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Grain Oriented Electrical Steel for Energy Efficient Transformers

Dr. Andreas Jansen


ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

TRANSFORM Partner

Author

Dr. Andreas Jansen


ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel, Gelsenkirchen
Head of Quality Department

Scientific Background
Physical Chemistry

Professional Experience
9 years at ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel
Quality Dept., Application Engineering
GO and NGO Electrical Steel
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Introduction

Siemens AG

Siemens AG

Grain Oriented Electrical Steel (GO) is an indispensable soft magnetic


material for high-efficient power & distribution transformers

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Agenda

Magnetic circuits & soft magnetic materials


Introduction to grain oriented electrical steel
Production methods and metallurgical background
Magnetic and technological properties
GO inside transformers
Transformer noise
Developments towards lower losses and magnetostriction
Development of new production technologies

Summary & Outlook

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Magnetic circuits in electrical machines

Use of magnetic cores to guide and amplify magnetic flux (density)


in electrical machines:
Basic (ideal) transformer equations:

U1

N1

N2

I N
lm

f B A N

U2

U1
U2

N1
N2
r

1000

Magnetic materials with high permeability r are needed to increase


flux density inside the magnetic circuit (to avoid large cross sections
and/or large winding numbers)
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Magnetic circuits in electrical machines (II)

In AC applications, soft magnetic materials are used because they are


easily magnetized and demagnetized

Other

GO

NO

The area of the hysteresis loop


corresponds to the energy loss
during AC magnetization

Electrical Steel is the most


important Soft Magnetic Material

The properties of the core material (i.e. permeability, specific total loss,
workability, costs) determine the design and efficiency of electrical devices
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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What is electrical steel?

Soft magnetic material based on Fe-Si alloys


Flat (thin) steel with insulation coating
Special crystal structure / texture
B
massive block

stacked sheets

e
d/n

Ps

PEc

Physt

f d B
6

Js

Peddy

massive block
0

stacked sheets

Alloying content in %

Alloying content in %

Functional steel product with unique (and complex) production route

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Grain oriented and non oriented electrical steel

Magnetic polarization J

Magnetization curves of
body-centered cubic -iron

Magnetic field strength H

0.03 cm

3 cm

Non Oriented Electrical Steel Grain Oriented Electrical Steel


isotropic magnetic properties,
specialized for motors and generators

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

anisotropic magnetic properties,


specialized for transformers

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Crystal orientation in Goss Texture

Differences between conventional and high-permeability GO:

GO is characterized by an exceptional high crystal grain size up to some ten


millimeters and a very sharp orientation of its grains in the so called Goss texture.
RD

TD

In conventional grain
oriented products, called
CGO, the misorientation
angle between the cube
edges and the rolling
direction is on average
about 7

10mm
mm
10

In the further developed


highly oriented grades
which are called HGO,
the average misorientation
angle is less than 3

Rolling direction RD

Goss texture

misorientation
angle
cube-on-edge
orientation
[001]

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Production steps in GO manufacturing

Steelmaking
Secondary metallurgy

very narrow ranges for the inhibitor elements (S, N, Al, ...)
and auxiliary elements (C, Sn, Bi,...)

Continuous casting 200-250 mm

Hot
area

Preheating
Prerolling
Reheating + soaking up to 1,400 C
Roughing rolling 40...80 mm

Hot finishing rolling 2.0...3.0 mm


Hot strip annealing
1st cold rolling

control of grain structure


to provide homogeneity
maximum dissolution of
coarse sulfides and nitrides

finedispers precipitation
of inhibitor particles

crucial step

carbide precipitation and forming

Intermediate annealing
Finish cold rolling 0.23...0.35 mm

Cold
area

Decarburization annealing
Anneal. separator coating
Box annealing up to 1,200 C
Insulation coating

primary recrystallization;
inhibition of primary grain growth
avoidance of too strong premature inhibition drop
secondary recrystallization
purification from inhibitor elements (dissolution + diffusion)

Thermal flattening
Domain refinement
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

Italic letter: optional steps

06.06.2013

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Steel shop and continuous casting

(Torpedo ladle)
C, Si, Mn, P, S

Converter

Desulphurization

Raw iron from blast furnace

O2, lime
scrap iron

CaC2, Mg

C, Si, Mn, P,

SLAG

STEEL
Vacuum degassing
(purity degree)

Continuous casting plant


Argon-blowing plant

Vacuum

C, O

(stirring)
Argon

STEEL

Slabs
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Hot strip rolling

Hot strip mill


1. continuous
casting

2. pre-heating

400 C
1400
C

1250
C

1250
C

3. Pre-rolling

4. High temperature
soaking

5. Roughing

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

6. finishing rolling

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7. coiling

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Cold process in GO electrical steel manufacturing

Coil preparation & side trimming

Hot strip annealing & pickling

Intermediate annealing (for CGO)

Final rolling (for CGO)

High temperature
box annealing

Heat flattening and insulation coating


(& Laser domain refinement)

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

Cold rolling

Decarburization
& MgO-coating

Side trimming & slitting

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Generation of Goss Texture


Goss texture is generated by means of grain-growth inhibitors
Continuous
casting

Slab
reheating

Hot rolling Decarburization Box annealing


& annealing
annealing
< 1,000 C
1,200 C

1,400 C

1200 C

Temperature

= 10mm

complete
dissolution

Average grain diameter

coarse
nitrides:
and
sulfides:

re-precipitation
of fine AlN &
MnS as main
inhibitors

Goss grain
eating up its
random oriented
neighbours

unchanged

MnS & AlN


controlling
Goss
formation

purified

grain-growth
suppressed by
precipitated particles
= inhibitors

= 10...25 m
Annealing time

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Overview of GO Electrical Steel Grades

CGO grades

HGO grades

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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From GO to a transformer

Siemens

GO coil

Cut-to-length &
core assembly

Material properties

Siemens

Siemens

Windings
Processing

Transformer
Transformer properties

Energy loss in a transformer is separated into no-load loss and load loss. Both
are influenced by transformer design (e.g. stacked cores or wound-core designs),
material selection and operating conditions (working induction, load rate etc.)
The no-load loss (core loss, iron loss) strongly depends on the core material
Introduction of Building factor

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

BF

no - load loss of transform er


nominal total loss of core material at working induction

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Classification of transformers in loss classes


Example calculation for a 100 kVA transformer with a building factor of 20%:
Efficiency class
maximum losses
Grade

Eo

Do

Co

Bo

Ao

320 W

260 W

210 W

180 W

145 W

075-18

weight

PowerCore H

PowerCore C
130-30

105-30

090-27

085-23

Induction

No load loss

No load loss

1,7 Tesla

266,4 W

226,4 W

193,1 W

179,8 W

157,6 W

185

1,5 Tesla

215,2 W

197,2 W

169,1 W

151,1 W

130,6 W

213,5

1,3 Tesla

180,0 W

168,4 W

142,3 W

127,7 W

110,3 W

241,8

No load loss No load loss No load loss

kg

The no-load loss of a transformer can be improved by decreasing the magnetic flux density.
But then more core material is needed, so that the transformer weight will be increased
In addition an increase of core material leads to higher needs for winding material and thus
higher load losses, too
Energy efficiency can be strongly influenced by selecting an appropriate GO grade

All efficiency classes according to EN 50464-1 can be met with GO electrical steel
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Sources of transformer noise


Sources of transformer noise are various
One contribution is given by the magnetostriction of the GO electrical steel sheets
used as laminations in the transformer core
Final correlation of magnetostriction & transformer noise still not clear

noise

resonances

magnetostriction

resonances

Butterfly loop of
magnetostriction

core
(GO)

copper
windings

tank

cooling
system

electromagnetic forces

electromagnetic forces

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

resonances

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Developments towards lower losses


Potentials for further loss improvements are related to all three loss components:
Specific total loss
P1.7 50 Hz / W/kg

Anomalous loss
Classical loss
Hysteresis loss

1.4

1.2

Smoother surfaces
(interface between steel
and insulation layer)
Improved coatings with
enhanced tension
Sharper texture with
improved grain structure
(generating micrograins,
controlling grain shape)

1.0
0.8

0.6

Optimized domain refining


(decreasing of 90
closure domains)

0.4
0.2
0.0
CGO
0.30 mm

HGO
0.30 mm

HGO
0.23 mm

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

HGO
0.23 mm DR

Target

Thinner gauges
(without destabilizing of
secondary recrystallization)

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Developments towards lower losses (II)

massive block

Goss orientation
{110} 001

lower thickness

stacked sheets

d/n

Lower classical
eddy current loss

Worse orientation sharpness


of Goss texture!
Inhibition strength

particle density
mean particle diameter

higher driving force for recrystallisation

to be balanced by improved inhibitor strength

frequency in %

30

20

10

0
0

100

200

300

400

Particel size (nm)

particle size distribution

To obtain HGO with low thickness, a new production technology using


acquired inhibitors instead of inherent inhibitors is more successful
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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The new HGO-TS production technology

Advantages of Thin Slab Casting & Nitriding


Improved temperature homogeneity of the thin slab in the continuous furnace
Final formation of the inhibitors takes place in the stage before secondary grain growth
Nitriding process is based on diffusion and easy to control also for thinner gauges
HGO-TS enables the production of new HGO grades with improved magnetic properties
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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Summary & outlook

Grain Oriented Electrical Steel is the soft magnetic material for high-efficient
power and distribution transformers. It significantly contributes to the fact that
transformers are among the electric machines with the highest efficiency.
Advantages of GO Electrical Steel
Good availability with wide range of standard grades
Easy handling, good workability, good cutting and slitting features
Used in all transformer types, in stacked as well as in wound cores
Allows a small building size and light weight of transformers
Possibility to repair transformers easily
Recyclability 100% anytime, everywhere

ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel is continuously improving GO material properties


and production technology in order to support our customers in building
high-efficient and eco-friendly transformers all over the world.
Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

06.06.2013

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PowerCore electrical steel is the base material for


the complete electricity supply chain

power generation

power distribution

electricity use

Electricity supply chain

Non oriented electrical


steel in generators

Grain oriented electrical


steel in transformers

Dr. Andreas Jansen, ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel

Non oriented electrical steel in


motors, e.g. in industrial drives or
traction drives for electric vehicles

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