk;w,fvdkY ajymwmr[kwfbl;
]'gawmh [kwfw,f…} ]eif…q,fwef;atmif&if q&m0efvkyfrSmvm;} av? ightaztaru udk,fydkifvGwfvyfcGifhay;wwfwJhrdbrsdK;jzpfwm
EG,f rsufESmi,fav;ESifh axmufcH\/ ][if h t if ; … } udk *kPf,lNyD; ajymrdwmyg}
]ydkqdk;wmu…} aEGUtjiif;pum;aMumifh cdkifjrJu wtHhwMo Munhf\/ ]igeifhudk tjypfajymrdvdkYvm;}
aEG pyfjzjJ zEJ iS hf pum;udk &yfxm;ojzifh EG,u
f rouFmovdk Munhf ]eif … u … bmjzpf c sif w mvJ … } ]rajymayr,hf igtjypf&w,f}
onf/ EG,fonf pdwfaysmhwmu vJGvQif rwHk;yg/ tuif;yg;um ÓPf ]igvm; … } ]bmvk d Y v J }
aumif;ol jzpf\/ ]tif ; av … } ]eifhpum;u iguyJ eifhrdbawGudk wHk;w,fvdkY apmfum;rdovdk
]bmu ydkqdk;wmvJ} ]igu Science udyk J pdw0f ifpm;wm? ig Computer Science yJ ,ljzpf tjzLr[kwfwdkif; trJvdkY ajymwmrS r[kwfwm? wjcm; umvmawG
]ig …t&rf;ydkawmfoGm;&if'ku©…} r,f xifwmyJ…} &SdEdkifwmyJ}
aEGUysufvHk;udk EG,fu &,f\/ NyD;rS… ]eifu Programmer jzpfcsifvdkYvm;} cdkifjrJu aEGUudk jyHK;Munhf\/
]'gvnf; aumif;wmyJ? 'grS eifhudk cdkifjrJrausmfEdkifrSm…} ][ifhtif; business vkyfcsifwm} ]bmjyHK;MunhfjyefwmvJ}
]'gu…pd w f c syg} ]bmrSrqdkifbl;} ]eifu sensitive jzpfvGef;w,f…}
]ig…pdwfcsr,faemf} ]bmvdkY rqdkif&rSmvJ…ck business awG tukefvHk;u computer- ]rjzpfygbl;…eifhpum;urS r[kwfwm}
pdwfcsyg…qdkrS ra&TEG,fu xyfrSmaeao;onf/ EG,fhvdkyJ aEG ize vkyMf uwmcsn;f yJ} ]uJ … xm;ygawmh … aEG & m … }
vnf; xdyfrSmaecsifolyJ/ odkYaomf…b,folYudkawmh r&apcsif[l aom cyfwnfwnfEiS hf Bu;D Bu;D us,u f s,af wGukd rodwpf0uf odwpf0uf ]xm;w,f …tJ ' gu xm;w,f }
pdwfrsdK;awmh aEGUrSmr&Sd…/ udk,hfqHk;jzwfcsufESifhudk,fyJ…BudK; pm;onf/ ESifh avQmufajymaeMuNyD;rS aEG &,fcsifvmonf/ xdkYaMumifh… ]bmu rxm;wmvJ}
wu,fawmh EG,hfrSmvnf; t&ifu xdkodkYpdwfr&Sdyg/ ckusumrS bm ]aocsmwmu ig q&m0efrjzpfcsifbl; odyfawmfwJholwdkif; ]apmapmu eifjyHK;ovdkrsdK; aemuf b,fawmhrS rjyHK;eJY}
jzpfoGm;rSef;udkrod/ aq;ausmif;oGm;&r,fvdkY b,folajymvJ} ]Ak a '¨ g … }
twef;xJrSm ESpfa,mufjcm;um xdkifae&NyDjzpfaom aEGESifhEG,f ]b,folrS rajymygbl;} cdkifjrJu &,fum cyfwdk;wdk; bk&m;w\/
u rkefYpm;ausmif;qif;csdef? ausmif;qif;csdefrsm;usrS pum;ajym& ]vlwdkif;rSm vkyfcsif&mvkyfcGifh&SdrS ydkawmfvmrSm} ]ig jyHK;wmu bmjzpfaevdkYvJ}
awmhonf/ wpfcgwpf&HtaMumif;&SdrS ESpfa,mufjcm; vSrf;ajym&\/ ]eifhrSm vkyfcsif&mvkyfcGifh&SdvdkYvm;} ]eifhudk,feif…vlBuD;vdkvdk? odyfoabmxm; BuD;ovdkvdkjyHK;wm
]aEG … } ]&Sdwmaygh} igrBudKufbl;}
cdkifjrJu ocsFmwGufae&mrS ac:\/ ]eifhtdrfu eifhudk q&m0efrjzpfapcsifbl;vm;} ]eif r Bud K uf b l ; }
]bmvJ … } ]ightazeJYtaru tJ'Davmuf rwHk;bl;} ]at; … }
]eif ocsFmwGufwmuvnf; jrefvkdufwm jyefrppfbl;vm;} aEGu rsufESmav;csDum udk,hfrdbtwGuf *kPf,laeqJ…cdkifjrJ ]eifrBudKuf&if eifha&SUrSm rjyHK;rdatmif owdxm;&rSmaygh}
]ppfNyD;NyD} pum;aMumifh tm;emoGm;&onf/ ]at; … xm; … }
]eifu ocsFm 0goemygwmvm;} ]igh rdbawGuawmh wHk;w,f[…}wJh/ &JaoG;u BudwfBudwf BudwfBudwfESifh pum;rsm;aeaom aEGESifh
]tif; qdkygawmh? wGuf&wmqdk tukef0goemygw,f…½lyaA' jrwfpGmbk&m;/ cdkifjrJudk Munhfum…

aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


12

34 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 35 36 raemf[&D
]bmjzpfaeMujyefNyDvJ} [k ar;\/ ]eif …b,ftcsdef pmMunhfvJ } av; EG,w f pfa,muf use;f rma&; aumif;zdYk vdw k mawmh aocsm onf/
]&efjzpfaewm} vmjyefNyD/ ar;cGef;u rukefEdkif… yif u d k , f Ó Pf a umif ; NyD ; om;ud k wvJ G q H y if a umif ; aevQif 'k u ©
aEG…OD;atmif ajzvdkufonf/ ckdifjrJuawmh at;at;aq;aq; ]MunhfcsifwJhtcsdef…} a&mufoGm;Edkifonfr[kwfvm;/ EG,fuawmh vGwfvyfaom &JaoG;
yif ]rMunhfcsifwJhtcsdefrSm bmvkyfvJ} ESifh aEGUudk tm;usaeonf/ aEGwdkYuvnf; olrudk Munhfum pdwf
]aqG;aEG;aewmyg} [k ajzonf/ ]vkyfcsifwm vkyfw,f } roufrom jzpf&onfyJ/ odkYaomf tm;vHk;onf udk,fydkifqdkif&m b0
aEG…rkef;wm tJ'grsdK;yif/ vlBuD;vnf; r[kwfygbJESifh pum;BuD; ]aumif;w,f} pmrsufESmrsm;ESifh vmMuolcsnf;rsm;om jzpfonfav/
pum;us,fawGudk ajymjcif;jzpfonf/ aEG wpfzuf vSnhfaevdkuf\/ pm&Gufu pmrsufESmwpf0ufusdK;aeNyD/ ar;cGef;awGu rNyD;Edkif
naecsed u f sawmh wpfacgufac:jyefonf/ aEGEiS hf cdik jf ru
J pmay; ao;…/ cdkifjrJu wpfrsdK;awmh cifp&maumif;ygonf/ odkYaomf i,fi,f
xm;vQif apmapmNyD;aewwfí pum;ajymcsdef&aewwfonf/ wnf;u wJGvmcJhaom &JaoG;ESifh EG,fhvdkawmh &ifxJrSm oHa,mZOf
]aEG … } rjzpfrdacs/
]bmvJ … } naeus &JaoG;u ajym\/
pdwfrMunfí toHudk Budwfum cyfqwfqwfxl;vdkufonf/ ]aEG…eifu wm0efvJTajymif;,lxm;NyDvm;}
]eifhtazeJY taru bmvkyfvJ} ]bmvJ … bmud k v J … }
'g reufu pum;\ tqufjzpfonf/ rajzcsifí rMum;csif ]cdkifjrJudk pnf;½Hk;zdkYav}
a,mifaqmifaeawmh pma&;um ar;\/ ]tH r ,f…r[k w f y gbl ; }
]eifh rdbawGu bmvkyfMuvJ…}wJh/ eifwkdYyJ pum;ajymaeMuwm r[kwfvm;}
]tvkyfvkyfw,f} [k &GJUum jyefa&;ay;vdkufonf/ ]pum;u olu vmajymwmudk jyefrajymyJ ae&rvm;}
]bmvk y f v J … ar;wm} ]raecdkif;ygbl;…eif wm0ef,l&if NyD;wmyJ}
aEG pdwfr&Snfawmh/ rajzvQifvnf; NyD;rSm r[kwfojzifh ajz ]r,l y gbl ; }
ay;vdkufonf/ ],l y g[m}
]or® m tmZD 0 } EG,f…xatmfawmhonf/
cdkifjrJ&,f\/ 'Dwpfcgawmh wu,hfudk &,fjcif; jzpfonf/ &,f ]awmfawmh b,folrS wm0efr,leJY igh[mig wm0ef,lr,f}
p&mudk r&,fbJ vlBuD;vdk vkyfNyD; jyHK;aewmudk aEGu rBudKuf…/ EG,fhpum;aMumifh olwdkY aMumifoGm;Muonf/
aEGu &,fp&m&Sdvnf; rdef;uav; yDyDoo…0g;vHk;uJG &,fwwfol/ ]bmvJ[…eifu bmwm0ef,lrSmvJ }
]'gawmh wlw,f } ]ighbmomig BudK;pm;rSmudk ajymwm}
]bmwl w mvJ } ]at;…eifhpmMunhfcsdefawG odyfrsm;vm&if usef;rma&; xdcdkuf
]ighrdbawG vkyfwmvnf; or®mtmZD0awGyJ] OD ; r,f a em}
pdwfxJu ]aovdkuf}[k ajymum rsufapmif;xdk;ypfvdkufonf/ &JaoG;u EG,fhudk owday;\. aysmhwdaysmhzwfESifh ydk;[yfjzLr

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13

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 37 38 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 39

(i)
av;udkif;u jrm;udk wdk;wdk;av; ajymw,f 'kwd,tprf;ajzNyD;awmh aEG awmfawmfav; aeraumif;jzpfum
]rif;&JU vGwfvyfjcif;[m ighqDrSm &Sdw,f}wJh/ ausmif;rwufEikd /f aEGu arG;&myg ESv;kH tm;enf;ol jzpfonf/ odaYk omf
aEGUudk MunhfvQif bmrS xl;xl;jcm;jcm; awGU&rSm r[kwf/ usef;rma&;
aocsmvdkYvm;uG,f…/ aumif;olwpfa,mufvkd tjrv J ef;qef; jzwfvwfaeonf/ EG,Ef iS yhf if
tJ'DvGwfvyfjcif;uaum ]jrm;uav;}udk rwl/ ckvdk aEG awmfawmfav; aeraumif; jzpfawmh tm;vHk;u
olvdkcsifwJh yef;wdkifypfrSwfqD wnhfwnhfrwfrwf ydkYay;EdkifrSm wtH h w Mo /
rd k Y v m; … / report card rsm; xGufawmh aEGUudk olwdkY tdrfvmay;Muonf/
]b,fvdkvJ b,folawG bmjzpfukefNyDvJ }
&JaoG;u &,f\/
]b,folawG bmjzpfjzpf eifuawmh eifhae&mrSmyJ}
EG,fhudk Munhfvdkufawmh rsufESmurvef;/
]&JaoG;&,f…ajymprf;ygOD;? eifwkdYua&m}
]igu eifhab; jyefa&mufvmNyD unluckily ygyJ}
]aovd k u f … EG , f u a&m}
]olwdkYarmifESru ab;csif;uyf[}
][if…cdkifjrJu oHk;vm;}
]at; … }
EG,fwpfa,muf 'Dae&mu rwuf/ usefvlrsm;om ae&mvJukef
onf/
]aMuuJGp&maumif;wmu…}

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14

40 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 41 42 raemf[&D
&JaoG;u rsufESmi,fav;ESifhqdkum pum;pudk jzwfxm;\/ ]eifwdkY armifESruvnf; ckxd rwnhfbl;vm;} pre-test us enf;enf; tm;xnhv
f u
kd af ygh}
]bmvJ…bmjzpfvdkYvJ…b,fvdk aMuuJGp&maumif;wmvJ } &JaoG;u pdwfysufovdk ar;onf/ ]'dxuf tm;xnfh&&if igaorSm aEG&JU}
]acsm½lygav} ]rwnhfwm r[kwfbl; } EG,fajymwmvnf; [kwfwmyif/
aEGu tm;azsmhpGm toHwdwf qJa&;vdkuf\/ EG,fuawmh EG,fu pdwfwdkoHESifh ajzonf/ ]xm;yg[m …Final us&if a wmh *k P f x l ; awG u tm;vH k ; wl M u
rsufapmif;xdk;\/ &JaoG;u rrIbJ qufajymonf/ ]bmjzpf w mvJ } rSmyg}
]oem;ygw,f bmjzpfvJ rodbl; tqifhckepfjzpfoGm;w,f} ]bmjzpf&rvJ…rwnhfwJh pnfoleJYurS awmfao;w,f/ oleJYu ]trSwfxGufrvmrSm usaewmyJ}
]aumif;w,f} b,fvdkrSudk raewm cHpm;vdkY r&bl; tpfudkvdkvnf; rcHpm;Edkif aEG\ rxda&mufaom ajzodrfhpum;udk &JaoG;u uefYuGuf\/
EG,fu tjrifuwfuwfESifh 0ifajym\/ bl;…oli,fcsif;vdkvnf; rcHpm;Edkifbl; wpdrf;vdkyJ} 'gaMumifh aEG ajzodrfhpum;? tm;ay;pum;awGudk r,Hkwm jzpf
]at; … aumif ; rS m aygh eif u awmh } EG,fhpum;aMumifh aEGyif rsufvHk;0dkif;oGm;&onf/ EG,f tJ'D onf/ ajymvnf; ajymcJonf/ 'Dpum;awGu ajzodrfhwm oufouf
&JaoG;pum;u bmvdkvdk/ aEG em;rvnf/ xdkYaMumifh EG,fh avmuf ajymwwfvdrhfr,f[kvnf; aEGrxifrd/ odkYaomf EG,fhrsuf0ef; jzpfí [muGufawmh &SdjrJyif/
udkyJ ar;&awmhonf/ rsm;udk MunhfvQif EG,fwu,fajymaerSef; odomonf/ tjyifrSmvnf; ]NyD;awmh igajymp&m &Sdao;w,f}
]bmaumif ; wmvJ EG , f } olwkdYu wu,hfwpdrf;jyifjyifvdkyJ qdkwm…aEG owdxm;rdcJhonfyJ/ ]ajym }
]a&mf…igu olYudk &JGUwm} ]pre-test &Sad o;w,f[} EG,fu pdwf½Iyf[efav;ESifh ajymonf/
]igodygw,f bmjzpfwmvJyJ ajymyg} aEGu owday;vdkuf\/ ]ighudk araru eifwdkYeJY usL&Sifrwufcdkif;awmhbl;}
][dkaumif pnfol ighem;a&mufvmw,fav} ]pre-test u pmar;yJBG u;D eD;rSppfwm? ae&majymif;&vJ cPyJ} ][if …bmvk y f r S m vJ }
]jrwfpGmbk&m; rjzpfEdkifwm} EG,fu ta&;xJ ae&mudpöudk tm½Hkpdkufae\/ tif;av…pdkuf aEGrsufvHk;jyL;oGm;&\/
aEG wtHhwMo jzpfoGm;&\/ pnfolqdkwmu tawmhfudk qdk;ay &Smrnfaygh/ b,fbufrSmu wpdrf;vdkjzpfaeaomtpfudk/ nmbufrSm ]tdrfrSm q&mr ac:oifawmhr,fwJh…}
xJu / u wpfcgrS rwnhfcJhzl;aom &efolawmf/ EG,frS pdwfrnpfvQif b,f ]eif w pf a ,muf w nf ; }
NyD;awmh EG,fESifhu i,fi,fwnf;u &efbuf/ b,fvdku b,f olrSnpfrSmr[kwf/ e*dkurS pdwfnpfvG,fwwfawmh EG,hftwGuf ydkqdk; ]at; …wpf a ,muf w nf ; tJ ' g eif w d k Y jzpf r vm;}
vdkjzpfNyD; 'Davmuf wdk;wufvmrSef;rod/ bmyJajymajym aEG aysmfyg onf/ aEG pOf;pm;vdkufonf/ &JaoG;uawmh olESifh bmrS rqdkifovdk
onf/ q,fwef;qdkaom twef;udk av;pm;&aumif;rSef; BudK;pm;& ]ig&Sdygw,f…EG,f&m} vkyfaeonf/ bmrS 0ifrajym/ xl;xl;axGaxG pOf;pm;ae[efvnf;
aumif;rSe;f odvmwmudu k 0rf;omp&maumif;onf[k aEGujrifonf/ &JaoG;pum;aMumifh aEGaum EG,fyg &JaoG;udk wrifpdkufMunhf r&S/d
]rjzpfEdkifbl; vkyfraeeJY…jzpfEdkifvdkY a&mufvmNyD} ay;vdkufonf/ odkYaomf 'Dwpfcgajymaom &JaoG;pum;u twnfjzpf ]igwdkY 0dkif;rSmu eifwpfa,mufwnf; xGufoGm;wm udpör&Sd yg
]ryl y geJ Y …} yHk&onf/ olYrsuf0ef;rSm paemufvdkaom t&dyfta,mifr&Sd? EG,fu bl;…udpö&Sdwmu eifyJ eifwpfa,mufwnf; wuf&wm ysif;p&m
]bmudk ryl&rSmvJ} tm;i,fwwfívm;rod/ &JaoG;u EG,fESifhywfoufvmvQifawmh *½k BuD ; }
]EG,fhab;rSm olYtpfudk cdkifjrJ &SdwmyJ} pdkufazmf&&Smonf/ ]tif ; av }
]tm;ud k ; &wmud k ; …} ]eifeJYigeJYuawmh xHk;pHtwdkif; ESpfa,mufjcm;yJ aEG} aEGUpum;udk 'Dwpfcgawmh &JaoG;u pdwfvdkvuf& axmufcH\/
EG,fu rJh&GJUum ajym\/ ]tif;aemf…ae&mu ta&;rBuD;ygbl;[m eifhtartwGuf eif EG,fu rsufESmi,fav;ESifh…

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15

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 43 44 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 45
]igvnf; pdwfnpfwmaygh wpfaeYwpfaeY wpfa,mufwnf; pm ]bmvJ tcsOfvm; eifeJY rwnhfbl; rpm;eJY} aEG…aeraumif;wmudk taMumif;jyí EG,fESifh &JaoG; aeYwdkif;
awGyJ Munhfae&wm ck wpfa,mufwnf; pmoif&OD;r,f ig… &JaoG;u tcsOfyef;uefudk qJGxm;um ajym\/ vmMuonf/ tdrfrSm rkefYpm;? tacGMunhf? oDcsif;em;axmifNyD;rS jyef
pmtkyfawGawmif rMunhfcsifawmhbl;} ]r[kwfygbl;? cdkifjrJ usL&Sifwufvm; ar;rvdkYyg} oGm;wwfonf/ aEGvnf; tysif;ajy…olwdkYvnf; tqiffajyrdkY aEG…
EG,fhMunhf&wm wu,hfudk pdwf½IyfaeyHk&\/ ]tydkrar;eJY 'DacwfrSm usL&SifrwufwJh olwpfa,mufrS r&Sd aeaumif;NyD; ausmif;jyefwuf&rSmyif pdk;vmovdk jzpfvmonf/
]bmwwfEdkifrSmvJ } bl;} &JaoG;uawmh owif;wpfck ay;vmonf/
]bmrS a wmh rwwf E d k i f b l ; igu eif w k d Y b 0ud k tm;uswm… ]&S d w ,f } ]aEG…cdkifjrJ eifhudk owif;ar;w,fvdkY ajymay;ygwJh? jrefjrefae
b,favmuf vGwfvyfvJ } 'g EG,fu 0ifajzvdkufaom toHjzpfonf/ EG,fhtajzaMumifh aumif; atmifvnf; aewJh/ ausmif;jrefjrefwuf&atmif…vdkY ajym
aEG…pdwfroufromESifh oufjyif;csrd\/ aEGaaum &JaoG;yg tHhMooGm;wmawmh trSef/ cd k i f ; w,f … }
]EG , f } ]wu,f v m; … EG , f … } aEG jyHK;rdonf/
]bmvJ … aEG } ]wu,frdkY…ig…ydk tqlcH&wmaygh aEG…} aEGu cdkifjrJudk tJvdk jyHK;wm rBudKufbl;…[k qdkcJhzl;aom tjyHK;
]vGwfvyfwmeJY xdef;csKyfwm uJGawmh uJGrSmaygh} ]ol[mol pmMunhfwmyJvm;} rsdK;ESifh cyfqifqifwlaervm; rajymwwf/
EG,f…rsufarSmifMuKwfum jyefMunhf\/ ]tif ; … 'gayr,h f }
]eifu bmudk ajymcsifwmvJ} ]'gayr,h f … bmjzpf v J … EG , f … }
]a&mufcsifwJh yef;wdkifu wlwlyJav igwdkY vGwfvGwfvyfvyf ]olYtaru…olYudk pmjyw,f…tareJYtwl pmMunhfw,fwJh}
oGm;&vnf; 'Dtwef;udkyJ xl;xl;cRefcRefatmifrSm? eiftxdef;tuGyfeJY ]eifu b,fvdkodwmvJ }
oGm;&vnf; 'Dvrf;yJav bmrS pdwf½IyfraeeJY vdkY ajymwm} ]azazajymwm}
]'gawmh [kwfygw,f} qufar;p&mpum; ruseaf wmhojzifh oH;k a,mufom; tpm;udyk J
][kwf&if eifpdwf½IyfaewmawG xm;vdkufawmh} iHkYpm;aevdkufMuawmhonf/ aEGUpdwfxJrSmawmh wpfckck rSm;aeqJ…qdk
]xm;qdkwdkif; xm;vdkY &rvm; aEG} wm odaeovdkyif/ bmrSef;awmh aocsmrod/
&JaoG;u 0if½Iyf\/ pm;NyD;awmh EG,fu ]oDcsif;em;raxmif&wm MumNyD}[k qdkum
]igod w ,f & J a oG ; eif r &S n f e J Y ck [ mu 'gawG u d k cPxm;… uufqufudk tus,fBuD; xzGifhonf/ &JJaoG;u EG,fhudk jyHK;um Munhf
ckeu ig ararhudk aMu;tdk; 0,fcdkif;xm;wm aomufMuOD;vdkY ajym &if; ]awmolr}[k axmyemjyKonf/ aEGuawmh EG,fhudkyJ u½kPm
rvd k Y } oufrdonf/
]aMomf…'D v d k v m; 'D v d k q d k rqd k ; ygbl ; xm;vd k u f r d E G , f … & vlqdkwmu wpfcsdefvHk; pmcsnf;yJ rvkyfEdkif/ tcGifhta&;awG
atmif xm;vdkuf} ydwfyifxm;vQif vlqdkwmu ydkNyD; vGwfvyfcsifwwfonf/ wif;vGef;
&JaoG;udk aEGaum EG,fyg 0dkif;arwåmydkYvdkufMuonf/ aMu;tdk; vQifjywf…qdkaom pum;twdkif;awmh rjzpfapcsif/ aEGwdkYuawmh
aomuf&if; aEG wpfck owd&vmí ar;rdonf/ ]EG,f}qdkaom BudK;uav;wpfacsmif; wif;vGef;í jywfoGm;wmrsdK;
]ckrS owd&w,f } rjzpfatmif 0dkif;0ef;qkawmif;ulnDay;½Hkom &Sdawmhonf/

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16

46 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 47 48 raemf[&D
]'g…vlwdkif; oabmusoifhwJhudpöyJ } aEG…bk&m;wrd\/ EG,fajymaompum;ESifh qifaewmudk; /
]aEGUvdk vlwdkif; oabmrusMuygbl;} 'gudk cdkifjrJu aEG tHhMooGm;onfxifum &Sif;jy\/
][kwfrSmaygh…wpfa,mufeJYwpfa,mufrS rwlwm…} ]qdkvdkwmu ig EG,fhudk nDrwpfa,muftjzpfvnf; rjrifbl;?
]aEG…ausmif;rwufwkef;u pmawG tukef&w,fr[kwfvm; oli,fcsif;vdkYvnf; rcifrdbl;…}
notes awGudk ajymwm…} &Sif;umrS ydkqdk;ae\/
]&JaoG; ul;ay;ygw,f } olwdkYESpfa,muf\ wpfOD;tay:wpfOD; jrifyHku wlaeonf
]EG,faum…rul;ay;bl;vm;} av…/ EG,fhudkawmh tm;vHk;ac:ovdk ]EG,f}[kyJ ac:onf/
(p)
]olUrSm tcsdefydkr&Sdbl;} ]xl;qef;w,f odvm;}
aEGuausmif;jyefwufawmh ausmif;rSm vlawmfawmfenf;aeNyD/
]rod y gbl ; …od & if igul ; ay;ygw,f } ]bmxl;qef;wmvJ}
xH;k pHtwdik ;f ausmif;rSmu course ukeof nfEiS hf pre-test twGuf ud,
k fh
]&ygw,f} ]EG,fuvnf; tJvdkyJ ajymw,f}
pmud, k f tdrrf mS usuMf uawmhonf/ aEGwaYkd usmif;u pre-test qdw
k mu
wpfa,mufjcm;aeaomfvnf; cdkifjrJu pum;vSrf;ajymwwf\/ cdkifjrJ wpfcsufawmh NidrfoGm;onf/ NyD;rS…
wu,hf Final Exam ar;cGef;yHkpHtwdkif; ausmif;utawGUtMuHK&
wpfcgwpf&H &JaoG;ESiyhf g oH;k a,mufajymaewwfojzifh wpfzufuEG,f ]'golvnf; rSefwmyJ}
atmif ppfar;jcif; jzpfonf/ ausmif;rSm usefaeolrsm;udkawmh q&m
u vSrf;vSrf;Munhfwwfonf/ pnfolYMunhf&wmvnf; wjznf;jznf; cdkifjrJ bmudkqdkvdkum bmudk rSefw,fajymrSef; aEGrod/ aEGod
q&mrrsm;u revision jyefay;onf/ ar;cGe;f a[mif;awG ajzcdik ;f onf/
vdr®mvmyHk&onf/ pmudk wav;wpm; vkyfvm\/ EG,fESifhvnf; &ef wmuawmh xdktxJwGif rrSefwm wpfckckawmh &SdaeEdkifonfqdkjcif;
pmBudKMunhfcdkif;NyD; ar;cGef;a[mif;rsm;udk wpfywf wpfpHkajzcdkif;wmrdkY…
rjzpfawmh…/ acsm½lygeJY wwJGwJGpmMunhfwwfojzifh &JaoG;u ½HIUrJhjy yif…/ 'gudk &JaoG;udk jyefajymrdawmh &JaoG;u rsufarSmifMuKwfum
xdkodkYaom aeYrsm;wGifawmh ausmif;wGif vlpHkwwfonf/
onf/ em;axmif\/
]a&mh aEG…}
cdkifjrJuawmh rkefYpm;qif;wdkif; aEGESifh &JaoG;twGuf rkefY0,f ]at; …qef ; awmh qef ; w,f }
]bmvJ … cd k i f j rJ }
vmay; aeus/ wpfcgwpfcgawmh tdrfu ,lvmwwfonf/ EG,fhudk ]'gaMumifh eifhudk ajymwmaygh}
]q,fESpfpm ar;cGef;a[mif;awG }
awmh a,mifvdkYrSyif rauR;/ xdkYaMumifh…aEG wdwfwdwf pyfpkrdonf/ ]'gayr,hf…tJ ' g…eifhtvkyfrS r[kwfwm}
]bmvJ Bud K Munh f & atmif v m;}
]cdkifjrJ} Munfh…/ ajym&if;u azmufvmNyD/
]odxm;atmifyg}
]bmvJ … aEG … } ]ightvkyfr[kwfrSef;odygw,f }
]tywfwdkif; ajz&if &aewmyJ}
aeYwdkif;…aEGwdkYudkus rkefUauR;w,f } ]od&if arhvdkuf…}
]Bud K &xm;awmh }
]tif;av…bmjzpfvJ aEGrauseyf&if jyefauR;av} ]arhcsifwdkif; arhvdkY &rvm;}
]BudKa&G;MunhfrdaeOD;r,f }
]r[kwfygbl;…EG,fhudkus bmvdkY rauR;wmvJ } raeYwpfaeYurS olajymxm;aom pum;ESifh olYudk jyefcsnf vdkuf
aEGUpum;aMumifh cdkifjrJu &,f\/
cdkifjrJ rsufarSmifMuKwfoGm;\/ &í aEGauseyfoGm;onf/ &JaoG;uawmh bmrS rjzpfovdk oabm
]aEGUudk oabmuswm tJ'gyJ}
]udk,f wpfcgrS rpOf;pm;rdbl; bmvdkYvJqdkawmh bmvdkYrSr[kwf wus &,f\/
]bmudkvJ}
ygbl;…EG,fhudk wpdrf;vdk cHpm;ae&wm wpfckygyJ} ]'Dtwdkif; arhr&&if…aMu;tdk;av; aomufNyD;arh? naeus
]aEGu BudK;pm;&wmudk oabmusyHk&w,f}
]jrwfpGmbk&m;…} igwd k u f r ,f }

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17

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 49 50 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 51
]wu,f … } 0if r ajym/ ]r[k w f b l ; …ajymaewmud k }
]wu,f a ygh … } aMu;tdk;udk wpfcgrS rpm;zl;ovdk pm;aeonhftwGuf olwdkYyJ ][if…olajymaewkef;u aumif;w,f}
]eifhrSm ydkufqH&SdvkdYvm;… eif… EG,fhudkvnf; rkefY0,f0,fay;ae pum;vrf;aMumif; ajymif;vdkuf&onf/ ]tif ; av }
&wm } &J a oG ; u … cdik jf rpJ um;udk &JaoG;u cyfwnfwnfEiS hf 0ifaxmufco
H jzifh aEG
]eif a um …r0,f a y;&vd k Y v m;} ]aumif ; vm; … cd k i f j rJ } rsufapmif;xdk;vdkufrdonf/ NyD; pum;0dkif;udk vrf;aMumif; ajymif;zdkY
]0,f&ygw,f…eifu xl;xl;qef;qef; ighudk auR;r,fqdkvdkYyg} ]tif;…aumif;ygw,f} vnf; awG;vdkufonf/
]wpfcgwav ajymvkdY &w,f&Sdatmif auR;xm;rvdkYav} ]tJ'g…aEG a*gufoGm;rSmpdk;vdkY wdkufwJh aMu;tdk;} ]cdkifjrJu usL&Sifrwufbl;qdk}
]b,fvdkauR;auR; pm;&&if NyD;wmyJ} ]olu bmvdkY a*guf&rSmvJ} ][k w f w ,f }
]pm;NyD ; &if …arh O D ; … } ][dkawG;'DawG;eJY xl;qef;wmqdk avQmufawG;aeNyD} ]bmvd k Y v J }
]at; …arh r ,f } &JaoG; bmudk qdkvdkwmvJqdkwm odaom aEGu &,fcsifaeí ]arareJY pmMunhf&wm aysmfp&maumif;w,f}
aEG cyfwnfwnfESifh oabmwlvdkufawmh &JaoG;u aEGUacgif; EIwfcrf;udk rodromudkufxm;&onf/ txl;tqef;Mum;&jyefonf/
udk ykwfum axmyemjyK\ ]bmvJ…mystery awGudk pdwf0ifpm;wmvm;} b,fom;orD;rS rdbESifh pmrMunhfcsifMu/ rdbawGuvnf;
]iaygr}wJh/ vJGcsufu emonf/ olajymaom mystery qdkonhfpmvHk;udk udk,hfom;orD;udk,f pmroifcsif? q&mrESifhom vTJxm;csifwwfonf/
cgwdkif;qdk qwfqwfxd rcH jyefajymrdrSmyif/ ckawmh bmrS jyef awmif aEGrod…/ &JaoG;vnf; odyHkray:/ tdrfusrS ararhjyefar; ck … ol U usumrS …
rajymawmh/ um…tbd"mef vSef&OD;rnf[k aw;xm;vdkufonf/ &JaoG;uawmh ]cdkifjrJtaru q&mrvm;}
wu,hfwu,f &JaoG;aMu;tdk;wdkufawmh cdkifjrJyg ygvmonf/ olrodwmudk rodbl;[k 0efrcH/ cyfwnfwnfESifh acgif;ndwf\/ ]tif ; … qd k y gawmh }
NyD; uyfajymao;\/ ]EG,fhudk,fpm; ac:vmwm}wJh/ rvGwfvyfaom ]at;…[kwfw,f qdkygawmhuGm } ]bmqdkygawmhvJ }
EG,fu t&ifvdk olwdkYESifhtwl vdkufcGifhrS r&Sdawmhwm/ ]bmawG v J …b,f v d k [ mrsd K ;vJ } ]q&mrawmh q&mryJ 'gayr,h f wjcm;vl a wG & J U q&mr
aEGwdkYu cyfwnfwnfESifh cdkifjrJudk a&SUxm;um EG,fhtaMumif; ½IyfukefNyD/ mystery qdkwmawmif bmrSef; rodwm? bmawGvJ r[kwfbl;…ighq&mr}
ajymMuonf/ b,fvdk[mrsdK;vJ qdkwmudkawmh a0;a&m/ aEG 0if&Sif;&awmh\/ cdkifjrJpum;aMumifh bm&,fr[kwfyJ aEGwkdY cyfwdk;wdk; &,fjzpf
]EG , f … oem;ygw,f } ]tvum;yg cdkifjrJ&m…&JaoG; avQmufajymaewm} Muonf/
]at;av … } ][k w f v m;&J a oG ; } ]aEG … }
]tm;ae pmyJ Munhfae&awmh Mum&if csnfhoGm;rSmaygh} ]tJ'D avQmufajymaewm…qdkwm r[kwfbl; } ][if … bmvJ … }
]½l ; oG m ;OD ; r,f } ]bmu [kwfwmvJ } ]eifwdkY rodvdkY…odvm; arareJY pmMunhf&wm aysmfp&m aumif;
]½l;awmh r½l;avmufygbl; &JaoG;&m} ]awmf a wmh } w,f…araru pmudk ysif;atmif roifbl;}
]ajymEdkifvm;…tefwDEku vGefvmw,f } aEG pdwfwdkpGm xatmfvdkufrS &yfoGm;awmhonf/ cdkifjrJu aEG cdkifjrJu olYtarudk csD;rGrf;cef; zGifhaewmudk wtHhwMo em;
]at;…igjzifh xifawmif rxifbl; } pdwfwdkaewmudk Munhfum oabmuspGm &,f\/ axmifrdMuonf/ cdkifjrJudk Munhf&wm tarudkawmh awmfawmfcspfyHk&
olwdkY bmawGajymajym b,fvdk rSwfcsufcscs cdkifjrJu wpfvHk;rS ]bmvJ…pm;wmudk awmfvdkuf&rSmvm;} onf/ aEGvnf; ararhudk cspfwmyif/ odkYaomf ararESifhawmh twl

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18

52 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 53 54 raemf[&D
pmrMunhfjzpf…/ araruvnf; pmroifay;tm;/ tm;í oifjzpf
vQifaum cdkifjrJwdkYvdk aysmfp&maumif;rSmvm;? raocsm…/
]a[m …a[m awG ; aejyef N yD …Munh f …}
&JaoG;u taMumif;odolyDyD ajym\/ [kwfvnf; [kwfwmyif…/
aEGUudku awG;p&mwpfp&vQif avQmufawG;aewwfwm…/ wu,f
awmh raumif;/ xdktawG;rsm;u wpfcgwpf&H vludk 'ku©ay;wwf
vGef;onf/ rawG;bl;[k wif;cHaevdkYaum &wmrS r[kwfyJ/ tawG;
qdkwmu wm;qD;vdkY &aom t&mrsdK;rS r[kwfwm/ ESif;qDyGifhudk jrif&ef rsufpd&Sdolonf
'grsdK;usawmh &JaoG; &,faewmudkaum…cdkifjrJ…jyHK;NyD; Munhf ql;udkvnf; jrifapownf;/
wmudkaum owdr&wwfawmhacs/
wpfcgwpf&Hawmhvnf;
ESif;qDyef;awG&JU &eHHUu…ql;awGudk arhavsmhapjyefw,f/

aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


19

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 55 56 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 57
&JaoG;pum;aMumifh EG,fu &,f\/ pm&if;xGufwJhxd tdkauyJ…trSwfpm&if;xGufrS xyftqlcH&awmh
]tJvdk &Sif;jyvdkY &vkdYuawmh MumNyD…} rSm…}
]bmMumwmvJ} EG,fhpum;aMumifh aEGu acgif;cg&\/
]&Si;f jyvdu D Ykd ajymwm…wcsKd Ut&mawGu &Si;f jyvkYd r&wwf
k Nf y;D Nyv ]r[kwfwm[m…eifhtrSwfu igwkdYxuf? cdkifjrJxufenf;r,fvkdY
bl;} b,folu wxpfcsajymxm;vkdY eiftqlcH&rSmvJ}
EG,fhpum;aMumifh aEG oabmuspGm jyHK;rdjyefonf/ 'gvnf; ]aocsmygw,f}
rSefwmyJ/ EG,fawmif tawmfpum;wwfvm? awG;wwfvmNyD…/ ]aocsmygw,f…igh[mig odw,f}
(q) wcsKd Uaom t&mrsm;onf &Si;f jyí r&wwfay/ tcsed u f kd apmif&h wwf ]EG,fuvJuGm…tJ'Dvdk pdwfraysmhprf;ygeJY igrBudKufbl;…jzpf
pre-test ajzNy;D awmh aEGu yxr? &JaoG;ESihf cdi k jf ru
J 'kw,
d ? EG,f onf/ tcsdefwefí olYbmomol em;vnfoGm;vQif &Sif;jywmxuf vmrS Munfhaygh…ck…eifh[mu BudKNyD; pdwfavQmhaew,f}
u wwd, jzpfoGm;onf/ EG,f tqifhwufvmonf[k ajymí&aomf yif ydkem;vnfoGm;wwfonf/ &JaoG;u qloHvkdvdkESifh ajym\/
vnf; olYtar\ pdwfauseyfrIudkawmh raqmifMuOf;ay;Edkifao;/ ]All D yJJvm;} ]at;av…[kwfom;yJEG,f&,f}
xdkodkYESifh twef;wifpmar;yJGBuD; NyD;oGm;cJhonf/ EG,fu aEGUudk aocsmovdk ar;\/ aEG &,faevdkufonf/ xdk ]rwwfEdkifbl;av…igu uHaumif;wwfwmrS r[kwfwm…ihg
aEGwkdYvnf; EG,fhudk pdk;&drf&if; udk,fhudk,fudk pmMunhf&if;… pmar; pOf olwkdYa&SUrS cdkifjrJ jzwfoGm;\/ &JaoG;u vSrf;ac:onf/ [mig BudKawG;xm;awmh wu,fhwu,fus t&rf;rcHpm;&awmhbl;
yJGudk ajzEdkifcJhMuonf/ ]cdik jf r…
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]EG , f…eif a jzEd k i f w ,f r [k w f v m;} ]aMomf…} olYtaMumif;jycsufESifh oluawmh [kwfvdkY/
aEGu ar;awmh EG,fu acgif;ndwfjy\/ NyD;…jyHK;um ajymonf/ olvSnhfvm\/ &JaoG;u pum;vJT\/
]igu igh[migqdk tawmfajzEdkifwmyg/ uHMur®mudku eifwdkYvdk ]ajzEdkifw,fr[kwfvm;} ]wu,fvdkY vdkif;a&G;&if eifu bma&G;rSmvJ…}
vlawGeJY vmawGUay;xm;awmh rwwfEdkifbl;} ]ajzEdkifygw,f? &JaoG;eJYaEGaum…} ]araru aq;ausmif;wufcdkif;rSm…}
olajymwm rSefonfyif…/ &JaoG;uawmh ycHk;wGefYum jyefar; ]ajzEdkifygw,f…} ]eifu bm0goemygvJ ar;aewm}
\/ ]aemufrS awGUr,f…arar apmifhaerSmrdkY…} &JaoG;u pdwfr&Snfaom avoHESifh ajymonf/
]eifu…rauseyfbl;vm;} cdkifjrJ jyefxGufoGm;onf/ &JaoG;uawmh ]tarudk tawmf ]igvm;…}
]auseyfygw,f…rauseyfvdkYrS r&wm…,kwfpGtqHk; cdkifjrJudk cspw f m}[k rSwcf sucf s\/ EG,uf awmh bmrS xifjrifcsurf ay;…/ cdik jf rJ igvm;[k qdkum puúefYrsm;pGm pOf;pm;aeojzifh &JaoG;u acgif;
awmif auseyfay;&wmy} vmpum;ajymoGm;wmudkyif rodovdk vkyfaeonf/ tawmfMumrS cgonf/
]eifhvdkyJ…eifhtarvnf; awG;&ifaumif;rSm} EG,fu pum;wpfcGef;udk qdk\/ ]EG,f&,f…}
aEGu rSwfcsufcs\/ ]bmyJjzpfjzpf…ig vGwfvyfa&; &oGm;wmawmh trSefyJ…} EIwfrSvnf; roufrom nnf;\/
&JaoG;uawmh EG,fhudk q&mvkyfonf/ ]b,fvdk…} ]ig…bm0goemrSe;f rodygbl;[m…q&m0efawmh jzpfcsiyf gw,f}
]vlBuD;awGu rodvdkY rSm;wm…eifu 'gu 'Dvdk&Sdw,f… 'Dvdk ]pmar;yJNG y;D NyaD v…atmifpm&if;xGuw
f x
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awG;ygvdkY &Sif;jyay;vdkufaygh} vdkY &NyD…atmifpm&if; xGufvdkY &Sd&if odyfudpö r&Sdao;bl;… trSwf ]jzpfcsifwmeJY vkyfcsifwm rwlbl;vm;}

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20

58 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 59 60 raemf[&D
]rwlbl;vm;} wmyif…/ EG,fu udk,hfbmomudk,f qHk;jzwfcGifhrS r&Sdwm/ ]Engineering rSm rdef;uav; trSwfu jrifhw,fr[kwfvm;}
]rwlvnf; rodbl;[m} ]cdkifjrJvnf; bm,lrvJrodbl;} ][kwfygw,f…'gayr,hf acsm½lygu 0ifEdkifygw,f}
EG,fhtajzu &Sif;onf/ &JaoG; qufrar;awmh/ aEGUbuf vSnhf &JaoG;u owdw& ajym\/ ]r0ifEdkifbl; rajymrdygbl;…}
vm\/ aEGu ]ihgrdbawGuawmh wHk;w,f[}qdkaom pum;udk oGm; odkYESifh olwkdY pum;rsm;Muawmhonf/
]eifuaum} owd&um jyHK;rd&if; ]olvnf; EG,fhvdkyJ aq;ausmif;wufrSmyg…}[k aEGUtdrfa&mufawmh araru tm;vHk;udk oGm;vdk&moGm;zdkY ydkYay;
]Computer} ajzvdkufrd\/ &ef toifhapmifhaeonf/
]eifu bmvkyfcsifwmvJ…} ]eifu b,fvdkodvJ…} b,foGm;Mu&ifaumif;rvJ…bmoGm;pm;&if aumif;rvJ? pOf;
]Business ig Business eJY ywfoufwJh Management Course awG ]ol ajymzl;w,fav} pm;&if; pum;rsm;Muojzifh wpfa,mufwpfckpD pOf;pm;&ef araru
udk tjyifrSm wufr,f} ]'gqdk EG,feJYu ausmif;wlrSmaygh} cGifhjyKvdkufonf/ olwdkYtpDtpOfawGqJGum jyefxGufvmMuawmh cdkifjrJ
]Ny;D &if…} ]'gayhg} udk vrf;rSmawGUonf/ &JaoG;u owdvufvGwf ac:jyefonf/
]udk,hftvkyfudk,fvkyfrSmaygh…eifua&m…} &JaoG;u aEGUpum;tqHk;rSm EG,fhbufvSnhfum tm;ay;\/ ]cdkifjrJ}
]igu…Engineering ,lcsiw f m} ]tm;ri,feJYodvm;? eifhtareJY nDvmcH rvkyf&vnf; tazmf ]b,foGm;rvdkYvJ}
],lcsif,laygh} &Sdw,f odvm;} ]avQmufvnfrvdkY…vdkufcJhygvm;}
],lr,f…,lNy;D &ifawmh tJ'geJY qufpyfwhJ tvkyyf J vkyjf zpfatmif &JaoG;udk EG,fu rsufapmif;xdk;\/ aEGUararuvnf; 0ifac:\/
vkyfr,f} ]olwkdYvnf; bma&pufvJ rodbl;aemf…} ]at;…vdkufcJhygvm;om;&JU}
]aumif;wmaygh} &JaoG;u xdkodkY rSwfcsufcsawmh aEG uysmu&m acgif;ndwfjyrd cdkifjrJu acgif;cg\/
'DaeYrS q,fwef;ajzNy;D wmudk olwuYkd ,
kd o
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ajymif;um vlBuD;jzpfoGm;Muovdk aqG;aEG;aeMuonf/ NyD;rS &JaoG;u pyfjzJjzJESifh qufajym\/ ajymajymqdkqdk aemufaMumif;jyefvSnhfxGufoGm;ojzifh araru
]'gqdk…igwkdY ausmif;awG uJGoGm;MurSmayghaemf} ]acsm½lygvnf; Engineering ,l&if aumif;rSmyJ} em;rvnfEdkif/
EG,fu owd0ifvmolvdkY ajym\/ ]ol…ocsFmodyfr&bl;ajymw,f} ]olu bmvdkY rvdkufwmvJ? orD;wdkYeJY odyfrcifvdkYvm;}
]at;…[kwfw,f} EG,fu olrç Mum;wmudk ajym\/ ]cifygw,f}
]'gqdk…ig…eifwkdYeJY vdkufwuf&if aumif;rvm;rodbl;} ]tvum;yg…aumvm[vawGyg/ ighavmuf odrvm;} ]'gqdk bmvdkYvJ}
Munhf…/ EG,fOD;rGefqdkwm tJ'Dvdkaumifrav;rsdK;jzpfonf/ ol ]jzpf&jyefNyD…} olwdkY tajz& cufaeMuonf/ EG,fhtpfudkjzpfaevdkY [kajymvQif
awmfwmudk olYbmolarhaeonftxd confidence r&Sdoljzpf\/ wpf aEGu tJvkd pum;awGukd rke;f onf/ twnfvv kd kd taemufvv
kd kd vnf; &Sif;&OD;rnf/ &mZ0ifawG csD&OD;rnf/ aEGwdkY tcufawGUaeqJ
a,mufwnf; ausmif;cJGrwufcsifírsm; olrsm;wufonfhausmif;udk ESifh/ wpfzufu Mum;oGm;vQifvnf;raumif;/ tajymcH&aom rdef; &JaoG;u 0ifajzay;vkdufOD;\/
vdkufwuf&if aumif;rvm;…wJh/ uav;twGufvnf; raumif;/ olwkdYyg;pyfrSm azsmfajzp&musvdkY… ]oleJYEG,fu rwnhfbl;}
]eifhtareJY t&if nDvmcHac:vdkufOD;} [k aEGu awG;onf/ ]aMomf…'Dvv kd m;…}
&JaoG;u &,fovdkarmovdkESifh twnfpum;udk qdk\/ [kwf EG,fuawmh awG;awG;qqav;ESifh ajym\/ 'Dtajzu nm&mvnf; rus/ ararvnf; vufcHauseyfoGm;

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21

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 61 62 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 63
onf/ &JaoG;uawmh ararrjrifatmif vufraxmifjy\/ wdk;wdk; udk bmvdkY wufcdkif;vJ…odyHkr&/
uyfajymao;onf/ ]eifua&m…pE´&m;wD;wm 0goemygvkdYvm;}
]awGUvm;…rkom;ryg vuFmracsmqdkwm} ]ygygw,f? ygvdkY wufwmaygh eifua&m}
aEG rsufapmif;xdk;vdkufrdonf/ xdkpum;vHk;udk aEGrBudKufyg/ ]iguvnf; 0goemygvdkY wufwm? &JaoG;aumyJ? 0goemrygbJ
vuFmb,favmuf acsmaeygap? rkom;jzpfaeonht f wGuu f kd olY *kPf a,mifeeeJY wufaewmu EG,fav…}
u csdKUwJhNyD;om; jzpfonf/ aEGuawmh ]rkom;}qdkvQif ]csdK}vQifyif cdkifjrJu jyHK;\/ bmrSawmh rSwfcsufrcs/ EG,fESifh ywfoufvQif
rBudKufcsifolav…/ (Z) wpfvHk;wpfyg'rS rajymwwfwm? cdkifjrJtusifh/ EG,furS rdef;uav;
qufjiif;aevQif ]aEGu t½l;r}[k &JaoG;u ajymOD;rnf/ wu,f aEGonf aEGwdkYtwGufuawmh tawmfav;udk tylavsmhoGm; rdkY xifonf/ wpfcgwpf&H rauseyfoH xGufvmwwfao;onf/ cdkif
vnf; avmurSm aEGtvmh*spfjzpfaom a0g[m&awmfawmfrsm;rsm;? apygonf/ oifwef;awG avQmufwufMuonf/ aEGu yef;tvSjyif jrJxHrSawmh bmrS Mum;&avhr&Sd/
taMumif;t&m awmfawmfrsm;rsm; &Sad ecJo
h nf/ 'g aEGU trSm;rS r[kwf oifwef;wufcsifawmh EG,fuyg vkdufwufonf/ &JaoG;uawmh ]eif…tck…b,fu vSnhfvmwmvJ}
yJ? avmuudku 'Dwdkif;jzpfwnfaecJhwmav/ rwuf/ olwufonhf English pum;ajymoifwef;udkawmh aEGaum ]'DvdkyJ vmwmav…&JaoG;udkawmif 0ifac:cJhao;w,f/ r&Sd
EG,fyg wufjzpfMuonf/ EG,fuawmh olUqHk;jzwfol r&SdolyDyD olY bl;/ rSmawmh rSmcJhw,f…jyefa&muf&if 'Dudk vdkufvmzdkY…}
tar wufcdkif;aom pE´&m;wD;oifwef;udkyg wuf&onf/ oluH aEG…cdkifjrJudk oem;csifovdk jzpfoGm;&onf/ aEGwdkYrSmu olYqD
aumif;wmu 'gudk aEGaum &JaoG;yg pdwf0ifwpm;&Sdum vdkufwuf a&mufvsufESifh 0ifr&ac:r&/ olu aEGwdkYudk awGUcsif&if vmawGU
rdMujcif;yif jzpfonf/ &onf/ ck…jzpfaeyHku aEGESifh &JaoG;u ]bHk}…/ cdkifjrJESifhwJGvnf; oHk;
cdkifjrJwpfa,mufudkawmh EG,fhtdrf0ifxGufvQif awGUaeusjzpf a,muf… wJGvdkY&onf/ EG,fESifhu oyfoyf wJG&onf/ 'gudk aEGESifh &J
aomfvnf; tefwDEkrsufESmndKrSmpdk;í vSrf;jyHK;jy½HkrQom awGUjzpfMu aoG; &dyfrdaomfvnf; rodcsifa,mifaqmifaevdkufcJhonf/
onf/ cdkifjrJu aEGUqD owfowfrSwfrSwf vmvnfrSom pum;ajym ]&JaoG;vm&if igwkdY rkefYoGm;pm;r,fodvm;}
jzpfwwfMuonf/ ]&JaoG;vmrSvm;…rvm&if rpm;&bl;vm;}
]aEGwdkY bmawG vkyfaeMuwmvJ} jrwfpGmbk&m;…/ 'g cdkifjrJ&JU tusihfrS r[kwfwm…cdkifjrJu 'Dvdk
]tpHyk … J } *sDrwdkufwwf/
ajymjyvdkufawmh cdkifjrJu r&,fyg/ aumif;w,f[kyif tm;ay; ]eif…b,fvdkjzpfvmwmvJ…}
ao;\/ ]AdkufqmvdkY[…}
]cdkifjrJaum bmvkyfaevJ…} ]'gqdk aeOD;…}
]ighudkvnf; araru pE´&m;wD;oifay;w,f…t*Fvdyfpmoif aEG tdrfxJ0ifum ydkufqHawmif;rnfjyifqJ…cdkifjrJu vSrf;qJG\/
ay;w,f? tjyifrSmuawmh yef;csDoifjzpfw,f…} ]'gu b,fvJ…}
xdktcgusrSyif aEGwdkY EG,fwpfa,muf bmvdkY pE´&m;wD;oif& aEGu ½kwfw&ufrdkY vufudk zswfceJ jyef½kwfum…
wmvJqdkwmudk odMu&awmhonf/ EG,fyif olY[mol olYtaru olY ]bmvJ[…ydkufqHoGm;,lrvdkY…}

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22

64 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 65 66 raemf[&D
]aMomf…rodygbl;/ tdrfxJu rkefYwdkrkefYpawG oGm;&SmrvdkYvm; ]tif;…} ]pdwfcs…ig…b,folYudkrS rajymbl;}
vd…
Yk } cdkifjrJu wHk;wdwdajz\/ ]&JaoG;wifrubl;…aEG…EG,fhudkvnf; rajym&bl;…}
cdkifjrJpum;aMumifh aEG &,frdonf/ ]'DtaMumfqdkifu igeJYightaztareJY vmpm;aeus…arareJY ]b,fvdk…b,fvdk…}
]jzpf&w,f…rkew Yf rkd ek pYf …wJh…} 'Du…ta':BuD;eJYawmif &if;ESD;aeNyD…} aEG; ydkpdwf½IyfoGm;&NyD/ olwdkYbawGqdkwm cdkifjrJodvQif EG,f
]at;av…eif,lxkwfvmr,hf yJrkefYwkdY bDpuGwfwkdYudk igrS rpm; cdik jf ru
J bmrSrajym/ aEGUpum;udo k m em;axmifum aEGrmS aom od&rSmaygh/
wwfwm} taMumfudk pm;\/ tawmfMumrS… ]EG,f…bmrS odrSm r[kwfao;bl;…}
]auR;vnf; rauR;ygbl;…} ]aEG…} aEG NidrfoufoGm;rdonf/
]pm;vnf; rpm;ygbl;…ydkufqHqdk r,leJY…ighrSmygvmw,f…} ][dkbuf rsufapmif;xdk;qdkifu tokyfqdkifvm;} ydkvnf; pdwf0ifpm;oGm;&\/ NyD;awmh cdkifjrJajymjywkef; Nidrf em;
][if…eifu ighqD vmwmav} ]tif;…bmvkyfrvdkYvJ} axmifvdkufwmu olravQmufawG;aewmxuf ydktusdK;&Sdrnf[k
]uRwf…eifhpum;eJY ajym&&if tJavmuf rwHk;prf;ygeJY…} ]ig…tokyfrSmpm;csifvdkYyg} vnf; awG;vdkufrd\/
Aka'¨g…/ aEG rsufvHk;jyL;oGm;&onf/ cdkifjrJudkvnf; ckrSawGUzl; ]trav;…rvkyef YJ…pm;csi&f if oGm;pm;r,f…rrSmeJ}Y ]ajymav…cdik jf r…
J }
ovdk Munhfrd\/ aEG…uysmu&m vufum umwm;&\/ cdkifjrJu em;rvnf/ cdkifjrJu taMumfpm;xm;í ayaeaom vufudk aocsmokwfae
]bmMunhfwmvJ? tdrfudkvm&if tdrf&Sifu {nhfonfudk {nhfcH& ]bmjzpfvdkYvJ[…} ao;onf/ NyD;rS…
w,fqdkwJh xHk;wrf;pOfvmBuD;udk eifu vufcHaewkef;vm;} ]olwkdYu rwnhfMubl;…} ]ightazeJY olYtarudku bmrS rawmfwmav…}
]tHr,f…r[kwfygbl;} ]aMomf…&efjzpfxm;Muwmvm;} ]t,f…}
]r[kwf&ifvm…} ]tif;…eifwdkYvdkyJ qdkygawmh} aEG…awG;xm;wmESifhu wjcm;pD…/
]igawmif tukefoufomao;w,f…vm…oGm;r,f…} aEGu rsufvHk;av;axmifhuyfum cdkifjrJudk pvdkuf\/ ]bGm;bGm;u ightazudkaum olYtarudkaum arG;pm;cJhwm…
aEGu…wrif bmrS r,lbJ xGufvdkuf&efjyifawmhvnf; cdkifjrJ ]igwdkYvdk bm…igwdkYvdkvJ…} bGm;bGm;rSmu om;orD; r&Sdbl;av}
u wm;\/ cdkifjrJ acgif;iHkYum NidrfoGm;\/ tawmfMumrS… ]aMomf…}
]aeOD;} ]igwdkYu trsdK;t&if;BuD; r[kwfbl;…} ]'gayr,hf bGm;bGm;u wu,hf olYom;orD;awGvdkyJ… tarG
]bmvJ bmjzpfjyefwmvJ} ]bm…} pm; tarGcHudk arG;cJhwm? 'gaMumifh…'DtdrfeJY jcHudk cJGay;cJhwmaygh}
]eift f kd rSmcJOh ;D …&JaoG;vm&if…b,fvu
h rd u kd v kd m…}
f m&r,fqw ][kwfw,f…EG,feJY igu bmrS rawmfbl;…} ][kwfygNyD… eifhtazeJY EG,fhtaru armifESrt&if;r[kwfvdkY
aEGu cyfwnfwnfESifh tdrfuaumifrav;udk b,fvdkuf&r,f aEG jcmjcmvnfoGm;&awmhonf/ acgif;xJrSmawmh rdaEGwkdYu rwnhfMuwmvm;}
qdkwm rSmcJhvdkuf\/ cdkifjrJ\ oabmwlnDcsufudk ,lraeawmh/ cdkifjrJ xHk;pHtwdkif; pmtkyfawGxJuvdk EG,fuyJ arG;pm;orD;vm;? cdkifjrJuyJ ]r[kwfbl;…armifESrt&if;xufudk wnhfcJhMuvd… kY }
uvnf; ruefYuGuf/ aEGac:vmwmu taMumfqdkif/ taMumfudk cHk arG;pm;om;vm;eJY cyfwnfwnfESifh puúefYydkif;twGif; Zmwfvrf;awG ]b,fvdk…}
jrifhESifh? tat;? toD;azsmf&nfwdkYESifh wJGa&mif;aomqdkif/ aEGu 0ifvmvdkufao;onf/ aEG rsufarSmifMuKwfoGm;&jyefonf/
taMumfvnf; BudKufonf/ ]ig em;rvnfbl; cdkifjrJ…} ]azazeJY EG,fhtaru armifESr r[kwfwJhtcgusawmh olwdkYcsif;
]eif…taMumfBudKufvm;} ]ig eifhudk ajymjyrSmyg…'gayr,hf…} cspfoGm;Muw,f}

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23

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 67 68 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 69
]a[mawmh…} cdkifjrJu aEGUudk Munhfum&,f\/
]'gayr,hf…olwkdY r&cJhMubl;} ]eifu awG;jyefNyD/ wpfeHwpfvsm;}
]tif;av…r&vdkY ckvdk eifwdkY bmrSrawmfMuwmaygh? bmvdkY ]r[kwfygbl;…igcHpm;Munhfrdovdk ajymwmyg}
r&cJhwmvJ} aEGuawmh tefwDEkrsufESmudk ajy;ajy;jrifum oem;rqHk;/ bm
]t"duu bGm;bGm;yJ? bGm;bGm;u olu om;orD;tjzpf arG; rSrodaom EG,fhudk oem;&wmxufyif ydkOD;rnf/ aEG tefwDEkvdkawmh
xm;wmjzpfwJhtwGuf tJvdktjzpf rcHEdkifbl;wJh} rjzpfcsifyg/ b,fajcvSrf;rqdk udk,fu t&if½kwfodrf;vdkuf&ifaum…
]aMomf…'gvnf; [kwfwmyJ} 'Dxuf cHomrSmvm;/ t&if ½kwfodrf;EdkifcJhaom cdkifjrJtazudk ar;
'gudk azazu tBuD;qdkawmh usdwfrSdwfem;axmif&Smw,f/ EG,hf Munhfcsifonf/ olrsm; ½kwfodrf;vdkufrS rwwfomawmhí avsmhajz awGYqHk&jcif;onf
taruawmh em;raxmifbl;…'gayr,hf azazu ararhudk ,lvdkuf ½kwfodrf;vdkuf&aom ol\ cHpm;csufuawmh ydkrsm;ayvdrfhrnf/ tm;vHk;udk 0g;rsdKwwfaom
wJhtcgrSmawmh ol…aygufuJGawmhwmyJ…azazeJY ararudk bGm;bGm; avmuBuD;taMumif;aEG…odyfrodao;yg/
u ay;pm;cJhwm} ck…yxrqHk; odcJh&aom b0wpfckuyif aEGUudk ausmpdrfhapcJh aojcif;w&m;ESifh wl\/
]aMomf…? [if…'gayr,hf tefwDEkuvnf; ck… olYtdrfaxmifeJY NyD/ aEG a&SUrSm trsm;BuD; &ifqdkif&OD;rnf/ aocsmwmuawmh ]aEG
olyJ? bmjzpfp&m&SdvJ} uEÅmOD;}onf rmausmausm wnfaqmufxm;aom rdef;uav;jzpf 'gqk&d if…
]oluvnf; bGm;bGm;ay;pm;wmyJ/ 'gayr,hf tpu wtm; onfqdkwmyif/ ]]cJGcGm&jcif;}}[m &SifoefrIwpfckvm;??
jiif;wm…aemufusrS ,lvdkufwm} xdkaeYu &JaoG; a&mufrvmcJhyg/ wpfckckawmh rSm;aecJhrSmyg/
]EG,fhazazu tefwDEkudk cspfygw,f}
]araruvnf; azazhudk cspfygw,f}
]eif[mav…pum;udk vkdufuyfw,f}
aEG rsufapmif;xdk;um ajymawmh…cdkifjrJu &,f\/ NyD;rS…
]tJ'Duwnf;u a':EkEkaqGu ightarudk &efolvdk oabmxm;
NyD; rkef;awmhwmyJ}
]eifhtarua&m…}
]ajym&if eif,Hkyghrvm;rodbl;? araru a':EkEkaqGudk oem;
w,fwJh/ 'DvdkrSef;rodvdkY azazhudk ,lwmygvdkY tjrJajymw,f/ ckvdk
a':EkEkaqG&JU tyludkjrif&awmh araru EG,fhudkvnf; oem;w,f}
]ckvdk Mum;&awmh igvnf; oem;wmygyJ/ tefwDEkudk at;aq;
w,fxifwm? ck oljzpfyHku at;pufoGm;wmudk;/ ckvdk eifwkdY rdom;pk
ajymif;vmawmh olY at;pufrIawG aysmufukefwmaygh}

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24

70 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 71 72 raemf[&D
vsufeJY owd&aewm…t&ifvdk twlwuf&&if aumif;rSmvdkY awG;
aewm…}
]awmfygaEG&m…udk,hfcH,lcsufudk,f pGefYEdkifwmvnf; r[kwfbJ
eJ…
Y pdwu f ;l ,OfraeeJY…}
]r,Ofygbl;…eifuaum pGefYEdkifvdkYvm;}
]igurpGefYEdkifayr,hf…vufawGUusw,f…}
]'gqdk…eifu oli,fcsif;awGudk owdr&bl;aygh…}
(ps) ]&vdkY eifhqDvmwmaygh…eifawmif vmvdkYvm;…}
atmifpm&if;awG xGufonf/ trSwfpm&if;awGxkwfum 0ifcGifh ]vmrSmyg}
wifMuonf/ olwdkYarQmfrSef;cJhMuonhftwdkif; udk,favQmuf&rnhfvrf; ]tydkawG…cdkifjrJeJY EG,faum eifhqDvmvdkYvm;}
rsm;qDodkYudk a&mufoGm;Mu\/ txl;ojzifh EG,f…arQmfrSef;cJhonhf ]cdkifjrJvmoGm;ao;w,f}
twdik ;f aygh/ ausmif;rSm aEGu yxr &onf/ cdik jf rEJ iS hf &JaoG;u 'kw,
d ? &JaoG;tMunhfu zswfceJ aEGUrsuf0ef;xJ pdkuf0ifvm\/ NyD;…
EG,fu wwd,? pre-test utwdkif;jzpfonf/ bmrS r[kwfovdk jyefvSnhfoGm;onf/
ausmif;awGzGifhawmh EG,fESifhcdkifjrJu t&ifzGifhonf/ aemufrS ]w,f[kwfygvm;? cdkifjrJu…eifhawmh cifom;yJ}
&JaoG;ESihf aEGw\Ydk ausmif;rsm;zGio
hf nf/ aEGUrSmawmh ausmif;zGihf wmESihf ]eifhudkvnf; cifwmyJ…}
oli,fcsif;awGudk owd&aompdwfu wm;rEdkifqD;r&/ &JaoG;uawmh ]wlawmh rwlbl;aygh}
aEGUxHa&mufvmwwfonf/ EG,hfowif;udk tpD&ifcHwwf\/ ]bmrwlwmvJ}
]rdEG,fwpfa,mufawmh 'ku©yJ…} ]eifu a,mufsm;av;rS r[kwfwm? igeJYwlcsifvdkY &rvm;}
]bmvdkYvJ} aEG rsufapmif;xdk;vdkufrd\/ cdkifjrJvdkom uyfuyfowfowf
]olwdkYausmif;rSmu test awGu rsm;rSrsm;? result uvnf; aeY vdkufawG;&vQif &JaoG;pum;u tawmft"dyÜm,fa&mufonf/ ck
csif;ncsif; xkwfay;wm…tjrJacgif;udkufae&awmhrSmaygh} wavm cdkifjrJuvnf; t"dyÜm,fa&mufcsifp&mtvkyfawG tawmf
]at;aemf…tefwDEkvnf; b,fawmhrS settle jzpfrvJrodbl;} vkyfonf[k aEGxifonf/
]w&m;&vmwJhaeYaygh[} Munhfav…/ [dkaeYu vmoGm;wmyJ Munhf…/
&JaoG;u cyfwnfwnfESifh ajym\/ taMumif;odaeaom aEG ]twef;&Sdw,f? 'gayr,hf eifhudk owd&vdkYvmwm}
uawmh… ]ighudk owd&vdkY}
]w&m;&zdkYqdkwmuvnf; vG,fwmrS r[kwfwm} ]tif;av…eifBudKufwJh yJrkefYudkawGUvdkY…}
]eifawmif tawmfodaerSyJ…} ]jzpf&w,f…rkefYygvmvdkYvm;…}
]odwmaygh…ckawmif…eifwkdYeJY b,fvdkrS rwlEdkifawmhwm od ]rygygbl;…eifhqDvmwJh[myJ}

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25

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 73 74 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 75
]tm…} ]bmvJ…} ]bmvkdY rod&rSmvJ…}
][kwfw,fav…eifhudk awGUNyD; yJrkefYudk owd&&ifawmh yJrkefYqD ]igeifhqD tjrJvmr,fodvm;} ]wu,f rodwm…}
oGm;NyD; 0,fxm;rSmaygh} ]vmaygh} ]olbm&vJ eifrodbl;aygh…}
cdkifjrJu pum; uwfuwfowfowfawGyg ajymvmonf/ ]eifh time table ighudk ay;xm;OD;} ]tif;…awGUawmif rawGUbl;}
]eif…igwkdYausmif;udk vmvnfav} ]bmvdkYvJ} ]rodcsifbl;vm;}
]rvmawmhygbl;…eifwkdYqDvm&if eifeJYpum;ajym&rvm;? EG,f ]eiftm;wJhtcsdefod&atmif} ]rodcsifawmhygbl;…}
eJY ajym&rvm;rodjzpfaeOD;r,f} ]igtm;wJhtcsdef eiftm;rSmrdkYvm;} e*dkuwnf;u tav;teufr[kwfbJ yg;pyfu awGUu&m ajym
]wpfvSnhfpDajymaygh…} ]tm;&rSmaygh} csifwwfí ajymrSef; aEGu…odESifhNyD;olrdkY awmfawmhonf/
]aumif;rvm;} ]eif…twef;awGawmh rysufapeJYaemf…} ]twnfvnf; r[kwfbJeJY avQmufajymwkef;u ajymw,f}
]raumif;&if ighudk rajymeJY&w,f…eifvmwm igawGU&&if NyD; ]tif;yg} aEGu rausreyfa&&Gwfawmh &JaoG;u &,f\/
a&mav…} &JaoG;u aEGU time table udk olYpmtkyfaemufausmwGif aocsm ]twnfrS ajym&rSmvm;…twnfus rajym&JvYkd rajymwmvnf;
aEG…bmrSrajymbJ &,faecJh&onf/ &JaoG;udkawmh bmrS jyef ul;xm;vdkuf\/ &SdEdkifwmyJ}
rajymawmh…/ xdkodkY ajymNyD; &JaoG;wdwfoGm;ojzifh aEGuyJ jyefar;&\/ ][if…}
]bmjyHK;aewmvJ…cdkifjrJtaMumif; awG;NyD; jyHK;wmvm;…} ]eif…EG,fhqDawmh a&mufaewmyJ? EG,fb,fvdkaevJ…} aEG…tHhMooGm;\/ &JaoG; wu,fajymaewmvm;[k Munhfrd
]r[kwfygbl;…} ]olu [dkrSm oli,fcsif;topfawGawmif &aeNyD…} awmh rSef;r&…/
aEGnmrd\/ bmvdkY nmvdkufrSef;vnf; udk,hfbmomudk,frod/ ]igvnf; &rSmyg} ]&JaoG;…}
]'gqdk bmjyHK;wmvJ…} ]&vnf; vSwywav;awmh &Smaygif;aemf…igu vSrSaygif;csif ]bmvJ…}
]eifeJYigeJYwl&if…eifbmjzpfrvJ awG;Munhfaewm…} wm} ]'gaum…eif…twnfajymwmvm;? eifb,fvdkvkyfodvJ}
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]aEG…} ]b,fodrSmvJ} xdkaeYu &JaoG;wpfaeukefausmif;rSmae\/ &JaoG;jyefoGm;awmh

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26

76 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 77 78 raemf[&D
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27

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 79 80 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 81
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\/ odkYaomf cdkifjrJaxmufcHoHu aEGUudk ajzodrfhjcif;jzpfwm aEG cHpm; aEG rausreyfESifh ar;awmh… ][…'ga,mufsm;yJav…a,mufsm;qefwahJ ,mufsm; eifv h akd wmh
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awmif aemufrS vSrf;EIwfquf&wm…} ]eifajymaeyHku eifrdef;r r[kwfovdkyJ…'gaMumifh Munhfwm…} aEGUudku &JaoG;yg;pyfu wjcm;rdef;uav;awG taMumif;ajymwm
]olYrSm taMumif;wpfck&SdrSmvdkYyJ xm;vdkufygaEG&m…} &JaoG;u ajz\/ cdkifjrJu bmrSrajym/ udk rMum;csif…/ wnfwnfMunfMunfav; aeaphcsifonf/ cdkifjrJvdk
&JaoG;u pum;pudk jzwf&ef BudK;pm;\/ aEGur&yg…/ ]igu rdef;rçrqefwJhrdef;r…} vlBuD;qefqefav;aygh/ bmvdkYrsm; &JaoG;udk 'Dvdkjrifaecsif&wmvJ…
]tJ'DtaMumif;udk igodcsifw,f…&JaoG;} ]½Iyaf ewmyJ…} vmrar;ESifh…ajzp&mtajzr&Sdacs/
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vkduf\/ &JaoG;u xdkodkY ajymawmh cdkifjrJu axmufcHovdk acgif;ndwf\/ aEGUudkjrifawmh bmvIyf&Sm;rIrS r&Sdaom rsufESmay:wGif bm

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28

82 raemf[&D rkew
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avawmh b,fvdkrS pOf;pm;r&/ aocsmwmuawmh ]aMomf…aEG…} ]tm…} ]bmvdYk…}
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rBuD;aom tcsdeftwGuf twef;rzsufyJ ]araru twef;rwufvdkY ]bmvJ…eifu rvkyfay;bl;vm;…} pdwfr0ifpm;ojzifh bmrS jyefrar;…/ cdkifjrJuvnf; bmrS quf
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aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


29

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 85 86 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 87

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csdefwdkif; a&mufvmwwfaom &JaoG;udkawmh aEG bmrS rajymjzpf/
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30

88 raemf[&D rkew
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f pfy'kd v
f akd ocsm ]eif…ighukd tJvkd rMunhef aYJ EG…igu eifu h kd pdw½f yI af tmif vkyw f m aEGu rifwufrdpGm qGHUtaeqJ…/ NyD;rS owd0ifvmum…
zwfaeyHkrsdK;…/ r[kwfbl;} ]igu eifhudk cGifhrjyKbl;qdk&ifaum…}
]bmpOf;pm;p&mvJ…} ]'gqdk bmvJ…eifhpdwfxJrSm ½IyfaewmawG &Sif;xkwfvdkufwm ]eifcGifhjyKwJhtcsdefxd apmifhr,f…}
aEGu ar;awmh cdkifjrJu awmfawmfESifh rajz…/ NyD;rS… vm;} aEG…tm;avsmhpGm jyHK;vdkufrdonf xifonf/
]aMomf…&JaoG; eifhtay: tawmf*½kpdkufwmudkyg…} aEGUpum;u wmoGm;vGef;onf/ rwwfEdkif/ aEG 'gawmif pdwf ]b,fawmhrS cGifhrjyKawmhbl;qdk&ifaum…}
]'g bmpOf;pm;p&m&SdvdkYvJ…} udk renf;xdef;xm;í jzpfonf/ cdkifjrJu… ]eifhab;rSm tJ'D b,fawmhrS qdkwJh tcsdefxd &Sdaecsifw,f? rdwf
]'gudk yHkrSefvdkY eifxifvdkYvm;aEG…} ]ihgpdwfxJrSm ½IyfaxG;aewmawGudk &Sif;xkwfvdkufwm r[kwfyg aqGwpfa,mufvdkYyJ eifowfrSwfcsif owfrSwfaygh…}
]yHkrSef [kwfvm; yHkrSefr[kwfbl;vdkY eifu xifvdkYvm;} bl;? ra&&mwJh ½IyfaxG;rIawGudk xyfjznfhvdkufrdwmyg/ aocsmwm wu,fjzpfEdkifvdkYvm;…/
]tif;…xifw,f…} uawmh eifhudk pdwf½IyfoGm;atmif vkyfwm r[kwfygbl;qdkwmyJ ig cdkifjrJudk aEG wu,foHa,mZOf&Sdwm? cifrifwmawmh aocsm
]eifu bmvdkY xif&wmwHk;…} f ,f…}
ajymEdik w onf/ odaYk omf aEG rcspw f mvnf; aocsmonf/ wpfxikd w f nf;aocsm
]rodbl;…xifwmu xifwmyJ…} 'Dxufaocsmwmwpfcku cdkifjrJ &JaoG;udk taMumif;jyum aEGU ovm;…[k ar;vmcJhvQif wpfxdkifwnf; aocsmapaom taMumif;
aEG…[efaqmifum wpfcsuf &,fvdkufonf/ NyD;rS… udk &nf;pm;pum;ajymoGm;cJhjcif; jzpfonf/ t&mwpfcku &SdaecJhonf/ xdkt&monf ]&JaoG};jzpfonf/
]eif…ighudk &ifckefatmif rvkyfeJYaemf…} ]ck eifhpdwfxJrSm bmawG jzpfaevJqdkwm igodw,f…} aEGudk,fwdkifyif udk,hfudk,fudk renf;ppfwrf;xkwfcJh&onf/
cdkifjrJ ½kwfw&ufarmhMunfh\/ ]b,fvdk…} i,fi,fwnf;u &SdcJhaom oHa,mZOfaMumifhvm;? bmaMumifhvJ…
]wu,fawmh igu eifhudk &ifckefatmif vkyfcsifwm…} udk,hfudk,fudkyif Za0Z0gESifh tawmfaocsmatmif ar;cGef;awG EG,hfaMumifhvm;…[k/ aocsmwmuawmh EG,hftjyKtrlrsm;aMumifh
]bm…} xyfwvJvJ xkwfae&aom aEGUudk cdkifjrJu eifhpdwfxJrSm bmjzpfae aEGU&ifxJwGif aEGrodbJ ykef;cdkaeaom pdwfrsm;udk tvefYwMum; awGU
]ckawmh…eif&ifckefwmu wjcm;jzpfaew,f…} wmvJqdkwm odw,fwJh/ vdkuf&jcif; jzpfonf/ xdkYtwGuf EG,fhudk aus;Zl;wifygonf/
]bmvJ…eif bmajymwmvJ…cdik jf rJ…} ]eifhpdwfxJrSm bmawG &Sdw,fqdkwm igodw,fvdkY} EG,fESifh aEGu ckcsdefrSmawmh t&rf;udk a0;uGmoGm;cJhMuNyD/ b,f
aEG…bmaMumifhrSef;rod…tawmfpdwfwdkoGm;rdonf/ bmvdkY ]igY[migawmif raocsmwm…eifu b,fvdkodrSmvJ…} wkef;urS arQmfvifhrxm;aom tjzpftysufrsdK;jzpfaomfvnf; aEGu
pdwfwdkwmvJ[k ar;vQif ajzp&m&SdrSmr[kwf/ aocsmwmuawmh cdkifjrJu jyHK;\/ NyD; wdk;vspGm qdk\/ tajzwpfck &vdkufonhftwGuf auseyfpGm cGifhjyKxm;Edkifonf/EG,fu
cdkifjrJonf &JaoG;r[kwfjcif;yif/ cdkifjrJ acgif;iHkYoGm;onf/ NyD;rS av; ]igu eifhudk cspfwJholav…} e*dkwnf;u rdef;rqefvGef;um pdwfaysmhvGef;olyJ…/
eufaom avoHESifh ajym/ xdkpum;onf vHkavmufaom pum;vm;…cspfwdkif; &ifxJu ]eif…bmpOf;pm;aewmvJ…aEG…}
]ig…eifu f ,f…aEG…}
h kd cspw t&mawGudk zwfwwfvm;…'gqdk…aEGU&ifxJu t&mawGudk rzwf ]ig…bmrSrpOf;pm;ygbl;…}
aEG…udk,hfpdwfudk,f renf;xdef;um Nidrfoufatmif BudK;pm; wwfolu aEGUudk rcspfolvm;? bk&m;…bk&m; aEGU&ifawG ylqif;oGm; ]&JaoG;uaum…eifhudk igajymovdkyJ ajymcJhvm;…}
vdkuf&onf/ &onf/ jrwfpGmbk&m;…/ aEG…b,fvdkajzvdkuf&rSmvJ…/ aEGUpdwfxJrSm

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31

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 91 92 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 93
bm&Sdw,fqdkwm odw,fqdkolu &JaoG;pdwfudkaum zwfwwfvm;… ]bmvJ…ajymjy…} cdkifjrJ acgif;udk tom&rf;cg\/
cdkifjrJawG;ovdk vSnhfawG;&&ifawmh &JaoG;uvnf; olYvdkyJ ajymrnf ]ig…eifhudk 'Dwdkif;yJ cifcsifw,f…} ]rqdv k ykd gbl;…at;…eifocd si&f if ajzr,f…eifh EG,w
f pfa,muf
[k olxifaecJhonfaygh/ 'gqdk… ]'gu eifhoabmyg…eifhudkigu bmrS twif;tMuyfawmif;qdk NyD;cJhwJh test wpfck usw,f…}
]igar;aew,fav…} rSm r[kwfbl;av? eif 'Dwdkif;av; &SdaeNyD; igcspfwmudk odxm;&if ][if…wu,f…}
]eifu b,fvdkxifvdkYvJ…} auseyfNyD…} ]wu,faygh…}
]olvnf; ajymrSmyJ…'guu ta&;rBuD;ygbl;? t&ifajymajym aEG oufjyif;csrdonf/ ]ol…tqlc&H awmhrmS yJ…}
aemufajymajym wef;pDpepfr[kwfwJhtwGuf b,folrSt&ifra&muf ]eif…'Dwdkif;av;yJ r&Sdawmhwm jrif&&ifaum…} ]'g…eift f m;…}
h vkyv
ygbl;? ae&m&SdNyD;om; olyJ a&mufrSmyg} ]ig…auseyfatmif BudK;pm;&rSmaygh…eifaysmfr,fqdk&ifav…} ]r[kwfygbl;…awG;rdwm…olbmjzpfoGm;wmvJvdkY…}
]eifu odvScsnfvm;} ]ig…aysmrf ,fq&kd if…} cdkifjrJu &,f\/
]udk,fcsif;pmNyD; ajymwmyg} aEG…vdkufa&&Gwfrd\/ aEGaum aysmf&rSmrdkYvm;/ raocsmyg/ ]eifodcsifvm;…ol…bmjzpfw,fqdkwm…}
]udk,fcsif;pmw,f…igu bmjzpfaevdkYvJ…} ud,k cf spwf o hJ l wpfpw k af ysm&f rSmvm;…/
kH pfa,muf aysmaf ewmeJyY J ud, cdkifjrJ pdkufMunhfum ar;vdkufaomtMunhfxJwGif tajzu ygNyD;
aEGqwfceJ tar;aMumifh ckdifjrJ olYtrSm;ol odoGm;onf/ b,f 'g[m jzpfEdkifvdkYvm;? rjrif&wJh &ifxJu a0'emawGaum r&SdEdkifawmh om;? aEG ai;aerdqJ? cdkifjrJu qufajym\/
olrqdk udk,fudk,fwdkif zGifh[0efcHcsifonhftcsdefu vJG&if b,foludkrS bl;vm; pdwful;r,OfygeJY cdkifjrJ&m…[k aEGajymcsifaomfvnf; ajym ]&JaoG;udk wpfar;wnf; ar;aewm…}wJh/
todrcHcsifwwfbl;r[kwfvm;/ rxGuf/ aEGvnf; cdkifjrJudk udk,fcsif;pmvdkY&onfyJ/ aEG…xdkpum;vHk;udk Mum;vdkufwm aocsmovm;rod…/
]bmrS r[kwfygbl;} pum;0dik ;f u cgwdik ;f qdk ESpaf ,mufwnf;ayr,hf oGuv f uf ayghyg;
cdkifjrJ aemufjyefqkwfoGm;\/ aeoavmuf 'DaeY tawmfav;vHaecJhonf/ ]tcspf}qdkaom t&m
]r[kwf&if NyD;wmyJ…} onf vlawGudk av;vHxdkif;rdIif;apaom a&m*gwpfrsdK;vm;…/
]wu,fawmh…ighrSmu odyfNyD; arQmfvifhcsuf r&Sdygbl;… 'gay aEG pum;vrf;aMumif;vTJ&ef BudK;pm;Munhfvdkufonf/
r,hf tJ'D arQmfvifhcsufr&SdwJh aeY&ufawGxuf qdk;oGm;r,hf tajc ]eif…ausmif;rSm pmawG vdkuf&wm tqifajyw,fr[kwfvm;}
taeudkawmh igrvdkcsifbl;…'Dwdkif;yJ arQmfvifhcsufr&SdbJ eifhab;rSm ]ajyygw,f}
aeoGm;&&ifudk igauseyfrSmyg…} ]EG,… f aum…}
ckdifjrJpum;aMumifh aEG rsufvHk;0dkif;oGm;&onf/ cdkifjrJaEGUudk rsufarSmifMuKwfum Munhf\/ pdwftvdkrus[ef…/
]eif…pum;awG odyfwwfvmygvm;} ]bmjzpfvdkY tJvdkMunhfwmvJ…cdkifjrJ…igbmrSm;vdkYvJ…}
]0w¬KawGxJu usufvmwmvdkY xifvdkYvm;…} ]eifhudk wpfcgrS rar;wJholudk eifu bmvdkY ar;&wmvJ…}
]tJavmufvnf; ryDjyifygbl;…} aEG r&,fcsifbJ &,fvdkufrdonf/ olwpfcgrS aEGUudk owdr&bl;
aEG aemufvdkufrS cdkifjrJ ayghyg;pGm &,f\/ ESpfa,mufom; &,frd qdkwmawmh rjzpfEdkif[k awG;vdkufrdaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ aocsmwm
Ny;D rS…aEGu… uawmh olr &JaoG;udk owd&wdkif; aEGUudk wJGjrifrdrSmyif…/
]cdik jf r…
J } ]olrar;wdkif; igu rar;&awmhbl;vm;…}

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32

94 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 95 96 raemf[&D
]EG,fOD;rGef…} aEGESifh &JaoG;? xdkaeYu ausmif;rS tjyefwGif um;a&arT; vdkuf
aEGUwpfudk,fvHk; wkefcgoGm;&onf/ a&arT;ykvif;av;u yef;Ek &Sm0,fjzpfMuonf/ ykvif;vSwmaum? teHUBudKufwmaum &Smae&í
a&miftonf;yHkav;/ teHYuvnf; t&rf;udk romantic jzpfvGef;onf/ awmfawmfawmh &SmMu&onf/ odkYaomf aEG aysmfygonf/ &JaoG; vdk
EG,hf&ifxJrSm bmawG &Sdaer,fqdkwmudk aEGrSef;vdkY &onf/ aEGrSef;vdkY csifaom teHUESifh a&arT;ykvif;av;u awmfawmf cspfp&m aumif;
&ovdk &JaoG;vnf; odrSmyif/ aEGuawmh EG,fhvdk owådr&Sd? EG,fhvdk onf/ tjyma&mif ykvif;av;ay:wGif wdrfjzLprsm; 0JvGifhaeyHkESifh/
&ifxJrS t&mawGudk &JaoG; odatmif xkwfrjyEdkif/ 'gqdk &JaoG; rod aEGu tjyma&mifudk BudKufonf/
Edkifawmhbl;wJhvm;/ aEG…EGrf;vspGm ykvif;av;udk wdkYxdMunhfaerd ]eifBudKufvm;}
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onf/ ]tif;…}
'DaeY aEGtwef;NyD;í xGufvmawmh &JaoG;a&mufaeNyD/ um;
]tm…xm;vdkufygqdk…ay;…ckyJ ypfvdkufawmhr,f} ]EG,uf …eifu h kd…ar;&ifaum…}
ay:rSm oDcsif;em;axmif&if; pdwfat;vufat; apmihfae\/
]rypfygeJY &JaoG;&,f…} &JaoG; pdwf½IyfoGm;ovdk rsufarSmifMuKwf\/
][Jh…eifa&mufwm MumNyDvm;}
]bmvdkYvJ…igrS rBudKufwm…} ]ighudk pdwf½IyfatmifvkyfjyefNyD}
]at;…eifhtwef;u Mumvdkufwm}
]olrsm;ay;wJh ypönf;udk tJvdkypfvdkY b,faumif;yghrvJ…} ]rar;&bl;vm;…EG,far;&if eifb,fvdkajzrvJ…}
]at;av…'DaeYrS 0ifwJhq&mu aemufus0ifawmh tcsdefydk,l
&JaoG;…aEGUudk pl;prf;ovdk Munhfonf/ i,fi,fuvdkqdkvQif ]azazhum;xJrSmvdkY ajzrSmaygh…}
ay;aewmeJY…}
awmh bmudkrS tav;rxm;wwfaom &JaoG;\ vkyf&yfudk aEGwm; ]'Dykvif;av;udk awGUvdkY ar;&ifaum…}
aEGum;xJ 0ifxdkifvdkufwmESifh um;xJrSm arT;ysHUaewmudk owd
rdrmS r[kwf…/ ]awGUp&mtaMumif; r&Sdbl;…ol…ighum;ay: wpfcgrS rwufzl;
xm;vdkufrdonf/ cgwdkif; &JaoG;um;u 'DvdkrS r[kwfwm…/ um;
]eifBudKufvm;…} bl;…}
xJudk vSnhfywfMunhfawmh tonf;yHk yef;Eka&mif um;a&arT;ykvif;
½kwfw&uf ar;cGef;aMumifh aEG aMumifoGm;rdao;onf/ NyD;rS… aEG &JaoG;udk wpfcsuf Munhfvdkufrdonf/
ao;ao;av;udk awGUvdkuf&\/
]bmvdkYvJ…} 'gqdk aEGu &JaoG;um;ay: vdkufygcGifh&wJh wpfOD;wnf;aom
]aMomf…olu arT;aewmud;k …csppf &mav;…eifb,fu &vJ…}
]BudKuf&if…eif,loGm;? eifighudk topf0,fay;…} uHaumif;olvm;? aEG…vdIufceJ aysmfcsifvsufESifh tjynhft0 raysmf
&JaoG; rsufarSmifMuKwfoGm;\/
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]xm;vdkufyg[m…igu tJ'DteHYudkrBudKufbl;…tdrfus azazh
udk topf0,fay;}qdkaom pum;vHk;udkawmh aEG &ifckefonf/ 'Dvdk ovm;? raocsmovm; aEG rcJGjcm;wwf/ wpfcgwpf&H &JaoG;uaEGU
um;xJ xnhfay;zkdY pOf;pm;aewm…}
awmif;qdkcsdefrSmrS r0,fay;jzpfvQif aEGUvkdvlu b,fawmhrS 0,f udk cspfolwpfa,mufudk *½kpdkufovdk *½kpdkufwwfaomfvnf; wpfcg
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ay;jzpfawmhrSmr[kwf…/ wpf&Hus t&if;ESD;qHk; oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufvdk qufqHaewm[k
]r0,fygbl;}
],lawmh r,loGm;ygbl;? eifvdkcsif&ifawmh eifBudKufwJh teHYa&G; cHpm;&jyefonf/
]r0,f&if b,fu &vJ…}
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]olrsm;ay;wm…}
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]b,folay;wmvJ…}
azazawmh ay;vdkufr,f[maemf…} ]igeifhudk ajymp&m&SdvdkY…}
&JaoG; rajzcsifajzcsifESifh ajz\/
]eifhoabmyJ…} ]ajymygqd… k }

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33

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 97 98 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 99
]aocsmem;axmifaemf} awmh &JaoG;u wpfzufvSnhfaeonf/ ]bmtaMumif;jycsufeJYvJ…}
&JaoG; &,f\/ NyD;rS… ]bmvJ[…a>ra>rcsif; ajcjrifw,fqdkwm} ]vlwpfa,mufudk cspfwm taMumif;jycsuf r&Sdovdk wjcm; vl
]&ifawmif ckefcsifvmNyD… eif csufcsif;awmh tajzrawmif;eJY aEG…wrif ar;vdkuf\/ olYxHrS csufcsif; tajzxGufrvm/ NyD;rS wpfa,mufudk rcspfwm[mvnf; taMumif;jycsufr&Sdbl;&JaoG;…}
aemf…} aEGUbufvSnhfvmum… &JaoG; NidrfoufoGm;\/ cPaeusrS wpfvHk;csif;ar;\/
]aovdkufygvm;} ]a,mufsm;csif;yJ…odwmayghvdkY ajymwm…} ]eifu vlwpfa,mufa,mufuakd um taMumif;jycsurf &Sb d J cspf
]raocsiaf o;bl;? b,fou Yl rkd S &nf;pm;pum;rajym&ao;bl;…} aEG oufjyif;cdk;udk rodromcsvdkuf&onf/ t&m&mudk xdyfwdkuf zl;vdkYvm;…}
aEG&,frd\/ &ifqdkifwdkif; vdkcsifaom tajzu tppftrSefr&Edkifwwfwm odod aEG…csufcsif; jyefrajzEdkif…/
]at;…ckvnf; tJ'D &nf;pm;pum;ajymwJhtaMumif;yJ ajymrSm BuD;ESifh ar;vdkufrdwm aEGUtrSm;jzpfonf/ aemufqHk;awmh aEGyJ arm bmajz&rSef;vnf; rod…/
yg…} vspGm usefcJh&\/ ]eif rajzEdkifbl;vm;}
]at;av…ajymNyD;NyD…ajymap…tajzawmh csufcsif;rawmif; ]uJ…eifu ajymygOD;…} ]r[kwfbl;? rajzcsifwm…}
eJYvdkY} ]bmajym&rSmvJ…} &JaoG; oufjyif;wpfcsufudk cdk;csvdkufwm aEG odvdkuf&\/
&JaoG;u ta&;xJ aemufaeao;onf/ ]eifhoabmudk ar;wm…} ]tif;av rajzcsif&if rajzygeJY eif… cdkifjrJudk rcspfwm aocsm
]igajymrSmudk ajymaewm r[kwfbl;…olrsm;u ajymwmudk ajym ]ighoabm…} &if NyD;wmygyJ…}wJh/
wm…} ]at;av…ckdifjrJtay: xm;wJhoabmxm;…} bmvdYk tJ'aD ocsmrIukd t&if,&l wmvJ aEG rod/ aEGomqdk ud, k fh
]olrsm;u ajymwm…[kwfvm;} ]b,fvdkrS rxm;Edkifbl;…} aocsmrIudk udk,ft&if,lrdrSmyif/ odkYaomf &JaoG;onf aEGrS r[kwf
&JaoG; aEGUpum;udk oHa,mifa&&Gwf\/ ]eifjiif;vdkufvm;…} wm/ aEGu cdkifjrJajymcJhaom pum;wcsdKUudk jyefajymjyawmh &JaoG;u
][kwfw,f…} ]tif;…} wav;weuf em;axmif&Smonf/ NyD; rSwfcsufwpfckudk cs\/
]eifhudk…ajymwmvm;} ]On the spot jiif;wmyJvm; rpOf;pm;bl;vm;} ]udk,hfoli,fcsif;rdkY ajymwm r[kwfygbl;? 'DaumifhrSmu eifjyef
]tif;…} ]cdkifvHkaerSawmh bmpOf;pm;p&m&Sdao;vJ} rcspfEdkifwmu vJG&if bmrS tjypfajymp&mr&Sdbl;? NyD;awmh wu,fh
]cdkifjrJrS [kwf&JUvm;…} ]cdkifvHkaew,f [kwfvm;} udk pdwf"mwfaumif;wJhaumif…}wJh/
][if…} &JaoG; rsufarSmifMuKwfum pl;pl;av;Munhfawmh aEG&ifckefoGm; tjypfajymp&mr&Sdwdkif;? pdwf"mwfaumif;wdkif; jyefcspfvdkY r&wm
aEG wtHhwMojzpfoGm;&onf/ &onf/ tJ'DtMunhf&JU t"dyÜm,fu bmvJ…&JaoG;&,f…/ udk &JaoG;em;vnfxm;vQifyif aEG auseyfygonf/ odkYaomf aEGvdkcsif
]eif b,fvdkodvJ…olajymwmvm;} ]tif;…} wmu 'Dpum;rsdK;r[kwf? cdkifjrJESifh ywfoufNyD; &JaoG;udk zGifhajym
]r[kwfygbl;? olajymrS od&atmif igu iwHk;rS r[kwfwm} ]b,fvdkcdkifvHkwmvJ…} uwnf;u &JaoG;xHrS wpfpHkwpf&mudk arQmfvifhNyD; ajymjywm[m
]'gqdk…eif b,fvdkodv… J } ]ighrSm cspfwJholwpfa,muf aocsm&Sdaew,fav…}[k aEG ajz twyfrajymEdkifaomfvnf; arQmfvifhcsuf tenf;ESifhtrsm;ygwmudk
]a>ra>rcsif; ajcjrifygw,f[m…} vdkufcsifaomfvnf; &JaoG;udkMunhfum xdkodkY ajzzdkYus aEG…owåd awmh aEG rjiif;Edkif…/
a>ra>rcsif; ajcjrifowJh/ 'g…bmt"dyÜm,fvJ…/ olvnf; aEGU r&S/d um;xJwGif a&arT;eHYuav;u oif;&Dae\/ tjzLa&mifwdrfrsm;
udk cspfaeolcsif;rdkY odw,fvdkY qdkvdkwmvm;…/ &JaoG;udk Munhfvdkuf ]ig olYudk rcspfwm…t&rf;BuD; cdkifvHkaewm…} uvnf; vSyaom aumif;uifjymwGif wa&GUa&GU pD;arsmaeqJ…/

aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


34

100 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 101 102 raemf[&D
rMumcif ae0ifawmhrnfvm;/ yef;Eka&mif a&arT;ykvif;av;udk owd
&rdjyefawmh aEGU&ifxJ raumif;Edkif/ aEGU a&arT;ykvif;av;vnf; 'D
um;xJrSm xm0& wnfjrJaerSmrS r[kwfwmyJ…/
&JaoG;udk aEG cdk;Munhfrdonf/
&JaoG; NidrfoufpGm um;udk armif;ae\/ bmawG awG;aernf
vJawmh aEGrodEdkif/ ckxd bmudk aocsmovJ ar;ae&wkef;yJvm;
&JaoG;&,f[k aEG&ifxJrS nnf;nLrdonf/ &JaoG;\ qHEG,f aysmh&Snf
&Snfrsm;u um;avtwdk;wGif wzswfzswf 0JvGifhaeonf/ aEG tdwf bk&m;ocif\ nmvufonf El;nHh\
xJrS acgif;pnf;BudK;av;udk xkwfumay;awmh &JaoG;u &,fonf/ odkY&mwGif b,fvufum; &ufpufMurf;MuKwf\/
NyD;…acgif;rSm pnf;xm;vdkuf\/ &JaoG; qHyifawG vGifh0Jraeawmh…/
aEGvnf; aEGUtawG;awGudk pkpnf;xm;csifonf/ 'DhtwGuf BudK; nmvufu blessing ay;wJhvufjzpfNyD;
wpfBudK;vdkaewmuawmh aocsmavonf/ b,fvufu punishment twGufjzpfrSmyg…/
wpfcyk J…wpfcgwpfcgus…ud,
k t
fh jypfawGukd ud,
k af rhaewwfMu
w,f? 'g…vlUobm0yJr[kwfvm;…/

aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


35

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 103 104 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 105
]&Si… f } ]bmjzpfrSef; rodygbl;orD;&,f}
]cdkifjrJu wu,fajymaewmyg…olararhudk tukefajymjyNyD;NyD? ajymajymqdkqdk ESpfa,mufvHk;udk EG,fhtcef;xJ ac:oGm;\/
vdkufoGm;vdkufOD;} EG,fu tcef;xJu ckwifay:wGif ausmrSDum xdkifae\/ Munhf
aEG rsufarSmifMuKwfoGm;&onf/ aEGUudk rvdkvm;olu aEGudk &wm jzLazsmhaewmu vGJvQif vef;qef;aeonf/
ac:cdkif;rSmvm;? aEGuaum oGm;&rSmvm;? aEG Nidrfoufaerdonf/ ]orD;…'DrSm…orD; oli,fcsif;awG…}
odkYaomf aEG\ pmemwwfaom pdwfuav;u tm;vHk;udk tEdkif,l EG,fu pdwfrygwygESifh olwdkYudk Munhf\/ yxr aEGUudk Munhf\/
oGm;awmhonf/ acgif;cgonf/ NyD; &JaoG;udk Munhfonf/ twefMum Za0Z0g pdkuf
(!)
]uJ…vm…cdik jf r… J oGm;&atmif…} MunhfNyD;rS
reufapmapmpD;pD; aEGrS tdy&f mu rx&ao;… {nho f nfqakd wmh
cdkifjrJESifhtwl xxGufvmcJhonf/ um;udk armif;vmolu cdkifjrJ ]rodbl;arar…b,folawGvJ}
aEGpdwfnpfoGm;&\/
taz/ jrwfpGmbk&m;…/ aEG…tvefYwMum; bk&m;yifwrd\/
][Jh…b,folvJ…}
aEG…rsufvHk;jyL;oGm;&onf/ EG,fhudpöudk cdkifjrJtazaum cdkifjrJ ]'g…aEGav…orD;&JU…aEGuEÅmOD;}
aEGUtar;udk aumifrav;u rMum;/ ajymNyD;wmESifh ajy;qif;
uyg vdkufvkyfay;aeonfqdkawmh… ]rodbl;…tif;…olYawmh odovkdyJ…}
oGm;awmhonf/
]EG,… f bmjzpfwmvJ…cdik jf r…
J } &JaoG;udkawmh vufn§dK;xdk;um odovdkyJ[k qdkonf/ tefwDEk
aEGyJ pdww f w kd Ekd iS hf tdy&f mrSxum rsuEf mS tjrefopf&\/wpf&uf
]bmjzpfrSef; rodygbl;…} rsufESmu t&rf;udk ododomomBuD; aysmf&TifoGm;yHk&um…
wavav; at;at;aq;aq; tdyf&rvm; rSwfonf/ ausmif;u
cdkifjrJtazu NyD;pvG,fajzrSef; odomonf/ olrodbJ aerSmrS ][kwfvm;…'gqdk b,folvJ pOf;pm;ygOD;}
pmvm ar;olawGqdkvQifawmh aEG tawmfav; pdwfwdkrdrSm aocsm
r[kwfwm/ NyD;…um;u cdkifjrJwdkY tdrfbufoGm;aewmr[kwf…/ ]rodbl;}
ojzifh udk,hfpdwfudk,f t&ifavQmhcsNyD;rS qif;vmcJh&onf/
]b,foGm;&OD;rSmvJ…} EG,fu jywfom;pGm tajzay;\/ tefwDEk rsufESmjyefn§dK;oGm;
][if…cdik jf r…J }
]&JaoG;udkvnf; ac:&OD;r,f} onf/ NyD;… aEGwdkYudk tcef;xJrS ac:xkwfcJh\/ &JaoG;u…
{nfhcef;rSmu ararESifh pum;xdkifajymaeaom cdkifjrJ…/
]&JaoG;vnf; ac:&OD;r,f…} ]EG,f…bmjzpfwmvJtefwD}
]vm…orD;…'DrSm…EG,fwpfa,muftawmfaeraumif;jzpfae
]tif;…} ]jrifwJhtwdkif;yJ…raeYu reufEdk;vmuwnf;u tif;…oltdyf
vdkY orD;udk ac:cdkif;vdkufvdkY…wJh…}
aEG… bmrS qufrar;awmh…/ &JaoG; um;ay:a&mufvm aumtdy&f UJ vm;rodygbl;…tJ'u D wnf;u olb,forl S rodawmhwm?
]rjzpfEdkifwm avQmufrajymeJY cdkifjrJ…udpöudk wnhfwnfhajym…}
awmh &JaoG;vnf; aEGUvdk bkrodbrod…/ aEGUudk bmjzpfwmvJ…[k tefwDhudk taryg…qdkwmawmif wpfaeukef &Sif;jy&w,f…}
t"dyÜm,fu vHk;0r&Sd/ aEGUudk rac:EdkifrajymEdkifwm ESpfcsDMum
tMunhfESifh toHwdwfar;onf/ aEGu rodaMumif;acgif;cgjyawmh ]wjcm;olawGaum…}
cJhNyDjzpfaom EG,fu aeraumif;wmESifhyJ olESifhwpfoufvHk;u pum;
&JaoG; ycHk;wpfcsuf wGefYjy\/ ]tukeaf c:jywmyJ…aemufqHk;…cdik jf rwJ Ykd om;tzawmif rusef
rajymcJhaom cdkifjrJudk ac:cdkif;&rwJhvm;/ vHk;0rjzpfEdkif/
EG,fwdkYtdrfa&mufawmh tefwDEku xGufapmifhaeonf/ cdkifjrJwdkY bl;…}
]wu,fajymwmyg…}
om;tzuawmh olwdkYtdrfbuf olwdkY0ifoGm;Mu\/ ]olrodbl;wJhvm;}
]tydak wG cdik jf r&J m…ajym…bmudp&ö v dS J…}
]vm…om;wdkYorD;wkdY} ]tif;…}
araru aEGUvufudk tomvSrf;qJG\/
]EG,f…bmjzpfv… J tefwD…} ]olYausmif;uvlawGudkaum…}
]orD;…}
aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf
36

106 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 107 108 raemf[&D
]'gawmh tefwaD c:rjy&Jao;bl;? om;wdu Yk kd t&ifac:wm? Munhf ][kwfw,f… jy&rSmyJ… ukvdkY&wmqdk&if…csufcsif;ukawmh ]ukvdkY&vm;}
ygOD;uG,f…'Davmuf wJGcJhwJh aEGUudkawmif rodbl;wJh…} jrefjrefaumif;wmaygh} ]&wJhvlu &w,f…}
aEGESifhu pdrf;aewm MumNyD/ 'gudk aEGodonf/ ]ukvdkY r&&ifaum…} ]r&wJhvlu…}
]ol…&JaoG;udkawmh odovdky… J wJh} ]rukbJ xdik Mf unhaf ewmxuf pm&if aemifw&p&m r&Sb d ;l aygh…} ]ydkqdk;oGm;w,f}
]tif;av…aocsmar;awmh odrSrodawmhwm…} &JaoG;pum;rsm;u jywfom;um &J&ifhvS\/ tefwDEkyif rsufESm &JaoG; acgif;ndwf\/
]bmyJajymajymav…wjznf;jznf;od&if odvmrSmaygh} tysufysufESifh acgif;ndwf&awmhonf/ ]bmrS rvkyv f u
kd &f bJ ydq
k ;kd oGm;wmxuf pm&if igwdYk 0dik ;f BuKd ;pm;
aEGu bmrSrodbJ cyfwnfwnfESifh udk,fwdkif r,HkMunfaom ]vdktyf&if uRefawmfwdkYudk ac:yg/ olyxrqHk; rSwfrdvmrSm Muwmaygh… rif;u rif;tazudk tefwDEk aq;cef;jycsifvmatmif
tm;ay;pum;rsm;udk ajymaerdonf/ uRefawmf jzpfEdkifygw,f…} wdkufwGef;cdkif;…}
]ol…b,fvdku pjzpfwmvJ…} rodoltwGufuawmh apmapmu odovdkyJ…[laom pum; ]tif;yg…}
&JaoG;uawmh rsufarSmifMuKwfpOf;pm;um ar;cGef;awG xkwf aMumifh ajymwm[k xifayvdrfhrnf/ odaeaom aEGUtwGufuawmh ]igwdkYvnf; 0dkif;wdkufwGef;&rSmyJ…}
aeonf/ EG,f bmaMumifh olYudk 'Dvdk t&ifrSwfrdEdkifr,f…qdkwm…&JaoG; bm aEG…q,fwef;wkef;u? EG,f tqifhusum tm;i,faecsdefrSm
]b,fu pjzpfw,fawmh rodygbl;? tefwDhtrSm;awGvnf; ygyg aMumifh odae&wmvJ… ododeJY bmvdkY 'DvdkaecJhwmvJ…qdkaom &JaoG;u tpp ulwm? tm;ay;wmudk oGm;owd&onf/ &JaoG;u
w,f/ olYudk pressure ay;wm rsm;oGm;w,fxifw,f…} ar;cGef;rsm;ESifh ½IyfaxG;oGm;&onf/ wu,hu f kd oli,fcsi;f aumif; yDool/ odaYk omf aEGU&ifxrJ mS u ar;cGe;f
xifwm r[kwb f ;l ? [kwaf ewm… aEG&ifxrJ S ajymrdonf/ &JaoG; tjyefus cdkifjrJxH 0ifMu\/ av;wpfck cdkwJGaeonf/ aEG 'Dvdk ½HI;edrfhcJh&ifaum? 'Dvdk ,drf;,dkifcJh&if
vnf; xdkodkY &ifxJu ajymaerSmudk olYtMunhft& rSef;vdkY&onf/ cdkifjrJwdkY om;tzuvnf; owif;udk apmifhaeMuwmyif/ tusdK; aum…&JaoG;u 'Dvdk &yfwnfulnDay;rSmvm;…/
]olNyD;cJhwJh test ESpfck qufwdkufusNyD;uwnf;u wililwaigif taMumif; ajymjyvdu k af wmh cdik jf rt
J azuvnf; q&m0efjyzdu
Yk ykd J tMuH aEGvnf; EG,fhudk udk,fcsif;pmygonf/ jyefaumif;apcsifonf/
aigifeJY tcef;xJyJ atmif;aewm…pdwfvdk&ifawmh &JaoG; taMumif; ay;csiyf &kH onf/ cdik jf rt
J aruawmh bmrS 0ifrajym/ at;csr;f vSaom oli,fcsi;f ae&muyJ MunhMf unh?f tefwED ak e&muyJ MunhMf unh?f b,f
awG vmajymaewwfw,f…} tMunhfESifh olwkdY om;tzudk Munhfaeonf/ vdkrS rqHk;½HI;apcsifyg/ 'DapwemawGudk EG,fwpfa,muf em;vnfygh
tefwDEku jzpfpOfudk trSwfwrJhajymjcif; jzpfaomfvnf; aEGU aEGvnf; ckrS aocsmjrifzl;aom cdkifjrJtarudk Munhfum cdkifjrJ rvm;rod/ &JaoG;\ tm½Hkrsm;? *½kpdkufrIrsm; EG,hfxH cJGa0 ay;vdkuf&
&ifxJrSmuawmh wpfpHkwpf&m pl;epfoGm;ovdk cHpm;vdkuf&onf/ bmaMumifh tarudk 'DavmufwG,fwmvJ…qdkaom tajzudk &vdkuf rSmudkawmh aEGaMumufonf/ odkYaomf bmrS rwwfEdkif/ &JaoG;qdkwm
&JaoG;vnf; rsufarSmifydkMuKwfoGm;&onf/ onf/ cdkifjrJtar\ rsufESmu yuwd at;csrf;MunfvifvGef;vSum aEGU ydkifqdkifrIrS r[kwfyJav/
]pmvnf; odyfrMunhfbJ awG;aewm…ckusawmh 'Dvdkjzpfawmh arwåmw&m;jynhf0olwpfa,muf\ rsufESmrsdK;[k aEG…xifonf/ tjyefus raeEdkifpGm aEG ar;rdonf/
wmygyJ…} ]ckid jf rJ…} ]&JaoG;…}
tefwDEku olrpum;udk tqHk;owfvkdufovdk avudk avQmhcs ]bmvJ…&JaoG;} ][if…}
vdkuf\/ &JaoG;u ar;cGef;wpfck xyfar;onf/ ]rif;ajymprf;…'g bma&m*gvJ…ukvkdY &&JUvm;} ]ig…½l;oGm;r,fqdk&ifaum…}
]tefwD…q&m0efrjybl;vm;…} cdkifjrJ acgif;ukwf\/ &JaoG; [uf[ufyufyuf &,f\/ bmt"dymÜ ,fEiS hf &,freS ;f awmh
]pdwfa&m*gukq&m0efudk jy&rSmqdk…} ]bma&m*gvJqdkawmh pdwfa&m*gwpfrsdK;yJ? wtm; pdwfzdpD;NyD; rod/
tefwDEkyHkpHu rvkyfcsifovdk…/ jzpfwm…e*dkpdwftcHaysmhwmvnf; ygwmaygh…} ]aocsmw,f igvdkuf½l;ay;rSmyg…}

aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


37

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 109 110 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 111
&JaoG;\ pum;u twnfvm;…? ]eif…ighudk Munhfazmf&ao;wmyJaemf…}
aocsmwmuawmh olYpum;u ]eif½l;&if igvnf;½l;rSmyJ}qdkaom ]aMomf…ig…owdxm;rdygw,f…ckrS ar;jzpfwm…}
t"dyÜm,fawmh roufa&mufjcif;yif/ odkYaomf aEG…avmbrBuD;yg/ ]aeaumif;awmhrSmyg? bmrSodyfrjzpfbl;? ausmif;ydwfwkef;jzpf
aEG 'DavmufESifh auseyfEdkifygonf/ ]cspfjcif;}qdkaom t&mxJwGif awmh tqifajyoGm;wmaygh}
t&m&mudk vufcHa&mifh&Jvdkufjcif;vnf; yg0ifaernfxifonf…[k aEGu 'DvdkawG;um ajzwwfaom rdef;uav;rsdK; jzpfonf/
aEG awG;rdonf/ &JaoG;uawmh…
aeu wjznf;jznf; jrifhvmcJhNyD/ ]jzpf&w,faEG&,f… ausmif;ydwfwkef; jzpfwmyJ tqifajy&
(¡)
aEGU cspfjcif;awGuaum &ifhusufcdkifrmvmcJhNyDvm;/ ovm;}
EG,fhtajctaeu ausmif;rS wpfESpf cGifh,lvdkuf&onf/ cdkifjrJ
]at;av…? r[kwf&if…igausmif;ysufOD;r,f…? eifvnf; pdwf
uawmh…
yl&r,f/ oli,fcsif;awGvnf; vlrrmvmar;&OD;r,f…}
]aumif;wmaygh? twef;rwlawmholvnf; pressure avsmhoGm;
]eifuawmhav…}
r,f}[k taumif;bufrS rSwfcsufcs\/
&JaoG;u &,f\/
aEG…wpfywfwpfcg oGm;jzpfaomfvnf;? EG,fu aEGUudk wpfpuf
]eifu pdwfaum ylrSmrdkYvm;…}
av;rS rod…/ &JaoG;udkawmh tawmfav; &if;ESD;vmNyD/ &JaoG;u
aEG…udk,fhbmomukd,fajymNyD;rS raocsmovdk jyefar;rdonf/
awmh xdktajctaewdk;wufrItwGuf tm;&ae\/
][if…ckeuyJ eifhpum;xJrSm igpdwfylOD;r,fvdkY ygNyDav}
]rqdk;bl;[…q&m0efawG awmfwmvnf; ygrSmaygh…ckqdk ihgudk
]tif;av…'gu igajymwm? eifhbufu [kwfcsifrS [kwfrSmaygh}
awmfawmf odaeNyD…}
]ryl&Sdrvm; rdaEG&m}
]ighudkyg Munhfr& jzpfvm&if tdkauNyDaygh &JaoG;&,f}
]wpfylay:ESpfylqifhayghaemf}
aEGUpum;aMumifh &JaoG;u &,f\/ axmufawmh raxmufcH/
EG,fhudpöESifh,SOfum ajymvdkufjcif;aMumifh &JaoG;oabmayguf
]aEG…}
onf/
]bmvJ…ajym}
][ifhtif;r[kwfygbl;…a>ryl&muif;arSmifhyg}
]eifaum…aeaumif;&JUvm;? ckwavm eifhMunhf&wm rsufuGif;
&JaoG;pum;aMumifh aEG…&,frd\/ MuHMuHzefzef ajymwwfvGef;
awG ndKvdkY…}
onf/ NyD;rS &JaoG;u rsufESmjyefwnfum…
aEGU&ifxJ aEG;oGm;&onf/ aEG trSefwu,f aeraumif;yg/
]igu eifhudk ,Hkw,faEG…}
ESvHk;a&m*gu jyefazmufvmonf/ odkYaomf xHk;pHtwkdif; aEGu tdyf
]bmudk,HkwmvJ}
&mxJ rvJvQif b,folrSrodvdkuf&/ ck…aq;cef;udk &ufjcm;jyum
]eifu pdwfrmw,f…pdwfjyif;w,f…'Dawmh awmf½Hkwef½Hk usef;
aq;aomufae&onf/ yHkrSefaomufaeaom aq;rsm;tjyif wjcm;
rma&;raumif;wmavmufeJY eifrvJbl;? awmf½HkudpöeJYvnf; eifhpdwf
aq;rsm;yg aomuf&\/
rjydKvJbl; ig,Hkw,f…NyD;awmh…}

aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf aMumifESpfaumifpmtkyfwdkuf


38

112 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 113 114 raemf[&D
]NyD;awmh bmjzpfvJ…} ]igu…EG,fhudk aeaumif;oGm;apcsifw,f…ausmif;jyefwufap ]oufomw,fqdk…}
]tJ'Dpdwf"mwfudk igBudKufw,f…av;vnf;av;pm;w,f…} csifw,f…} ]ck[mu…vm&if;eJY vrf;usrS wtm;touf&SLMuyfNyD; armvm
aEG…oufjyif;udk rodromcsrd\/ ]'DtwGuf rif;u wm0ef,lr,faygh} wm…}
avmurSm 'Dvdk appreciate vkyfcH&zdkYvlwpfa,muf[m b,f ]ighrSm wm0ef r&Sdygbl;…,l&r,fvnf; r[kwfygbl;/ pmemwm aEG…cyfwnfwnfESifh ajymvdkuf\/ wu,fvnf; xdkodkY cHpm;
avmufxd awmifhcH&wwfw,f…qdkwm b,folrS odrSmr[kwf[k &,f…rxm;cJh&ufwm&,fygyJ…EG,[ f m i,fi,fuwnf;u tm;i,f ae&ygonf/ odkYaomf odyfajymyavmufaom tajctaer[kwf/ aEG
aEG…awG;rdonf/ wwfwJh igholi,fcsif;av…} u cdkifjrJ,lvmay;aom dream bed ay: vSJaevdkufonf/
]eif…tJvdkyJ…wpfoufvHk; aeoGm;odvm;} 'Davmufyv J m;… [k aEG&ifxrJ S ylyifaerdonf/ olwb
Ykd mrS quf ]eif…b,fvmwmvJ…}
]eifu tJvdk aeapcsifwmvm;…} rajymMuawmhaomfvnf; aEG…qufawG;aerdonf/ tu,fírsm; ]cdkifjrJqDrSm eif&Sdw,fqdkvdkY…}
]'gaygh…vlwpfa,mufrSm pdwf"mwfcdkifrmzdkYu ta&;tBuD;qHk; EG,fu &JaoG;r&SdwmESifh a&m*gjyef&cJhvQif…/ 'grsdK;awmh aEGvnf; ]b,folajymvJ}
yJav…r[kwf&if EG,hfvdkjzpfoGm;rSmaygh} rjzpfapcsif/ &JaoG;udk b,favmufcspfcspf? oli,fcsif;udkvnf; 'ku© ]eifhtarav…}
vmjyefNyD EG,f/ ra&mufapcsifwm aocsmonf/ &JaoG;u EG,fhbufudk vHk;vHk; &JaoG;…rsufarSmifMuKwfoGm;&\/
EG,fhusawmh pdwfaysmhnHhwm rSefygonf/ odkYaomf xdkaysmhnHhrIu vsm;vsm; oem;pdwfESifh a&mufoGm;cJhvQifaum aEG…cHEdkifygrnfvm;/ ]tJ'g…eifu…bmvdv Yk u f m&wmvJ…udpö&SdvdkYvm;…}
dk v
&JaoG;\ *½kpu kd rf u
I akd wmh t&,lEikd cf o
hJ nfr[kwv
f m;/ pmem em;vnf aEG…b,fbuf&iftHkrS pl;ceJ emusifvm&onf/ ][if…eifeJY cdkifjrJ&SdwJhae&mudk igu udpö&SdrS vm&rSmvm;…eif
rIESifh av;pm;ESpfNcdKufrI bmawGrsm; uGmvJrod/ tHMh op&maumif;avmufatmif puúeyYf ikd ;f twGi;f tawG;ESiw hf if ighudk tarmqdkYatmif rvkyfeJY}
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39

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 115 116 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 117
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Munhfrdawmh cdkifjrJu tMunhfudkvTJum wpfae&modkY ai;ae\/ cdkif rsm; jynhf0aeMuvdkY &,farmEdkifwmrsm;vJ…/
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40

118 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 119 120 raemf[&D
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41

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f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 121 122 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 123
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ausmfom uGmonf/ ckawmh &JaoG;u wpfvESifh ckepf&ufwdwd…wJh/ tajctaeudk pdwfrcs&rSmawmh aocsmw,f…} aumif;aumif;…}
aEG t&rf;ukd MunfEl;oGm;&um rsuf&nfrsm;yif pdkYcsifvm&onf/ ]tif;…'Dawmh} aEG…wkef,ifaerIudk owdESifh xdef;xm;&onf/ &JaoG;u quf
aEGvnf; vlom;yJav…/ odkYaomf MumMumrMunfEl;Edkif/ aEGUrSmu ]'Dawmh igbmvkyf&rvJ…aEG} ajym\/
ar;cGef;awG trsm;BuD; jzpfaeonf/ &JaoG;uawmh aEGUqDu bm &JaoG;\tMunhfawGu vif;vufawmufyaeonf/ aEGUudk ]igcspfwJholudk wpfoufvHk; ta0;u cspfEdkifw,fyJxm;…EG,fh
oabmwlnDcsufrS r,lawmhbJ aMu;tdk;qdkifudk armif;vdkuf\/ aEG tm;udk;wBuD; wdkifyifaewmESifh wlonf/ aEGuawmh 'DtcsdefrSm bm udk igu rcspb f J wpfoufv;kH wm0ef,El ikd yf ghrvm;…'gu pOf;pm;p&m
aum &JaoG;yg aMu;tdk;BudKufMuonf/ vkyf&rSmvJ/ av…}
]eif…EG,hfudk bmvufaqmifay;cJhvJ…} &uf&ufpufpuf tMurH sKd ;ay;vdu k &f rSmvm;…/ jzpfcsi&f mjzpfaygh/ ]tif;…[kww f ,f…pOf;pm;&rSmaygh &JaoG;? vG,w f uhJ pd rö S r[kwf
]vufaqmif…} 'grSr[kwf tcGifhta&;qdkwm ESpfcgrvm[k ,lqolawGvdkyJ? udk,hf wm…eifua&m…cspfoleJY oli,fcsif;udk vJrvdkYvm;…}
]tif;av…arG;aeYvufaqmifav…} twGuf tusdK;&Sdapr,hf tMuHrsdK;ay;vdkuf&rSmvm;…/ aEGUrSm ESvHk; 'g…aEGU&ifxJu aygufxGufoGm;aom pum;jzpfonf/ olcspf
]olu… arG;aeYBuD;BuD;us,fus,fvkyfwmrS r[kwfwm…bm om;tydrk ygbl;&JaoG;/ &ufpufreI YJ pmemrIuif;wJh vky&f yfawGuv kd nf; wm aEG r[kwfcJh&ifawmif cspfolcsif;om qHkpnf;apcsifwmu aEGU
ay;p&mvdkvJ} aEGrvkyfcsifbl;/ tJ'DtwGuf udk,hfudk,fudk jyef&ufpufzdkYusawmh qE´av/
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]eif}vdkY ajzcsifvsufu aEGrajzjzpf/ rodbl;[kom ajzjzpfonf/ u trsm;BuD;…} &JaoG;ajymwm rSefygonf/ 'gqdk EG,fu rSm;aewmvm;…/
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]EG,fuawmh usef;rma&;aygh} aEG…axmufcH½HkrSty bmrSrwwfEdkif/ xyfvdkufaygh…}
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42

124 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 125 126 raemf[&D
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awmhrSmvm;} &JaoG;uac:\/ rsuf&nfprsm; r&Sdawmhaomfvnf; aEG…vSnhf 'gqdk…EG,fu…uHaumif;olvm;/
&JaoG;…aEGUudk pl;&SnifompGm Munhf\/ rMunhf&J/ aEGuaum &JaoG;xHrS vHkavmufjynhfpHkaom tMunhfwpfcsuf
]eifov d m;aEG…olu…eifv h ykd …
J } ]bmvJ…&JaoG;} ESifh NyD;jynhfpHkvdkuf&rSmvm;…/ &JaoG;uawmh aEGUrsuf0ef;rS tajz
eifyJ…vkYd ajymvdkufygawmhvm;&JaoG;&,f/ eifhtMunhfawGu ]'Dbuf vSnhfOD;…} wpfck wnf;ESifh auseyfoGm;EdkifowJh/ ighudk &ifqdkiftm; enf;enf;rQ
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]olu…pdwf"mwfaumif;w,f? cdkifusnf&J&ifhw,f…? pdwfrm 'gudkawmh aEGrjiif;csifawmh/ pdwftm;vHk;udk avQmhcsum jzpfcsif ovdk rrmausmEdkifcJhwJhtwGuf eif…b,fvdk cHpm;&rvJ… igrod
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av…&JaoG;cspfw,fqdkwJholu pdwf"mwfcdkifrmowJh/ tJ'Dvdk cdkifrm onf/ em;jyefbl;av/ eifuaum ighrsuf0ef;u tajzwpfcktwGuf auseyf
zdkYtwGuf bmawGeJY wnfaqmufxm;cJh&w,fqdkwmudkawmh b,f ]eif…bmajymrvdkYvJ &JaoG;} ½HkuvJGvdkY bmrS jyifqifcsuf rcsEdkifbl;r[kwfvm;/
olrS rodEdkifygbl;…/ ]bmrSrajymbl;…ig…tajzwpfck &SmMunhfwm…} aumif;uifu ntxd idkwkef;/
]'Dwikd ;f qk&d ifawmh r½H;I bl;aygh &JaoG;&,f…oluvnf; eifcspw
f m jrwfpGmbk&m;…/ ol…aEGrsuf0ef;xJrSm tajzwpfckck awGUoGm; wdrfawGvnf; rnf;arSmifodyfonf;aeOD;rSmyJ…/
udk odae…eifhudkvnf; cspfaew,fqdk&ifawmh ½HI;wmaygh…} D m;…/
cJNh yv b,fawmh wdrfuif;pifrvJrodayr,hf aocsmygw,f…&JaoG;
]olu em;vnfcGifhvTwfwwfygw,f…} ]igauseyfw,faEG…eifh&JU pdwfudkvnf; igcsD;usL;w,f…eif[m &,f…ighaumif;uifrSmawmh &JaoG;qdkwJh Mu,fuav;wpfvHk;yJ vif;
]em;vnf cGifhvTwfwwfwJholawGrSmvnf; cHpm;csufawmh &Sdwm oli,fcsif;aumif; wpfa,mufyJ} aerSmyg/
yJ…&JaoG;…} toufr&SLbJ em;axmifaerdaom &JaoG;\ pum;vHk;rsm;u
]igodw,f…'gaMumifh…ig…bmvky&f rvJ ar;wmaygh…} xdkrQom/ aEG…bmudk em;vnfvdkuf&rSmvJ/
]t"duu eifqHk;jzwf&rSm…/ wpfzufu EG,fuvnf; igholi,f nusawmh aEG…aysmhacGum tdyf&mxJ vJawmhonf/
csif;…igb,fvdkajymrvJ…} tawG;rsm;uvnf; a,muf,ufcwfvsuf…/
]eifu ckxd EG,hftay: oHa,mZOf&Sdwkef;vm;…} &JaoG;[m wu,hfudk oli,fcsif;aumif; rdwfaqGaumif; yDo
]qdkygawmh…} csifwm…vlwpfa,mufudk u,fcsifwm? r&ufpufcsifwmeJYyJ udk,fh
&JaoG; aEGUudk pl;prf;ovdk Munhf\/ aEG nmaewmvm;[k cspfoludk pGefU&JwJholvm;…/ pGefYEdkifovm;/
oHo,jzpfrnfaygh/ aEGUudk &JaoG;ESifhywfoufvmvQif &ifxJ pl;ae aEG…omqd&k ifaum…/

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43

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 127 128 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 129
]EG,fhudpövm;} ]&wJholu &ygw,f…tdyfarGUcsvdkuf&if csufcsif;aumif;oGm;
]tif;…} f ,f…}
Edik w
]EG,fhudpöu olulnDrS&rSmav…} ]tJ'DxJrSm EG,fygovm;}
]ulp&mvm;uGm…vlESpfa,mufvHk;u pGefYNyD; ul&r,hfudpö…} ]'gawmh olYuHw&m;yJ}
cdkifjrJ…roufrom nnf;\/ aEG…bmrS 0ifrajymrd/ cdkifjrJu ]olYuHw&m;u aumif;ygw,f…}
qufajym\/ aEGu…cyfwdk;wdk; zGzGqdkrd\/ cdkifjrJu…acgif;udkndwf&if;…
(w) ]'DrmS …aEG…} ][kwfw,f…odyfuHaumif;ygw,f…olYtwGuf…oli,fcsif;
aEG… aeraumif;jzpfwmudk b,folYudkrS taMumif;rMum;? ]bmvJ…} aumif; yDopGm pGefYvTwftepfemcHr,hfvlawGu &Sdaewmudk;…olYudk
odkYaomf…ausmif;oGm;BudK&if; rawGUcJh&aom &JaoG;u cdkifjrJESifhtwl ]ig…eifhudk b,favmufcspfvJ…qkdwm eifodcsifrSodr,f…} rS uHaumif;w,frac:&if b,folYudkac:rvJ}
tdrfvdkufvmonf/ tdrfa&SUrSmuwnf;u araru b,fvdk pjzpf igodygw,fcikd jf r&J ,f…[k &ifxrJ S ajymrd\/ wu,fvnf; cHpm; cdkifjrJavoHu…aighawmhawmhavoH/
wm[k qdkum ZmwfpHkcif;NyD;om;/ aEG bmrS zHk;uG,fr&awmh/ vdkY&onfyJ…/ ]EG,f}qdkaom rdef;uav;onf wu,fuHaumif;olvm;…aEG
]aEG…eifaeraumif;wm bmvdkY rajymwmvJ…} ]aocsmwmuawmh ig…eif aysmfae&ifaysmfrSmyJ…ckawmh…eif NidrfoufoGm;rdonf/ xdkpOf &JaoG;jyef0ifvm\/
cdkifjrJu tjypfwifoHav; pGufum ajym\/ vnf; raysmf&? &JaoG;vnf; pdwfrcsrf;om? igvnf; pdwfqif;&J&r,hf ]um;ay:rSm eifhtwGuf 0,fxm;wJh yJrkefYusefcJhvdkY oGm;,lwm?
]at;av… eifu q&m0efjzpfawmhrmS qdak wmh vlem&Smaewm… udpöBuD;…} raeYu ausmif;vmBudKwnf;u ygvmwm}
igarhoGm;vdkY…} EG,hfudpöu vloHk;a,mufavmufudk xdcdkufaMuuJGapwm… aEGUudk yJrkefYtxkyfvdkuf vSrf;ay;\/
aEG…wrifaemufvdkufrd\/ cdkifjrJu r&,f/ ½kyfwnfESifh ar;\/ EG,f… odrSodygavp/ ]tif;…ckrSyJ &JaoG;qDu rkefYudk txkyfvdkuf pm;&awmhw,f…}
]eif…aeraumif;wm 'DaumifhaMumifhr[kwfvm;} ]'gayr,hf 'DvdkrS rvkyf&if…EG,fu 'ku©a&mufrSmav…} ]'guawmh…eifu i,fi,fuwnf;u *srD S ruswwfwm…Mum;
]&JaoG;aMumifh r[kwfygbl;} ]EG,hfa&m*gu wjcm;enf;eJYuk&if&wmyJ…} zl;vm;…idkwwfwJhuav;u EdkYpdkY&w,fwJh}
&JaoG;udk vSrf;Munhfawmh r&,frjyHK;ESifh…/ ]'gawmh eifu ydkem;vnfrSmaygh} cdik jf ru
J 0ifajym\/ bmt"dymÜ ,fEiS v hf aJ wmh olroS ad yvdrhf rnf/
]bmvdkY r[kwf&rSmvJ…} ]vnfw,f…ckupd u ö …olwo Ydk m;trd&UJ twåe,YJ OS af evdYk…igu ]igu…idkwwfwJhuav;qdk rcspfbl;}
]bmvdkY [kwf&rSmvJ…} tpmraMuwm…} &JaoG;u El;nHhpGm jyHK;&if; qdkonf/ xdkpum;u t"dyÜm,frsm;pGm
][kwfw,f…} ]twå…[kwfvm;} ygaeonf/ ckcsdefrSmawmh EG,fu idkwwfwJh uav;vm;…uHMur®m
]r[kwfbl;…} cdkifjrJpum;aMumifhaEG…wtHhwMo ar;rd\/ t& idkae&wmvm;…aEGvnf; idkwwfonfyJ…odkYaomf…uHMur®mu
&JaoG;ESifh cdkifjrJ bmawG ajymvmMuonfrod/ cdkifjrJ rjiif;pzl; ][kww f ,fav…oljzpfwmudu k oljzpfcsiv
f suef YJ rjzpf&wmawG? aEGUudk xdef;csKyfEdkifrIESifh cHEdkif&nfwcsdKUay;xm;onf/ 'gudkyif aus;
aEGESifh vmjiif;aeonf/ &JaoG;u bmrS 0ifrajymbJ tcef;jyif jyef rauseyf? rcsrf;ajrhwmawGudk arhzdkY BudK;pm;&if;u wu,hfarhovdkjzpf Zl;wif&rnfvm;rod/
xGufoGm;\/ xdktcgusrS… oGm;wmrsdK;…} ]eif…aeaumif;atmifvnf;aeOD;…ausmif;ysuw f mrsm;aew,f}
]cdkifjrJ…eifbmawG vmajymaewmvJ…} ]igzwfzl;wJhpmtkyfxJu Zmwfaumifuawmh tJ'DvdkjzpfNyD; uk cdkifjrJu pm;yJGay:rSm jyefUMuJaeaom aEGUpmtkyfxlrsm;udk Munhf
]tydak wG rajymeJaY EG…[dak eYu'Daumif eifu
h kd bmawGvmajymvJ} r&awmhbJ vHk;vHk;udk pdwfazmufoGm;w,f} um pdk;&drfovdkajym\/

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44

130 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 131 132 raemf[&D
]at;…[kww f ,f? eifausmif;rwufawmh eifu h kd vmrBuKd &awmh csifwm…}qdkaom aemufqufwJGpum;av; ygrvm½Hkom&Sdonfav/ jrwfwJhtcsdefqdkwmudk uHMur®mu ay;vmrSmyg/ vlwpfa,muf b0
bl;…eifhausmif;u jrifaeus aumifrav;awG rjrif&awmh ysif; cPaeusawmh cdik jf ru J twef;jyefwufO;D rnf[q k u kd m jyefomG ; wpfck ysufoGm;rSmudk xkdifMunhfaeNyD; cspfawmhaum pdwfcsrf;omrSm
p&mBuD;…jrefjrefaeaumif;atmifvkyf} \/ roGm;cif &JaoG;udk bmawGBudwfrSmoGm;onfrod/ rNyD;Edkif…/ rdkYvdkYvm;? igwkdY&ifxJu tcspfawGu… b,fvdktajctaerSmrS
&JaoG;uyg axmufcHum 0ifajym\/ &JaoG;[m av;eufoGm; cdkifjrJxGufoGm;awmhrS &JaoG;udk ar;&\/ ysufokOf;roGm;Edkifbl;av…tJ'gudk eif,Hkw,fr[kwfvm;…}
rSmudk pdk;&drfvdkY pum;vHk;awGudk 'D*&DavQmhcsonhf twwfynmudk ]eifuaum twef;r&Sdbl;vm;} eif…b,folYudk ajymaew,fqdkwmaum owd&&JUvm;&JaoG;
uRrf;usifavolvm;…/ olY&ifxJrSm bm&Sdonfqdkwmudk olrsm;jrif ]&Sdw,f…'gayr,hf twef;xJu ighaumifrav;awG pmul;xm; &,f/ eifighudk wdkifwnfajymaew,fqdk&ifawmifrS igacgif;ndwf&
oGm;rSmpdk;í zHk;tkyfwwfolvm;/ 'gqdk xdkodkY zHk;uG,fxm;rIu ol ygvdrrfh ,f…} cufcJaecJhrSm aocsmygw,f/ &JaoG;u pum;udk qufajym\/
udk,fwdkiftwGufvm;…jrifwwfoGm;rnhfoltwGufvm;…'gawmh… ajzyHkudku…/ aEG…rsufapmif;xdk;awmh &JaoG;u &,f\/ ]cdkifjrJu ighudk ajymw,f…pdwful;r,OfeJYwJh? vlwdkif;[m ol&J
&JaoG;rSodayvdrhfrnf…/ ]eifhudk cdkifjrJu bmrSmoGm;wmvJ…} aumif;rqefEdkifMubl;wJh/ ig ol&Jaumif;qefjyaewm r[kwfygbl;/
]ig…bmrSrjzpfygbl;…reufjzefausmif;wufrmS yg…} ]aEGUudk pdwfcsrf;omatmifxm;…wJh} i,fi,fuwnf;u &SdcJhzl;wJh tm;i,fwwfwJh oli,fcsif;wpfa,muf
]reufjzefawmh em;ygOD;[m… reufjzef aomMum? pae? ]ruygbl;[m…tMumBuD;…} &JU b0udk ulnDwmyg/ 'gudk eif em;vnfr,fvdkY ig,Hkw,f…}
we*FaEGyg em;vdkuf…wevFmaeYrSwufzdkY tm;arG;xm;…} ]avQmufrajymeJw Y …hJ igu…xdik af jym&wmawmif ysi;f vdYk vSJ ajym aEG a,mif&rf;acgif;ndwfrd\/
cdik jf ru
J q&m0efavoHEiS ahf jymawmh aEG&,frod nf/ 'Dawmh cdik jf rJ csifaewmudk avQmufrajymeJY…qdkyJ…} ]EG,fwpfckck jzpfoGm;rS…igwkdYwpfoufvHk; aemifw&aeMurSm
u… aEG…&,frdonf/ xufpm&if ckwnf;u wwfEdkifoavmuf vkyfay;wmu raumif;
]r&,fygeJY…eifu ighvlemrjzpfcsifwm? ighpum;em;raxmifcsif ]r&,feJYOD; aEG…} bl;vm;aEG…}
wmodygw,f} ]bmvdkYvJ…} ]aumif;ygw,f}
]r[kwfygbl;…eifu wu,hfq&m0ef*dkufeJY vmajymaevdkY &,f ]ig eifhudk ajymwmawGudk avQmufajymaew,fvdkY eifrxifbl; &JaoG; jyHK;\/
wmyg/ eifwkdYu ausmif;NyD;zdkY vdkOD;rSm…igu 'DESpfqdkNyD;NyD…} r[kwfvm;} ]aEGuawmhav igajymorQ aumif;aewmyJ…ighukd em;vnfwm
]at;…igvnf; aemufESpfqdkNyD;NyD} ]rxifygbl;…} eifwpfa,mufwnf; &Sdw,fodvm;…'gaMumifhvnf; igu…eifhudkyJ
aEGu ig;ESpfwuf&NyD; &JaoG;u ajcmufESpf? cdkifjrJwdkYu ckepf ]'DrmS …aEG…} ajymjywm? ta&;BuD;wmu eifem;vnfzkdYyJ…}
ESpfMumrnfjzpfonf/ &JaoG;u aEGUudk av;eufpGm Munhf\/ bmjzpfvdkY igem;vnfzkdY ta&;BuD;wmvJ…qdkaomar;cGef;onf
]EG,f ausmif;xGufxm;wmaum jyefwufEdkifNyDvm;…} ]ajymav…} ar;p&mrvdak wmhaom ar;cGe;f wpfcjk zpfonf/ em;vnfay;&jcif;onf
&JaoG;u cdkifjrJudk Munhf\/ cdkifjrJu &JaoG;udk Munhf\/ NyD;rS… ]avmurSm vlwpfa,mufew YJ pfa,muf cspw f ,fqw kd m aygif; b,favmufcufcJav;vHaMumif;udkawmh em;vnfay;olrSom oday
cdkifjrJuyJ ajzonf/ pnf;&rS r[kwb f ;l vdYk igvufcw H ,f? tJ'D cspjf cif;udk olw&dYk moufyef vdrfhrnf/ aEGUtzdkYu pum;wpfcGef;wnf;ESifh vHkavmufoGm;cJhygNyD/
]rodygbl;[m…olpmMunhfcsifNyDvm;u &Sdao;w,f} odr;f qnf;cHpm;Edik zf yYkd … J vlcsi;f aygif;pnf;Ny;D cspjf cif;udk wnfjraJ tmif ]vlwpfa,mufeJYwpfa,muf arwåmudk odjrifem;vnfNyD; ta0;
cdkifjrJpum;u 'DrQom/ odkYaomf… rsufESmtrlt&muawmh rBuKd ;pm;Edik af wmhaum…bmxl;rSmrdv Ykd …
Yk v J tJ'…
D wpfa,mufarwåm u jzLpifpGm cspfaeEdkifwm[m vlwdkif;rqdkEdkifwJhaw;…wJh/ &ifxJu
t"dyÜm,ftrsm;BuD;udk aqmifwm aEGodvkdufonf/ &JaoG;uawmh udw k pfa,muf odjrifem;vnfNy;D jzLpifpmG ta0;u cspaf eEdik w f m[m tcspfawG[m b,fvdktajctaerSmrS ysufokOf;roGm;Edkifbl;…}wJh
rodcsifa,mifaqmifaeonf/ cdkifjrJjyHK;vkdufyHku ]olu…vlyJ Munhf avmurSm vlwdkif; rqdkEdkifwJhaw;yJ…aEG…tJ'DvlawGtwGuf jrifh av/

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45

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 133 134 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 135
vlwdkif;rqdkEdkifaom aw;oGm;jzpfonhftwGuf vdkufqdkzdkYawmh
tawmfcufcJrSm aocsmonf/ odkYaomf xdk*Dwonf wpfb0vHk; yl
avmifaerIudk at;Nidrf;oGm;atmif tdyfarGUcsay;rnhf *DwrsdK;vnf;
jzpfaeEdkifonfav…/ vufcHwwfcJh&ifaygh…/
aEGUtcef;av;onf at;Nidrf;wdwfqdwfoGm;onf/
uk, d pf t
D a0;odYk ai;umawG;aeaom tawG;rsm;onf wpfae&m
rSm aygif;qHkEdkifonfvm;…/ tMunhfeufeufwkdYudkawmh rodcsif
a,mifaqmif a&SmifvTJypfMu&OD;rnf/ qHk;½HI;cJh&avaom
tjyifu aumif;uifqDodkY Munhfrdawmh aumif;uifu wdrfrsm; arwåmw&m;wdkY jzifh...
pGm xlxyfaeqJ…/ odkYaomf wdrfrnf;rsm;r[kwfojzifh aumif;uifu
Munfpifaeonf/ [dkae&mwpfp? 'Dae&mwpfp…uGufusm; jrifawGU b0onf...
ae&aom tjyma&mifaumif;uif\ wpfpdwfwpfa'oudkvnf; awGU ydkrdk<u,f0vmcJhavNyD...
ae&onf/
aEGa&;xdk;cJhaom emrnfav; &SdaeqJ[k aEG,HkMunfaeonf/ tqHk;t½HI;awGrsm;vmwJhtcg
b0[m wnfNidrf&ifhusufrIawGeJY
ydk<u,f0vmcJhw,f…/

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46

136 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 137 138 raemf[&D
aeay;r,f… 'DtwGuf uRefawmf bmawGpGefYvTwfcJh&w,fqdkwm
tefwDhudk ajymjyxm;NyD;NyDyJ…EG,feJYuRefawmfu cspfolawG r[kwfbl;
tefwD}
]NyD;cJhwmawG NyD;NyDyJ}
]rNyD;bl;tefwD? uRefawmf EG,fudk oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufxuf
ydkqufqHwm tefwDawGUzl;vm;…EG,fhudk az;rw,f? ulnDw,f…
'gyJ…'gawmif…uRefawmf b,favmuf&if;cJh&w,fqdkwm cdkifjrJod
(x) w,f…aEGodw,f}
aEGu ausmif;NyD;awmh L.C.C.I wufum M.A jzifh Diploma ,lcJh ]EG,fu bmrSod&Smwm r[kwfbl;}
onf/ aEGUudk,fydkifvkyfief;wpfckjzpfaom vQyfppfypönf;rsm; a&mif; ]oleJYuRefawmfeJYudk oli,fcsif;rdwfaqGxufaum olu ydkodae
0,fa&;udk udk,fwdkifOD;pD;vkyfonf/ cdkifjrJuawmh Posting usojzifh vdkYvm;…}
e,frSm…/ &JaoG;u olYzcif\ vkyfief;jzpfaom ta0;ajy;um;vkyf 'gudkawmh tefwDEkrajz/
ief;udk qufvkyfonf/ aEGuawmh ckdifjrJESifh tquftoG,frjywf aemufqHk;awmh tefwDEk…rsuf&nfusonf/ olr…bmtwGuf
ovdk &JaoG;uvnf; aEGUxH a&mufvmwwfjrJ/ EG,fESifhom wpfb0 rsuf&nfusrSef; olrrSom odayvdrfhrnf/
pmvH;k a0;uGmoGm;&ovdjk zpfomG ;onf/ EG,u f ausmif;jyefwuf onf/ &JaoG;uawmh pdwfavavESifh aEGUxH a&mufvmonf/ Mum;&
'DESpfrS ausmif;NyD;rSmjzpf\/ orQu aEGUtwGufvnf; roufom…/ bmajym&rSef;vnf; rod…/
EG,f…ausmif;rNyD;cif jyóemu pawmhonf/ &JaoG;udkom ESpfodrfh&awmhonf/
jyóem\tpu aEGwdkYat;aq;onf[k xifcJhaom tefwDEk ]eif…vkyo h ,fxifwmudk vkycf NhJ y;D NyyD …
f ifw J &JaoG;… ckcsed f rSm…
yifjzpfonf/ olrudk &JaoG;u tpp &Sif;jyum ulaerSef; ododBuD;ESifh eifvkyfcsifwm vkyfzdkY qHk;jzwf&awmhr,hf tcsdefa&mufaeNyD…}
arhcsifa,mifaqmifwmvm;? wrifyJvm;rod…/ &JaoG;udk pum; ]ig…bmvkycf siv f …J }
wpfcGef; qdkvm\/ &JaoG;u tdyfrufrufaeolwpfa,mufvdk udk,hfudk,fudk jyefar;
]EG,f…ausmif;Ny;D &if…om;eJYEG,fudpö…pDpOf&atmif} ae\/
]uRefawmfeJYEG,fudpö…} ]eif…acgif;at;at;eJY pOf;pm;yg…}
&JaoG;u wtHhwMojyefar;\/ ]pOf;pm;rSmyg…ckcsdefrSm cdkifjrJudk owd&w,f/ olajymcJhwJhpum;
][kwfw,fav…om;wdkYcsif; wJGaewmvnf; MumNyDy… J } wcsdKUu rSefaeovdkyJ…}
xdktcgusrS &JaoG;aygufuJGawmh\/ aEG…bmrS raxmufcHcsif/ xdkYaMumifh qdwfqdwfaeay;vdkuf
]tefwDhudk uRefawmf tpp&Sif;jycJhNyD;om;…EG,feJYuRefawmfu onf/ &JaoG;udk b,folrqdk (aEGu vJGvQif) pdwful;,Ofw,f…vdkY
oli,fcsif;…EG,fhem;rSm…uRefawmf rdwfaqGaumif;wpfa,mufvdk ajymMurSmyif/ &JaoG;u ol 'gvkyfvQif 'gjzpfrnf[k wGufcJholav…/

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47

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 139 140 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 141
odkYaomf olvkyfcJhwmudk wjcm;wpfzufu tjrifwpfrsdK;ESifh udk,fvdk ]&Sdygw,f…} tefwED k tBu;D tus,f rsuEf mS ysuo f mG ;awmhonf/ odaYk omf wpfpufrS
&m udk,fqJGawG;oGm;aomtcg olYvdk&if;u ra&mufEdkifawmh…/ ypf ]'gqdk…EG,feJY&JaoG;udpöawG odrSmaygh…} awmh ravQmhyg…/
rSwfvJGacsmfoGm;cJh&NyD…/ aEG pdwfysufpGm jyHK;vdkufrd\/ ]'gqdk… &JaoG;raumif;wmyJ? a,mufsm;rqefwmyJ…}
]ig…jywfom;rS jzpfawmhr,faemf…aEG…} ]bmudpövJtefwD…EG,feJY &JaoG;u bmjzpfvdkYvJ…} ]tJ'gqdkvnf; a,mufsm;rqefwJhvlwpfa,muftwGuf rcHpm;eJY
&JaoG;…aEGUudk tm;udk;ovdk Munhfum ajym\/ ]olwkdYudpöudk pDpOfrvdkY vkyfumrS &JaoG;u jiif;w,fav…} aygh tefwD&,f? EG,hfudkvnf; tJvdkyJ ajymvdkufyg…}
]t&ifuaum eifrjywfom;cJhvdkYvm;&JaoG;? eifvkyfoifhwmudk aEG onf;cHEdkifpGrf;awG ukefoGm;&onf/ cdkifjrJudkvnf; ajy; owd wpfcgwpf&Hawmh avmuonf ½HI;edrfholwkdYudk tvSnhfay;wwf
eif jywfom;pGm pGefYvTwfvkyfcJhwmyJ…} &rd\/ onfvm;rod/ aEGU&ifxJrSm wpfckrS rusefatmif ajymvdkuf&ojzifh
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]ckcsdefrSm ta&;BuD;wmu jywfom;rI r[kwfbl;&JaoG;…} aEGUxHrS xifrSwfrxm;aom pum;aMumifh tefwDEkrsufESmysuf rsufapmif;jzifh aEGUudk jymusrwwf Munhfum xGufoGm;awmh\/
]bmu…ta&;BuD;vJ…} oGm;onf/ odkYaomf csufcsif;yif jyefwHkYjyef\/ tefwDEkxGufoGm;awmhrS aEG…&JaoG;udk vdkuf&Sm&onf/ &JaoG;
]tJ'D…bmta&;BuD;vJ…qdkwmudku eifhbmomeif t&if qHk; ]&JaoG;eJY EG,fu oli,fcsif;yJvdkY aEGu em;vnfxm;wmvm;…} u tdrfrSmr&Sd/ tvkyfrSmr&Sd…/ &JaoG;tazajymrS &JaoG; b,fa&muf
jzwf&rSm…} ]r[kwfbl;… odaewm… aEGUavmufodwJhol &Sdr,fvdkYaum aevJqw kd mudk od&awmhonf/ aEGUrSm armarmESiyhf ifvu kd o
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]ig…rodawmhb;l aEG&m…} vnf; odygw,f…tefwDwdkYwpfckck rSm;aeNyDxifwmyJ…} &onf/
]enf;enf; tcsdef,lvdkufyg…} ]rrSm;ygbl;? aEGwkdYu tJvdkodxm;ovdk tefwDwdkY todkif;t0dkif; ]bmjzpfuek Nf yvD …J aEG…}
&JaoG; acgif;ndwfum jyefoGm;cJhonf/ eJY EG,hfoli,fcsif;awGuvnf; &JaoG;udk EG,fhcspfolvdkY odxm;Muwm} ]bmjzpfw,fxifvdkYvJ…}
aemufwpfywfavmufMumawmh EG,fhowif;udk Mum;&onf/ ]odxm;wmeJY trSefw&m;u odyfruGmygbl;…avQmufoGm;vdkuf ]EG,f…wpfcck jk zpfwmvm;…}
t&iftwdkif; jyefjzpfoGm;onfqdkyJ…/ pmar;yJGvnf; rajzjzpfawmh/ &if a&mufrSmyg? tJ'Dtcgus…b,folrSefw,fqdkwm odrSmaygh…} ]wpfckckawmh wpfckckyJ…topfr[kwfbl;? t&iftwdkif;jyefjzpf
cGifhvnf; xyfwifvdkuf&onf/ xl;qef;wmu 'Dwpfcg tefwDEk tefwDEk\ pl;&Srmausmaom tMunhfrsm;u aEGUtay: jzmqif; wm…}
udk,fwdkif aEGUudk vmtaMumif;Mum;jcif;yif/ wpfoufvHk; tquf vmonf/ ]igxifw,f…}
toG,frvkyfyJ ypfxm;cJhaom aEGUudk ckrSowd&wmvm;? tvdk&SdrS ]aEGu bmvdkY 'Davmuf odae&wmvJ…} [kqdkum &JaoG;NidrfoufoGm;awmh\/
owd&wmvm;? aocsmwmuawmh &JaoG;ukd b,f&Sm&rSef;rodí aEG…rxDw&D jyHK;vdkufrdovm;rod/ aEGUb0rSm vlBuD;rqef ]&JaoG;…}
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]aEGeJYrawGUwm wpfywf&SdNyD…} ]odwmaygh…&JaoG;rSm cspf&r,hfol oyfoyf&Sdaewmaum? tJ'D ]ajymNyD;NyD? eifhqDu jyefvmNyD; aemufwpfaeYyJ ajymwm? eifu
]'Dht&ifuawmh tquftoG,f&Sdw,faygh…} cspfoludk pGefYNyD; EG,fhudk rdwfaqGvdk ulnDcJhwmaum? tJ'Dcspfolb,fol tcsdef,lqdkayr,hf b,fvdkawG;awG; 'DtajzyJ xGufrSmrdkY vSrf;ajym
'gu bmpum;vJ…vlBuD;wpfa,mufu ar;oifhaompum; qdkwmaum aEGodaew,fav…} vdkufwm…ajymvdkufvdkY ckvdkjzpfwmaygh[m}
vm;/ aEG…onf;cHaevddkufonf/ aEGUpum;u tawmfjynhpf u kH m tawmfav; xda&mufomG ;ojzifh aEG…pdwfnpfoGm;&onf/ odkYaomf EG,hftar\ ½dkif;ysrIrsm;udk

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48

142 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 143 144 raemf[&D
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]at;ayghuGm…tJ'D a,mufsm;rqefwJhaumifuyJ b,favmuf ta&;rBuD;bl;}
txd a,mufsm;qefcJhw,fqdkwm…olodzdkY aumif;ygw,f} ]wpfaeYwjcm; ydkqdk;vmw,fvdkY ajymwmyJ…}
&JaoG;u ememusifusifESifh rSwfcsufcs\/ aEG… Mum;&aom owif;udk jyefajymrd\/ &JaoG;u rsufESm
]eif…ck…bmvkyrf mS vJ…&JaoG;…} raumif;? cdkifjrJuawmh r,HkjrJr,Hk…/
]bmvky&f rSmvJ…aEG…} ]igvnf; q&m0efwpfa,mufyg/ 'gayr,hf ckudpöudkawmh igr,Hk
]igvnf; rajymwwfawmhbl;…} (') bl;}
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udk,fuawmh apwemESifh pmemrIESifh oHa,mZOfESifh tukefvHk; vmonf/ owif;awGudkMum;awmh ckdifjrJ pdwfwdkwdkESifh &JaoG;udk atmf raxmufcHMu/ wdwfqdwfaerdMuonf/ avmu\ tvSnhftajymif;
udk pGefYvTwf yHkatmay;cJhonf/ jyef&vmwmu ay;vdkuf&wmESifh awmh\/ rm,mESifh uHMur®m\ rsufvSnhfjyrIrsm;udk ,Ofyg;aeavmufatmif
rwef…/ ckqk… d &JaoG;udyk if emrnfysuaf tmif ajymMuOD;rnf/ cdik jf r\
J ]igrif;udk rajymcJhbl;vm; &JaoG;…} olwdkYtawGUtMuHK r&SdMuao;yg/ tm;vHk;uawmh udk,hfbufu Munhf
rjzpfEikd w
f m pdwu f ;l r,OfeqYJ akd ompum;udk txyfxyf tzefzef Mum; ]ajymygw,f} vQif udk,frSefaeygvdrfhrnf/
a,mifrdcsdefrSm t&m&monf aemufusaeESifhcJhNyD…/ ]at;…ol&Jaumif;qefjy&wm vG,fayr,hf tJ'Dol&Jaumif;ay; aEGajymaomowif;onf rSefaMumif;udk aemuf oHk; av;&uf
]ig…emrnfysufwmudk ig…*½krpdkufygbl;? ig&if;vdkuf&wm vkduf&wJh 'Pf&mtrm&GwfawGudk cH&wm rvG,fbl;vkdY ajymcJhwmyJ/ tMumrSm cdkifjrJu axmufcHvm\/ &JaoG;udkawmh rajym/
rwefwmudkyJ ESarsmwm…NyD;awmh EG,f…} NyD;awmh b,favmufyJudk,fu olawmfpifqefjyqefjy 'DacwfBuD;xJ ]aEG…}
]EG,f…bmjzpfvJ…} rSm b,folrS todtrSwfrjyKbl;vkdY ajymcJhwmyJ…} ]bmvJ…cdik jf r}J
]'Dudpöudk EG,fu odaumodvdkuf&JUvm; rodbl;…} ][kwfygw,f} ]eifhudk ajymp&m&Sdw,f…eif&JaoG;udk rajym&bl;…}
]rodyJeJY 'Dvdkjyefjzpfrvm;…&JaoG;&JU…} ]ck…rif; bmvkyfrvJ…} ]ajymav}
]'gvnf; [kwfwmyJ…} ]rodbl;…} ]EG,hftajctaeu wu,fqdk;vmwm…wJh/ cktdrfrSm b,folY
olwEYkd pS af ,muf tajzrxGuaf om ykpmä udk xyfjyefwvJvJ wGuf ]rif;xyfNyD; EG,hfem;oGm;aeay;vdkufygOD;vm;} udkawGUawGU &efolvdkyJ/ pum;vnf; rajymbl;wJh/ wpfcgwavus
&if; vnfaeMuonf/ wjcm;enf;ESifh wGufxkwfvQif tajz&SdEkdifrSef; ]aeay;csiyf gw,f? ighapwem ratmifjrifbJ vJo G mG ;wmukd igu wpfaeukef vkyfcsif&mawG at;at;aq;aq; vkyfaewwfayr,hf
odvsufESifh bmaMumifh enf;ajymif;rwGufrdMuwmvJrod…/ pdwfraumif;wm…} wpfcgwavus tm;vHk;udk ESifxkwfaewmyJwJh…}
wpfcgwpfcgawmh vl\ wpf,loefpdwfonf qdk;vSavonf/ &JaoG;pum;aMumifh cdkifjrJu rqJpzl; toHwdwfqJa&;vdkuf\/ ]'kuy© gyJ…}
]'DwpfBudrfjzpfwmudkawmh igu t,HktMunfr&Sdbl;…&JaoG;? aEG…wu,hfudk pdwfraumif;pGm nnf;rd\/
t&ifjzpfcJhwJh a&m*gudk olwkdYvuf&SdjzpfaewJhtwåtwGuf ckwHk;vkyf 'gawGtm;vHk;\ t"du w&m;cHu tefwDEkjzpfonf/ olYudk,fol
vdkufwmvdkYyJ iguawmh jrifw,f} cspfaom tcspfESifh EG,fhudk jzpfapcsifaom tcspfawG a&mvdkufaom
][kwfyghrvm;cdkifjrJ&,f…pmar;yJGawmif rajzbJeJY ausmif;em; tcg twåawG jzpfvmonf/ xdktwårsm;u wpfqifhNyD;wpfqifh zef
vdkuf&wJh[mudk…} wD;oGm;aom tajctaersm;onf EG,fhudk ydkqdk;vmapcJhonf[k aEG

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49

rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 145 146 raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 147
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]&JaoG;udk rajymvdkY &rvm; ckdifjrJ…} aEGu pOf;pm;rdovdk ar;rd\/ udk a&mESpfxm;onf/ cdkifjrJuvnf; olYtvkyfESifho… l / tm;vHk;yHkrSef
]ajymawmhaum…ol bmwwfEdkifrSmrdkYvJ} ]trSefuawmh &JaoG;u pdwfaumif;&Sdwm [dkbufu rsm;vm yif…/ EG,fhudk olwkdYtm;vHk;\ b0xJrSm cParhxm;vdkufcJhMuonf/
]bmrSawmh rwwfEdkifbl;aygh…} wJh twåaMumifh olYapwemu 'ku©ay;ovdkjzpfoGm;&wm} tm;vHk;udk rarhravsmh apmifhMunhf tvkyf½Iyfaeolu uHMur®m
]tif;av…ckcsdefrSm &JaoG;udk jrifvdkYvnf; ukpm;&mjzpfcsifrSjzpf ][kwfw,faemf} ewfqdk;jzpfonfudkawmh b,folrS rodcJhMu/
awmhrSmav} ]igvnf; aemufESpfavmufqdk postgrad vmajzrSm…'Djyefa&muf xH;k pHtwdik ;f t&mtm;vH;k onf bmrSrjzpfciftxdawmh…yuwd
]eifajymawmh [efaqmifaewmqdk} vmrSyJ…ckavmavmq,fawmh igjyef&OD;r,f…jyefomjyef&rSm…eif wnfNird v f suf…/ wpfpw kH pfcjk zpfvmEdik af jcvH;k 0r&Sad om taetxm;
]'gu igpdwt f csOaf ygufNy;D ajymrdwmyg/ igrSm;wm 0efcyH gw,f/ wkdYESpfa,mufvHk;udk igpdwfrcsbl;} rsdK;ESifh tm;vHk;udk axG;ayGUxm;cJhonf/
ig q&m0efwpfa,muftaeeJY 'DvdkvufvGwfpy,f rajymoifhbl;? aEG…rsufapmif;xdk;rd\/ aEGa&mifaumif;uifuo hJ Ykd Munfvifaeaom… aumif;uifjymjym
'gayr,hf ihgae&mu aeMunhfav? ig…i,fi,fuwnf;u? ig ne- ]bmpdwrf csp&m&Sv d J…} wGif emrnfav;wpfckuwnf&SdaeqJ…/ vdkcsifrdcJhaom arwåmw&m;
glect vkyfEdkifvGef;vdkYav…r[kwf&if ighudk vdkuf'ku©ay;aeovdkyJ/ ck ]wvJGrawG;eJY…[dkaumif &JaoG;u pdwfxif&mvkyforQudk eif wdkYudk vuf0,frydkifqdkifbJ qHk;½HI;cJh&zl;aomfvnf; aEGUb0onf
vnf; eifwkdY cHpm;ae&wmawGu igcHpm;ae&wmeJY wlwlyJav/ NyD; u ruefYuGufyJ MunfMunfjzLjzL cGifhay;aerSmudk pdk;&drfwm…} tm;vHk;tay: xm;Edkifaom arwåmwdkYjzifh jynhf0MunfvifaecJhonf/
awmh 'Da&m*grsdK;u [efaqmif&ifvnf; jzpfwmudk;…} aEG…jyHK;rd\/ cdkifjrJonfvnf; tawmfoabmxm;BuD;um vl
]EG,f…oem;ygw,f} Bu;D qefaom? pOf;pm;csichf sed w f wfaom olwpfa,mufjzpfonf/ &JaoG;
'guawmh aEGwu,hfpdwf&if;trSefESifh nnf;rdjcif; jzpfonf/ urS pdwful;,Of qefcsifao;onf/
odkYaomf vlqdkwmu udk,hfudk b,folzefqif;vdkufrSef;rodbJ avmu ]ig…oHk;av;&ufwpfcg zkef;qufr,f odvm;…}
xJ a&mufvmMuolrsm;…/ reufjzefbmjzpfrnfvJrod/ tvif;a&mif ]bmvkyfzkdYvJ…}
xJwiG f prf;w0g;0g;avQmufaeMu&olrsm;ESiyhf if wlaeao;awmhonf/ ]eifwkdYudk xdef;zdkY…}
EG,fvnf; olrpdwfudk olr rmausmatmif build up vkyfcsif&SmrnfyJ ]rylygeJYcdkifjrJ&m…&JaoG;vnf; xyfrSm;p&m r&Sdawmhygbl;…}
aygh/ odaYk omf arG;&myg yifu, kd t
f m;enf;vmaom pdwu f kd b,fou l rS ]rrSm;bJeYJ rSecf v hJ eG ;f vdYk jzpfaewm? xyfNy;D rSeo
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csifvQif&aomfvnf; wu,hfwu,f w&m;cHu EG,fr[kwf&Sm/ aEG&,faevdkufrd\/
ckcsdefrSmu &JaoG;u pdwfavQmhulnDvdkufygawmhrnf[k qdkcJhvQif cdik jf rJ jyefomG ;onftxd &JaoG;wpfa,mufay:rvm/ zke;f yJ vSr;f
awmif tefwDEku rmeESifh vufcHawmhrSmr[kwf/ vufcHOD;awmh qufwwf\/ aEGuvnf; EG,fhowif;udk rajymjyrd/ &JaoG;uvnf;
EG,t fh ajctaeudk b,fou l rS tmrçrcHEikd /f tmrcHEikd Of ;D awmh &JaoG; rar;/ ol? olYum;awGESifh avQmufvdkufaewmawmh odonf/ cdkifjrJ
u b,favmufxd pdwfqif;&Judk,fqif;&JcHum ulEdkifrnfudk b,fol wm0efus&mNrdKUudkyif oGm;OD;rnf[k ajymaeao;onf/
rS rodEdkif/ cdkifjrJr&Sdawmhojzifh EG,hfowif;vnf; xyfrMum;&awmh/
tajctaeuawmhtajzrxGuEf ikd af wmhaomtajctaejzpfonf/ aEGwdkYbufrSmuawmh aEGu yHkrSeftvkyfrsm;ESifh vnfywfaeNyD;

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50

148 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 149 150 raemf[&D

b0wGif uGufvyfrsm; usef&pfcJUMu\/


xdkuGufvyfrsm;xJrSyif...
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xGufay:vm&jcif; jzpfonf/
aorif;&JU*Dwqdkwm b,fvdk*DwrsdK;vJvdkY
b,folurS jrnf;prf;csifchJrSmr[kwfygbl;
oDqdkzkdY cufcJwJh*DwawGxJrSm yg0ifwJh
*DwwpfrsdK;vdkYyJ…qdkMuygpdkY/

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51
151 152 153
rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG raemf[&D rkew
f ik d ;f xefwah J EG

raeYu EG,fqHk;onf/ aemufwpfaeY… &Sifjcif;? aygif;azmfjcif;? auGuGif;jcif;...ponfh


aEGwdkYb0xJwGif EG,fOD;rGefqdkaom rdef;uav; tNyD;wdkifaoqHk; aEGu…c&D;wpfckudk tvdkrwlbJ pwifxGufcGmoGm;cJh&onf/
oGm;jcif;jzpfonf/ EG,fhudk usef;rm&Tifvef;pGm tjcm;olwpfa,mufESifh aEG…bmaMumifh 'Davmufxd vsifjrefNidrf;csrf;pGm xGufcGmoGm; a&pD;aMumif;wGif arsmygvmMuaom
aysmfarmaewmudk awGUvkduf&jcif;onf aEGwkdYoHk;a,muf\ b0xJ &onfudk b,folrS rodvdkufEdkifcJh/ tjcm;wpfyg;aom oHo&mwdkYudk
wGif olraoqHk;zdkY aocsmoGm;&jcif;jzpfonf/ wu,fjzpfcJhzl;aom tm;vHk;u aEGUc&D;pOfudk odvdkuf&csdefwGif…
a&m*gudk ckwHk;vkyfum [efaqmifaumif;vSaom EG,fhudk aEG…cHpm; &JaoG;u rmausmrIudk ESpfoufonf[kqdkcJhaom aEGUcE¨mukd,f
igqifjcif\? arhaysmuf\/
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r& usvmaom &JaoG;\ rsuf&nfprsm;udkyif…aEG xdodrcHpm;Edkif xdktcg...
awmhh/
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&ufrsm;pGmtwGuf wpfoufvHk; emusifaeMu&awmhrnf/ vGwfvyfrIudk igawGY\/
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EG,fu…twåtwGuf a&m*gudk ckwHk;vkyfum tm;vHk;udk vSnhf tJ'g[m…wu,fyJ ppfrSefwJh vGwfvyfrIvm;…/
pm;onf/ &JaoG;u vlom;qefcsifrItwGuf udk,hfcspfjcif;arwåmudk
udk,fvSnhfpm;onf/ aEGu cspfol\ pdwftvdktwGuf udk,fhudk,fudk
rmausm[ef vSnhfpm;cJhonf/ cdkifjrJuvnf; cspf&olaysmfvQif ol
vnf; aysmfaerSm[k udk,hfudk,fudk vSnhfpm;cJh\/ vSnhfpm;rIrsm;
atmifjrifcJhvQifawmh udpör&Sdyg/ ratmifjrifcJhaomtcg…

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52

154 raemf[&D rkew


f ik d ;f xefwah J EG 155 156 raemf[&D

pifMu,fjcif;onf...
arwåmw&m;vGefuJrIrSvmaom
Opöm"ewpfrsdK;jzpf\.../
raemf[&D
10-3-05
(rSwfcsuf)
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