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You are on page 1of 28

Ed. Joseph D. Bronzino

Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000

56

Wavelet (Time-Scale)

Analysis in Biomedical

Signal Processing

56.1

56.2

Introduction

The Wavelet Transform: Variable Time and

Frequency Resolution

The Continuous Wavelet Transform The Discrete Wavelet

Transform

Nitish V. Thakor

56.3

Boris Gramatikov

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

David Sherman

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

Using Orthogonal Wavelets

Implementation of the Multiresolution Wavelet Transorm:

Analysis and Synthesis of Algorithms

56.4

56.5

Applications

Cardiac Signal Processing Neurological Signal Processing

Other Applications

Signals recorded from the human body provide information pertaining to its organs. Their characteristic

shape, or temporal and spectral properties, can be correlated with normal or pathological functions. In

response to dynamical changes in the function of these organs, the signals may exhibit time-varying as

well as nonstationary responses. Time-frequency and time-scale analysis techniques are well suited for

such biological signals. Joint time-frequency signal analysis techniques include short-term Fourier transform and Wigner-Ville distribution, and related reduced interference distribution. Joint time-scale

analysis includes continuous and discrete, orthonormal and non-orthonormal wavelets. These techniques

find applications in the analysis of transient and time-varying events in biological signals. Examples of

applications include cardiac signals (for detection of ischemia and reperfusion-related changes in QRS

complex, and late potentials in ECG) and neurological signals (evoked potentials and seizure spikes).

56.1 Introduction

Digital signal processing uses sophisticated mathematical analysis and algorithms to extract information

hidden in signals derived from sensors. In biomedical applications these sensors such as electrodes,

accelerometers, optical imagers, etc., record signals from biological tissue with the goal of revealing their

health and well-being in clinical and research settings. Refining those signal processing algorithms for

biological applications requires building suitable signal models to capture signal features and components

that are of diagnostic importance. As most signals of a biological origin are time-varying, there is a special

need for capturing transient phenomena in both healthy and chronically ill states.

A critical feature of many biological signals is frequency domain parameters. Time localization of these

changes is an issue for biomedical researchers who need to understand subtle frequency content changes

over time. Certainly, signals marking the transition from severe normative to diseased states of an

organism sometimes undergo severe changes which can easily be detected using methods such as the

Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) for deterministic signals and its companion, the spectrogram, for

power signals. The basis function for the STFT is a complex sinusoid, e j2ft, which is suitable for stationary

analyses of narrowband signals. For signals of a biological origin, the sinusoid may not be a suitable

analysis signal. Biological signals are often spread out over wide areas of the frequency spectrum. Also

as Rioul and Vetterli [1] point out, when the frequency content of a signal changes in a rapid fashion,

the frequency content becomes smeared over the entire frequency spectrum as it does in the case of the

onset of seizure spikes in epilepsy or a fibrillating heartbeat as revealed on an ECG. The use of a

narrowband basis function does not accurately represent wideband signals. It is preferred that the basis

functions be similar to the signal under study. In fact, for a compact representation using as few basis

functions as possible, it is desirable to use basis functions that have a wider frequency spread as most

biological signals do. Wavelet theory, which provides for wideband representation of signals [2-4], is

therefore a natural choice for biomedical engineers involved in signal processing and currently under

intense study [5-9].

Resolution. Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT)

A decomposition of a signal, based on a wider frequency mapping and consequently better time resolution

is possible with the wavelet transform. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) [3] is defined thusly

for a continuous signal, x(t),

t

dt

a

(56.1a)

CWTx , a = a x at g * t dt

a

(56.1b)

( )

CWTx , a =

x(at )g *

a

( )

( )

where g(t) is the mother or basic wavelet, * denotes a complex conjugate, a is the scale factor, and a

time shift. Typically, g(t) is a bandpass function centered around some center frequency, fo . Scale a allows

the compression or expansion of g(t) [1, 3, 10]. A larger scale factor generates the same function

compressed in time whereas a smaller scale factor generates the opposite. When the analyzing signal is

contracted in time, similar signal features or changes that occur over a smaller time window can be

studied. For the wavelet transform, the same basic wavelet is employed with only alterations in this signal

arising from scale changes. Likewise, a smaller scale function enables larger time translations or delays

in the basic signal.

The notion of scale is a critical feature of the wavelet transform because of time and frequency domain

reciprocity. When the scale factor, a, is enlarged, the effect on frequency is compression as the analysis

window in the frequency domain is contracted by the amount 1/a [10]. This equal and opposite frequency

domain scaling effect can be put to advantageous use for frequency localization. Since we are using

bandpass filter functions, a center frequency change at a given scale yields wider or narrower frequency

response changes depending on the size of the center frequency. This is the same in the analog or digital

filtering theories as constant-Q or quality factor analysis [1, 10, 11]. At a given Q or scale factor,

frequency translates are accompanied by proportional bandwidth or resolution changes. In this regard,

wavelet transforms are often written with the scale factor rendered as

a=

f

f0

(56.2)

or

f

CWTx , a = =

fo

1

f fo

t

dt .

fo

x(t )g * f

(56.3)

This is the equivalent to logarithmic scaling of the filter bandwidth or octave scaling of the filter

bandwidth for power-of-two growth in center frequencies. Larger center frequency entails a larger bandwidth and vice versa.

The analyzing wavelet, g(t), should satisfy the following conditions:

(1) belong to L2 (R), i.e., be square integrable (be of finite energy) [2];

(2) be analytic [G() = 0 for < 0] and thus be complex-valued. In fact many wavelets are realvalued; however, analytic wavelets often provide valuable phase information [3], indicative of

changes of state, particularly in acoustics, speech, and biomedical signal processing [8]; and

(3) be admissible. This condition was shown to enable invertibility of the transform [2, 6, 12]:

()

st =

1

cg

1

t 1

( ) a g a a da d

W , a

a>0

where cg is a constant that depends only on g(t) and a is positive. For an analytic wavelet the

constant should be positive and convergent:

cg =

()

d <

which in turn imposes an admissibility condition on g(t). For a real-valued wavelet, the integrals

from both to 0 and 0 to + should exist and be greater than zero.

The admissibility condition along with the issue of reversibility of the transformation is not so

critical for applications where the emphasis is on signal analysis and feature extraction. Instead,

it is often more important to use a fine sampling of both the translation and scale parameters.

This introduces redundancy which is typical for the CWT, unlike for the discrete wavelet transform,

which is used in its dyadic, orthogonal, and invertible form.

All admissible wavelets with g L1(R) have no zero-frequency contribution. That is, they are

of zero mean,

+

g (t )dt = 0

or equivalently G() = 0 for = 0, meaning that g(t) should not have non-zero DC [6, 12]. This

condition is often being applied also to nonadmissible wavelets.

The complex-valued Morlets wavelet is often selected as the choice for signal analysis using the CWT.

Morlets wavelet [3] is defined as

()

g t = e j 2 f ot e

(56.4a)

2 f o

t

t

j

t

g = e a e 2a 2

a

2

(56.4b)

Morlets wavelet insures that the time-scale representation can be viewed as a time-frequency distribution

as in Eq. (56.3). This wavelet has the best representation in both time and frequency because it is based

on the Gaussian window. The Gaussian function guarantees a minimum time-bandwidth product,

providing for maximum concentration in both time and frequency domains [1]. This is the best compromise for a simultaneous localization in both time and frequency as the Gaussian functions Fourier

transform is simply a scaled version of its time domain function. Also the Morlet wavelet is defined by

an explicit function and leads to a quasi continuous discrete version [11]. A modified version of Morlets

wavelet leads to fixed center frequency, fo , with width parameter, ,

( )

g , t = e j 2 f ot e

2

t

22

(56.4c)

Once again time-frequency (TF) reciprocity determines the degree of resolution available in time and

frequency domains. Choosing a small window size, , in the time domain, yields poor frequency resolution while offering excellent time resolution and vice versa [11, 13]. To satisfy the requirement for

admissibility and G(0) = 0, a correction term must be added. For > 5, this correction term becomes

negligibly small and can be omitted. The requirements for the wavelet to be analytic and of zero mean

is best satisfied for 0 = 5.3 [3].

Following the definition in Eq. (56.1a,b) the discrete implementation of the CWT in the time-domain

is a set of bandpass filters with complex-valued coefficients, derived by dilating the basic wavelet by the

scale factor, a, for each analyzing frequency. The discrete form of the filters for each a is the convolution:

k+ n

i k

1

S k, a =

s i gm

=

a

a i=k n

a

( )

()

2

n

2

s(k i) g

i= n

i

a

with k = /Ts , where Ts is the sampling interval. The summation is over a number of terms, n. Because

of the scaling factor a in the denominator of the argument of the wavelet, the wavelet has to be resampled

at a sampling interval Ts /a for each scale a. Should the CWT cover a wide frequency range, a computational

problem would arise. For example, if we wish to display the CWT over 10 octaves (a change by one

octave corresponds to changing the frequency by a factor of 2), the computational complexity (size of

the summation) increases by a factor of 210 = 1024. The algorithm by Holschneider et al. [14] solves this

problem for certain classes of wavelets by replacing the need to resample the wavelet with a recursive

application of an interpolating filter. Since scale is a multiplicative rather than an additive parameter,

another way of reducing computational complexity would be by introducing levels between octaves

(voices) [15]. Voices are defined to be the scale levels between successive octaves, uniformly distributed

in a multiplicative sense [13, 16]. Thus, the ratio between two successive voices is constant. For example,

if one wishes to have ten voices per octave, then the ratio between successive voices is 21/10. The distance

between two levels, ten voices apart is an octave.

The CWT can also be implemented in the frequency domain. Equation (56.1) may be formulated in

the frequency domain as:

( )

() ( )

CWT , a = a S G a e j d

(56.5)

where S() and G() denote the Fourier transformed s(t) and g(t), and j = (1)1/2. The analyzing wavelet

g(t) generally has the following Fourier transform:

()

( )

G , a = a G a e j

(56.6a)

()

Gm =

1

2

(56.6b)

From Eq. (56.6a,b) it can be seen that for low frequencies, , (larger scales a) the width, , of the

Gaussian is smaller and vice versa. In fact, the ratio / is constant [1], i.e., Morlet wavelets may be

considered filter banks of the constant-Q factor.

Based on Eqs. (56.5 and 56.6a,b) the wavelet transform can be implemented in the frequency domain.

At each scale, the Fourier image of the signal can be computed as

( ) () ( )

Y , a = S Gm , a

with S() being the Fourier transform of the signal, Gm(, a) being the scaled Fourier image of the

Morlet wavelet at scale a, and the operation standing for element-by-element multiplication (windowing

in frequency domain). The signal at each scale a will finally be obtained by applying the inverse Fourier

transform:

( ) ( ) Y ( , a )

CWT , a = FFT

This approach has the advantage of avoiding computationally intensive convolution of time-domain

signals by using multiplication in the frequency domain, as well as the need of resampling the mother

wavelet in the time domain [17, 18].

Note that the CWT is, in the general case, a complex-valued transformation. In addition to its

magnitude, its phase often contains valuable information pertinent to the signal being analyzed, particularly in instants of transients [3]. Sometimes the TF distribution of the nonstationary signal is much

more important. This may be obtained by means of real-valued wavelets. Alternatives to the complexvalued Morlet wavelet are simpler, real-valued wavelets that may be utilized for the purpose of the CWT.

For example, the early Morlet wavelet, as used for seismic signal analysis [19], had the following realvalued form:

()

( )

g t = cos 5t e t

It had a few cycles of a sine wave tapered by a Gaussian envelope. Though computationally attractive,

this idea contradicts the requirement for an analytic wavelet, i.e., its Fourier transform G() = 0 for

< 0. An analytic function is generally complex-valued in the time domain and has its real and imaginary

parts as Hilbert transforms of each other [2, 20]. This guarantees only positive-frequency components

of the analyzing signal.

A variety of analyzing wavelets have been proposed in recent years for time-scale analysis of the ECG.

For example, Senhadji et al. [21] applied a pseudo-Morlets wavelet to bandpass filtering to find out

whether some abnormal ECG events like extrasystoles and ischemia are mapped on specific decomposition levels:

() (

))

and

k integer 1, 0,1

with the product kf0 defining the number of oscillations of the complex part, and C representing a

normalizing constant such that ||g|| = 1. The above function is a modulated complex sine wave that would

yield complex-valued CWT including phase information. However its envelope is a cosine, rather than

a Gaussian, as in the case of the complex Morlet wavelet. It is well known that strictly the Gaussian

function (both in time and frequency domain) guarantees the smallest possible time-bandwidth product

which means maximum concentration in the time and frequency domains [22].

The STFT has the same time-frequency resolution regardless of frequency translations. The STFT can

be written as

( ) x(t ) g (t )e

STFT , f =

2 jft

dt

(56.7)

where g(t) is the time window that selects the time interval for analysis or otherwise known as the

spectrum localized in time. Figure 56.1 shows comparative frequency resolution of both the STFT as well

as the wavelet transform. The STFT is often thought to be analogous to a bank of bandpass filters, each

shifted by a certain modulation frequency, fo . In fact, the Fourier transform of a signal can be interpreted

as passing the signal through multiple bandpass filters with impulse response, g(t)ej2ft, and then using

complex demodulation to downshift the filter output. Ultimately, the STFT as a bandpass filter rendition

simply translates the same low pass filter function through the operation of modulation. The characteristics of the filter stay the same though the frequency is shifted.

Unlike the STFT, the wavelet transform implementation is not frequency independent so that higher

frequencies are studied with analysis filters with wider bandwidth. Scale changes are not equivalent to

FIGURE 56.1 Comparative frequency resolution for Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and Wavelet Transform

(WT). Note that frequency resolution of STFT is constant across frequency spectrum. The WT has a frequency

resolution that is proportional to the center frequency of the bandpass filter.

varying modulation frequencies that the STFT uses. The dilations and contractions of the basis function

allow for variation of time and frequency resolution instead of uniform resolution of the Fourier transform [15].

Both the wavelet and Fourier transform are linear Time-Frequency Representations (TFRs) for which

the rules of superposition or linearity apply [10]. This is advantageous in cases of two or more separate

signal constituents. Linearity means that cross-terms are not generated in applying either the linear TF

or time-scale operations. Aside from linear TFRs, there are quadratic TF representations which are quite

useful in displaying energy and correlation domain information. These techniques, also described elsewhere in this volume include the Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD), smoothed WVD, the reduced inference distribution (RID), etc. One example of the smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution is

1

1

W t , f = s * t e j 2 f s * t + h d

2

2 2

( )

(56.8)

where h(t), is a smoothing function. In this case the smoothing kernel for the generalized or Cohens

class of TFRs is

t , = h t .

2

( )

()

These methods display joint TF information in such a fashion as to display rapid changes of energy over

the entire frequency spectrum. They are not subject to variations due to window selection as in the case

of the STFT. A problematic area for these cases is the elimination of those cross-terms that are the result

of the embedded correlation.

It is to be noted that the scalogram or scaled energy representation for wavelets can be represented as

a Wigner-Ville distribution as [1]

CWTx , a

(56.9)

where

1

1

W x t , f = x t e j 2 f x * t + d

2

2

( )

In the discrete TFRs both time and scale changes are discrete. Scaling for the discrete wavelet transform

involves sampling rate changes. A larger scale corresponds to subsampling the signal. For a given number

of samples a larger time swath is covered for a larger scale. This is the basis of signal compression schemes

as well [23]. Typically, a dyadic or binary scaling system is employed so that given a discrete wavelet

function, (x), is scaled by values that are binary. Thus

()

( )

2j t = 2 j 2 j t

(56.10)

where j is the scaling index and j = 0, 1, 2, . In a dyadic scheme, subsampling is always decimationin-time by a power of 2. Translations in time will be proportionally larger as well as for a more sizable scale.

It is for discrete time signals that scale and resolution are related. When the scale is increased, resolution

is lowered. Resolution is strongly related to frequency. Subsampling means lowered frequency content. Rioul

and Vetterli [1] use the microscope analogy to point out that smaller scale (higher resolution) helps to

explore fine details of a signal. This higher resolution is apparent with samples taken at smaller time intervals.

Using Orthogonal Wavelets

One key result of the wavelet theory is that signals can be decomposed in a series of orthogonal wavelets.

This is similar to the notion of decomposing a signal in terms of discrete Fourier transform components

or Walsh or Haar functions. Orthogonality insures a unique and complete representation of the signal.

Likewise the orthogonal complement provides some measure of the error in the representation. The

difference in terms of wavelets is that each of the orthogonal vector spaces offers component signals with

varying levels of resolution and scale. This is why Mallat [24] named his algorithm the multiresolution

signal decomposition. Each stage of the algorithm generates wavelets with sequentially finer representations

of signal content. To achieve an orthogonal wavelet representation, a given wavelet function, (t), at a

scaling index level equal to zero, is first dilated by the scale coefficient 2j, then translating it by 2jn and

normalizing by 2 j gives:

2 j 2 j t 2 j n

The algorithm begins with an operator A2j for discrete signals that takes the projections of a signal,

f(t) onto the orthonormal basis, V2j :

()

A2 j f t = 2

f (u), (u 2 n) (t 2 n)

j

2j

2j

(56.11)

n=

where 2j defines the level of resolution. A2j is defined as the multi-resolution operator that approximates a

signal at a resolution 2j. Signals at successively lower resolutions can be obtained by repeated application

of the operator A2 j (J j 1), where J specifies the maximum resolution, such that A2j f(x) is the closest

approximation of function f(x) at resolution 2j. Here we note that < > is simply a convolution defined thusly,

() (

) f (u)(u 2 n)du

f u ,2 j u 2 j n =

(56.12)

Here (x) is the impulse response of the scaling function. The Fourier transforms of these functions

are lowpass filter functions with successively smaller halfband lowpass filters. This convolution synthesizes

the coarse signal at a resolution/scaling level j:

() (

C2 j f = f t , 2 j t 2 j n

(56.13)

Each level j generates new basis functions of the particular orthonormal basis with a given discrete

approximation. In this case, larger j provides for decreasing resolution and increasing the scale in

proportional fashion for each level of the orthonormal basis. Likewise, each sequentially larger j provides

for time shift in accordance with scale changes, as mentioned above, and the convolution or inner product

operation generates the set of coefficients for the particular basis function. A set of scaling functions at

decreasing levels of resolution, j = 0, 1, 2, , 6 is given in [25].

The next step in the algorithm is the expression of basis function of one level of resolution, 2 j by at

a higher resolution, 2 j+1 . In the same fashion as above, an orthogonal representation of the basis V2 j in

terms of V2 j+1 is possible, or

2 j t 2 j n = 2 j 1

(u 2 n), (u 2 k) (t 2 k)

j

2 j +1

2j

j 1

2 j +1

j 1

(56.14)

k=

Here the coefficients are once again the inner products between the two basis functions. A means of

translation is possible for converting the coefficients of one basis function to the coefficients of the basis

function at a higher resolution:

() (

C2 j f = f u , 2 j t 2 j n =

j 1

(u 2 n), (u 2 k) f (u), (t 2 k)

j

j 1

2 j +1

2j

2 j +1

(56.15)

j 1

k=

Mallat [24] also conceives of the filter function, h(n), whose impulse response provides this conversion,

namely,

() (

C2 j f = f u , 2 j t 2 j n = 2 j 1

h(2n k) f (u), (t 2 k)

2 j +1

j 1

(56.16)

k=

= h(n) is the impulse response of the

appropriate mirror filter.

Using the tools already described, Mallat [24] then proceeds to define the orthogonal complement,

O2j to the vector space V2 j at resolution level j. This orthogonal complement to V2 j is the error in the

approximation of the signal in V2 j+1 by use of basis function belonging to the orthogonal complement.

The basis functions of the orthogonal complement are called orthogonal wavelets, (x), or simply wavelet

functions. To analyze finer details of the signal, a wavelet function derived from the scaling function is

selected. The Fourier transform of this wavelet function has the shape of a bandpass filter in frequency

domain. A basic property of the function is that it can be scaled according to

()

( )

2j t = 2 j 2 j t

An orthonormal basis set of wavelet functions is formed by dilating the function (x) with a coefficient

2j and then translating it by 2jn, and normalizing by 2 j. They are formed by the operation of convolving

the scale function with the quadrature mirror filter

= G

2 2

()

where G() = ej H ( + ) is the quadrature mirror filter transfer response and g(n) = (1)1n h(1 n)

is the corresponding impulse response function.

The set of scaling and wavelet functions presented here form a duality, together resolving the temporal

signal into coarse and fine details, respectively. For a given level j then, this detail signal can once again

be represented as a set of inner products:

2000 by CRC Press LLC

() (

D2 j f = f t , 2 j x 2 j n

(56.17)

For a specific signal, f(x), we can employ the projection operator as before to generate the approximation to this signal on the orthogonal complement. As before, the detail signal can be decomposed

using the higher resolution basis function:

() (

D2 j f = f u , 2 j t 2 j n =

j 1

(t 2 n), (u 2 k) f (u), (t 2 )

j

2j

j 1

2 j +1

2 j +1

j 1

k Y

(56.18)

k=

() (

D2 j f = f u , 2 j t 2 j n = 2 j 1

g(2n k) f (u), (t 2 k)

j 1

k=

2 j +1

(56.19)

At this point, the necessary tools are here for a decomposition of a signal in terms of wavelet components, coarse and detail signals. Multiresolution wavelet description provides for the analysis of a signal

into lowpass components at each level of resolution called coarse signals through the C operators. At the

same time the detail components through the D operator provide information regarding bandpass

components. With each decreasing resolution level, different signal approximations are made to capture

unique signal features. Procedural details for realizing this algorithm follow.

Analysis and Synthesis of Algorithms

A diagram of the algorithm for the multiresolution wavelet decomposition algorithm is shown in Fig. 56.2.

A step-by-step rendition of the analysis is as follows:

1. Start with N samples of the original signal, x(t), at resolution level j = 0.

2. Convolve signal with original scaling function, (t), to find C1 f as in Eq. (56.13) with j = 0.

3. Find coarse signal at successive resolution levels, j = 1, 2, , J through Eq. (56.16); Keep every

other sample of the output.

FIGURE 56.2 Flow chart of multiresolution algorithm showing how successive coarse and detail components of

resolution level, j, are generated from higher resolution level, j + 1.

4. Find detail signals at successive resolution levels, j = 1, 2, , J through Eq. (56.19); Keep every

other sample of the output.

5. Decrease j and repeat steps 3 through 5 until j = J

Signal reconstruction details are presented in [24, 26].

Of particular interest are Daubechies orthonormal wavelets of compact support with the maximum

number of vanishing moments [27, 28]. In these works, wavelets of very short length are obtained

(number of coefficients 4, 6, 8, etc.) thus allowing for very efficient data compression.

Another important development of the multiresolution decomposition is the wavelet packet approach

[29]. Instead of the simple multiresolution three-stage filter bank (low-pass/highpass/downsampling)

described previously in this chapter, wavelet packets analyse all subsystems of coefficients at all scale

levels, thus yielding the full binary tree for the orthogonal wavelet transform, resulting in a completely

evenly spaced frequency resolution. The wavelet packet system gives a rich orthogonal structure that

allows adaptation to particular signals or signal classes. An optimal basis may be found, minimizing some

function on the signal sequences, on the manifold of orthonormal bases. Wavelet packets allow for a

much more efficient adaptive data compression [30]. Karrakchou and Kunt report an interesting method

of interference cancelling using a wavelet packet approach [8]. They apply local subband adaptive

filtering by using a non-uniform filter bank, having a different filter for each subband (scale). Furthermore, the orthonormal basis has optimally been adapted to the spectral contents of the signal. This

yields very efficient noise suppression without significantly changing signal morphology.

56.5 Applications

Cardiac Signal Processing

Signals from the heart, especially the ECG, are well suited for analysis by joint time-frequency and timescale distributions. That is because the ECG signal has a very characteristic time-varying morphology,

identified as the P-QRS-T complex. Throughout this complex, the signal frequencies are distributed:

(1) low frequencyP and T waves, (2) mid to high frequencyQRS complex [31, 32]. Of particular

diagnostic importance are changes in the depolarization (activation phase) of the myocardium, represented by the QRS complex. These changes cause alterations in the propagation of the depolarization

wave detectable by time-frequency analysis of one-dimensional electrocardiographic signals recorded

from the body surface. Two examples are presented below.

Analysis of the QRS Complex Under Myocardial Ischemia

Ischemia-related intra-QRS changes. When the heart muscle becomes ischemic or infarcted, characteristic

changes are seen in the form of elevation or depression of the ST-segment. Detection of these changes

requires an extension of the signal bandwidth to frequencies down to 0.05 Hz and less, making the

measurements susceptible to motion artifact errors. Ischemia also causes changes in conduction velocity

and action potential duration, which results in fragmentation in the depolarization front (Fig. 56.3) and

appearance of low-amplitude notches and slurs in the body surface ECG signals. These signal changes

are detectable with various signal processing methods [33, 34]. Depolarization abnormalities due to

ischemia may also cause arrhythmogenic reentry [35], which is one more reason to detect intra-QRS

changes precisely.

Identification of ischemia-related changes in the QRS complex is not as well known, and interpretation

of the QRS complex would be less susceptible to artifactual errors, as compared to the ST analysis. Thus,

time-frequency or time-scale analysis would serve a useful function in localizing the ischemia-related

changes within the QRS complex, but would be somewhat independent of the artifactual errors.

FIGURE 56.3 Idealized example of (a) normal propagation and (b) wavefront fragmentation due to an ischemic

zone of slow conduction. The superimposed lines are isochrones, connecting points at which the depolarization

arrives at the same time.

Experimental findings. In experimental animals, the response of the heart to coronary artery occlusion

and then reperfusion was studied. The Left Anterior Descending (LAD) branch of the coronary artery

was temporarily occluded for 20 min. Subsequent to that, the occlusion was removed, and resulting

reperfusion more or less restored the ECG signal after 20 min. The coronary artery was occluded a second

time for 60 min, and once again occlusion was removed and blood flow was restored. Single ECG cycles

were analyzed using the continuous wavelet transform [33]. Figure 56.4 shows the time-scale plots for

the ECG cycles for each of the five stages of this experiment. The three-dimensional plots give time in

the P-QRS-T complex on one axis, the scale (or equivalent frequency) on another axis, and the normalized

magnitude on the third axis. First occlusion results in a localized alteration around 100 ms and the

midscale, which shows up as a bump in the three-dimensional plot or a broadening in the contour plot.

Upon reperfusion, the time-scale plot returns to the pre-occlusion state. The second occlusion brings

about a far more significant change in the time-scale plot, with increased response in the 0200 ms and

mid-scale ranges. This change is reversible. We were thus able to show, using time-scale technique,

ischemia related changes in the QRS complex, and the effects of occlusion as well as reperfusion.

Potential role of ischemia-related intra-QRS changes in coronary angioplasty. The above results are also

applicable to human ECGs and clinical cardiology. For example, a fairly common disorder is the occlusion

of coronary vessels, causing cardiac ischemia and eventually infarction. An effective approach to the

treatment of the occlusion injury is to open the coronary blood vessels using a procedure called coronary

angioplasty (also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or PTCA). Vessels may be

opened using a balloon-type or a laser-based catheter. When reperfusion occurs following the restoration

of the blood flow, initially a reperfusion injury is known to occur (which sometimes leads to arrhythmias)

[35]. The ST level changes as well, but its detection is not easy due to artifacts, common in a PTCA

setting. In a clinical study, we analyzed ischemia and reperfusion changes before and after the PTCA

procedure. Short-term occlusion and ischemia followed by reperfusion were carried out in a cardiac

catheterization laboratory at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in connection with PTCA) [36]. Figure 56.5

shows time-scale plots of a patient derived from continuous wavelet transform. Characteristic midscale

hump in the early stages of the QRS cycle is seen in the three-dimensional time-scale plot. Then, 60 min

after angioplasty, the normal looking time-scale plot of the QRS complex is restored in this patient. This

study suggests that time-scale analysis and resulting three-dimensional or contour plots may be usable

in monitoring the effects of ischemia and reperfusion in experimental or clinical studies. In another study

(4 patients, LAD) we monitored for intra-QRS changes during PTCA. Despite signal noise and availability

FIGURE 56.4 Time-frequency distributions of the vector magnitude of two ECG leads during five stages of a controlled animal experiment.

The frequency scale is logarithmic, 16 to 200 Hz. The z-axis represents the modulus (normalized) of the complex wavelet-transformed signal.

FIGURE 56.5 Time-frequency distributions of human ECG study using WT. Pre-angioplasty plot (a) shows a

characteristic hump at about 35 Hz, which disappears as indicated by the second plot (b) taken one hour after

angioplasty treatment.

of recordings only from limb leads, superimposed mid-frequency components during ischemic states of

the heart were observed, which disappeared when perfusion was restored. There was at least one lead

that responded to changes in coronary perfusion. Figure 56.6 shows five different stages of a PTCA

procedure as time plots (lead I) and CWT TFDs (topo-plots). Despite the presence of noise, the WT was

able to unveil elevation of intra-QRS time-frequency components around 20 Hz during balloon inflation

(ischemia), and a drop in the same components with reperfusion after balloon deflation. Frequency

components 20 to 25 Hz during inflation. No substantial ST changes can be observed in the time-domain

plot. The arrows show the zones of change in TFDs with ischemia and reperfusion. Note the representation

of power line interference (50 Hz) as clouds in (b) and (d) topo plotsfar from the region of interest.

Another study analyzed ECG waveforms from patients undergoing the PTCA procedure by the multiresolution wavelet method, decomposing the whole P-QRS-T intervals into coarse and detail components [26, 37], as can be seen from the analysis of one pre-angioplasty ECG cycle in Fig. 56.7 [26]. The

PTCA procedure results in significant morphological and spectral changes within the QRS complex. It

was found that certain detail components are more sensitive than others: in this study, the detail components d6 and d5 corresponding to frequency band of 2.2 to 8.3 Hz are most sensitive to ECG changes

following a successful PTCA procedure. From this study it was concluded that monitoring the energy of

ECG signals at different detail levels may be useful in assessing the efficacy of angioplasty procedures

[37]. A benefit of this approach is that a real-time monitoring instrument for the cardiac catheterization

laboratory can be envisioned (whereas currently X-ray fluroscopy is needed).

Detection of reperfusion during thrombolytic therapy. Detecting reperfusion-related intra-QRS changes,

along with ST changes, in the time-frequency domain would possibly find application in thrombolysis

monitoring after myocardial infarction. At present, the ST elevation and its recovery are the main

electrocardiographic indicators of acute coronary ischemia and reperfusion. Reports using continuous

ST-segment monitoring have indicated that 25 to 50% of patients treated with intravenous thrombolytic

therapy display unstable ST recovery [38], and additional reperfusion indicators are necessary. Signal

averaged ECG and highest frequency ECG components (150 to 250 Hz) have been utilized as a reperfusion

marker during thrombolysis and after angioplasty, but their utility is uncertain, since the degree of change

of the energy values chosen does not appear to be satisfactory [39, 40]. We have analyzed the QRS of the

vector magnitude V = X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2 of body surface orthogonal ECG leads X, Y and Z during thrombolytic

FIGURE 56.6 Time domain signals (lead I) during PTCA on the LAD (upper plots) and time-frequency distributions TFD (lower plots) during

(a) baseline, (b) at the end of a 3 min inflation (7 at), (c) 10 min. after first inflation, reducing stenosis from 95 to 60%, (d) at the end of a 20 min

inflation (6 at), (e) 10 min after first inflation, reducing stenosis from 95 to 60%. The arrows show the zones of change in TFDs with ischemia/reperfusion.

FIGURE 56.7 Detail and coarse components from one ECG cycle. The coarse components represent the lowpass

filtered versions of the signal at successive scales. Detail components, d1 and d2, consist mainly of electrical interference.

therapy of two patients with myocardial infarction. Figure 56.8 shows how TFDs may be affected by

reperfusion during thrombolysis. Two interesting trends may be observed on this figure: (1) a midfrequency peak present during initial ischemia (a) disappears two hours after start of thrombolytic therapy

(b) due to smoother depolarization front, and (2) high-frequency components appear with reestablished

perfusion, possibly due to faster propagation velocity of the depolarization front.

Analysis of Late Potentials in the ECG

Late potentials are caused by fractionation of the depolarization front after myocardial infarction

[35, 41]. They have been shown to be predictive of life threatening reentrant arrhythmias. Late potentials

occur in the terminal portion of the QRS complex and are characterized by small amplitude and higher

frequencies than in the normal QRS complex. The presence of late potentials may indicate underlying

dispersion of electrical activity of the cells in the heart, and therefore may provide a substrate for

production of arrhythmias. The conventional Fourier transform does not readily localize these features

in time and frequency [15, 42]. STFT is more useful because the concentration of signal energy at various

times in the cardiac cycle is more readily identified. The STFT techniques suffer from the problem of

selecting a proper window function; for example, window width can affect whether high temporal or

high spectral resolution is achieved [15]. Another approach sometimes considered is the Wigner-Ville

distribution, which also produces a composite time-frequency distribution. However, the Wigner-Ville

distribution suffers from the problem of interference from cross-terms. Comparative representations by

smoothed Wigner-Ville, wavelet transform (scalogram), and traditional spectrogram are illustrated in

Fig. 56.9. This problem causes high levels of signal power to be seen at frequencies not representing the

original signal; for example, signal energy contributed at certain frequencies by the QRS complex may

mask the signal energy contributed by the late potentials. In this regard, wavelet analysis methods provide

a more accurate picture of the localized time-scale features indicative of the late potentials [11, 15, 4345].

Figure 56.10 shows that the signal energies at 60 Hz and beyond are localized in the late stage of the QRS

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FIGURE 56.8 Change of the time-frequency distributions (QRS complex) of the vector magnitude of orthogonal leads

X, Y and Z during thrombolysis: (a) 5 minutes after start, and (b) 2 hr after initiation of therapy. A mid-frequency peak

has disappeared due to smoother depolarization, and high-frequency components appear due to faster propagation.

and into the ST-segment. For comparison, the scalogram from a healthy person is illustrated in Fig. 56.11.

This spreading of the high frequencies into the late cycle stages of the QRS complex is a hallmark of the

late potentials. Time-scale analysis of late potentials may therefore serve as a noninvasive diagnostic tool

for predicting the likelihood of life threatening arrhythmias in the heart.

Role of Wavelets in Arrhythmia Analysis

Detection of altered QRS morphology. Further applications to the generalized field of arrhythmia classification can be envisaged [46]. When arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)

and tachycardia do occur, the P-QRS-T complex undergoes a significant morphological change. Abnormal

beats, such as PVCs, have different time-scale signatures than normal beats. Often the QRS complex may

widen and sometimes invert with PVCs. As the QRS complex widens, its power spectrum shows diminished contribution at higher frequencies and these are spread out over a wider body of the signal [47, 48].

This empirical description of the time-domain features of the ECG signal lends itself particularly well to

analysis by time-frequency and time-scale techniques. A more challenging problem is to distinguish

multiform PVCs.

Use of the orthogonal wavelet decomposition to separate dynamical activities embedded in a time series.

Another interesting application of the discrete wavelet transform to arrhythmia research is the dynamical

analysis of the ECG before and during ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Earlier works

on heart rate variability have shown that heart rhythm becomes rigidly constant prior to the onset of

life threatening arrhythmias, whereas the correlation dimension as a measure of randomness increases

to values above 1 during disorganized rhythms like fast ventricular tachycardia, ventricular flutter, and

ventricular fibrillation. This fact was used to identify patients at risk, and is promising with regard to

prediction of arrhythmic episodes. Encouraging results were recently obtained by combining multiresolution wavelet analysis and dynamical analysis, in an attempt to find a decorrelated scale best projecting

changes in low-dimensional dynamics [49]. The authors used records 115 and 207 from the MIT

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FIGURE 56.9 Comparison of time-frequency representations of sinusoids with specific on-off times: (a) shows true

time-frequency representation of 40 and 60 Hz sinusoids, (b) shows representation of smoothed Wigner-Ville transform, (c) spectrogram representation, (d) shows wavelet transform version of signal.

Arrhythmia Database to study nonlinear dynamics preceding ventricular flutter. Distinct changes in the

correlation dimension (D2 3) in frequency band 45 to 90 Hz were observed before the onset of arrythmia,

indicating the presence of underlying low-dimensional activity.

Evoked Potentials

Evoked potentials are the signals recorded from the brain in response to external stimulation. Evoked

responses can be elicited by electrical stimulation (somatosensory evoked response), visual stimulation

(visual evoked response), or auditory stimulation (brainstem auditory evoked response). Usually the

signals are small, while the background noise, mostly the background EEG activity, is quite large. The

low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) necessitates use of ensemble averaging, sometimes signal averaging as

many as a thousand responses [50]. After enhancing the SNR, one obtains a characteristic wave pattern

that includes the stimulus artifact and an undulating pattern characterized by one or more peaks at

specific latencies beyond the stimulus. Conventionally, the amplitude and the latency of the signal peaks

is used in arriving at a clinical diagnosis. However, when the signals have a complex morphology, simple

amplitude and latency analysis does not adequately describe all the complex changes that may occur as

a result of brain injury or disease. Time-frequency and wavelet analysis have been shown to be useful in

identifying the features localized within the waveform that are most indicative of the brains response [51].

In one recent experimental study, we evaluated the somatosensory evoked response from experimental

animals in whom injury was caused by oxygen deprivation. The evoked response signal was decomposed

2000 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 56.10 Healthy person: (a) first recorded beat, (b) 3-D representation of the modified WT for the first beat,

(c) contour plot of the modified WT for the first beat, and (d) contour plot of the modified WT for the second beat.

into its coarse and detail components with the aid of the multiresolution wavelet analysis technique

(Fig. 56.12) [25]. The magnitude of the detail components was observed to be sensitive to the cerebral

hypoxia during its early stages. Figures 56.13a and 56.13b show a time trend of the magnitude of the

detail components along with the trend of the amplitude and the latency of the primary peak of the

somatosensory evoked response. The experimental animal was initially challenged by nitrous gas mixture

with 100% oxygen (a non-injury causing event), and late by inspired air with 7 to 8% oxygen. As expected,

the amplitude trend shows an initial rise because of the 100% oxygen, and later a gradual decline in

response to hypoxia. The magnitude of the detail component shows a trend more responsive to injury:

while there is not a significant change in response to the non-injury causing event, the magnitude of the

detail component d4 drops quite rapidly when the brain becomes hypoxic. These data suggest that detail

components of the evoked response may serve as indicators of early stages of brain injury. Evoked response

monitoring can be useful in patient monitoring during surgery and in neurological critical care [52, 53].

Other applications include study of cognitive or event-related potentials in human patients for normal

cognitive function evaluation or for assessment of clinical situations, such as a response in Alzheimers

disease [54]. Proper characterization of evoked responses from multiple channel recordings facilitates

localization of the source using the dipole localization theory [55].

EEG and Seizures

Electroencephalographic signals are usually analyzed by spectrum analysis techniques, dividing the EEG

signal into various arbitrary frequency bands (, , , ). Conventional spectrum analysis is useful when

these events are slowly unfolding, as when a person goes to sleep, the power in the EEG shifts from higher

to lower frequency bands. However, when transient events such as epileptic seizures occur, there are often

sharp spikes or a bursting series of events in the recorded waveform. This form of the signal, that is

temporally well localized and has a spectrum that is distinctive from normal or ongoing events, lends

FIGURE 56.11 Patient with ventricular tachycardia diagnosis: (a) first beat, (b) 3-D representation of the modified

WT for the first beat, (c) contour plot of the modified WT for the first beat, and (d) contour plot of the modified

WT for the second beat.

itself to wavelet analysis. A patients EEG recorded over an extended period, preceding and following the

seizure, was recorded and analyzed. Figure 56.14 shows a short segment of the EEG signal with a seizure

burst. The multiresolution wavelet analysis technique was employed to identify the initiation of the seizure

burst. Figure 56.15 shows a sudden burst onset in the magnitude of the detail components when the

seizure event starts. The bursting subsides at the end of the seizure, as seen by a significant drop in the

magnitude of the detail components. Wavelet analysis, thus, may be employed for the detection of onset

and termination of seizures. Further possibilities exist in the use of this technique for discriminating

interictal spikes and classifying them [56]. Certain seizures, like the petit mal and the grand mal epilepsy

seizures, have very characteristic morphologies (e.g., spike and dome pattern). These waveforms would

be expected to lend themselves very well to wavelet analysis.

Other Applications

Wavelet, or time-scale analysis is applicable to problems in which signals have characteristic morphologies

or equivalently differing spectral signature attributed to different parts of the waveform, and the events

of diagnostic interest are well localized in time and scale. The examples of such situations and applications

are many.

In cardiac signal processing, there are several potential applications. Well localized features of ECG

signals, such as the P-QRS-T lend themselves well to wavelet analysis [57]. The application of wavelet

analysis to ischemic-reperfusion injury changes and the late potentials has been illustrated above. This

idea has been extended to the study of body surface maps recorded using numerous electrodes placed

on the chest. In a preliminary study [58], spatio-temporal maps can been constructed and interpreted

using time-scale analysis techniques.

FIGURE 56.12 Coarse (a) and detail (b) components from somatosensory evoked potentials during normal,

hypoxic, and reoxygenation phases of experiment.

In many situations noise and artifact result in inaccurate detection of the QRS complex. Wavelet

analysis may prove to be helpful in removal of electrical interference from ECG [59]. Wavelet techniques

have successfully been used in removing the noise from functional MRI data [8]. A more challenging

application would be in distinguishing artifact from signal. Since wavelet analysis naturally decomposes

the signals at different scales at well localized times, the artifactual events can be localized and eliminated.

Fast computational methods may prove to be useful in real-time monitoring of ECG signal at a bedside

or in analysis of signals recorded by Holter monitors.

Other cardiovascular signals, such as heart sounds may be analyzed by time-frequency or time-scale

analysis techniques. Characteristic responses to various normal and abnormal conditions along with

sounds that are well localized in time and scale make these signals good candidates for wavelet analysis

[60]. Normal patterns may be discriminated from pathological sound patterns, or sounds from various

blood vessels can be identified [61]. Blood pressure waveform similarly has a characteristic pattern

amenable to time-scale analysis. The dicrotic notch of the pressure waveform results from blood flow

through the valves whose opening and closing affects the pressure signal pattern. The dicrotic notch can

be detected by wavelet analysis [62]. Sounds from the chest, indicative of respiratory patterns are being

investigated using wavelet techniques. Applications include analysis of respiratory patterns of infants [63]

and respiration during sleep [64].

Two applications in neurological signal processing, evoked response and seizure detection, are

described above. Other potential applications include detection and interpretation of signals from multiple neurons obtained using microelectrodes [65]. Since waveforms (called spikes) from individual

FIGURE 56.13 (a) Amplitude and latency of major evoked potential peak during control, hypoxic, and reoxygenation portions of experiment; (b) mean amplitude of respective detail components during phases of experiment.

neurons (called units) have different patterns because of their separation and orientation with respect

to the recording microelectrode, multiunit spike analysis becomes a challenging problem. Time-scale

analysis techniques may be employed to localize and analyze the responses of individual units and from

that derive the overall activity and interrelation among these units so as to understand the behavior of

neural networks. An analogous problem is that of detecting and discriminating signals from motor

units, that is, the muscle cells and fibers [66]. Signals from motor units are obtained by using small,

micro or needle electrodes, and characteristic spike trains are obtained, which can be further analyzed

by time-scale analysis techniques to discriminate normal and abnormal motor unit activity.

Biological signals with their time-varying nature and characteristic morphologies and spectral signatures

are particularly well suited for analysis and interpretation using time-frequency and time-scale analysis

techniques. For example, the P-QRS-T complex of the ECG signal shows localized low frequencies in the

P- and the ST-segments and high frequencies in the QRS complex. In time-scale frame, the ischemia

related changes are seen in certain detail components of the QRS complex. The late segment of the QRS

cycle exhibits the so-called late potentials more easily localized by means of time-scale analysis. Other

cardiovascular signals, such as pressure waves, heart sounds, and blood flow are being analyzed by the

newly developed wavelet analysis algorithms. Other examples of time-scale analysis include neurological

FIGURE 56.14

FIGURE 56.15

signals with potential applications in the analysis of single and multiunit recordings from neurons, evoked

response, EEG, and epileptic spikes and seizures.

The desirable requirements for a successful application of time-scale analysis to biomedical signals is

that events are well localized in time and exhibit morphological and spectral variations within the

localized events. Objectively viewing the signal at different scales should provide meaningful new information. For example, are there fine features of signal that are observable only at scales that pick out the

detail components? Are there features of the signal that span a significant portion of the waveform so

that they are best studied at a coarse scale. The signal analysis should be able to optimize the trade-off

between time and scale, i.e., distinguish short lasting events and long lasting events.

For these reasons, the signals described in this article have been found to be particularly useful models

for data analysis. However, one needs to be cautious in using any newly developed tool or technology. Most

important questions to be addressed before proceeding with a new application are: Is the signal well suited

to the tool, and in applying the tool, are any errors inadvertently introduced? Does the analysis provide a

new and more useful interpretation of the data and assist in the discovery of new diagnostic information?

Wavelet analysis techniques appear to have robust theoretical properties allowing novel interpretation

of biomedical data. As new algorithms emerge, they are likely to find application in the analysis of more

diverse biomedical signals. Analogously, the problems faced in the biomedical signal acquisition and

processing world will hopefully stimulate development of new algorithms.

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