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The Salaverry
Basin
A Study on the
Hydrocarbon Potential of
the Salaverry Basin

by

PARSEP
Proyecto de Asistencia para La Reglamentacin del Sector
Energtico del Per

TEKNICA

PERUPETRO S.A.

Gary Wine (Project Leader)


Joe Arcuri (Senior Geophysicist)

Elmer Martnez (Senior Geophysicist/Coord.)


Carlos Monges (Senior Geologist)
Ysabel Caldern (Junior Geologist)
Carlos Galdos (Junior Geophysicist)

May 2001
On the Cover:
Outcrop near Malabrigo just to the
east of the Salaverry Basin,
showing the contact of Cretaceous
Goyllar Gp., overlying the
deformed
Lower
Jurassic
metamorphic rocks of the Colan
Group.

HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE


SALAVERRY OFFSHORE BASIN

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................... 2
LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................... 3
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. 4
ENCLOSURES .................................................................................................................. 4
APPENDICES ................................................................................................................... 5
1.0 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................... 6
2.0 SCOPE OF PROJECT .............................................................................................. 7
3.0 PREVIOUS WORK IN THE STUDY AREA ......................................................... 8
4.0 REGIONAL FRAMEWORK .................................................................................. 9
4.1 Tectonic Reconstruction and Basin Framework .................................................... 13
4.2 The Basement of Salaverry and Trujillo Basins .................................................... 14
4.3 Basement of Northwest Peru ................................................................................. 14
4.4 The Problem of Two Different Basements ............................................................ 15
4.5 Evidence for the Suture.......................................................................................... 16
4.6 Well Lobos 1X: Correlation of the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Rocks........ 16
4.7 Geological Overview of the Salaverry Basin......................................................... 17
5.0 STRATIGRAPHY ................................................................................................... 24
5.1 Economic Basement............................................................................................... 24
5.2 Middle Eocene ....................................................................................................... 24
5.3 Upper Eocene......................................................................................................... 24
5.4 Oligocene ............................................................................................................... 25
5.5 Lower Miocene ...................................................................................................... 25
5.6 Middle Miocene ..................................................................................................... 25
5.7 Upper Miocene to Pliocene.................................................................................... 25
5.8 Plio Quaternary ................................................................................................... 26
6.0 WELL SUMMARY ................................................................................................. 27
6.1 BALLENA 1X ....................................................................................................... 27
6.1.1 Lithological/Reservoir Discussion.................................................................. 29
6.1.2 Hydrocarbons Shows ....................................................................................... 29
6.2 DELFIN 1X ........................................................................................................... 29
6.2.1 Lithological/Reservoir Description................................................................. 29
2

6.2.2 Hydrocarbon Shows........................................................................................ 32


7.0 GEOCHEMISTRY .................................................................................................. 33
7.1 Oil seeps and Crude oil characterization (modified after Repsol 1997a) ............... 33
7.2 Previous Studies..................................................................................................... 34
7.3 Conclusions............................................................................................................ 37
8.0 GEOPHYSICS ......................................................................................................... 38
8.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 38
8.2 Seismic Data Base.................................................................................................. 38
8.4 Structures ............................................................................................................... 39
8.5 Seismic Stratigraphic Units.................................................................................... 39
8.5.1 Upper Miocene Top (eUMT).......................................................................... 39
8.5.2 Intra Upper Miocene Channels (eCH) ............................................................ 40
8.5.3 Middle Miocene Marker (eMMM) ................................................................. 40
8.5.4 Upper Eocene Top (eUET) ............................................................................. 40
8.5.5 Basement......................................................................................................... 40
9.0 PROSPECTS ............................................................................................................ 42
10.0 CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................... 43
10.1 Regional Geology ................................................................................................ 43
10.2 Stratigraphy.......................................................................................................... 44
10.3 Geochemistry ....................................................................................................... 44
10.4 Prospects .............................................................................................................. 44
11.0 REFERENCES....................................................................................................... 45

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Basin Map of Northern Peru Highlighting the location of the Salaverry Basin. 6
Figure 2: Regional map of the Salaverry/Trujillo area with bathymetry, geology and
available seismic lines. For the legend of this map refer to Enclosure 1 and
Appendix 1................................................................................................................ 10
Figure 3: Stratigraphic column of the Salaverry in comparison with the other offshore
basins of northern Peru ............................................................................................. 11
Figure 4: Regional time-structure map on basement of study area showing major tectonic
elements. This map was generated utilizing the Ribiana/Digicon 1993 seismic
survey........................................................................................................................ 12
Figure 5: Dip line 93-30 across the Sechura/Salaverry Basin....................................... 18
Figure 6: Dip line L93-38 across the Salaverry Basin..................................................... 18
Figure 7: Dip line L93-43 across the Salaverry Basin..................................................... 19
Figure 8: Dip line L93-49 across the Salaverry Basin..................................................... 19
Figure 9: Dip line L93-45 across the Trujillo and Salaverry Basin................................. 21

Figure 10: Strike line L93-68 across the structural high separating the Sechura and
Salaverry Basins........................................................................................................ 21
Figure 11: N-S seismic line through the Lobos well in the Trujillo Basin. Note the
difference in character of the Cretaceous section in this with figure with that of the
Salaverry pre-Tertiary sequences in Figures 5-10 .................................................... 22
Figure 12: Seismic Line 96-105 through Ballena 1X Well ............................................. 27
Figure 13: Seismic line C-2030, through the Delfin 1X well .......................................... 30
Figure 14: (left) A Lower Eocene sandstone reservoir that intersected in the Delfin 1X
well............................................................................................................................ 30
Figure 15: (right) Mud log of the 3600 to 4500 section where gas shows were
encountered. .............................................................................................................. 30
Figure 16: Location of analyzed oil seeps ....................................................................... 33
Figure 17: Time structure map on Basement (left).......................................................... 41
Figure 18: Time structure map on Inter Upper Miocene Channel Top (right) ................ 41

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: From Ballena 1X Biostratigraphy table (Summary from Appendix B:


Paleoenvironmental analyses of the Delfin 1X and Ballena 1X wells in Carlos
Azalgara (1993) ........................................................................................................ 28
Table 2: From Ballena 1X Biostratigraphy table (Summary from Appendix B: Paleoenvironmental analysis of the Delfin 1X and Ballena 1X wells in C. Azalgara
(1993)........................................................................................................................ 31
Table 3: Details on seismic surveys utilized in this study ............................................... 38

ENCLOSURES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Regional location map with geology, locations, and seismic


Two way time structure basement and NW Peru Offshore Regional Tectonic
elements
Upper Miocene 2WT Structure Map
Intra Upper Miocene Channel 2WT Structure Map
Middle Miocene Marker 2WT Structure Map
Upper Eocene 2WT Structure Map
Basement 2WT Structure Map
Upper Eocene Top to Basement Isochron
Representative Seismic Line across Salaverry Basin
Well synthetics of Ballena 1X and Delfin 1X with well ties
Well logs
a. Ballena 1X
b. Delfin 1X

12.

13.

CD with:
a. Report HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE SALAVERRY
OFFSHORE BASIN
b. Enclosures 1-11 (.cgm and .emf formats)
c. Appendices 1-2
d. Ballena 1X and Delfin 1X Well LAS Files
Exabyte Tape (8mm) with Seismic SEGY Data

APPENDICES
1.
2.

Geological Legend to Enclosure 1 and Figure 2


Informe del Trabajo de Reconocimiento de la Geologia de las reas de Paita,
Bayovar, Valle del Rio Chicama, Malabrigo y Puemape

HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF
THE SALAVERRY OFFSHORE BASIN
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This project was initiated by PERUPETRO and completed by the PARSEP Group to
investigate the hydrocarbon potential of the Salaverry Basin, which is one of several
offshore basins located in northwest Peru (Fig.1). PARSEP is a joint venture between the
governments of Peru and Canada and stands for Proyecto de Asistencia para La
Reglamentacin del Sector Energtico del Per. The parties comprising PARSEP are:
the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Canadian Petroleum Institute
(CPI), Teknica Overseas Ltd. (TOL), and PERUPETRO. The technical work on this
project is being done by personal from TOL and PERUPETRO.
Data utilized in the project was supplied by PERUPETRO and consisted of 3800 km. of
seismic data in SEGY format in the Salaverry Basin. The data set used was from the
Digicon/Ribiana speculative program acquired in 1993. This was a 10,000 km plus
survey extending from Ecuador to south of the Lima basin. The survey data outside of
the study area was reviewed and utilized in the interpretation of the regional geology.

Figure 1: Basin Map of Northern Peru Highlighting the location of the Salaverry Basin

Data from the Trujillo Basin, which is available in a separate report generated by
PARSEP and completed in April 2001, was also utilized to formulate the conclusions
reached in this study.

2.0 SCOPE OF PROJECT

Initially, the project was to include a comprehensive evaluation of both the Salaverry and
Trujillo basins. A delay, however, in obtaining the necessary seismic data in SEGY
format over the Salaverry basin unfortunately resulted in the two being done in separate
reports.
The report begins with an overview section on regional geology. This was compiled
primarily through the interpretation of the regional Petroperu/Ribiana/Digicon 1993
offshore seismic speculative survey. Additionally, all available published data and
Perupetro archived data, and a PARSEP sponsored field trip that covered the coastal
areas from Paita to Trujillo, (Appendix 2) were also utilized to formulate ideas on a
regional basis. Of great assistance to the group in the completion of our regional
interpretation were the insightful contributions made by Dr. Tony Tankard (structural
specialist) who also helped by reviewing and critiquing on, our work.
The remainder of the report focuses on the Salaverry basin. Many of the geological
concepts presented in this report are derived from the extensive study done previously by
the PARSEP Group on the Trujillo Basin (PARSEP, 2001). The reader is referred to this
report for a more comprehensive review on the general area. In the seismic interpretation
of the Salaverry basin, five two-way time structure maps on; a) Upper Miocene Channel
(Enclosure 3); b) Intra Upper Miocene Channel (Fig. 18, Enclosure 4); c) Middle
Miocene Marker (Enclosure 5), d) Top Eocene (Enclosure 6); and e) Basement (Fig. 17,
Enclosure 7); and one isochron map on the Top Eocene to Basement interval (Enclosure
8), were constructed.
One of the secondary objectives of this report was to compile a summary and synthesis of
all data and technical reports relevant to the Salaverry Basin. The purpose of this is to
allow a third party evaluation team to make a meaningful interpretation of the same area
without having to go through and review all existing reports and literature. To further
facilitate this process, a corrected and edited digital data set is included with this report
consisting of well curve LAS (Enclosure 12) and seismic SEGY (Enclosure 13) files,
which represents all the digital data that was used by the group for the study.
One of the ultimate goals of this project was to make recommendations to Perupetro
concerning block size, configuration and location for tendering purposes. As was
suggested by Perupetro, these recommendations were presented in a separate memo.

.
3.0 PREVIOUS WORK IN THE STUDY AREA

The following is a chronological listing and summary of all the significant exploration
and research activities in the Salaverry Basin and surrounding area:
1971 - The earliest data of the offshore forearc, south of the Talara Basin is related to the
drilling of two exploratory wells, Ballena 1X and Delfin 1X by Occidental del Peru in the
Trujillo Basin. Both wells were drilled to basement and had total depths of 3198 and
8743 feet respectively (Fig.2).
1972 - The Nazca Plate Project was initiated, which collected dredge samples, and
gravity, magnetic and seismic data in the offshore.
1973 - Petroperu sponsored a Seiscom-Delta seismic survey, which included gravity and
magnetic data. A total of 9700 km of 2D seismic data covering the Trujillo and Salaverry
Basin was acquired (Fig. 2).
1982 - Petroperu sponsored a Compagnie Gnrale de Geophysique (CGG) seismic,
gravity, and magnetic survey. A total of 3250 km of 2D seismic data was acquired over
the Salaverry and Trujillo Basins (Fig.2).
1986 - Leg 112 of the Ocean Drilling Project acquired additional seismic reflection
profiles, reprocessed seismic acquired during the Nazca Plate Project and drilled and
cored 10 sites within the Peru forearc.
1993 - A speculative 2D seismic and gravity survey sponsored by Petroperu and Ribiana
Inc. from Houston was conducted by Digicon Geophysical Corp. and LCT. The project
area extended from south of the Pisco Basin to the northern offshore boundary with
Ecuador. Of the 10,000 km of total data acquired during the project, 3800 km of this data
is within the Salaverry Basin.
1996-2000 - Repsol Exploracion Peru was the operator of the license block Z-29 in the
Trujillo Basin. In 1996 Repsol contracted Digicon Geophysical Corp to acquire 4020 km
of 2D seismic data and Austin Exploration Inc to collect 4017 km of gravity and 4001 km
of magnetic data. In 1998 Western Geophysical acquired the second seismic survey for
Repsol, which consisted of 945 km of 2D data (Fig.2). In 1999, Repsol drilled two
exploratory wells, Morsa 1X and Lobos 1X (Fig.2). Morsa 1X encountered numerous oil
shows but no reservoir and was drilled to a total depth of 1281 meters in metamorphic
basement. Lobos 1X was drilled to 2469 meters and abandoned after reaching rocks of
Campanian age. Important geological, geochemical and well log data were acquired from
these two wells that has been used to further progress the understanding of the
Salaverry/Trujillo area.

4.0 REGIONAL FRAMEWORK

The north Peruvian forearc area contains the Tumbes, Talara, Sechura, Trujillo and
Salaverry basins. The southern part of the forearc has the Lima, East Pisco, West Pisco
and Arequipa basins. In this report, we will focus on the northern forearc basins (Fig. 1).
The following discussion reviews the stratigraphy and structure of these basins.
The oldest Cenozoic sediments in this northern forearc area are of inferred Paleocene age;
Taipe (Thesis in progress) and Jacay (pers. comm., 2000) discuss the results of the Paita
section (Appendix 2). The Lobos 1X well, drilled by Repsol in the offshore Trujillo Basin
in 1999, encountered 208 m of Paleocene rocks. Previous work has suggested that the
oldest Tertiary rocks of the forearc basins, south of Talara, are probably of Early to
Middle Eocene age.
The northernmost Tumbes basin is a Neogene pull-apart depression controlled by a SWtrending regional strike-slip fault system that continues into Ecuador. Southward, this
thick upper Oligocene to Pliocene section rests with angular unconformity on the shallow
marine Paleogene sediments of Talara basin (Fig. 3).
The highly oil-prone Talara Basin contains sediments of the Cretaceous Albian to Late
Eocene age (Fig. 3); this thick section unconformably overlies a basement consisting of
metamorphosed and deformed upper Paleozoic rocks. A Tertiary cover succeeds the
Cretaceous section in the rift basins; however, over structural horsts the pre-Tertiary has
largely been eroded so that Tertiary rocks locally overlie basement. The Talara Basin fill
has the thickest accumulation of Eocene sediments of the Peruvian forearc system, but
lacks Miocene and Pliocene deposits. This lower Neogene section was probably removed
by erosion as a result of structural inversion and uplift attributed to Middle-Late Miocene
compression (Azalgara, 1993). During the Late Miocene and Pliocene, the entire area
remained emergent.
The Sechura basin contains an interpreted Paleocene to Miocene section (Fig. 3). This
Cenozoic cover rests unconformably on thick succession of coarse-grained Maastrichtian
sediments that outcrop at Paita Peninsula. Fifteen kilometers eastward, massive limestone
banks of late Campanian age are exposed at Cerro La Mesa. Time equivalent marine units
outcrop in the northern part of the onshore Lancones basin. Paleozoic metamorphic rocks
of the Amotape, Paita and Illescas blocks form the underlying basement of both basins.
The Salaverry and Trujillo basins are filled with Tertiary sediments (Fig. 3) above a
metamorphic, volcano-sedimentary Mesozoic basement belonging to the Andean domain
(Chicama and Goyllarisquizga groups respectively). This Mesozoic succession is older
and compositionally different to those documented at Paita and Lancones, indicating a
different provenance. These rocks are exposed at the Malabrigo and Puemape locations,
along the coast north of Trujillo city (Fig. 2) and in the Ro Chicama valley, northeast of
the same locality.

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Ki

8
00

6-

-F

609

09

98

Ki

P-da

Kis

Kis

Puemape

D-

Ki

Ki
Ki

P-an

Ks
Kp-to/gd
Kp-to/gd

Kis

Ki

98

80

Ki

Ki

50

S2998-F
S-12

9-

16

9-

9S2

Ki

Ki

Ki

Kis
Ki

16

Dc-gr
Ji

Kis

Kis

4
-0
FS
802
-9
SS29
98-L
10
9SS2
-L
98
9S2
08
S-F

S2

S2

Ji
Ps-c

Ki

Ki
Ki

Ki

006
06 096N-L
98
9S2 S-06 08B
-L
S- 12
98
-L
998 -LS9S2 9-98
S2
09

09

Ki
Ki

P-an

Ks

Ki

25

D-

Csp-V

Ji

TrsJi
Ki

Ki

16

TrsJi

Ki
Kis

Kis

Kp-mz

D-

TrsJi

Dc-gr

Ki
Ki

Ki

5
02
6- 027
609

00

C-

TrsJi

Kis
Kis

Kis

P-da
Ki

Ki

98

10

2500

0
200

00

Csp-V
Ki

Ji

15

S2

6A
00
625 A
09
D-17
02B
O-L
06
98
B
O910
-L
S2
O98
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998
S2
4
9-1
S2
LO
8-9
S29

0
150

055
6-

8
93-3

P-da

P-c

Ki

9-

-7.0

Ki

Kis
P-da

Nm-v

Ki

09

S2

30
-3
93

PeA

P-da

Ki

Kis

Ki

Ki

6-

09

Ji

Ki
Nm-v

Kis
Pom

Ki
Ki

Ki
O

-3
93

S29-98-LN-10

09

TrsJi

Pom Nm-vs

Kis

Ki

03
N-L
07
3
N03
11
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698 -L N09
9S2 9-98 N-15 A
17
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7
98-L N9- -L
03
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609
S2
21
N-L
98
100
9S2
25
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98
041
09
9W 0966- S2
25
16
02
5
C04
0A
609
01
S- 03
S98-L
998-L
9S2
5
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63
09
1
13
1
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S-LS02
98-L
0
9-98
S2909
S2
6049
02
4
096W
4
50
05
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16
07
93
C-LSS3
S- 09
043
98 -L
05
98 -L
6096S2915
9- 98
09
S2
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98
S9-F
S2 047A
98
5
7
966
605
S2
D-1
W
6709
35
09 S-05
04
16
5
6-F
C-3
09
93
9-98
S2
W
75
16
C3A
05
61
09
06
1
605

6
93-3

TrsJi

Kis

Ki

6-

SD

Kis

Kis

Nm-v
P-da

Kis

Kis
Ki

09

09

S2
998
-L
6
1
N85
02
08
14 N-01
6DL
09
89-9
S2
05
3
N02
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698
09
9 9A
02
9- 98 -L N-1310
02
6S2
1A
69-L 16
0909
S2 9-98 C6-03
S2
109
03
619
09
N-L
98
3
23
9S2 5 -LN93-3
03 98
S290969 27
03 N6- -L
099-98
15 W
S2
C-16

Ki
Pom
Kis

Kis

Kis

Ki
Ji-vs

Ki

00
D-16

A
75

-L

80
14

13
D-

98
9-

Lobos 1X

Ki
Dc-gr

Dc-gr

Kis

P-an

Kis

CsP

Kis

Kis
Kp-mzg

Kis

01

Ci
Ci

Kis

Puerto Eten

9
00

01

20

93
-2
9

6-

609

00

55

3500

4000

0
-3
93

09

TrsJi

TrsJi

PeA

Dc-gr

P-da

TrsJi

Kis

65

Kis

002B
609

S2
6-

14

250 0

004
096-

9A

PeA

Ki

Nm-v

Dc-gr

Kp-mz

S29-98-LN-04

6
93
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6-

00
6-

751
14-3
D-93

09

Ki
P-da

Nm-v

Ji-vs
Kp-mzg
Kis
Kp-mzg

Kp-mzg

04

02

3
01
5
601
09
09
096- 602

P-da

Ki

50

C-

09

O-L

6-

C-

60
14

14

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D-

4A

09

C-

09

00

93
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7

6-

S2

A
1450
D-

6- 7
000
6- 18
09

SD
Dc-gr
Nm-v

Np

Ki

5
00

S29-98-LN-02

93
-2

2A

09

09

8
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93

-7.5

08
O- 2
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98 LO-1
96
S2 -98-1
9
S2
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98
9-

00

D-

1
00
609

98
9-

6-

Nm-v
Nm-v

Ki
Kis

S2

0
50
09

Kis

Ki
Ki
Ki

Ji-vs

Ji-vs
Ki

09

1500
20
00

30
00

CsP

Kp-to

TrsJi
TrsJi

Kp-mzg

25
14

TrsJi

Nm-v

Jski

TrsJi

TrsJi

Kis
Ki

Kis
Ki

P-an
Jski

Ji-vs
Kp-mzg

Ki

0
01
609

-7.0

Ji-vs

TrsJi

Kp-to
Kis
TrsJi

D-

Ps-c

TrsJi
Ps-c

Kp-to

KiKis

Isla Lobos
de Afuera

PmTr-gr

Ki

Ki

Kp-to

Chiclayo

15
14

-6.5

Kis
Ci

P-da

Kp-to

Kp-to
Ji-vs

Ji-vs
JsKi-vs

D-

Kis

Ki

Ki
Jski

Ki

Ki

1000

Ci

Ki
Jski

Ki

Kp-to

00

Kp-to
Ki

Ji-vs
Jski
P-da

TrsJi

50
13
D-

350 0

4000

-68

75

Ki
TrsJi
Ki

D12

2500

Ps-c
Ps-c

Ki

Ps-c

Nm-v

00
15

93

D-

93
-6
9

0
20

0
200

1500

500

1000

50
D-15

300

3
93-2

-6.5

TrsJi
TrsJi

Ji-vs

Kp-to

Jski
Ji-vs
O

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

80

D-

22

15

93

-4

D-

22

25

C-

22

Ki-c

Js

Ki-c

Js

Ki-c

W
25
-5
93
W
35
22
C-

10
22

-9.5

Js

P-mzgr-sy
Kis-vs

C-

00
Kis-vs
24
D-

85
22
D-

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

Kis-vs
Kis-vs
Kis-vs
Kis-vs

22
C-

Kis-vs Kis-vs

20

Kis-vs

93

-5

10

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

24
D-

65
22
D-

15
Ki-c

75
2 22
-5 D93
Kis-vs

00
93

15
00

-5

3
24
D-

50
0

D-

35

24

50
P-mzgr-sy

P-mzgr-Pu

-5
93

30

10.0

4
Js-c

00
P-mzgr-Sg

93

25

-5

P-gr/mzgr-Pu

75

24

13
D-

D-

Kis-vs
Kis-vs

60
24
C-

6
-5

Np
Kis-vs

Np
Np

P-gr/mzgr-Pu

Np

Kis-vs

24

Np

P-gr/mzgr-Pu

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

10

93
C-

-10.

Kis-vs

200

60

A
00
19
C-

00
25

22

00
20

C-

P-mzgr-Sg

20

00
26
D-

40

7
-5
93

P-gd

Kis-vs

D-

00

Kis-vs

15
25

-5
93

P-mzgr-Sg

P-mzgr-Sg

P-mzgr-Pu

75
D-15

00
35

75
D-24

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

P-mzgr-Pu
P-mzgr-Pu

-5
93

P-gr

P-mzgr-Pu

10.5

P-mzgr-Pu

P-gd

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

-10.

00
D-13

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

0
93 -6

P-mzgr-Pa
P-gdi

51
17
C-

90

26
D-

Kis-vs

20

Kis-vs

C-

24

Kis-vs

50

10
00

93

-6

1
Kis-vs
Kis-vs

26

25

Kis-vs
Kis-vs
Kis-vs

0
50

0
0
15

D-

Kis-vs Kis-vs
Kis-vs

Kis-vs

D-

Kis-vs

13

00
20

50

2
-6
93

30

80
D-2

00

00
25

-6
93

Kis-vs
P-ad-Sy

0
Kis-vs
Kis-vs
Kis-vsKis-vs
Kis-vs

Kis-vs

Kis-vs Kis-vs

P-mzgr-Pu

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

11.0
D-6
93

28

-11.

00

Kis-vs
Kis-vs

Kis-vs
P-mzgr-Sg

-6

00
15
D-

93

100

P-mzgr-Sg

P-mzgr-Sg
Kis-vs
Kis-vs

28
D-

Kis-vs
50

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

00
35

00
40

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

D-

28

Kis-vs

Kis-vs

50

Kis-vs

11.5

-11.

Kis-vs

D-

30

00
Kis-vs
Kis-vsKis-vs

Kis-vs
Kis-vs

00
10

1500

20
0

0
2 00

00
D-13

-82.0

-81.5

-81.0

-80.5

-80.0

-79.5

-79.0

-78.5

-78.0

-77.5

Figure 2: Regional map of the Salaverry/Trujillo area with bathymetry, geology and available
seismic lines. For the legend of this map refer to Enclosure 1 and Appendix 1.

10

TALARA

STAGES

LANCONES
WEST

SECHURA
S

LANCONES
EAST

CELICA
ECUADOR

LAGUNITOS
(SOUTH TALARA BASIN)

PLIOCENE

TRUJILLO
BASIN

SALAVERRY
BASIN
PLIOCENE

PLIOCENE
UPPER MIOCENE

MIOCENE

UPPER

UPPER MIOCENE

MIDDLE

MIDDLE MIOCENE

ZAPOTAL
MONTERA

LOMA BLANCA

LOWER
HEATH

LOWER MIOCENE

MIDDLE MIOCENE
LOWER MIOCENE

CATAMAYO

MANCORA
OLIGOCENE

PALEOGENE

UPPER
EOCENE

MIDDLE
EOCENE

LOWER
EOCENE

MIRADOR
CHIRA
VERDUN

UPPER

CRETACEOUS

TALARA SHALE

ECHINO

PARIAS

CHACRA
PARIAS

PALEGREDA

PALEGREDA

MAL PASO GR.

MIDDLE
EOCENE

LOWER
EOCENE

SACAPALCA
BALCONES

LLAMAS VOLC

BALCONES
CENIZO
TORTUGA

CASANGA

LA MESA

REDONDO
TABLONES

TABLONES

ANCHA - PETACAS
REDONDO

EL NARANJO

PALEOCENE
MAESTRICH
CAMPANIAN
SANTONIAN

TURONIAN

COPA
SOMBRERO

COPA
SOMBRERO

MUERTO
PANANGA

MUERTO
PANANGA
GIGANTAL

CASMA GR.

LAS LOMAS

ALAMOR
GR.

VOLC.
ARC
CELICA

TURONIAN
CENOMAN

CENOMAN

LOWER

MIDDLE
EOCENE

SALINA

SANTONIAN

ALBIAN

UPPER
EOCENE

VERDUN

OSTREAS

REDONDO
CAMPANIAN

UPPER
EOCENE

CHIRA

CHIRA
VERDUN

TALARA SS
TALARA SHALE

MOGOLLON
SALINA
S.CRISTOBAL
B. SALINA
BALCONES
PALEOCENE
MESA
MAESTRICH

CHIRA
VERDUN

MUERTO
PANANGA?

MUERTO
PANANGA
GIGANTAL

CELICA
ALBIAN

APTIAN
GOYLLAR GR

GOYLLAR GR ?
NEOCOM

JURASSIC
TRIASSIC

MIDDLE
EARLY

COLAN

COLAN ?

LATE

PALEOZOIC
PRE
CAMBRIAN

AMOTAPE GR.

AMOTAPE GR.
PAITA ILLESCAS
COMPLEX

AMOTAPE GR.

AMOTAPE GR.

AMOTAPE GR.

AMOTAPE GR.

AMOTAPE GR.

MARAON
COMPLEX

Figure 3: Stratigraphic column of the Salaverry in comparison with the other offshore basins of northern Peru

11

Sechura Basin

Salaverry
Basin

Figure
igure 4: Regional time-structure map on basement of study area showing major tectonic elements.
This map was generated utilizing the Ribiana/Digicon 1993 seismic survey.

12

4.1 Tectonic Reconstruction and Basin Framework


The northwest coast of Peru and southwest Ecuador were both involved in post-Aptian
plate convergence and subduction which is expressed in a system of NE-striking, rightlateral strike slip faults, such as the Guayaquil-Dolores fault system. Jaillard et al. (1995)
interpreted the tectonic evolution of the area and documented accretion of oceanic crust
against an older, inner magmatic arc. In their interpretation, the Progreso Basin of
Ecuador is confined by two NW-trending faults, interpreted here as left-lateral faults
related to the Guayaquil-Dolores system.
The northwest coastal basins of Peru are not yet fully integrated into the overall regional
tectonic framework. However, an allochthonous plate accreted to the Paleozoic AmotapeTahuin metamorphic basement (Amotape-Tahun Block-BAT) during Late Cretaceous
early Paleogene time (Jaillard et el., 1994). Furthermore, a suture between the accreted
BAT and the continental Andean plates is expressed as a fault, as is shown by the
presence of ultra-basic gabbros reported in Tambo Grande and Puerto Eten localities (J.
Jacay, pers. comm., 2000). As part of the present study, we attempted to trace this fault
zone into the offshore seismic data set available for Trujillo, Salaverry and Sechura
Basins.
The Trujillo Basin is a wrench-type basin developed as a series of en echelon narrow
transtensional gashes attributed to left-lateral displacement along a subduction-parallel,
NNW-trending slip fault during the Tertiary. This strike-slip fault is essentially an
antithetic shear or Riedel structure related to the right-lateral Guayaquil-Dolores fault
zone, reflecting subduction of the Nazca plate. This tectonic reconstruction (Fig. 4)
shows the narrow NNW-oriented troughs of the Trujillo Basin as a suite of en echelon
strike-slip gashes comprising the overall fault zone. These strike-slip basins are
characteristically narrow and relatively deep, and are connected via basement horsts or
extensional faults, depending on whether the strike-slip faults are left stepping or right
stepping (A. Tankard, pers. comm., 2001).
The Salaverry Basin on the other hand formed as a result of a reverse reactivation of the
eastern-most basin bounding faults of the Trujillo Basin during late Miocene to Pliocene
times. This inversion resulted in the creation of a positive ridge, the Salaverry High (Fig.
3) and the subsidence of the intervening area between it and the coast, the Salaverry
Basin.
The eastern shelf of the Salaverry Basin contains several small intrusions along its
eastern edge that are evident in a number of the 1993 Digicon/Ribiana 2D seismic data
set (Figs. 5 and 7). Lower to Middle Eocene, neritic to bathyal sedimentary rocks have
been found above the economic basement in the wells Ballena, Delfin and Morsa.
However, the Lobos well penetrated a Paleocene, Maastrichtian and Campanian section
of coarse clastics. The well was terminated in the Campanian without reaching basement.
The seismic data over the Lobos structure shows a small but unexplored Cretaceous subbasin. Upper Eocene to Pliocene deep marine facies constitutes the sedimentary fill of the
basin.
In the Salaverry/Trujillo area, four compressive events and two extensional episodes,
probably generated by wrench tectonics, have been previously documented by Azalgara,
1993. Through the work of this project, we differ slightly in our interpretation and
believe the second compressive event to be of Late Eocene to Oligocene in age.
13

These four compressive events are dated as:


1. Paleocene (suturing of allochthonous terrains)
2. Middle Eocene? (Late Eocene to Oligocene PARSEP)
3. Upper-Middle to late Miocene
4. Middle Pliocene,
and the two extensional episodes took place in:
1. Middle Eocene
2. Late Pliocene
4.2 The Basement of Salaverry and Trujillo Basins
Evidence based on examination of coastal outcrops, well logs and cuttings descriptions,
and seismic data indicate that the economic basement of the Cenozoic Salaverry-Trujillo
basin is Mesozoic. The strongest reflector in the 1993 Digicon seismic is well correlated
across the entire Salaverry-Trujillo basin complex, and corresponds to a Mesozoic
unconformity. At the coastal Malabrigo locality (Fig.2), deformed metamorphic
volcaniclastic rocks of Jurassic age have a penetrative cleavage and are cut by volcanic
sills and dikes; these may be equivalent to the Lower Jurassic Colan Group (J.Jacay, pers.
comm., 2000). Cretaceous clastic rocks with Goyllarisquizga Group affinities succeed the
deformed Jurassic series (See Foto No. 9 in Appendix 2). The presence of igneous
intrusives in the Mesozoic is confirmed in the geological maps of the coastal area
(Enclosure 1 and Fig. 2), which are also visible in a number of seismic lines
(Digicon/Ribiana 93 survey) across the Salaverry basin. Lithified fine-grained,
transitional to shallow marine, sediments of Cretaceous age crop out at the Puemape
locality, 60 km northwest of Malabrigo (See Fig. 5 in Appendix 2).
The wells Ballena, Delfin and Morsa Norte penetrated economic basement. In Ballena
and Delfin, the basement was reported as metamorphic rocks of questionable Paleozoic
age. Metamorphic basement was reached at a depth of 1170 m. in the Morsa Norte 1X
well. The cuttings descriptions suggest that the basement consists of schists. A single
piston core sampled the basement at a depth of 1265 m., recovering an altered andesitetype volcanic rock. The FMI images show that the basement is characterized by a
layered pattern, suggestive of original sedimentary bedding, with abundant vertical to
sub-vertical fractures (Repsol Report, 1999f). This description is similar to that of the
Jurassic metamorphic rocks at the Malabrigo locality mentioned above.

4.3 Basement of Northwest Peru


A deformed Paleozoic metamorphic basement intruded by granites is present at Bayovar
and Paita Peninsulas, as well as in Sechura, Lancones and Talara Basins (Enclosure 1 and
Fig. 2). Gneisses, schists, and quartzites are the main lithologies reported in this region.
A thick section of predominantly non-metamorphic coarse clastics of Maastrichtian age,
and finer grained Paleocene sediments overlie this basement at La Tortuga, Perico and
Cenizo beaches at the western edge of the Paita High (Appendix 2). About 15 km to the
east, Middle to Upper Campanian carbonates are exposed at Cerro La Mesa. Eocene (?)
conglomerates outcrop along the road between Paita and La Tortuga. The Maastrichtian
succession is divided into two formations, La Tortuga of Early Maastrichtian age and
14

Cenizo of Middle Maastrichtian age. La Tortuga Formation is reported to be 4000 m.


thick, and is predominantly coarse-grained sandstone, which was deposited in alluvial,
fan delta, and beach paleo-environments. The structural framework and sedimentary
facies indicate a relatively small, rapidly subsiding, pull-apart type of basin.
The well La Casita Z2-75-55-1X drilled offshore, south of Paita Peninsula, by Belco
Petroleum in 1974 (Fig. 2), penetrated 650 ft of dark brown Paleocene shales, and a 2300
ft. thick Campanian Lower Maastrichtian section of indurated dark gray shales with
interbedded sandstone layers. At total depth, the well penetrated 20 ft. of quartzitic
basement.

4.4 The Problem of Two Different Basements


A Mesozoic Andean-type suite of rocks form the basement of the Salaverry and Trujillo
Basins, and probably the Sechura South onshore Basin. The basement rocks consist of
slightly metamorphosed, volcaniclastic assemblages and intrusive batholiths. In contrast,
the northwestern basins (North Trujillo, offshore Sechura South, Sechura North,
Lancones, Talara, Tumbes) were formed in a Paleozoic basement consisting of highly
metamorphosed, igneous intrusives with heterogeneous lithologies, which have no
obvious Andean affinities.
The Cretaceous section at the beach of Paita and in Lancones Basin is compositionally
different from its counterparts in the western Andes, and younger than the section
described at Malabrigo and Puemape on the coast between Chiclayo and Trujillo cities
(Enclosure 1 and Fig. 2). Furthermore, this Upper Cretaceous section has nowhere been
found overlying the Lower Cretaceous formations typical of the Andean domain. These
characteristics partly support the interpretation of Jaillard (1993) of an allochthonous
terrain that was apparently accreted to the continental margin of northern Peru during the
latest Cretaceous- earliest Tertiary.
Previous published papers suggest that these two separate basement domains were
separated by a SW-oriented suture close to the northern boundaries of the Salaverry and
Trujillo Basins, as well as the southern parts of the Lancones and Sechura Basins. The
presence of ultra-basic gabbros at Puerto Eten and Tambo Grande (J. Jacay, pers. comm.,
2000) likewise indicates the presence of a NE-trending, crustal-penetrating fault that
acted as a conduit for ultra-basic intrusion. These characteristics are suggestive of a
mechanical boundary or suture between two distinct basement blocks, one of which is
interpreted as an accreted terrain, which at times probably had a strike-slip sense of
displacement. Basin formation took advantage of pre-existing structural weaknesses
along this terrain boundary.
The wells Inca 5-1, PG-11 and Pabur X1, located in the southern portion of the Sechura
basin (Fig. 2) have a thin Cenozoic section over the basement without any Cretaceous
basin developed. The offshore well La Casita 55-X1 and the onshore well Viru 69-X-1
(Fig. 2) penetrated into an Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene section that indicates the
development of a tectonic basin during those times.
Below, we have listed what the available data give us in term of basement characteristics
in five wells of the south part of Sechura basin:

15

In the offshore well La Casita Z2-75-55-X1, Sechura basin (1974), the basement
found is described as follows: 10900 10920 white quartzite; 10920 11010
(TD), plutonic igneous basement. Campanian to Lower Maastrichtian rocks lie
directly over this basement.
In the onshore well Pabur X-1 Sechura basin (1955), the basement is described as
green fractured quartzites from 1980 2030 (TD). Middle-Upper Miocene age
Montera Fm lies in unconformity on this basement.
In the onshore well Inca 5-1 South Sechura North Salaverry basin (1954), the
basement is topped at 5090 (-5075); no lithological description has been found.
Upper Eocene coarse sands from Chira-Verdun Group rest directly on this
basement.
In the onshore well PG-11 Sechura basin (1956), the basement is topped at 6950
(-6914), is reported as Paleozoic but no lithological description was found. Upper
Eocene thick coarse sands from Chira-Verdun Group lie in unconformity over this
basement.
In the onshore well Viru 69-X-1, Sechura basin, the basement was reached at
7190 (-7122), was reported as Paleozoic, two cores were taken

4.5 Evidence for the Suture


The available seismic around the Lobos structure shows a complex history of
deformation, dominated by E-W basement-involved normal faults that separate a
basement horst (the two Lobos islands and Bayovar Peninsula) of Paleozoic metamorphic
rocks from the Lobos Cretaceous graben (Fig. 4). Transpression along a couple of strikeslip faults resulted in the structural inversion of the Lobos graben in late Eocene-late
Oligocene time and again during the Pliocene compression event. This 20 km. wide
transpressive structure is believed to mark the suture zone.
The NNW-trending Illescas fault system shown in the Bayovar Peninsula geological
sheet and also Fig. 2, juxtaposes Paleozoic basement of the western block (Bayovar
High) with the Miocene of the eastern block. This fault correlates well with the series of
NNW-striking en echelon faults of the Trujillo Basin.

4.6 Well Lobos 1X: Correlation of the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Rocks
The Paleocene succession in Lobos 1X (PARSEP, 2001) is the interval with the coarsest
sediments, and is attributed to deposition in a deep-water environment. It comprises a
succession of claystones, sandstones and conglomerates in an upward coarsening and
upward thickening sequence. These relationships of grain size variations, sub-angular
grains, immature lithologies, and the vertical distribution of the sedimentary units most
probably indicate progradation in an active deep-water tectonic setting. These
characteristics are typical of pull-apart basins and wrench fault processes.
According to the paleontology, deposition of the Maastrichtian sediments occurred in a
marine environment, with water depths ranging from outer neritic to lower bathyal
(PARSEP, 2001). The lithofacies observed in the Maastrichtian are more distal than
those of the Paleocene. There is no definite evidence of turbidite sedimentation. The
sediments were probably deposited as debris flows. The Paleocene lithological
succession, from base to top, reflects an increase in grain size and bed thickness
16

attributed to erosion of high tectonic relief and progradation. The high content of
feldspars and igneous rock fragments observed in all the samples, reflects an immature
provenance and possibly arid climate (lack of chemical weathering) and short distances
of transport; most tectonically active settings are characterized by short-headed
depositional systems. This interpretation is further supported by the predominance of subrounded to angular grains.
We compare the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene succession drilled in the Lobos 1X and
La Casita 55-X1 wells with the section at the western edge of Paita High. They are
similar in terms of basement affinity, age, grain size, lithological maturity, and the
apparent short distances of transport. One significant difference, however, is the
interpreted water depth of the depositional environment in either succession. However,
these localities are 200 km apart.
The above observations suggest that the Lobos pre-Cenozoic rocks have more affinity
with the Paita succession than with the Lower Cretaceous section of the Andean margin.
Of course, additional work is needed to place these interpretations in their regional
context.

4.7 Geological Overview of the Salaverry Basin


Historically, the Salaverry Basin has been described as a basin separate from that of the
Sechura. This was later challenged by F. Zuniga-Rivero et al (1998), who in their study,
saw no tectonic or structural boundary between the two and accordingly treated the two
basins as one. Contrary to the above, this evaluation found a very prominent structural
ridge separating the two basin (Figs. 4 and 10), which is supportive of the earlier
interpretation. This high was formed predominantly by uplifts between Late Miocene
and Pliocene times which is coincidental with the uplift (inversion) seen along the
Salaverry High, the north-south trending intervening ridge separating the Salaverry Basin
from the Trujillo Basin (Figs. 4 and 9). Lower to Middle Miocene sediments are seen
onlapping this high, indicating that it was also an ancestral feature but with a relief of a
somewhat more subtle nature.
The Salaverry Basin in pre-latest Miocene time was the shallow eastern shelf area of the
much deeper Trujillo basin to the west. The same can be said for the southern part of the
Sechura Basin. The monotony of this shelf area is broken occasionally by small half
grabens of limited areal extent. An example of this can be seen in Figure 8. A significant
Late Miocene uplift created the now prominent Salaverry High that presently separates
the Trujillo Basin from the Salaverry Basin. This was further accentuated with additional
uplift during Pliocene time. These uplifts created a rather simple depression, which was
filled by sediments of Upper Miocene to Recent age.
The Salaverry Basin is
consequently a very young basin containing sediments generally no older than Middle
Miocene in age. For example, the isochron map of the Eocene to Basement interval
(Enclosure 8) shows the Eocene section to be limited to the Trujillo Basin. The Eocene
to Base Upper Miocene package, on the other hand extends into the Salaverry Basin but
only along its westernmost flank.
Structurally the basin is quite simple and has the geometry of an almost symmetrical,
elongated oval. The basin is punctuated by a series of NW-SE to N-S trending wrench

17

eUMT

eeMMT

eUET

Basement

Figure 5: Dip line 93-30 across the Sechura/Salaverry Basin

eCH

eUMT

Basement

Figure 6: Dip line L93-38 across the Salaverry Basin

18

eUMT

Basement

Figure 7: Dip line L93-43 across the Salaverry Basin

eUMT

eMMT

Basement

Figure 8: Dip line L93-49 across the Salaverry Basin

19

eCH

eUMT

eUET

Salaverry
Basin

eMMT

Trujillo
Basin

Salaverry
High

Basement

Figure 9: Dip line L93-45 across the Trujillo and Salaverry Basin

Sechura
Basin

eUMT

Salaverry
Basin

eCH
eMMT

Sechura/Salaverry
High

Basement

Figure 10: Strike line L93-68 across the structural high separating the Sechura and Salaverry Basins.

21

Eocene

Cretaceous

Basement
Figure 11: N-S
-S seismic line through the Lobos well in the Trujillo Basin. Note the difference in
character of the Cretaceous section in this figure with that of the Salaverry pre-Tertiary sequences in
Figures 5-10

faults. In the northern part of the basin a very prominent WNW-ESE trend is present
(Fig. 18), which cuts only the shallow section and does not affect basement (Fig. 17).
Another interesting feature about the Salaverry Basin is in the abundance of intrusive
bodies seen emplaced within the Tertiary section. These are best displayed in Figures 5
and 7. Additionally, the isolated patches of highly serrated, rugged terrain underlying the
Tertiary in the eastern Salaverry Basin (Fig. 6) may be indicative of volcanic flows.
Previously, it was speculated that a thick sedimentary package of Cretaceous rocks was
present beneath the young Tertiary cover of the Salaverry Basin. This study concludes
that the underlying sequences are probably metasediments of Mesozoic age and
represents economic basement for the following reasons.
1. The Ballena 1X well found the basal Tertiary sequences overlying a basement
composed of quartz biotite gneiss. Reflectors beneath this Tertiary contact can
clearly been seen in Figure 9, extending from the well to the Salaverry Basin
beneath the Tertiary. This study finds it difficult to interpret any significant
structural feature that would separate the two areas. Consequently, it was
concluded that rocks interpreted previously as Cretaceous sediments by other
22

studies, must have the affinities similar to those penetrated by the Ballena 1X
well.
2. The seismic character of the reflections beneath the Salaverry basin are of low
frequency, and sometimes continuous, but as equally, chaotic. Many of these
reflectors may not be sedimentary in nature, but rather seismic multiples
generated when the signal hits the hard basement surface. Furthermore, this
character is very different in appearance from the more continuous, higher
frequency reflectors seen within the Cretaceous section in the vicinity of the
Lobos 1X well located northeast of the Salaverry Basin (Fig.11).
3. Fieldwork preformed by Petroperu in the coastal areas of the Trujillo Basin
generally found most of the Cretaceous sediments to be highly indurated and
with TAIs of 5. This latter point indicates that these sediments have
experienced a very high thermal history.
4. Fieldwork by PARSEP (Appendix 2) found intruded (gabbro dykes), foliated
Jurassic metasediments along the coastal areas that could be projected into the
subsurface beneath the Tertiary unconformity.
5. The proliferation of intrusive bodies seismically identified within the Salaverry
basin.

23

5.0 STRATIGRAPHY

Overlying economic basement of Mesozoic age, four main sedimentary sequences have
been recognized in the geological evolution of the Salaverry Basin, the Lower Miocene,
Middle Miocene, Upper Miocene and Plio-Quaternary. To the west of the basin along
the Salaverry High, sediments of Upper Eocene age are seen onlapping basement and
further west yet in the much deeper Trujillo Basin, rocks of Oligocene and Lower to
Middle Eocene are also encountered. Although Eocene through Oligocene rocks have
not been interpreted in the Salaverry Basin, they have been included in following section
for consistency

5.1 Economic Basement


The Economic Basement of the Salaverry Basin has been penetrated in two wells, the
Delfin 1X and Ballena 1X and is interpreted to be of possible Cretaceous age.
Seismically, the top of Economic Basement is very well defined and throughout the
Salaverry area, is considered for most part to be immediately underlying the Tertiary. A
more detailed description on this topic of basement can be found in the preceding
sections - 4.2 The Basement of the Salaverry and Trujillo Basins; and 4.7 Geological
Overview of the Salaverry Basin.

5.2 Middle Eocene


This section is found only in the Trujillo Basin and is mainly constituted by fine-grained
sediment (silty claystones and micritic limestones). In the Morsa 1X well, this age
represents the onset of sedimentation which occurred in a relatively deep marine
environment. As this area was a paleo-high, only thin beds of sandstone were deposited.
The abundance of radiolarians and deep-water benthonic forams found in the Delfin 1X
well (Table 2) suggests that cold-water upwelling was in affect off the Peruvian shelf
during Middle Eocene time.

5.3 Upper Eocene


The Upper Eocene is found only in the Trujillo Basin and the western reaches of the
Salaverry High. In the Trujillo Basin well, Lobos 1X, this unit is constituted by gray to
olive gray silty claystones and micritic limestones deposited in a deep-water
environment. In the Morsa 1X well, hemipelagic sedimentation in relatively well
oxygenated waters as suggested by low TOC contents. The presence of conglomerates
near the base may be interpreted as the result of some catastrophic events that affected
the Peruvian continental margin or explained as the distal part of an incised valley on a
sub-aerially exposed continental shelf. In comparison the Upper Eocene section of the
Sechura and Talara basins is comprised mainly of shallow marine clastic sediments.

24

5.4 Oligocene
Some evidences of Oligocene sediments have been found in the well Lobos 1X with a
single specimen of Cyclusphaera doubingerii at 595 m. (Table 4) that ranges in age from
Oligocene to Eocene. No samples were recovered above 520 m. In the Morsa Norte 1X,
well the interval 833-1031 m. (Table 3) brings a microfauna assemblage that gives a
range within the Oligocene-Eocene. However, there are no clear evidences of fauna
exclusive of biochronozones P22 to P18 from the Oligocene. In Delfin 1X well (Table 2)
the nannofossil Helicosphaera recta (P18-P19) was found at 1485.6 m, this specimen
defines the Middle Oligocene in Ecuador. The Oligocene represents a wedge of
sediments that is interpreted to pinchout along the eastern boundaries of the Trujillo
Basin.

5.5 Lower Miocene


Sediments of Lower Miocene age have been found in wells Ballena 1X (450.6 825 m.
in Table 1), Delfin 1X (782.4 1467.4 m. in Table 2). In the Ballena well, fine
sandstones interbedded with silty limestones and mudstones and layers of iron nodules
predominate at the lower part, above 566 m. are mainly dolomitised limestones,
interbedded with sandstones, siltstones and calcareous mudstones. As a whole, the
interval shows a deepening upward sequence. In the Delfin well the lithology is mainly
brown mudstone interbedded with dolomitised micritic limestone (Table 2), with a coarse
sand layer noted at 1248 m. In Morsa well the rock type is a calcareous sandy mudstone
with a relatively high content of pyrite that may be associated with anoxic conditions on
the sea bottom. This is corroborated by the relatively high TOC contents over the
complete section (Geochem Group Ltd., 1999a).
5.6 Middle Miocene
Three wells of the four wells drilled in the area found the Middle Miocene section. In the
Ballena well (344 450.6 m. in Table 1), the lithology is a micritic brown dolomitised
limestone interbedded with silty limestone and fine to medium quartz sandstone; most of
the fauna encountered have affinities with those found in California, Ecuador and
Venezuela. In the Delfin well (368.4 782.4 m in Table 2), the upper part of the interval
corresponds to a probable early Upper Miocene age; the fauna is similar to that described
in the Upper Miocene of Ecuador and Middle to Upper Miocene of California. In the
Morsa well, the top of the carbonate section was picked as the top of the Middle Miocene
from the occurrence of Globorotalia mayeri (bichronozone N14 - top of Serravalian).
5.7 Upper Miocene to Pliocene
In the Ballena well (231.4 344 m. in Table 1), siltstone to coarse sandstone interbedded
with brown limestone is the predominant lithology of the section. In the Delfin well
(228.3 368.4 m. in Table 2), fine sand interbedded with micritic limestone grading
upward to coarse sand and siltstone with a lack of preserved fossils, high clastic content
and presence of authigenic limestone, suggest a rapid transportation of shallow water
sediments into deep water. Authigenic limestone indicates a cold-water upwelling at the
25

Peruvian coast. In the Morsa well (203? 540 m. Table 3), this interval is described as a
gray to olive silty claystone with interbedded thin micritic limestone and a lack of fauna.
5.8 Plio Quaternary
A relatively thick wedge of sediments occurs on the present continental slope west of the
Morsa Norte 1X well, reaching a maximum thickness of 500 ms TWT. It is seen
pinching out on the modern day upper slope. This wedge is a basinward progradation of
the outer continental shelf and slope, and because of erosion and sediment bypass, most
of the pre-existing shallow areas have little sediment of this age. The principal of site of
Plio-Quaternary sediment preservation within the inner shelf area is in the Salaverry
basin.

26

6.0 WELL SUMMARY

Within the Salaverry/Trujillo area four wells have been drilled, Ballena 1X and Delfin 1X
drilled by Occidental in 1971 and Morsa North 1X and Lobos 1X by Repsol in 1999. All
but Lobos 1X TDd in basement, which was abandoned in the Cretaceous. The following
section summarizes the salient points pertinent to the two wells most closely associated
with the Salaverry Basin, Ballena 1X and Delfin 1X.

6.1 BALLENA 1X
The Ballena 1X well was drilled by Occidental Peru in 1971 and was the first well drilled
in this region. The nearest well control at the time of drilling was the Inca 5-1 well which
was drilled in 1954 and located onshore just over 300 km to the north (Fig. 2). The
Ballena 1X well was drilled to basement and had a total depth of 3198 feet.
Although the well was the first in the area, it was not actually drilled in either the Trujillo
or Salaverry Basins but rather on the Salaverry High. This high is a northwest trending
elongate basement feature that experienced several pulses of late Miocene Pliocene
uplift/inversion, and now separates the Trujillo Basin to the west from the Salaverry
Basin to the East. Intersecting the Ballena 1X well is the seismic line L96-105 (Fig. 6).

Upper Miocene
Middle Miocene Marker

Middle Miocene

Alternative Eocene Top

Eocene

Basement

Salaverry High

Trujillo Basin

Figure 12: Seismic Line 96-105 through Ballena 1X Well

27

It should be noted that the top of the Eocene as depicted on the Seismic line L96-105
(Fig. 12), is tied to the biostratigraphic data for both the Delfin and Ballena 1X wells. A
purely seismic interpretation could have picked the Top of the Eocene to occur at a lower
depth west of SP 1350.
Table 1: From Ballena 1X Biostratigraphy table (Summary from Appendix B: Paleoenvironmental
analyses of the Delfin 1X and Ballena 1X wells in Carlos Azalgara (1993)
N O U
N B

L DEPT
B H
(m)
231.4
(760)

344
(1130)

450.6
(1480)

825.0
(2710)
855
(2808)
963
(3163)

BIOMARKERS AND NOTES

EPOCH
Series

Interval top and age based on the occurrence of nannofossils Reticulofenestra


pseudoumbilica (CN9-CN11), Sphenolithus neoabies (CN10?-CN11) and
associated flora at 760.
Paleoenvironment: Outer neritic, 300 600 ft.
Lithology: Siltstone to coarse sandstone interbedded with calcareous brown
limestone. Shells with rare coral fragments at the top of the interval.
Benthonics: Many species noted in this interval are known from the middle
and upper Miocene of California an also show affinities with the Manabi basin
of coastal Ecuador.
Planktonics: Extremely rare and non-diagnostic.
Remarks: Occurrence of reworked Eocene nannofossils indicates that
downslope transport was prevalent
Interval top and age based on the occurrence of nannofossil Helicosphaera
californiana (CN3-CN5) and the associated flora.
Paleoenvironment: Outer Neritic upper Bathyal, 300 1500.
Lithology: Micritic brown dolomitised limestone interbedded with silty
limestone and fine to medium quartz sandstone.
Planktonic: Extremely rare and non-diagnostic.
Benthonics: Many of the species; Siphonodosaria advena, Buliminella
subfusiformis, Uvigerina cf. californica, cf. parva, Valvulineria cf. robusta at
1300 and Uvigerina peregrina, Bolivina cf. marginata and cf. cochei at 1390
are known from the Miocene of California and Ecuador. The faunal assemblage
also shows an affinity to the Agua Salada Fm. of Venezuela.
Interval top and age based on planktonic Praeorbulina glomerosa (N7-N8.5)
at 1480 and the nannofossil assemblage at 1830.
Paleoenvironment: Middle Neritic to Upper Bathyal, 180 to 1500.
Lithology: Dolomitised limestone, interbedded with sandstone, siltstone and
calcareous mudstone. Below 566.2m (1860), clastic material increases. At
685m (2250), sandstone is interbedded with silty limestone and mudstone and
layers of iron nodules occur.
Nannofossils: common occurrence of Discoasterdeflandrei (CP18-CN3) and
other rare occurrences Dr. Okada assigned lower Miocene age (CN1-CN3).
This age is also supported at 1630 by the diatom zone, Denticulopsis
nicobarica.
Benthonics: A slight change in the fauna, in diversity and abundance at 1480.
New species include Baggina robusta, Uvigerina cf. ornata, Brizalina cf.
granti, cf. pozonensis, Bolivina cf. rankini, etc. At 548m (1800) new species
were noted Amphimorphina cf. amchitakaensis, Nodosaria stainforthi,
Bulimina cf. rostrata Bolivina cf. brevior and floridana.
Rare radiolarians (phacodiscids), fish otoliths and pyritized diatoms occur
sporadically below 1480. Below 602.7m (1980), bone fragments occur.

Lower
Pliocene/
Upper
Miocene

PERIOD
SYSTEM

Neogene

Middle
Miocene

Neogene

Lower
Miocene

Neogene

All faunal elements disappear below 739.8m (2430).


Remarks: As a whole, the interval shows a deepening upward sequence.
Above this Lower Miocene interval, the well shows an apparent shallowing
upward sequence.

Based on Repsol Report. The coarse grained lithology of this sequence


prevented H.Okada from dating it (C.Azalgara, 1993)
Basement.
TD.: 975m (3202.7)

Eocene

Paleogene

N:INNER NERITIC; ON:OUTER NERITIC; UB:UPPER BATHYAL; LB:LOWER BATHYAL

28

The well encountered rocks of Tertiary age overlying basement, which was identified as a
Quartz Biotitic Gneiss of Paleozoic (?) age. A summary on the reevaluation of the
samples and cores from this well to refine the paleo-bathymetry, depositional
environments and age of the sediments, was done in 1990 and recorded in the thesis of C.
Azalgara (1993). These results are presented in Table 1.
6.1.1 Lithological/Reservoir Discussion
Dark brown dense, authigenic carbonates (dolomicrite, lime micrite and calcareous
mudstone) were the most prevalent lithologies noted in the well. The composition of the
diagenetic carbonates varies from calcite to dolomite. Organic-rich mudstones derived
from coastal upwelling make up the bulk of the sediments. Sediments of this type
accumulate on the outer shelf and upper slope, which is seaward of the high-productivity
surface waters of the inner shelf.
Coarse clastics have been described in the well from various reports, but upon
examination of the well logs, there is little to indicate that there is much of anything with
reservoir potential.
6.1.2 Hydrocarbons Shows
No indications of hydrocarbons were found in this well.

6.2 DELFIN 1X
The Delfin 1X well was the second well drilled by Occidental Peru in the region and was
spudded immediately following the Ballena 1X abandonment. The well was drilled to
metamorphic basement and a total depth of 8743 feet. It was abandoned as a dry hole on
September 1971. The well when drilled was based on a prospect defined with a very
coarse seismic grid and subsequent seismic acquired over the area now show there is no
structural closure at the Delfin location. The well location is spotted on seismic line C2030 that is shown in Figure 13.
6.2.1 Lithological/Reservoir Description
In the Delfin 1X well, the Middle Eocene and Upper Eocene/Lower Oligocene sequences
for most part consist primarily of interbedded limestone, mudstone and siltstone. It
should be noted that the Delfin 1X well was the only well in the area to have conclusively
encountered sediments of Oligocene age (not seismically mapped). Of importance to the
economic development of the region are the sandstone intervals that were encountered
within the Eocene/Oligocene section. The most significant is shown in Figure 14 where a
100 plus foot sand with porosities that in places exceed 20%, was intersected
approximately 350 feet above basement. Under trapping conditions, this sandstone could
make an excellent hydrocarbon reservoir.

29

Upper Miocene

Middle Miocene Marker

Middle Miocene

Basement

Eocene

Figure 13: Seismic line C-2030, through the Delfin 1X well


GR (GAPI)
0

SN (ohmm)
200

0.2

CALI (IN)
0

ILD (ohmm)
100

0.2

DT (us/ft)

100 140

100 2

40
RHOB (gr/cc)
3

SP (mV)
0

50

8300

Sdst, fn-cse, predom crs rrd-subang clrmilky unconsol qtz, minor amnt fn-med
gry SS, mica, friable, intebed med gry
siltst and gry brn silty sh, tr pyrite
8400

8500

Figure 14: (left) A Lower Eocene sandstone reservoir that intersected in the Delfin 1X well.
Figure 15: (right) Mud log of the 3600 to 4500 section where gas shows were encountered.

30

Table 2: From Ballena 1X Biostratigraphy table (Summary from Appendix B: Paleoenvironmental analysis of the Delfin 1X and Ballena 1X wells in C. Azalgara (1993)
N O U L DEPTH
N B B
(m)
228.3
(750)

368.4
(1210)

782.4
(2570)

1467.4
(4820)

1768.7
(5810)
1802.2
(5920)

BIOMARKERS AND NOTES


Interval Top and age: nannofossil Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica (CN9
CN11) at 274m (900 ft).
Paleonvironment: indeterminate, probably outer shelf or deeper ,+300.
Lithology: Fine to coarse sand and siltstone. Below 317m (1040), sand
interbedded with dolomitised micritic brown limestone.
Non-in situ planktonic: forams occur. Lack of preserved fossils, high clastic
content and presence of authigenic limestone along with rare shell fragments
suggest that deposition was rapid with transportation of shallow water
sediments into deep water. The presence of authigenic limestone which forms
off the Peruvian coast during cold-water upwelling supports this interpretation.
Top of the sequence is based on the presence of R.pseudoumbilica (CN9 CN11) with the first appearance of Discoaster quinqueramus (CN9) at 1210.
Lithology: Fine sandstone/siltstone interbedded with dolomitised limestone.
Abundant glauconite at 673m (2210).
Nannofossils: are common. Three samples were examined in this interval. D.
quinqueramus occurs only at 1210 ft. It restricts the age to late upper Miocene.
However, the floral assemblages below suggest the lower part of this interval
is middle to upper Miocene (CN5-CN9). A middle Miocene age at 2130 ft is
supported by the diatom zonal range of Coscinodiscus lewisianus through
Craspedodiscus coscinodiscus (Schrader and Castaeda, 1990).
Planktonics: are very rare. At 728m (2390) a questionable specimen of the
lower Miocene species Catapsydrax dissimilis was noted.
Benthonics: are infrequent to 441m (1450). Below, they increase in
abundance with the first upper Miocene species, Bulliminella ecuadorana.
Diatoms: are rare with an increase at 542m (1780). This interval shows a
shallowing upward sequence above the glauconite, below this level deep open
marine conditions and a distinct bathyal fauna is developed. In the upper
interval clastics and organic debris dominate.
Paleoenvironment: Probably Upper Bathyal (600-1500)
The top interval is based on the first occurrence of several benthic forams at
2570, Catapsydrax dissimilis at 819m (2690), and these nannofossils:
Discoaster deflandrei (CP19-CN3), Discoaster variabilis (CN3-CN11.25) and
Helicosphaera ampliaperta (CP19.75-CN3) at 810m (2660), with
Triquetrorhabdulus cf. carinatus (CP18.5-CN1.3) at 1230m (4040).
Lithology: Brown mudstone interbedded with dolomitised micritic limestone;
coarse sand at 1248m (4100). Planktonics: are rare, at 819m (2690),
Catapsidrax dissimilis s.s. (P17-N6) first appears supporting a lower Miocene
age. Dr Okada assigned a late lower Miocene age to 810m (2660) and a range
of early to late lower Miocene to 1230m (4040). Diatoms: are rare with
occasional fish teeth, otoliths and pellets. Middle to Paleoenvironment:
Upper Bathyal (600-4000).
Interval top and age based on the occurrence of these nannofossils
Sphenolitus distentus (CP16-CP19A), Sphenolithus predistentus (CP13.5CP18?) and Helicosphaera recta (CP18-CP19) at 1485.6m (4880) along with
the first radiolarians at 4820. These species are Oligocene in age and have
been reported from the middle Oligocene of Ecuador.
Remarks: At 1714 m (5630), abundant calcite marks the transition between
the Oligocene and Eocene. This boundary represents a major hiatus.
Interbedded siltstone and calcareous brown mudstone with brown calcite
marking the base.
Paleoenvironment: Middle to Upper Bathyal, 600 to 4000.
Top interval and age based on the occurrence of Planktonic species
Globigerina pomeroli (?P11-P17) at 5920 and Morozovella densa (P8.25P14) at 1829.6m (6010) with a middle Eocene (CP14B) nannofossil flora at
1875.3m (6160). Deep-water benthonic forams are common at the top of the
interval: Discorbis cf. samanica, Giroydina cf. altispira, cf. girardana,
Bulimina microcostata, etc. At 6460, these species occur: Gyroidina cf.
chirana, Bulimina cf. peruviana, cf. brevis and Uvigerina cf. mantaensis.
Many of these forms show affinities to the Eocene Chira Formation fauna of
Peru. Paleoenvironment: The lower portion of this well shows a distinct
deepening during the Eocene from inner shelf to bathyal conditions.
Remarks: There is an abundance of radiolarians above; deep marine lower
Oligocene sediments rest unconformably on marine Eocene sediments.

EPOCH
Series
Lower
Pliocene/
Upper
Miocene

PERIOD

Neogene

Upper
Miocene/
Middle
Miocene
(CN5?
CN9)

Neogene

Lower
Miocene

Neogene

Middle
Oligocene

Paleogene

Middle
Eocene

Paleogene

N:INNER NERITIC; ON:OUTER NERITIC; UB:UPPER BATHYAL; LB:LOWER BATHYAL

31

6.2.2 Hydrocarbon Shows


Although no shows of oil were noted in the drilling of the Delfin 1X well, a number of
gas shows were encountered in thin, tight fractured dolomites at the following depths,
3612, 3615, 3758-3763, 3790, 3796 and 4975 to 4988 feet. All but the latter interval are
displayed within Figure 15 and can readily be identified by the deflections to the right on
the three gas curves of the mud log.

32

7.0 GEOCHEMISTRY

7.1 Oil seeps and Crude oil characterization (modified after Repsol 1997a)
The neighboring Trujillo Basin is well known for the occurrence of natural oil seeps in its
northern sector. The most spectacular one is the offshore seepage a few kilometers west
of Isla Lobos de Afuera, (Fig. 16), which occurs over a 5 x 3 km area as a thin iridescent
film, showing patches of gas bubbles and having an oily odor over a wide distance. This
seep has historically been known since the time of the first travelers of the Spanish
Colony in the XVI century. In their evaluation of the Z-29 Trujillo Block, Repsol
identified numerous other seeps in the area, the locations of which are presented in Figure
17.
3000

200

00

00

10

50

40

0
150

2 000

3500

00
25

La Casita 55X-1

Pabur X-1

PG-11N-X
Peninular
Bayovar

Inca 5-1 1
0

3500

4000

2500

0
20

200

1500

500

1000

300

Isla Lobos
de Tierra

100

Chiclayo

Isla Lobos
de Afuera
Puerto Eten

1000

1500
0
50

20

00

30

2500

00

0
20

Lobos 1X

0
350

0
400

Puemape

100

Malabrigo

00
10

1500
50
0

30

0
250

0
200

00

0
20

100

Trujillo

Morsa Norte 1X
00
40
35
00

Ballena (OXY) 1
1000

15
00

30
00

25

00
20

Delfin (OXY) 1
50

00

0
10
0

20
0

400
0
00
35

SALAVERRY Basin

10

00

15
00

50
0

00
30

200

25
0
0

00
20

10
0

40
00
35
00
0
20

10
00

15

50

0
0

20
00

30
00
100

00
25

40
00

00
35

10

00

150

2
00

00
20

Figure 16: Location of analyzed oil seeps

The geochemical study of the seep samples from the Trujillo Basin, the oil samples from
the Talara producing fields and asphalt seeps, was conducted by Repsol/Corelab in
33

1996/97, to define the characteristics of the oils, to group them into genetically distinct
oil families and to establish the correlation oil samples with the potential source rocks.
The geochemical investigation on the Trujillo oil seeps and Talara crude oils conducted
by Corelab reveals three different source rocks contributing to the region:
1) The extracted oils from the seeps samples near Isla de Lobos, were derived from a
source rock with mixed organic facies containing abundant marine algal organic matters,
and the source rock is probably of Late Cretaceous age.
2) The oil seep from the southern part of the Trujillo Basin is considered to be sourced by
a mixed organic facies with significant terrigenous organic matter deposited under anoxic
condition. The source rock of this oil seep is believed to be different from that of the
extracted oils from northern oil seeps, but no age is suggested for its source.
3) The crude oils from the Portachuelo, Inca and Lagunitos wells are interpreted to have
been sourced by a mixed organic facies with abundant algal and terrigenous matter, and
the source rock is assumed to be Upper Cretaceous or Tertiary age.

7.2 Previous Studies


A number of geochemical studies were completed in the Salaverry/Trujillo area by
Repsol in association with their evaluation of Lote Z29 as well as by several others
different groups in the period before. The more significant of these studies and their
conclusions are noted below. The reader is referred to these reports directly for
additional information pertaining to the geochemical aspects of the region.
1. Amoco Geochemical Study (1992 - as referenced by Repsol, 1997)
a. The geochemical study carried out by Amoco involved a suite of fifty-four
(54) core samples from the onshore Talara and Progreso basins. All core
samples were analyzed for TOC, pyrolysis and maturity at Corelab in
Houston.
b. Most samples contain Type III kerogen, and this combined with low
TOCs indicate low oil and gas generation capacity.
c. From this study, only 10 samples showed some hydrocarbon source
potential with high TOC's values corresponding to the Lower Cretaceous
Muerto Fm. from Lomitos-3835 and Ono-4000 wells in onshore Talara.
2. Core Laboratories, Inc - Geochemical Evaluation of Selected Well and Oil
Samples from Peru (October 1996)
a. In this study, geochemical analyses were done on: 1) Cretaceous and
Tertiary rock samples from five wells (SBX-1, La Casita, Inca-5-1, Viru69-1X, and Delfin 20-1X; 2); extracted hydrocarbons (oily material)
obtained from 10 sea water samples; 3) an offshore oil seep from Way
Point 005; 4) seven crude oils tested from three wells (five samples from
the Portachuelo well, one sample from the Inca well, and one sample from
the Lagunitos well; and 5) two oil seep extracts from Reventazon.
34

b. The extracted oils from the 10 water samples and the one cotton swab
were derived from a source rock with mixed organic facies containing
abundant marine algal organic matter, and the source rock is probably of
late Cretaceous age. The oil seep from the Way Point 005 is considered to
be sourced by a mixed organic facies with significant terrigenous organic
matter deposited under anoxic conditions, but no age is suggested for its
source. The crude oils from the Portachuelo, Inca, and Lagunitos wells
are interpreted to have been sourced by a mixed organic facies with
abundant algal and terrigenous organic matter and the source rock is of
Tertiary age.
c. Corelab have also indicated that the different oil groups are moderately
mature to mature (Ro between 0.70 and 0.80).
3. Repsol - Hydrocarbon Potential Review (September 1997)
a. This report consisted of an extensive review and analysis on the Trujillo
basin geochemistry and its modeling. Repsol concluded that several thick
and extensive marine shaly intervals could qualify as the sources of the
numerous surface oil seeps described in the offshore Trujillo Basin area.
These shaly sections are associated with the following stratigraphic
intervals:
-Muerto Fm.
(Lower Cretaceous)
-Redondo Fm.
(Upper Cretaceous)
-Parias- Talara Fm. (Lower-Middle Eocene)
-Verdun Fm.
(Upper Eocene)
-Montera Fm.
(Middle Miocene)
b. In summary, the source rock evaluation conducted by Repsol on the
Cretaceous and Tertiary intervals of the five wells, revealed only the
presence of poor to marginal gas source rock potential. Only the Upper
Eocene Verdun Fm and the Middle Miocene Montera Fm from the Delfin
20-x-l well, show immature oil and gas source rock potential (0.32-0.43%
Ro), containing low yield Type II/III kerogens (formed by partly oxidized
amorphous organic matter). These Upper Miocene source rocks when
adequately mature would generate minor oil and mainly gas.
c. A series of four BasinMod burial history models were constructed for each
depocenter in the Trujillo. These models have been superceded by a later
work by Repsol (Repsol 2000b) after the drilling of the Lobos and Morsa
1X.
4. Geochem Group Ltd. A Geochemical Evaluation of Well Lobos Z29M-9-1X,
Offshore Peru (October 1999)
a. The analyzed intervals were consistently poor (occasionally very poor)
essentially Type III source rocks whose potential is for gas or at best for
gas with associated light liquids. Moreover, they are immature above
1700 meters and effectively immature below this depth.
b. C1-C7 light hydrocarbons headspace gas data indicate good shows of
extremely dry gas throughout the analyzed section. Neither these data nor
the (limited) C15+ hydrocarbons data provide evidence of migrated liquid
hydrocarbons.
35

5. Core Laboratories, Inc - Geochemical Evaluation and Correlation of the Morsa


Norte Crude Oil (May 1999)
a. The Morsa Norte oil is a heavily biodegraded crude oil. Biodegradation
has affected its gross composition, as well as its gas chromatography
(GC), and saturate and aromatic biomarker compositions. The oil is heavy
(API gravity was not determined). Based on the characteristics discussed
above, it can be said that the original oil prior to alteration in the reservoir,
was much lighter. It is suggested that the maturity of the Morsa Norte oil
is about 0.75% Ro equivalent.
b. The source rock of the Morsa Norte oil is considered to be marine with
Type II/III kerogen comprising mixed organic facies (marine-terrestrial
organic matter).
c. The presence of oleanane suggests the source rock for the oil is
middle/late Cretaceous or Tertiary in age.
6. Geochem Group Ltd. - A Geochemical Evaluation of Well Morsa Norte Z29M37-1X, Offshore Peru (October 1999)
a. In this study, one oil sample and two oil extracts, recovered from water
from MDT samples in the Morsa Norte 1X were evaluated for Repsol by
Corelab
b. The oil sample recovered from water in the Morsa well is biodegraded oil
and has a moderately heavy gross composition. The oil was derived from
a marine source rock with a mixed organic facies containing
predominantly marine organic matter and minor but significant
terrigenous/higher plant organic matter. The oil appears to be mature.
The oil correlates with the Morsa Norte oil seep and the crude oils from
the Portachuelo, Inca, and Lagunitos wells. It is suggested that the source
rock of these oils is probably Tertiary and Miocene.
c. The two oil extracts recovered from water are biodegraded oils and have
heavy gross compositions. The oils were derived from a marine source
rock with predominantly marine organic matter and minor
terrigenous/higher plant organic matter. The oils are probably mature.
The oils correlate with the genetic oil Group 1 represented by a number of
oil seeps from seawater. The source rock for this group of oils is probably
of middle/late Cretaceous in age. This conclusion should also be
considered tentative. The Cretaceous Muerto-Pananga is another possible
candidate.
7. Repsol Block Z29M Offshore Peru. Source Rock Characteristics, Maturity
Modeling and Oil to Source Correlation (March 2000)
a. This is a very comprehensive summary and the most recent geochemical
study done on the region utilizing all of the available data.
b. Included in this report are the latest basin modeling studies utilizing the
well data from Lobos and Morsa Norte.
c. The conclusions reached in this study are as follows:
i. The Lower Miocene and Upper Eocene source rocks are immature
in the studied area.
36

ii. The only possible mature source rock, capable of producing


significant quantities of hydrocarbons is, by analogy of what has
been found in the Talara basin, the Lower Cretaceous Muerto
Formation.
iii. In the case that the Muerto Fm. is not present in the Morsa graben,
or is barren of organic matter, the oil found in well Morsa Norte 1X and in the surface oil seeps may correspond to small amounts
of hydrocarbons generated by Upper Eocene source rocks.
7.3 Conclusions
In our review of all the geochemical data and reports available, we see no reason to differ
in our opinions or refute the conclusions presented by Repsol in their final Geochemical
Report (2000b). As the consequences of supporting the statements above we must

conclude that any oil reservoired in the Salaverry basin would have to be
sourced from the depocenters located in the Trujillo Basin region to the
west.
To further support this supposition, the surface geological work done by Petroperu during
the 1980s in their attempt to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the Salaverry Basin
concluded that the Cretaceous rocks of Andean affinity outcropping east of the Salaverry
Basin, although containing good source rocks, typically had TAIs of around 5 and were
consequently spent.

37

8.0 GEOPHYSICS
8.1 Introduction
The first seismic surveys in the Salaverry Basin were carried out in 1973 and 1974 by
Petroleos del Per S.A. and Delta Exploration Company. The program was a joint
acquisition for both the Salaverry and the Trujillo Basins, of which 255 line km were
exclusively in the Salaverry Basin. In an attempt to explore the continental shelf and
continental margin of the Peruvian coast, Petroleos del Per and RIBIANA INC
undertook, in 1993, a massive seismic acquisition program extending from the Ecuador
border in the north to the Pisco basin in the south. The Salaverry Basin received 3800 line
km, which make up the bulk of this report.
Other than geophysical studies, the Salaverry basin has not seen any other exploration
activity. All geological information has been extrapolated from the adjacent Trujillo
Basin wells, which offer a direct tie to most of the stratigraphic sequences. In total, five
seismic horizons were correlated and mapped throughout the basin: Upper Miocene Top,
Intra Upper Miocene Channel, Middle Miocene Marker, Upper Eocene Top and
Basement. A two-way time structural map for each of these horizons is presented in
Enclosures 3 to 7. The Basement and Intra Upper Miocene Channel maps are also
presented in Figures 17 and 18. Furthermore, one isochron map was made that included
the Basement-Upper Eocene interval and is included in this report as Enclosure 8.
A seismic montage depicting the general present-day basin configuration was made
(Enclosure 9) and is comprised of four regional E-W trending seismic lines, as well as
one regional basin-wide profile.

8.2 Seismic Data Base


For the purpose of this project, Perupetro supplied the seismic information in Exabyte
8mm SEGY format, which was in turn loaded in, and interpreted using GeoQuest
software.
SURVEY
RIBIANA-93
DELTA-73

SOURCE
Airgun
Vapor chock

QUALITY
Very-good
Good-poor

KM
3800
255

Table 3: Details on seismic surveys within the study area

In terms of data quality, the RIBIANA-93 migrated data utilized in this interpretation was
of excellent quality. The DELTA-73 survey is of much poorer quality, aggravated by
navigation and processing errors and was consequently not used in the interpretation.

38

8.3 Seismic Interpretation


Data loading, preparation of synthetic seismograms, horizons identification and seismostratigraphic interpretation and correlation, began in February 2001 and was completed in
April 2001.

8.4 Structures
The only significant structure mapped persistent through the entire sedimentary section
was the Ballena Structure (Fig. 17). Two other structural culminations were also mapped
but their sedimentary section was thin and sediments of Middle Miocene age are seen to
outcrop on the sea-floor. A more detailed description on the nature of these structures
was covered in the preceding section, - 4.7 Geological Overview of the Salaverry Basin.

8.5 Seismic Stratigraphic Units


From the work done by Repsol (2000a) on the Morsa 1X and Lobos 1X wells it was
possible to establish biostratigraphically controlled formation tops by tying this
geological control to synthetic seismograms. An attempt was made to utilize the major
sedimentary sequences boundaries identified on seismic which were typically found to be
bounded by significant erosional unconformity surfaces. Additionally, one reflector, the
Middle Miocene Marker because of its regional continuity and importance to one of the
mapped stratigraphic/structural prospects, was also picked.
The stratigraphic horizons established picked with their equivalent formation top are as
follows::
1. eUMT Upper Miocene Top
2. eCH Intra Upper Miocene Channel
3. eMMM
Middle Miocene Marker
4. eUET Upper Eocene Top
5. eB
Tertiary Basement
8.5.1 Upper Miocene Top (eUMT)
This reflector is readily identifiable and very continuous across the basin. The Morsa
Norte 1X well intersected this unit, immediately below the Plio-Quaternary sediments.
The lower boundary of the Upper Miocene is present as an unconformity surface, which
is seen truncating the underlying reflectors. The overlying package to the sea floor is a
wedge of sediments that represents the basinward progradation of the outer continental
shelf and slope and is Pliocene to Quaternary in age.
The time-structure map of the Upper Miocene event (Enclosure 3) clearly shows that this
unit is continuous throughout both the Salaverry and Trujillo Basins although absent
through erosion on several prominent structural culminations. In the depocenter of the
Salaverry Basin, the base of this reflector attains has a TWT of 1150 ms (around 1300
39

m), whereas along the basinal flanks, it is much shallower. This elevation change attests
to the young age of the basin.
8.5.2 Intra Upper Miocene Channels (eCH)
The Intra Upper Miocene Channel event is floored by a highly discordant or eroded
surface forming spectacular submarine canyons in much the same manner as the younger
Upper Miocene event. This boundary represents the unconformity surface separating
Upper Miocene and Middle Miocene sediments. These canyon features have a strong EW orientation and a similar distribution although slightly more than that of the Upper
Miocene Top and occur primarily in the northern half of the study area. The sedimentary
fill is characterized by U-shaped continuous, low amplitude, high frequency reflectors
with internal chaotic character.
The 2WT structure map on this reflector that is presented in Figure 18 and Enclosure 4
when compared to the 2WT structure map on Basement (Fig. 17 and Enclosure 7) shows
how the Salaverry Basin attenuated through further subsidence related to the uplift of the
Salaverry high in Upper Miocene time.
8.5.3 Middle Miocene Marker (eMMM)
The Middle Miocene section is restricted to the western part of the Salaverry Basin,
(Salaverry High). During Middle Miocene time the Salaverry Basin was the shallow
shelfal area of the Trujillo Basin and this reflector is seen onlapping Basement.
This is a well-defined continuous seismic reflector with a strong impedance contrast and
is easily identifiable throughout most of the Trujillo Basin. This particular reflector
essentially is found within the middle of the Middle Miocene and is tied to the Morsa
Norte 1X well at 275 ms. A TWT map on this reflector is presented in Enclosure 5.
8.5.4 Upper Eocene Top (eUET)
The Upper Eocene section, although complete in the Trujillo Basin, is mostly absent in
Salaverry basin due to non-deposition. All four wells drilled in the area encountered
rocks of this age. The mapped surface represents the erosionally truncated surface of the
Eocene, which is overlain by rocks of Miocene or Oligiocene in age. A time-structure
map on the Eocene Top is presented in Enclosure 6.
8.5.5 Basement
A very stong and continuous reflector defines the base of the Tertiary section in the
Salaverry Basin. Here, we have interpreted the Tertiary to be overlying metasediments
of Mesozoic age which are believed to represent economic basement, as projected from
fieldwork done in the coastal areas and well control. A more through discussion on this
is given in the preceding sections - 4.2 The Basement of the Salaverry and Trujillo
Basins; and 4.7 Geological Overview of the Salaverry Basin. A time-structure map on
Basement is presented in Figure 17 and Enclosure 7.
40

Sechura/Salaverry
Structure

Morsa Structure

Ballena Structure

Figure 17: Time structure map on Basement (left)

Figure 18: Time structure map on Inter Upper Miocene Channel Top (right)

41

9.0 PROSPECTS

In the evaluation of the Salaverry basin, no prospects of any significance were noted despite
the fact that three large closures were mapped. The three structures from north to south have
been designated as: 1) Sechura/Salaverry (Fig. 18) ; 2) Morsa Norte (Fig. 18); and 3) Ballena
(Fig. 17).
The Sechura/Salaverry closure at basement level (Fig. 17), is at best a flat that plunges rapidly
to the west into the Trujillo Basin At the top of Middle Miocene level the structure is
breached. Within the mid-Middle Miocene section, the structure contracts and migrates
northwestward. This latter closure was defined previously in the Trujillo Basin Study as the
Leon Graben Central Prospect.
The Morsa Norte Structure is principally within the Trujillo Basin where it was tested by
Repsol in 1999 with the Morsa Norte 1X well. At shallower levels the structure extends into
the Salaverry Basin but here it is breached near the top of the Middle Miocene level and
consequently, offers little in terms of prospectivity.
The third structure, the Ballena, represents the best defined structure mapped within the
boundaries of the Salaverry Basin and was formed as a result of the Salaverry High uplift.
The Ballena 1X well, however, tested this feature in a near crestal position without any shows
of hydrocarbon or significant reservoir development.

10.0 CONCLUSIONS

The Salaverry Basin Project conducted by PARSEP took approximately two months to
complete and was an extension to the previously completed Trujillo Basin project (PARSEP,
2001). During this time virtually all the available geologically data, which included
government, industry and academic reports, and well data, was utilized within the project area
as well as regionally. Additionally, a PARSEP sponsored field trip (Appendix 2) was
conducted to the in the Salaverry/Trujillo area to help formulate and confirm a number of the
conclusions reached in this report. Geophysically, all the available SEGY seismic data that
was available was reviewed and interpreted. It is this latter work on which the foundations for
the conclusions reached on regional geology and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Salaverry
Basin was made.

10.1 Regional Geology


1. The Salaverry/Trujillo area is divided into two geological provinces represented by
two distinctively different basement types. The suture between these two provinces is
believed to be a 20 km zone of northwest trending strike slip faults in the offshore to
the south and onshore through the Bayovar Peninsula, to the north (Fig. 4). A
Mesozoic Andean-type suite of rocks form the basement of the Salaverry and Trujillo
Basins, and probably the Sechura South onshore Basin; they consist of slightly
metamorphosed, volcaniclastic assemblages and intrusive batholiths. In contrast, the
northwestern basins (North Trujillo, offshore Sechura South, Sechura North, Lancones,
Talara, Tumbes) were formed in a Paleozoic basement consisting of mid to highly
metamorphosed, igneous intrusives with heterogeneous lithologies, which have no
obvious Andean affinities.
2. With respect to the Cretaceous to early Tertiary (Paleocene) section intersected in the
Lobos well, it is postulated that this succession has more affinity with those seen to the
north in Paita and in the Lancones basin than within the Lower Cretaceous section of
the Andean margin bordering the Salaverry Basin. These characteristics together with
the different basement types partly support the interpretation of Jaillard (1993) of an
allochthonous terrain that was apparently accreted to the continental margin of
northern Peru during the latest Cretaceous- earliest Tertiary.
3. The evolution of the Salaverry basin in Tertiary time began as the eastern shelf area of
the deeper Trujillo Basin to the west. The basin itself is a very young feature that was
formed following a late Miocene uplift, which created the Salaverry High, a positive
area separating the Salaverry and the Trujillo Basins. The Salaverry Basin experienced
further subsidence during Pliocene times with renewed uplift of the Salaverry High.

43

10.2 Stratigraphy
1. Overlying economic basement of Mesozoic age, four main sedimentary sequences
have been recognized in the geological evolution of the Salaverry Basin, the Lower
Miocene, Middle Miocene, Upper Miocene and Plio-Quaternary.
2. To the west of the basin along the Salaverry High, sediments of lower Middle Miocene
and Upper Eocene age are seen onlapping basement and further west yet in the much
deeper Trujillo Basin, rocks of Oligocene and Lower to Middle Eocene are also
encountered.

10.3 Geochemistry
1. No mature source rock can be postulated for the Salaverry Basin. Any hydrocarbon
charge received in the basin would have to have migrated eastward from the deeper
depocenters of the Trujillo Basin.
10.4 Prospects
1. No prospects of any significance were mapped.

44

11.0 REFERENCES

Azalgara, C. (1993). Structural Evolucion of The Offshore Forearc Basins of Peru, including the
Salaverry, Trujillo, Lima, West Pisco and East Pisco Basins. (M. A. Thesis) Rice University
Caldas, J., Palacios, O., Pecho, V., and Vela, C., (1980). Geologa de los Cuadrngulos de: Bayovar,
Sechura, La Redonda, Pta. La Negra. Lobos de Tierra, Las Salinas y Morrope. Instituto Geologico,
Minero y Metalrgico, Boletin Serie A, N` 32, Lima, Peru.
Corelab (1996) Geochem Evaluation of Selected: wells, seeps, and oil samples from Peru Core
Laboratories
Corelab (1999) Geochemical Evaluation and Correlation of the Morsa Norte crude oil. Core
Laboratories
Corelab (1999a). Petrographic report for Repsol Exploracion Peru, Morsa Norte Z29M-37-1X,
Offshore Peru. Core Laboratories, Advanced Technology Center, Carrollton, Texas.
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Geochem Group Limited (1999a). A geochemical evaluation of well Morsa Norte Z29M-37-1X,
offshore Peru. Geochem Group Limited, Petroleum Geochemistry Division.
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Gavio, C. (1987) Evaluacin Geologica de la Cuenca Salaverry. Estudio Petrogrfico (Areas Rio La
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Jaillard, E. (1994). Kimmeridgian to Paleocene tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the Peruvian
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Jequetepeque. PETROPERU.

45

Oxidental Peruana (1971) Final Well Report Ballena 8-X-1.


Oxidental Peruana (1971) Final Well Report Delfin 20-X-1.
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Repsol Exploracion Madrid, (1996). Trujillo Basin, Block Z-29, Source Potential Geochemical
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Repsol Exploracin Per (1997) Amplitude vs Offset (AVO) study for marine seismic survey, Block
Z29. Veritas
Repsol Exploracin Per (1999). Informe final del sondeo Morsa Norte Z29M-37-1X.
Exploracin, Sucursal del Per.

Repsol

Repsol Exploracin Per (1999). Informe final del sondeo Lobos Z29M-9-1X. Repsol Exploracin,
Sucursal del Per.
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Repsol Exploracion Peru (1999) Mapping and Significance of Amplitude Anomalies in the Lobos
Basin Floor Turbidite.
Sotomayor, J., Chambers, A. and Molina, F. (1999). Well Lobos Z29M-9-1X-Integrated interpretation
study: Petrophysical interpretation, geological interpretation, structural analysis and geological
model. Exploration Technical Direction, Repsol-YPF, Madrid.
Tarazona, A. (1987) Anlisis visual de kerogeno en 52 muestras de campo Formaciones: Chicama,
Chimu, Santa, Carhuaz, Farrat, Inca, Chulec, Pariatambo. Cuenca Salaverry. PETROPERU.
Torres, J, and Fontecha, B. (2000). Stratigraphy and semidementology of wells Morsa Norte Z29M-371X and Lobos Z29M-9-1X. Apex Petroleum, Inc. Colorado.
Vergara, J., Vargas, L. (1989) Secciones Estratigrficas medidas en el valle del Rio Zaa (Cuenca
Salaverry). PETROLEOS DEL PERU.
Vargas, L., Uyen, D. (1987) Secciones Estratigrficas del Rio Chicama (Cuenca Salaverry).
PETROLEOS DEL PERU.

46

APPENDIX 1
Geological Legend For Enclosure 1 and Figure 2
(From Ingemmet 1:1,000,000 Map 1995)

APPENDIX 2

INFORME DEL RECONOCIMIENTO


GEOLOGICO DE CAMPO DE LAS REAS DE
PAITA, BAYOVAR, VALLE DEL RO CHICAMA,
MALABRIGO Y PUEMAPE

Por: YSABEL CALDERON


Revisado: Ing. CARLOS MONGES

Proyecto PARSEP

LIMA 2 DE ENERO DEL 2001

INFORME DEL RECONOCIMIENTO GEOLOGICO DE CAMPO DE LAS


REAS DE PAITA, BAYOVAR, VALLE DEL RO CHICAMA,
MALABRIGO Y PUEMAPE

TABLA DE CONTENIDO

INTRODUCCION ........................................................................................................ 3
OBJETIVO .................................................................................................................. 3
AREAS DE PAITA Y BAYOVAR................................................................................ 4
Ubicacin y Accesibilidad .........................................................................................................4
Aspectos Geolgicos...................................................................................................................4
Estratigrafa .................................................................................................................................4
PALEOZOICO ....................................................................................................................4
CRETACEO ........................................................................................................................4
Campaniano medio-superior (Formacin La Meza) .....................................................................4
Maastrichtiano inferior (Formacin La Tortuga) .........................................................................4
Maastrichtiano medio (Formacin El Cenizo) ............................................................................5
Paleoceno (Formacin Balcones) .............................................................................................5
Eoceno Inferior (Formacin Salina-Mogolln) (?) .......................................................................5
Eoceno Superior (Formacin Verdn) (?) ..................................................................................5
Geologia Estructural .....................................................................................................................5
AREAS DE VALLE DEL RIO CHICAMA, MALABRIGO Y PUEMAPE.................... 11
Ubicacion y accesibilidad ...............................................................................................................11
Aspectos Geolgicos ......................................................................................................................11
Estratigrafa ...............................................................................................................................11
Geologia Estructural ...................................................................................................................11

CONCLUSIONES ..................................................................................................... 12

INFORME DEL RECONOCIMIENTO GEOLOGICO DE CAMPO DE LAS


REAS DE PAITA, BAYOVAR, VALLE DEL RO CHICAMA,
MALABRIGO Y PUEMAPE
INTRODUCCION
La evaluacin de las cuencas de offshore, Salaverry y Trujillo, que viene conduciendo el grupo de
trabajo del Proyecto PARSEP motiv la realizacin de este trabajo de reconocimiento geolgico, cuyo fin fue la
observacin y toma de datos de los afloramientos de rocas del Paleozoico, Jursico, Cretceo y Terciario
localizados entre Paita y Trujillo. La utilizacin de estos datos con la informacin geolgica, geofsica y
geoqumica disponibles y que viene trabajando el grupo, permitir elaborar un mejor modelo geolgico que
replantee el potencial de hidrocarburos de estas dos cuencas.
El viaje se realiz entre el 12 y 17 de Diciembre, recorriendo mas de 1,600 kms que comprendieron las
localidades de Paita, La Tortuga, Pennsula de Bayovar, Playa Tantalen, Valle de Chicama, Punta Moreno, El
Cruce, Malabrigo y Puemape.
Participaron en este viaje los gelogos Javier Jacay (Guia de Campo de la empresa MINPETROL),
Rolando Bolaos, Carlos Monges, Gary Wine e Ysabel Caldern del Proyecto PARSEP.
El recorrido del viaje se inici en la localidad de Paita el da 13 de Diciembre donde se
apreciaron los afloramientos del Paleozoico, Cretaceo (Fm La Meza, Fm Tortuga, Fm Cenizo) y del
Terciario (Fm Balcones). Bayovar fue el siguiente punto de estudio donde se observaron afloramientos
reportados como de la Formacin Verdn (?) del Eoceno superior. El recorrido al Valle del ro
Chicama, donde se apreciaron diversas facies de formaciones desde el Titoniano hasta el
Valanginiano, se realiz el dia 15 de diciembre. Durante el ltimo da de campo se hizo un
reconocimiento de las reas costeras de Malabrigo y Puemape, donde se observaron secuencias del
Grupo Goyllarizquisga discordante sobre secuencias metamorfizadas identificadas como de la
Formacin Coln del Jursico Inferior de la costa.

OBJETIVO
El objetivo principal de este reconocimiento geolgico fue el de observar y analizar
directamente las relaciones estratigrficas de la series expuestas en las diferentes localidades
seleccionadas, identificar y reconocer los modelos sedimentarios de cada una de ellas, observar su
grado y tipo de deformacin tectnica y en algunos de los casos el grado de metamorfismo que afect
a las rocas. Esta experiencia visual transformada en informacin geolgica es de tremenda utilidad al
momento de trabajar la interpretacin de las secciones ssmicas y en la concepcin regional del rea
de estudio.

AREAS DE PAITA Y BAYOVAR


Ubicacin y Accesibilidad
Las dos reas de estudio se encuentran ubicadas en la Costa Noroeste del Per. La principal ruta de
acceso a estas localidades es por la carretera Panamericana Norte. A partir de esta, salen numerosos
ramales afirmados, los mismos que cruzan el rea (Figuras No 1 y No 2). Desde la ciudad de Piura se
toma la carretera a Paita, unos 5 kilmetros antes de esta ciudad se toma el desvo al sur que lleva
directamente al poblado La Tortuga. Desde aqu se puede bajar a la playa donde hay excelentes
exposiciones, a lo largo de 5 kilmetros, de rocas del Cretceo superior (Fms. Tortuga y Cenizo) y
Paleoceno (Fm. Balcones)
El rea de la Pennsula de Bayovar es accesible saliendo de Piura tomando la carretera Panamericana en
direccin al sur hasta encontrar a unos 85 kms el desvo a Bayovar, desde este punto en direccin al
oeste se recorren unos 60 kms, sobre una carretera en regulares condiciones que atraviesa un rido y
salino desierto y que est interrumpida en varios puntos por el avance de medanos de arena.

Aspectos Geolgicos
Estratigrafa

PALEOZOICO
Serie metamrfica deformada a partir de secuencias sedimentarias areno- pelticas que han
sido transformadas a esquistos de bajo grado, filitas y cuarcitas. (J. Jacay). Estas se exponen en el
sector de la Playa Tantalean (Bayovar). Los niveles pelticos son los que mayormente han sufrido los
efectos del metamorfismo regional y trmico. Las filitas estn constituidas por finas laminaciones
negro-azulinas, mayormente fisibles y astillosas con superficie lustrosa.

CRETACEO
Campaniano medio-superior (Formacin La Meza)
Formacin conocida tambin como Caliza La Meza, se le encuentra en el cerro La Meza,
ubicado al Sureste de Paita. Afloran Calizas masivas que presentan un fracturamiento vertical
columnar. Segn estudios microscpicos de INGEMMET, revelan que se trata de una caliza
biospartica que contienen un 40% de aloqumicos como bioclastos de foraminferos, ostracodos,
restos de lamelibranquios remplazados por calcita y un 60% de ortoqumicos en forma de esparita y
micrita. (Figura No 3). Esta formacin corresponde al Campaniano superior. (Foto N 0)

Maastrichtiano inferior (Formacin La Tortuga)


Se trata de secuencias conglomerdicas que afloran en las playas del sur de la gran
Pennsula de Paita. La Serie Maastrichtiana aflora discordante sobre el Paleozoico indiferenciado y las
mejores exposiciones se encuentran en las playas La Tortuga, El Cenizo, Punta Perico y Playa Perico.
La ocurrencia de potentes conglomerados y brechas del Maastrichtiano temprano (?)
indicara la ocurrencia de un evento tectnico importante representado en los depsitos gruesos de la
Fm. La Tortuga a lo largo de la costa de Paita. Este evento tectnico fue seguido probablemente por
el levantamiento de la cuenca. (Figura 4)
Niveles intercalados con brechas pasan gradualmente a depsitos marinos. Esta secuencia
esta conformada por lutitas marinas, areniscas de playa y brechas de cono aluvial, el cambio

transicional a areniscas ms finas va indicando el grado de profundizacin del ambiente de


depositacin. (Foto N 1)
En esta rea se pueden ver tambin zonas de paleo corrientes. (Foto N 2)
Maastrichtiano medio (Formacin El Cenizo)
Secuencia de areniscas grises, negras y gris amarillentas masivas con lentes y horizontes
conglomerdicos transgresivos, descansan en discordancia angular sobre la Formacin Tortuga. Esta
serie representa un ciclo de plataforma litoral (J.Jaillard, 1997) Edad probable Maastrichtiano medio.
El espesor de esta formacin es de aproximadamente 200 m. (Foto N 3 )
TERCIARIO
Paleoceno (Formacin Balcones)
Una potente secuencia (500 m) de clsticos finos gris oscuros, de ambiente de plataforma con
un nivel basal de brechas que descansan en discordancia angular sobre la Formacin Cenizo,
identifican este ciclo de probable edad Paleoceno. (Foto N 4 )

Eoceno Inferior (Formacin Salina-Mogolln) (?)


Abanicos aluviales atribuidos al Salina-Mogolln de edad Eoceno temprano son reportados en la seccin de La
Tortuga (J.Jaillard, 1998). Cerca de cerro Blanco sobre la carretera camino a la localidad de La Tortuga aparecen
afloramientos de conglomerados que por tipo de facies podran atribuirse al Salina.Mogolln. Facies clsticas
marinas litorales mas finas infrayacen a estos conglomerados y descansan en discordancia angular sobre rocas
metamrficas del Paleozoico indiferenciado. (Foto N 5).
Eoceno Superior (Formacin Verdn) (?)
La denominacin corresponde a IDDINGS y OLSSON (1928) quienes describieron unas
areniscas macizas y lutitas yesferas en los alrededores de Verdn en la regin de Talara y que
afloran en la zona de Parias. La edad correspondiente a esta formacion es Eoceno superior
En el rea de la Pennsula de Bayovar la Fm. Verdn est mapeada en varios sitios como en
la parte superior de la playa Tantalean (Hojas 12 y 12b de Bayovar y Sechura). En las proximidades
de la playa se puede apreciar areniscas calcreos que descansan directamente sobre las rocas
metamrficas, con facies coquiniferas amarillentas no muy compactas (!), con abundantes fragmentos
fosiles, suprayaciendo a esta secuencia se encuentran areniscas muy friables(!) con estructuras
sedimentarias de corriente de alta energa muy notorias, con laminacin y estratificacin cruzada
festoneada de alto angulo. Las estructuras sedimentarias parecen ser de un ambiente de barras de
canales entrecruzados. La poca compactacin de los sedimentos y las facies coquinferas con
bivalvos fsiles tipo Spondilus hacen dudar que esos afloramientos sean del Eoceno superior.
Podran corresponder a sedimentos del Cuaternario. (Fotos N 6 y 7).

Geologia Estructural
Los Macizos de Paita e Illescas (Bayovar) son dos accidentes tectnicos de importancia
regional en lo que se refiere a las cuencas de la costa norte del Per. La Silla de Paita es una
protuberancia geogrfica de la costa norte actual, con un ncleo de rocas metamrficas Paleozoicas
intruda por granitos pre-Mesozoicos. Este macizo esta circundado por remanentes de rocas del
Cretceo superior de diferente composicin litolgica y diferente ambiente de deposicin que las
series equivalentes de dominio Andino. La serie del Cretceo inferior (Grupo Goyllarisquizga) que
aflora a lo largo de las estribaciones nor-occidentales de los Andes ha sido diferenciada de la serie
Cretcica de la Costa por varios autores. Estas notorias diferencias han sugerido establecer la

hiptesis de que las cadena Paleozoica de los Amotapes, la Silla de Paita y el Macizo de Illescas
podran ser micro-continentes alctonos con raz de corteza ocenica acrecionados a la placa
continental en diferentes eventos y tiempos, quizs hacia el lmite Cretceo-Terciario. Mediciones de
paleo-corrientes realizadas a la serie Cretcica de La Tortuga indican una direccin de aporte del
oeste hacia el este, completamente opuesto a la configuracin de la cuenca Cretcica Andina.
En el rea de Bayovar el Macizo de Illescas tiene la forma estructural de un gran anticlinorio
con eje noroeste-sureste. Esta constituido por un complejo metamrfico igneo con rocas de probable
edad pre-Cambriana consistentes en gneises anfibolitas y tonalitas, superpuesto por una serie
paleozoica que incluye cuarcitas, filitas, microesquistos, migmatitas.

Figura No 1 Mapa de Ubicacin del rea de Paita y localidades visitadas

Figura No 2 Mapa de Ubicacin del rea de Bayovar y localidades visitadas.

Figura No 3 Formacin La Meza. Columna realizada en estudios previos.

Figura No 4 Formacin La Tortuga, Cenizo, Balcones y Mogolln. Columna realizada en estudios


previos.

10

AREAS DE VALLE DEL RIO CHICAMA, MALABRIGO Y PUEMAPE


Ubicacion y accesibilidad
Zona ubicada a una distancia de 59 Km, al NNE de la ciudad de Trujillo, en el curso medio del Valle del
ro Chicama. La principal va terrestre es la carretera Panamericana de la cual parten varios ramales, para esta
zona se tom la carretera Chicama-Sayapullo, que asciende por el valle de Chicama. (Figura N 5)
Aspectos Geolgicos
Estratigrafa
En el rea del Valle de Chicama se pudo apreciar a lo largo de este, las secuencias Jursico-Cretcicas y
en Puerto de Mal Abrigo las secuencias que perteneceran al Colan (segn T. Mourier, 1988) seguidas de una
secuencia Volcanosedimentaria perteneciente a la Formacin Tinajones, sobre el cual descansa en forma
discordante las areniscas cuarcticas que pertenecen al Grupo Goyllarisquizga.
Las secuencias presentes en el valle de Chicama, segun nuevos estudios realizados (Tesis J. Jacay) en el
rea se opt por una nueva denominacin, tomadas de los afloramientos de los alrededores del poblado de Punta
Moreno. Al sur de dicho pueblo aflora la primera unidad del Grupo Chicama constituida por una secuencia
rtmica de areniscas y microconglomerados volcanoclsticos y de lutitas. Las areniscas son generalmente de
coloracin gris verdoso a gris marrn y de granulometra variada. En esta secuencia denominada Formacion
Punta Moreno, se realiz un anlisis de facies anteriormente. En este lugar se puede apreciar secuencias
turbidticas definidas por la ritmicidad de la sedimentacin.
La formacin Sapotal, la cual se observa en la quebrada que est prxima al poblado de El Cruce,
muestra una secuencia de lutitas negras gris azuladas con delgadas intercalaciones de areniscas gris amarillentas.
Esta secuencia es bastante fosilfera habiendose encontrado Substeueroceras y Neocomites (praeneocomiensis)
comunes del Titoniano superior. Sugiere un sistema de prodelta que prograda sobre la serie de turbiditas
infrayacentes.
La secuencia de cuarcitas en bancos potentes, denominada formacin Tinajones muestra una gradacin a
areniscas volcanoclsticas en facies de canales de llanura deltaica, alternando en la parte superior con cuarcitas de
estratificacin cruzada con lutitas, evidencia de tectnica sinsedimentaria. (Figura No 6)
Del Grupo Goyllarisquizga se pudo apreciar a la formacin Chimu representada por areniscas de grano
medio a grueso.
Geologia Estructural
Las rocas de las series Jursica y Cretcica observadas en el Valle del Chicama estn fuertemente
plegadas obedeciendo a esfuerzos probablemente de transpresin (?) debido a la accin de un
sistema de fallas de rumbo dextrales E-O que generaron la deflexin de Cajamarca. (Ver figura ?Mapa geolgico entre el rea de Cajamarca y Trujillo)
Las estructuras plegadas consisten en una serie de anticlinales y sinclinales bien desarrollados y de
pliegues secundarios. Alguno de los cuales se pudo apreciar durante el transcurso de acceso por el valle de
Chicama.

11

CONCLUSIONES
1.

La participacin de gelogos de diversas especialidades trajo consigo la combinacin de diversos


criterios los cuales contribuyeron con el objetivo del trabajo de reconocimiento geolgico.

2.

La cuenca donde se depositaron las rocas de la Formacin Tortuga se form posiblemente como un pull
apart basin, con la participacin de fallas transcurrentes que afectaron al Paleozoico y que fueron
reactivndose al mismo tiempo de la sedimentacin.

3.

Con respecto a la formacin denominada Verdn en Bayovar, se puede decir que parece ser una buena
roca reservorio, sin embargo est en discusin la edad exacta de esta formacin en la localidad de la
playa Tantalen.

4.

Por otro lado las secuencias encontradas en Puerto Malabrigo tienen un grado de metamorfismo bastante
alto. El tope de estas secuencias posiblemente se vea reflejado como un fuerte reflector ssmico en las
lneas ssmicas que cruzan de oeste a este la cuenca costa-fuera de Salaverry.

12

Figura No 5 Mapa de Ubicacin del rea de Chicama

13

Figura No 6. Valle del Chicama. Columna realizada en estudios previos

Foto No 0 Fm La Meza en el Area de Paita. Cerro La Meza

Foto No 1 Formacin Tortuga, secuencia grano decreciente. Localidad Paita. Playa Tortuga

15

Foto No 2 Formacin Tortuga. Playa Tortuga. Depositacin de paleocorrientes.

Foto No 3 Contacto discordante entre la


Formacion La Tortuga y El Cenizo. Playa El
Cenizo

16

Foto No 4 Contacto discordante en la Formacion El Cenizo y Balcones. Playa El Perico

Foto No 5 Fm Salina Mogollon(?) . Camino a la Playa Tortuga

17

Foto No 6 Terrazas del Terciario(?) sobre el Basamento Paleozoico. Playa Tantalean

Foto No 7 Terciario(?) sobre el Basamento Paleozoico. Playa Tantalean

18

Foto No 8 Valle del Chicama. Secuencias turbiditicas de la Formacion Punta Moreno

Foto No 9 Punta Mal Abrigo. Contacto entre la Formacin Coln y la Base del Grupo Goyllar

19